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GIFT OF
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THE STANDARD SERIES

ESPERANTO AT A
GLANCE
The International Language

i .

HISTORY, GRAMMAR, AND VOCABULARY

BY

EDMOND PRIVAT

* '
To each nation its national language >
and
to humanity its international language**

NEW YORK CtycAGo TORONTO

Fleming H. Revell Company
LONDON AND EDINBURGH
ESPERANTO
TRANSLATIONS
FICTION, ROMANCE,
SONGS, COMEDY, DRAMA
FAIRY TALES, CLASSICS,
POETRY, ETC.
COMMERCIAL LETTERS, SINTAX
SHORTHAND, ETC.
Anderson's Fairy Tales in Esperanto, . . . Net .45

Imenlago. German Novel of the Storm, tr.

by Bader, Net .25

La Faraono. Polish romance, tr. by Kabe, Net . 60

Angla Lingvo sen Profesoro. Comedy from
Bernard, tr. by Moch, Net .30
Onklo Kiel. Nevo. Comedy from Schiller,
tr. by Stewart, . . Net .25...
Pilgrim's Progress, by John Bunyan. Esper-
anto translation, Rhodes, . . -
Net .60
Fundamental Grammar and Dictionary in
Five Languages. Dr. Zamenhof, . . Net .90
Universala Vortaro. Zamenhof, Net .30

Hamlet Shakespeare. Zamenhof, Net .60

La Revizoro. Drama. Zamenhof, .... Net .45

The Book of Ecclesiastes (from Old Testa-
ment Scriptures), tr. by Zamenhof, . . Net .25

Flemish Stories, Net .45

Shorthand Textbook, . . Net .30
Grimm's Fairy Tales. Kabe, Net .60
Internacia Krestomatio (Anthology). Kabe, Net 40
La Vojo. Song in Esperanto, Net .15
ESPERANTO AT A
GLANCE
The International Language

HISTORY, GRAMMAR, AND VOCABULARY

BY

EDMOND PRIVAT
*

" To each nation itsnational language, and
to humanity its international language**

NEW YORK CHICAGO TORONTO

Fleming H. Revell Company
LONDON AND EDINBURGH
Copyright,. 1908,

By EDMOND PRIVAT

.->*
*0 'SxJU.
5*v^-> ::.
'
\

THE QUINN & BODEN CO. PRESS
RAHWAY, N. J.
LA HIMNO "ESPERO"
En la mondon venis nova sento,
Tra la mondo iras forta voko;
Per flugiloj de facila vento
Nun de loko flugu gi al loko.

Ne al glavo sangon soifanta
6i la homan tiras familion:
Al la mond' eterne militanta
Gi promesas sanktan harmonion.
?
Sub la sankta signo de 1 espero
Kolektigas pacaj batalantoj,
Kaj rapide kreskas la afero
Per laboro de la esperanto j.

Forte staras muroj de miljaroj
Inter la popoloj dividitaj ;
Sed dissaltos la obstinaj baroj
Per la sankta amo disbatitaj.

Sur neiitrala lingva f undamento,

Komprenante unu la alian,
La popoloj faros en konsento
Unu grandan rondon familian.
Nia diligenta kolegaro
En laboro paca ne lacigos,
Gis la bela songo de T homaro
Por eterna ben' efektivigos.
D- L. L. ZAMENHOF.

M51389
'At^L
*eOT
^^U^-A G^iji^A^i^ '2<Vi44rtL*ri
~~^ 6
^

'

International Language Required?.^
Such a question, said Unuel, will secjn to; j)ur

grandsons as stupid as would now eem co us a
question like this Is a postal service required ?
:

Any one who has any relations with foreign
countries and peoples knows how tedious is the

diversity of languages in the world, with all the dis-
advantages and losses of time or money it causes.
Nobody now thinks of destroying the national
languages and obliging all men on earth to
speak one same universal language; but many
think that nobody will complain when one day, in
the schools of all countries, the children will learn,
besides their native tongue, a practical and easy
international language which will give them ac-
cess to the whole world.
That is what many men have been working for
during recent centuries. Some people thought
that it would be possible some day to convoke a
kind of Hague Conference, which would choose as
officially international one of the existing lan-

guages as, for instance, English, French, or Ger-
man. But they soon understood that the different
7
8 ESPEKANTO AT A GLANCE
nations never could agree to give to one of them
such an advantage, which would be an enormous in-
justice to all the others. Besides, our languages are
always difficult for foreign people to learn and are
full of irregularities, exceptions, and complicated
idioms, .wjiich must an
not, or should not, exist in
international language.

2foi' Use Greek or Latin ?
i

Why
Both these languages are taught in the colleges
of all countries, and were, the latter twenty
centuries ago and the former five centuries

ago, the international languages of the Old
World. Many scholars thought of reviving them
for this use, but that always was a vain dream.

They are so difficult that only a very few specialists
succeed in knowing them thoroughly after years
and years of study; and it is quite impossible to
express by them half of our modern ideas, for
they are languages of olden times. How could
you speak of "electro-mechanical" in Latin? One
ought to renovate the whole vocabulary and sim-
plify the whole grammar to make them fit for use.
Then, instead of spoiling the native tongue of
Sophocles or Horace, why not make another lan-
guage especially prepared for its modern use,
"which could be made much more simple, perfect,
rich, and flexible than any existing language"

(Max Miiller) ?
ESPEEANTO AT A GLANCE 9

Languages.
'Artificial
Since Leibnitz many philosophers have tried to
compose systems of artificial world-languages, but
these were always theoretical and impractical pro-
jects. Some thirty years ago the "Volapiik" of
Abbe Schleyer had a momentary success in the
whole world, and gave the first proof of the possi-
bility of such a language; but the system was too
difficult, too artificial, and did not pay enough at-
tention to the existing languages and their modern
evolution. Volapiik had no internal life, and
after some years it died, while its adepts were
fighting with each other about changing the lan-
guage or were in great numbers taking up the new
system known as Esperanto.

Zamenhofs Work.
Esperanto was created by Dr. L. L. Zamenhof,
a Polish oculist, who was born at Bielostok, Eussia,
in 1859. Polish, Eussian, German, and Yiddish
were spoken together in his native city. The strug-
gles, often sanguinary, among these diverse-

tongued peoples, led him to devote his entire spare
time to the creation of a neutral language, which
would foster peaceful relations between the differ-
ent nations.
He began when he was a schoolboy and
the work

published his first grammar, when he was 28 years
old, under the name of "Doktoro Esperanto" (The
10 ESPERANTO AT A GLANCE
Hoping Doctor). That was in ]&%, and since
then the language has made a slow but sure progress
throughout the world during a period of fifteen
years; while its best adepts gave the language its
basis and the first masterpieces of a very solid and

living literature.
In 1902, the public began to understand what
the progress of Esperanto was teaching them, and
then started the general movement, which is now
everywhere prevalent, to introduce Esperanto into
the public schools and into commerce and the
sciences.

The Structure of Esperanto.
Dr. Zamenhof did not really make an arti-
ficial language, but a sort of synthesis of our
principal modern languages. He chose for the
vocabulary of his language the most international
roots,
Such words as telefono, telegrafo, teatro, arto^

muziko, onklo, suhcesi, miraklo, etc., which form
the majority in Esperanto, belong to almost all our
modern languages, and the other words as, for
instance, irinki, varma, blua, tempo, glaso, granda,
tablo, inkOy tago, lerni, etc. always belong to two
or three of our great languages. Such a basis
makes Esperanto a Latin-Germanic language,
which English is also.
To aid in more easily acquiring the vocabulary,
ESPERANTO AT A GLANCE 11

Dr. Zamenhof established regularly what exists
our languages a system of pre-
irregularly in
fixes and suffixes by which many words are formed

from the same root. For instance, MAL- denotes
the contrary: vwrma, warm, malvarma, cold; Jcon-
tenta, pleased, mallcontenta, displeased; /errai, to
shut, malfermi, to open, etc. -ISTO denotes the

profession or occupation: arto, artisto-, muziko,
muzikisto'y pordo, door, pordisto, doorkeeper, etc.
-INO denotes the female: onklo, uncle, onklino,
aunt; aktoro, actor, aktorino, actress; nevo,
nephew, nevino, niece, etc. -EMA denotes the pro-
pensity or disposition: kredi, to believe, Tcredema,
credulous; paroli, to talk, parolema, talkative;
mold, to mock, mokema, mocking, etc. As for the
grammar, Dr. Zamenhof made it as simple as pos-
sible, clear, logical, without any of the exceptions
or irregular verbs which make our languages so

complicated. Substantives always end in o, ad-
jectives in A, adverbs in E, present tense in AS,
past in is, future in os, and so forth. Parolo,
speech; parola, oral; parole, orally; mi parolas,
I speak; vi parolis, you spoke; Hi parolos, they will

speak.
The language is absolutely phonetic, and each
word is written as it is pronounced. The sounds
of the different letters are almost the same as in
Latin or Italian. Esperanto spoken sounds very
harmonious and is easily pronounced by all the dif-
12 ESPERANTO AT A GLANCE
ferent nationalities.In the universal Esperanto
Congresses, where every year about two thousand
people from more than thirty different countries
all over 'the world meet, it is found very difficult
to recognize the different nationalities, so imper-

ceptible are the slight differences of pronuncia-
tion.

The Progress of Esperanto.
For twenty-one years Esperanto has been used
by many thousands throughout various countries
for their international relations; and one of the

principal causes of its actual, rapid success is the
fact that it is not a newproject in which people do
not know whether to have faith or not, but a
tried language that has been used for a long
time, that has its internal life, its own litera-
ture, and which one is obliged to consider as an
evident reality and not as a beautiful dream. Es-
peranto already used by many commercial firms
is

in international intercourse and exploiting and by

many scientists who seek to understand and corre-

spond with each other. Some commercial maga-
zines are published in Esperanto, as well as a
medical and a scientific review, The Internacia
Scienca Revuo, edited in Geneva by a group of dis-
tinguished professors. World-famous men such as
Professor William James, Oswald, General Sebert,
Boirac, Ramsay, J. J. Thomson, Oscar Browning,
ESPEKANTO AT A GLANCE 13

Ernest Naville, and others are members of the
"Internacia Scienca Asocio."
Many world-wide organizations, as the Peace
Societies and Congresses, religious associations,
Freemasons, Socialists, specialists in different

branches, are employing Esperanto and publishing
in it magazines and new books of international in-
terest. Esperanto is officially taught in
many pub-
lic schools in France, England, Germany, Eus-
sia, and other countries. The London Chamber
of Commerce gives diplomas in it. Nine hundred
and fifty societies exist in the world to spread the
language, and forty magazines are published for
the same purpose. The movement is very strong
in Europe and Japan, but is only beginning in
America. However, there have been founded in
the United States two magazines, and eighty-five
societies within two years.

The Esperanto Congresses.
Every summer, Esperantist delegates from so-
cieties of all countries, about two thousand people,

meet in a Universal Congress, and during one week
have discussions, lectures, meetings of all sorts, con-
certs, feasts, etc. all in the one same harmo-

nious language, in which they perfectly understand
one another. Very often they speak as fluently as
in their own languages, although many of them
are persons of limited education. Comedies
14 ESPERANTO AT A GLANCE
are acted there by actors from twelve or more
different countries, and nothing could be a better
proof of the practicability of Esperanto.
Such international gatherings prove something
more. In seeing these people of all races, of all
positions, and all opinions, living together for one
week as real brothers, although they never knew
each other before, many men become enthusiastic
for Esperanto and feel that its founder is begin-

ning to attain his original ambition to bring the:

nations together jby a better understanding.

The Actual Use of Esperanto.
Everybody understands that once Esperanto is

taught officially everywhere, it will be very con-

venient, indeed- and a great many people, I am
sure, are quite determined to learn it "when every-
body else knows it." If every one said the same
for each step of progress, we would be still in a

savage state.

However, it is important to show the immediate
need of learning Esperanto. First of all, it gives to
every one the possibility of corresponding with
people of foreign countries on any business or spe-
cial subject. Having found in Esperanto maga-
zines addresses ofyoung people in other countries,
a great many boys and girls have started a very
instructivecorrespondence, made friends every-
where, and often thereby found situations later.
ESPERANTO AT A GLANCE 15

One may now by means of Es-
travel easily

peranto. In each
city where the Esperanto or-
ganizations are strong enough, there is an Es-

peranto Consul who gives to foreign Esperantists
free information about his city, and finds persons
who are very glad to show them the curiosities
of the town, and so get in this way practice in
speaking Esperanto. The Esperanto Central
Office in Paris publishes every year the universal
address-book of Esperanto Consuls. A great many
persons have already made long tours, knowing no
other language than their own and Esperanto.

They never could have done it so easily without
Esperanto, even if they had known French and
German. What is the use of French or German
when travelling in Hungary or Italy?

"Why Should One Learn Esperanto?
The great Russian writer Tolsto'i said fifteen

years ago : "The sacrifices that any civilized man
would make in learning Esperanto are so slight
and the results so immense, that no one should re-
fuse to make the attempt." And Tolstoi also said
that after two hours of study he was able to read

Esperanto with ease. The president of the Lin-

guistic Society in Paris said that Esperanto, hav-
ing no irregularities in the verbs, must be five
times easier to learn than any other language.
When one comes to think of what a splendid
16 ESPERANTO AT A GLANCE
thing it will be for humanity to have an inter-
national language, we ought to consider it a duty
to learn Esperanto, in order to give a good ex-

ample to others and to encourage governments
in introducing it into the schools.

Esperanto is already very strong in the world,
and has shown itself to be an excellent means of
advancing the Peace Cause. It will soon be offi-

cially established, if it continues to grow as fast
as it is now growing. In that day it will not be
a merit to learn it, because every one will do so;
but one will be either proud to have helped it be-

fore, or ashamed not to have done so.
It behooves every one to choose.
THE ELEMENTS OF THE ESPERANTO
LANGUAGE
THE ALPHABET
abccdefgghhijj
klmnoprsstu iivz
Vowels are pronounced as follows, and each
counts for one syllable. They have no combina-
tion with each other.

a = a in "star" o = o in "for"
e = e in "there" u = u in "rule"
i = i in "clique" Do not drag the vowels.

Consonants are pronounced as in English, ex-
cept the following:
c =ts in "Tsar" ./
= in "pleasure"
s

c = ch in "church" s = in "see"
s

g = g in "good" s = sh in "she"

g =z g in "gem" h = kh
j =y in "boy" or "yes" u = w

Every letter keeps always the same sound.
Every word is written as it is pronounced. The
accent always falls on the last syllable but one:
Tc&nti, Esperanto, gardwno, Anhau, malbonaj.
17
GRAMMAR
%

There are no exceptions to any rule.

ARTICLE. There is no indefinite article in Es-
peranto. Glaso means a glass.
There is only one form of the definite article : la

used as the English the for singular and plural.

SUBSTANTIVES always end in o : tdblo, table; la

bono, the good.

ADJECTIVES always end in a: bona, good; bela,
beautiful.La granda kato, the large cat.
The PLURAL formed for adjectives and sub-
is

stantives by the adding of a ; (pronounced as
the English y) La belaj Icatoj, the beautiful cats.
:

The adjective always agrees with its noun: La
tabloj estas bonaj, the tables are good.

VERBS in the infinitive end in i: paroli, to speak;

trinlci, to drink; molci, to mock.
The Present tense ends in as: mi parolas, I
speak.
The Past tense ends in is : vi molds, you mocked,
you have mocked.
18
ESPEKANTO AT A GLANCE 19

The Future tense ends in os : li parolos, he will
or shall speak.
The Conditional ends in us: ni molcus, we
would (or should) mock.
Purpose mode ends in u: parolu! speak! ni
moku! let us mock mi ! deziras ke li parolu, I wish
that he may speak ; ke li ne vundu, that he may not
wound.

ACTIVE PARTICIPLE endings :

Present in anta: parolanta, speaking.
Past in inta parolinta, having spoken.
:

Future in onta parolonta, about
: to speak.

PASSIVE PARTICIPLE endings:
Present in ata: mokata, being mocked.
Past in ita molcita, having been mocked.
:

Future in ota :
mokota, about to be mocked.
They are also changed into substantives, ad-
jectives, or adverbs: la mokanto, the mocker; la
parolanto, the speaker; trinkante,, by drinking;
vundito, a wounded man.

COMPOUND TENSES may be formed by the help
of the only auxiliary in Esperanto :
esti, to be.
Mi was speaking.
estis parolanta., I

Vi estis mokinta, you had mocked ( you were =
having mocked).
Ni estos vundataj, we will be wounded.
20 ESPEKANTO AT A GLANCE
The PRONOUNS are :

mi, I. gi, it.

vi, you. ni, we.

li, he. vi, you.
si, she. i/i, they.

Ci, seldom used, means iliou; oni means one.
Si is the reflexive pronoun for the third person :

it means himself, herself, itself, or themselves.
Li parolas he speaks to himself. Hi estis vun-
al si,

ditaj de they were wounded by themselves.
si,

Possessive adjectives are formed by adding the

ending a: mia, my; via, your; lia, his; sia, her;
gia, its; nia, our; via,, your; ilia, their. Sia, his
own, her own, its own, their own, is used before a
complement belonging to the subject of the sen-
tence. Mia patro promenas kun sia amiko kaj lia
filo, my father walks with his own friend and his

(the friend's) son.

DIRECT OBJECTS and adjectives qualifying them
take n at the end in order to permit a free and
variable construction of any sentence.
Mi iririkas bonan bier on, I drink good beer;
Bonan bieron mi trinkas; Bier on mi trinkas bonan,
are all correct ways to build the same sentence. Ni
vidis la largajn tablojn, we saw the wide tables.
Li mokas min, he mocks me.
This ending n may be used instead of a preposi-
ESPEEANTO AT A GLANCE 21

tion in cases where the meaning is sufficiently clear,

especially when there is the idea of direction or
time. Instead of saying Mi iras AL Parizo, I go
to Paris, one says Mi iras ParizoN. Instead of Mi
iras AL en la cambro, I go into the chamber, one

says Mi cambroN. Instead of Iru AL sub
iras en la
la tablo!
go under the table, one says Iru sub
la tabloNl Instead of AL kie m iras? where do
you go ? one says Kiex vi iras ? Instead of Eestu.
DUM tagofyf stay during three days, one says
tri

Restu tri
tagoJN etc. !

In these examples the final n was used instead
of al, to; dum, during, etc.

The COMPARATIVE DEGREE is formed by pli. .ol,
more. .than.
Pli bona ol mi, better than I.
Pli rapide ol kato, faster than a cat.
Malpli granda ol gi, less big than it.

The SUPERLATIVE DEGREE is formed by plej . .
el,

most. .of.

La plej bona el ni, the best of us.
La plej larga tablo, the widest table.
La malplej larga, the least wide.

EQUALITY is expressed by tieL.kiel, as.. as.

Tiel bona kiel li, as good as he.
22 ESPEKANTO AT A GLANCE
CARDINAL NUMBERS are invariable :

1, unu. 5, levin. 9, nau.
2, du. 6, ses. 10, dek.
3, tri. 7, sep. 100, cent.
4, fcwr. 8, ok. 1000, ratZ.

Million is milion. The
and hundreds are
tens
formed by simple junction of the numerals 20, :

dudek; 30, trideJc; 40, kvardek; 90, naudek; 500,
kvincent; 11, dek-unu; 12, dek-du; 17, dek-sep;
64, sesdek-kvar; sepdek-ok; 452, kvarcent
78,
kvindek-du; 4927, kvarmil naucent dudek-sep.

ORDINALS are formed by adding a to the car-
dinals; 3d, tfn'a; 56th, kvindek-sesa; 21st, dudek-
unua.

FRACTIONALS are formed by adding ono a :
half,
duono; a quarter, kvarono; nine-tenths,

MULTIPLES are formed by adding o&Za: double,
duobla; decuple, dekobla.

COLLECTIVES are formed by adding ope :
dekope,
by tens ; centope, by hundreds.

Nouns, adjectives, and adverbs may be formed
from all these, as, for instance: dekduo, dozen;
unue, firstly; due, secondly; duone, by halves, etc.

PREPOSITIONS have in Esperanto precise values,
and one must be careful to translate an English
ESPERANTO AT A GLANCE 23

preposition by its logical rather than by its ap-
parent equivalent in Esperanto.
He lives with us, li logos CE ni.

He walks with me, li promenas KUN m.
He beat me with a stick, li batis min PER bas-
tono.
There are three prepositions to translate theV
three ideas, logically different, contained in the .'

English preposition with.
When one has doubts as to which preposition ?*

to use for indefinite ideas, as in: at what time?
at 3.20 a. m.; on Monday next, etc., one may use
the indefinite preposition je or the final n without
preposition :
Jje
kioma horo ? je 3.20 matene ; lun- +
* i, .* / . >w>*~

Al, Lau, according to, a^/^-^^
Antau, before. Malgrau, in spite of.
Apud, near. Per, by, by means of.
Ge, at, with. Por, in order to, for.
Cirkau, round, about. Post, after, behind.
of, from. Preter,
0*,.%
Dum, during. Pri, about, of.
Ekster, outside. for, on account of,
El, out under.
En, in, into. Super, over, above.
Gis, till, Sur, on, upon
Inter, through.
rr.
Kun, Trans, across.
Krom, except, besides, in addition to.

Anstatau, instead, antau ol, before, and por,
for, are the only prepositions which may be used be-

Z$*1'*
24 ESPERANTO AT A GLANCE
fore verbs. Anstatau diri, instead of telling;
antau ol fari, before doing; por doni, in order to
give. One observes that in Esperanto the in-

finitive is used in such cases, and not the participle.
The expressions without doing, without telling,
must be translated by in not doing, in not^telling :
%
G
ne farante, ne dirante"
The DA is
^^^^^^
OF
^^^^
used forword after a
preposition
of measure : multe DA, much of?

PEINCIPAL NON-DERIVED ADVERBS

Adiau,
ESPERANTO AT A GLANCE 25

LIST OF THE PRINCIPAL CONJUNCTIONS

Alie, otherwise. Do, therefore,
Au. .au, either, .or. Nek . .
nek, neither, .nor.
Car, because. For ke, in order that.
Dum, while. Se tamen, if however,
EC se, even if. Sekve, consequently. ,

Ja, indeed. Se nur, if
only,/
Kaj, and. Tamen, however,
Kvankam, although. Cu . .
6u, whether, .whethe
Se, if. Cu. .au, whether . . or.
Bed, but.

ABBREVIATIONS.
k.t.p. (kaj plu), and so forth.
tiel

k.c. (kaj ceteraj), et cetera, &c.
i.e. (tio estas), that is (to say).

INTERROGATION is shown in Esperanto by the
word cu, which can be translated by whether.
little

Putting this word before any positive sentence,
without changing anything in its order, makes it a
question.
Li estas bona. He is good.
Cu li estas bona? Is he good?
Cu via patro lab oras? Does your father work?
Cu is used only for single questions that is,
when there is no word, as what, when, where, etc.,
which already shows the interrogation.
Kio estas sur la tablo? What is on the table?

THE RELATIVE PRONOUN is kiu, who, which, that.
It takes j in the plural, as also do iu, ciu, tiu, etc.
ESPERANTO AT A GLANCE

h~o
> ^
'S ^

i

s 1
;! 1 -

irit
ig
r

8
03

S
ESPEKANTO AT A GLANCE

p
28 ESPERANTO AT A GLANCE
, Those men who come, tiuj homoj, Jciuj venas.
**
The word kiu is a pronoun when it is alone,
but it corresponds to our adjectives what or which
when it is before a noun. Km
parolas? Who
speaks? Kwj tdbloj estas tie? Which tables are
there ?

DEMONSTRATIVE tiu, that, is an adjective j*
if before a noun, and a demonstrative pronoun if I
alone: tiu tablo, that table; tiu ne venas, that per-
son does not come. Tio, that, is always a pronoun
for things: mi deziras tion, I want that. Both ^
may take the little adverb ci to become more pre- j
cise : tiu ci, this tio ci, this thing. Cc* i***-**^-^
*
;
^
Never use tio, that (pronoun), instead of ke,
that (conjunction). Mi diras KE ciuj kredas TION.
I say that all believe that. Remember also that
"that" may also be a relative pronoun; for ex-
ample, The dog that I saw, La hundo KIUN mi
vidis. ui.^ t

[*&>

UJR
**^2Z3^^'&Ztt>*M< t/
j^j^k^4U>^^^^
C^ ^<r*t^U #- ^^^CL

: )T*~^MSI<A

FORMATION OF WORDS
GRAMMATICAL ENDINGS may be used for the fol-
lowing purposes: From the root parol' paroli, to :

speak; parolo, speech; parola, oral; parole, orally.
From the root varm varma, warm; varme,
:

warmly ; la varmo, the warmth.
COMPOUND WORDS may be formed :

Vaporo, steam; sipo, ship; vaporsipo, steam-
boat.

Tago, day; mezo, middle; tagmezo, noon.
(The o between two roots may be retained or
omitted as euphony requires.)

PREFIXES
&o- denotes relation by marriage: patro, father.

~bopatro, father-in-law. ~frato, brother, bo-

frato, brother-in-law.
dis- denotes separation (as in English) :
jeti, to
throw, disfoti, to throw about, semi, to sow. t*Jti***.

dissemi, to disseminate.
ek. denotes beginning and momentary action:
brili, to shine, ekbrili, to flash. Icanti, to

sing, ekkanti, to start singing.
30 ESPERANTO AT A GLANCE
ge- denotes persons of both sexes taken together:
mastro, master, gemastroj, master and mis-
tress, onklo, uncle, geonkloj uncle, and aunt.
gepatroj, parents.
mal- denotes opposite ideas: rica, rich, malrica,
poor, fermi, to shut,
malfermi, to open.
re- denotes return and repetition: veni, to come.
reveni, to come back. ~brilif to shine, rebrili,
to reflect.

/
SUFFIXES
-a d denotes duration and continuation of action :
pafo, a shot, pafado, shooting, rigardi, to
look at. rigardadi, to view, instrui, to teach.
instruado, teaching.
-a} denotes concrete ideas: mold, soft, molajo,
soft material, amika, friendly, amikajo, a
kindness.
-an denotes an inhabitant, member, or partisan:
Londono, London. Londonano, Londoner.
Kristo, Christ. Kristano, a Christian.
-ar denotes a collection of things :
vorto, a word.

'
vortaro, a dictionary, arbo, a tree, arbaro, a
forest. I****!**** ***
1

-ebl denotes possibility (Engl. -able -ible) :
vidi,
to see. videbla, visible. Icredi, to believe.

hredebla, credible.
-ec denotes abstract ideas: mola, soft, moleco,
f
\)

ESPERANTO AT A GLANCE 31

softness, amike, friendly, amikeco, friend-
ship.
denotes enlargement, intensity of degree:
^^V-e#
domo, a house, domego, a mansion, varma,
warm, varmega, hot.
\J-ej

^
denotes

lernejo,
place
school,
allotted

kuiri,
to:
to
lerni,
cook.
to learn.

Tcuirejo,
*-
kitchen.
em denotes propensity or disposition: babili,
to chatter, babilema, loquacious, kredi, to be-
lieve, kr edema, credulous, paroli, to talk.
parolema, talkative.
-er denotes one object of a collection: mono,
money, sablo, sand, sablero,
5^ monero^coin.
j1 grain of sand. Cc/m>,'
.

v-estr denotes a chief or leader:
le sipo, ship.
stro, captain. reono. state, regnestro, ruler.
-e/ of degree, etc. :
lago, lake.

lageto, pond, varma, warm varmeta, luke-
warm.
-id denotes the young of, the descendant of: kato,
cat. katido, a kitten, hundo, dog. hundido,
a puppy. aC&n-dmu*. A/nf*'^**** -

ig denotes causing something to be: morta,
dead, mortigi, to kill, bruli, to burn, bruligi,
to set on fire. fc+*~t*&*+.
34v>&kr*y>
'-ig denotes the action of becoming: ruga, red.
rugigi, to blush, fluida, fluid, to
fluidigi,
become fluid, to melt.

.

>
32 ESPERANTO AT A GLANCE
-il denotes a tool or instrument: bori, to drill.

borilo, a gimlet, razi, to shave, razilo, a razor.
-ind denotes worthiness :
admiri, to admire.
admirinda, worthy of admiration,memori, to
remember, memoranda, memorable.
-ing denotes holder into which one object is put :

plumo, pen. plumingo, penholder, kandelo,
candle. Tcandelingo, candlestick.
-in denotes feminities : oriklo, uncle, oriklino,
aunt. Tcoko, cock. ~kokino, hen.
-ist denotes trade, or occupation:
profession,
drogo, drug, a druggist, boto, a
drogisto,
boot, botisto, a bootmaker.

uj denotes container of material or a collection:
inko, ink. inkujo, inkstand, mono, money.
monujo, purse.
sugar-bowl. H^f- f"
sukero,
^^ ^ *~~ sugar, sukerujo,

-ul denotes a man remarkable for some quality. '*
brava, brave, bravulo, a brave man. bela,
beautiful, belulino, a beauty (feminine).
gibo, hump, gibulo, humpback.
um indefinite suffix playing similar role in
ff
forming words as je" among the preposi-
tions: plena, full; plenumi, to fulfil, vento,
wind; ventumilo, fan. Jcruco, cross; Icru-
cumif crucify. ^*sAn4^>*U> CM///- f

(ntv^ vv*
EXAMPLES: Malgajeco, sadness. Mai, contrary;
gaj', gay; eco, quality. Malfaciligi, to make
ESPEKANTO AT A GLANCE 33

cult. Mai, contrary; facil', easy; igi, to make, to
cause something to be.

ESPEBANTO TEXTS
"Simpla,, fleksebla, belsona, vere internacia en
siaj elementoj, la lingvo Esperanto prezentas al la
mondo civilizita la sole veran solvon de lingvo in-

ternacia ; car, tre f acila por homoj nemulte instru-
itaj,Esperanto estas komprenata sen peno de la
personoj bone edukitaj. Mil faktoj atestas la
meriton praktikan de la nomita lingvo."
3V- ^L^ ^iW J, *W ^y^^
* T * *^

'3^&^8&&
*& 0*3 $*
L*ll*}
Zr'^L^**'
& &*~ kfr<r~ *"*-
CJU urt^jit ^tJU*4+J ^xM^- A*^L~
o^^ ^^A4^^^4^W^TA^t
uu*-^f*A..

^P J7^ ^*~-^^*
^^
-^T^ftJuU
^^^-
^ ^- UU-
/n^>^tXi^
r*-^ ^U*^
-o^^^x. ^'^-**-^^-^^
**~
/
c^^i- (-c^^r^^)
"Zti:
^
^jf^^CL,
t-tZ *Z~+*.- ^^Lf <.*A*~ <u^*
^^U**^/ ^T i^~4+^ -n.^-, ^**^m^L-/ <4*^0. -^2>
-
^
^^ua ^rT rfr
J
^^^-V,^
r /wrc^-); ^^->^, -^ ^^^u^ A**^^ afc* c; ^

RAKONTO
Mallume kaj nigre estas en la koro de malfelica
patrino, kiu devas vidi, kiel siaj idetoj suferas mal-
saton, kaj si havas nenion, per kiu si povus trank-
viligi tiun obstinan postulanton, la stomakon.
La nombro da tiaj patrinoj inter la Nov-Jorka
laboristaro estas sufice granda ankaii en la bonaj

tempoj, kaj kiam venas la tempoj malbonaj^ kiam
venas ekonomia krizo, tiu nombro pli grandigas
kaj multigas.

Kiam Linjo, okjara knabineto, venis hejmen el
*^
' la lernejo, si diris al sia patrino :

"Patrineto, mi estas malsata!"
La patrino de Lin jo ne ha vis en la domo ec

pecon da pano, kaj tial la koro de la malfelica
virino kvazau dissirigis pro doloro, kaj sia pala,
mizera vizago farigis ankoraii pli pala pro la vor-
toj de sia infano.
"Mi tute ne scias kion doni al vi por mangi,"
diris la patrino.
"Kion ajn," respondis la lerneja knabineto.
"Nenio estas en la domo, mia infano."
"Mi estas tre,, tre malsata I
ESPERANTO AT A GLANCE 35

"Jen baldaii alvenos patreto kaj alportos monon ;

tiam mi iros aceti ion por
mangi."
"Kiam venos patreto?" Linjo demandis.
"Baldau, mia infano," respondis la patrino per
malforta voco, kaj sia voco estis malforta tial, car
si mem forte dubis pri sia promeso.

Frumatene, kiam la patro de Linjo ekvidis, ke
en la domo ne estas peco da pano, li foriris al
amikoj, kun la espero ricevi prunte kelkajn dola- A ,
rojn. Kaj antaii la foriro lia edzino diris al li :
*M%^ njfa
"Sciu, ke Linjo foriris en la lernejon neman-
ginta !"

"Mi scias, mi scias," li respondis per voco sufo-

katadelarmoj.
"Vi devas alporti iom da mono al latagmango,
se ne, Linjo posttagmeze ree devos iri en la lerne-
jon nemanginta."
"Mi revenos antaii tagmeze."
"Vi devas scii, ke mi jam ne havas lokon, kie

pruntepreni ion, mi ne povas pmntepreni ec dis-
rompitan cendon/' la virino klarigis al sia edzo la
situacion, "kaj en la spice jo oni ne pruntedonos .^
al mi ec unu terpomon. Mi jam ne povas mon- f^f*
'

trigi en la strato, car mi uldas monon al ciuj naj- *'r^
baroj al unu nikelmoneron, al la dua dekcendon
kaj al la tria kvarondolaron."
"Bone, bone/' respondis la edzo.
"Vi devas reveni antaii la tagmezo, se ne, Linjo
malsatos," la virino minacis la edzon.
GLANCE
Kaj tamen la patro de Lirg'o ne venis tagmeze
kaj nun estas jam baldau vespero kaj li ankoraii
ne estas hejme.
La koro de la virino estas maltrankvila. &i tute
ne sc i ag ki on p r ip eng j p r i sj a d z o. Diversaj, teru-
ra j pensoj trakuris sian kapon. Sed tamen si es-
peris, ke la ezdobaldau venos. Kaj si konsolas sin $*

la malfelican infanon per tiu ci espero. Sed
ankaii tiu ci espero ciuminute pli malfortigas.
mi Tolas
La patrino eksaltas kvazau serpento ekmordus
in.

"Cu vi scias, mia infano, iru en la spicejon !"
"Mi iros, patrineto, mi iros," Lin jo diris
kun mieno de kontenteco pro la propono de la

"Alportu bulkojn por tri cendoj kaj kvaronfun-
butero," la patrino ordonas kion alporti el
la spicejo.

"Donu al mi monon/' petas Lin jo.
Sur de la patrino montrigas mieno
la vizago
de maldolca ironio kaj si diras al la inf ano :

,
*fji
"Dim al la spicisto, ke poete mi estos en la bu-
A
*^ t
(
tiko kaj pagos al li."

"Bone," respondas Linjo.

iJ^r Kaj la inf ano foriris en la spicejon. Kaj la pa-

trino sidas kaj atendas, kaj atendante, si ciam pen-
sas pri tio, kion la spicisto respondos al la infano.
Jen sajnas al si, ke la butiko estas plena de viri-

*AA^^A^^/^^^**-^^. 4X^?^^-^fe^ ^:^^
u^> -4*^ oj> tt^ Uz v^iwdfo t&^j^&fi^Y* , ,f^/
^'ti^^Z^^f^rt
WUJQA). ! iJ^ CL<~4Ji /yMTJX*^*^^
6*
*^ ^ ^
. .
i
u**/t. LjC'LM
tkju <vx^fc^ rs
&li*r4*-y* i^jCL dt Z2tc ir&i^'*^ ^~d'
ESPERANTO AT A GLANCE 37

noj. Linjo eniras, petas bulkojn kaj buteron, la
spicisto elpelas la inf anon. Kaj poste li rakontas
al ciuj virinoj, ke oni suldas al li multe da mono
kaj oni ne volas pagi al li, kaj oni ankorau
havas arogantecon sendi infanon por ree prunte-
preni.
Si sentas ke la sango venas en sian vizagon pro
honto. Si jam bedauras, ke si sendis la infanon.
*
t
Sed jen Linjo revenas.
La patrino tuj ekvidas, ke la infano revenis kun
malplenaj kaj ree sia koro dissirigas.
manjL
"Nu, kion P'Mfcnandas la patrino malfacile spi-
rante.
^^
"La spicisto diris,,
ie^ri
mem venu."
"Cu iu estis en butmo?" la patrino demandas.
"Neniu, niar la spicisto."
aj(
La patrino ekspiras pli facile.
"Iru, patrineto, en la butikon mi volas mangi,"
petas la infano.
"Jen baldaii patreto alvenos kaj tiam mi iros."
"Kiam patreto alvenos ?"
"Baldaii, Linjeto. Li devas baldaii alveni."
"M.i iros en la straton vidi cu li jam iras/' ekdi-
ris la malsata knabineto.
"Jes,mia infano, iru I"
Kaj Linjo forkuris en la straton. .

Poste i tuj alkuras kun granda gojo. <**/*"

"Rigardu, patrineto, rigardu! Vidu kion mi
trovisP
38 ESPEBANTO AT A GLANCE
Kaj Linjo montris paper an monbileton.
"Dolaro !" la patrino ekkriis per nehomaj fortaj,
"dolaro! Infano mia, Linjeto! Kiel? Kie, mia
karulino?"
"Apud la domo."
La virino tremis pro felico.
"Nun mi kuros en la butikon aceti bonajn man-
gajojn kaj prepares por mia felica filineto ka-
ran, bonan tagmangon," la patrino ekkriis pro
gojo-
"Kaj mi scias kiu perdis la dolaron," Linjo
" diris tute
senkulpe.
La koro de V patrino forte ekfrapis.
"Kiel vi scias tion?"
"Mi vidis sinjorinon Newman, de la unua etago,
serci ion." vjir
"Kiel do vi scias kion si sercis?"

"Tesi, sia knabineto, diris al mi Patrineto
:
per-
dis monon."
"Cu vi diris al Tesi, ke vi trovis gin ?" demandas
la patrino per sufokita voco.

"Ne, mi ne diris; mi venis antaue rakonti al
"
vi
/
v
4
**/^
*
\ ^tono defalis de la koro de T patrino.
^ e(^ ^J ^a V i za 6
^^3*y fa*~? kovrigas per multpeza nubo.
La patrino de Linjo ne estas malklera virino;
si scias la signifon de infana edukado, kaj tial si
ciam penadis enradikigi bonajn morojn en la ko-
reto de siamalgranda filineto.
ESPERANTO AT A GLANCE 39

"Kion si nun f aru ? Kiel agi ? Cu si f orprenu

la dolaron? Kaj se Linjo faros demandojn?
Kian respondon si havos ?
Kaj se Linjo kuros mal-
supren kaj babilos, ke si trovis la dolaron? Cu *-

si ordonu al Linjo silenti ? Kiel la knabineto kom-
prenos tion? Cu si ne regardos la patrinon, kiel
stelintinon ? Tiuj kaj aliaj similaj pensoj treege
.

turmentis la malfelican patrinon.
"Patrineto, mi iros demandi sinjorinon New-
man: cu si perdis la dolaron?" Linjo ekdiria tute
senkulpe.
"Jes. Iru !"
La patrino kun koro kvazaii malviva atendis la
revenon de Linjo.
"Eble la infano faras ian eraron. Eble la .

dolaro ne apartenas al sinjorino N." la patrino er ^ ***

provis esperi. Sed sia espero baldau malaperis.
tyf*~j
%

2Zu jt
^ t

/"*
C'

Linjo revenis. **TL*[<~
AT__ 1 *l 3****
~&*~

"Jes, patrineto, la dolaro estas de sinjorino
"Kion si diris?" demandas la patrino.
"Si diris, ke mi estas tre bona knabino.
iris en kukejon, acetis kukojn kaj volis doni al
99
I

"Nu, kial vi ne prenis?"
;** "Vi ja ciam diris al mi, ke mi nenion prenu da
iu," Linjo respondis demandante, per voco sufo-
ta de larmoj, kaj ekploris.
r^tt^L
& ^'^^^*
"Linjeto, infano mia!" la patrino komencis
'**>!
^4*dt *# A.

/.//
ESPERANTO AT A GLANCE
la inf anon.
i "Jen alvenas patreto. Kaj mi
acetos por vi kukojn, kiom vi nur volos."
"Mi estas malsata, patrineto!"
Kaj la malfelica patrino ne eltenis plu kaj ek-
ploris kune kun sia infano.
Lau jargona originalo esperantigis.
B, V. REICH.

To translate any Esperanto text one must look
in the vocabulary, which contains all the roots and
suffixes without their endings a, o, e, etc.
This contains all the words of the Universala
Vortaro of Dr. Zamenhof, with the exception of a
few rarely used zoological and botanical names of
Latin origin, and a small number of words taken
from the English language, which are of inter-
'

national use and significance (such as loTcomotiv ,
talent', horizontal', etc.).
ABBREVIATIONS : n. =noun ; tr. ^transitive ;

intr.=intransitive ; t. ^termination ; e.=ending ;
d. or den. = denotes.
admir, admire
admon', admonish
a, t. of adj. ador, adore
abat', abbot adult', to commit adul-
abel', bee tery
abi'., fir aer', air
abon' t subscribe (to jour- afdbl', affable, kind
nal) afekt', to be affected, U.}
acer, maple afer, affair, business
acid', acid, sour matter
acet', buy afranlc', put stamp on a
ad' , d. duration letter
adiau, good-bye ag' 9 act
41
42 ESPERANTO AT A GLANCE
agl', eagle ampleks, extent
agord', tune (instr.) amuz, amuse
agrabl' , agreeable an, d. member
ag, age anas', duck
ajl',garlic angil', eel
a/n, ever; &m who, kiu angul', corner, angle
ajn whoever angel', angel
af t concrete ideas
d. anim', soul
akcel', to hasten (tr.) ankau, also
akcent', accent ankorau, yet, still
akcept', accept, welcome ankr, anchor
akcipitr, hawk anonc, announce
akir, acquire anser, goose
akn, pimple anstatau, instead of
f

akompan', accompany an/ , e. of pres. part. act.
akr, sharp antau, before
akrid', grasshopper antikv, old (hist.)
*
aks, axle apart', separate (adj.)
akus', deliver a woman aparten, belong
akv', water apenau, scarcely
al, to aper, appear
alaiid', lark (bird) apog' ',
lean (vb.)
ali', other April', April
almenau, at least aprob', approve
almoz, alms apud, near, by
aW, high ar'j d. collection
altern, alternate arane, spider
aZwd', allude arb', tree
alumet', match, lucifer arc'^ bow, fiddlestick
am, love arde', heron
amas', crowd, mass ardez, slate
ambau, both argil', clay
ambos', anvil argent', silver
o-weZ', starch arfc', arch, bow
amik' f friend artf' , art
ESPERANTO AT A GLANCE 43

artifik', cunning laldau, soon
artik', joint lalen', whale
as, e. of pres. tense ban', bathe (tr.)
at', e. of pr. part. pas. bant', bow (of ribbon)
ataki, attack bapt', baptize
atenc, attempt (t*Z*n*^ bar, bar, obstruct
atend', wait, expect barakt', struggle
atent', attentive barb', beard
atest', attest, certify barbir, barber
ating', attain, arrive at barel', keg, barrel
atut' , trump (c***06^) bask', coat tail
au, or, au. .au either, .or boston', stick
and', hear bat', beat
August', August batal', fight
auskult', listen bed', bed (garden)
auturi', autumn bedaur', pity, regret
av', grandfather beJc', beak
f
avar y avaricious beautiful, fine
bel',
avel', hazelnut ben, bless
aven', oats benJc', bench
aventur, adventure ber, berry
avert'', warn best', beast, animal
avid', covet, eager for betul',birch (tree)
azen', ass, donkey bezori, need, want
azot', nitrogen bien, goods, estate
bier, beer
bind (books)
B bind',
bird
bird',
babil', chatter blank', white
bagatel', trifle blek', cry (of beasts)
bale', bake blind', blind
bala', sweep blond', fair (of hair)
balanc', s w ay, swing feZov', blow
(tr.) &Zw', blue
balbut', stammer bo', d. relat. by marriage
44 ESPEKANTO AT A GLANCE
boat', boat bulk', roll (bread)
boj', bark (dog's) r6?', drone (insect)
bol', boil (intr.) burg', citizen
bon, good bud
burgori',
bor', bore (tr.) bus, mouth
bord', shore, bank buter', butter
'

border border, hem ,
butik',shop
bors, bourse, exchange buton, button
bot', boot
botel', bottle
bov ,
ox
ced', to yield
fcrafc', arm (of the body)
cejari, cornflower
bram, bream
eel',aim, object
brand
,
cend', cent (coin)
, brandy hundred
cent,
brasik', cabbage mind
cerb'y brain,
bret', shelf
cert', certain, sure
brid', bridle
brick cerv ', deer
&rtfc',
bril', shine (intr.) ceter, rest, remaining
broc', brooch cifer, cjrpher, numeral
brod', embroider cigar, cigar
brog, scald cigared', cigarette
bros', brush cigri, swan
&rw', noise cikoni', stork
burn (intr.)
', dm', bug
bruri, brown cindr, ash, cinder
brust', chest, breast shoe-polish
ctr',
6rwf, brute, cattle cirJconstanc ',
c i r c u in-
bub', lad, urchin stance
&^c', slaughter cirkuler, circular (no-
&w/', toad tice)
bukl' , ringlet, curl cit', cite, mention
bul', clod, ball citron, lemon
', bulb, onion col', inch
ESPERANTO AT A GLANCE 45

cikari, chicanery
cio,everything, all
cagreri, grieve (tr.) ciom, all of it
Sambr, room cirkau, round, about
can', cock (of a gun) cm, each, every one
cap, cap ciz, chisel, carve
capel',hat cf, d. masc. affect, di-

capitr, chapter minutives
car, for, because cu, whether; asks a ques-
carlatan, charlatan
carm, charm
carnir ', hinge
carpent', carpentry
cos', hunt, chase da is used instead of de
cast', chaste afterwords expressing
ce', at, with weight or measure :

cef, chief junto da viando, a
cemiz, shirt pound of meat
cera', chain daktil', date (fruit)
ceriz, cherry
'
done, dance
cerlc , coffin dand', dandy
cerp', draw (from any danger', danger
source) dank', thank / *f-~
ces, cease, desist dat', date (time) <X*UrfnL -

'

ceval'y horse dour , endure, last
ci, d. proximity: ^te de from; with pass.
of,
there; tfte ci, here by
part,
aa^ every (kind) dec, becoming
ciam, always Decembr, December
die, everywhere decid', decide (tr.)
ciel, in every manner decifr, decipher
ciel' 9 heaven, sky dedic ', dedicate
cies, everybody's defend', defend
cif, crumple, crease degel',thaw
cifon, rag dejor, be on duty
46 ESPEKANTO AT A GLANCE
dek, ten disting', distinguish
dekliv', slope distr, distract
dekstr, right-hand diven, divine, guess
delir, be delirious divers', various, diverse
demand', ask divid', divide
dens', dense, close do, then, accordingly
dent', tooth dole', sweet
denunc, denounce dolor, pain, ache
depend', depend dom', house
des, the (ju..des the.. domag', (it is a) pity
the) don, give
desegn, design donac', make a present
detal', detail dorlot', coddle
detru, destroy
'
dorm, sleep
dev , must, dev'ig' compel dorn, thorn
deviz, device, motto dors', (the) back
dezert', (the) desert dot', dowry
dezir, desire, wish drap, woolen cloth
Di', God dras, thrash
diabT, devil dres', train (animal)
diboc' , debauchery drink', drink (to excess)
difekt', to damage drog', drug
diferenc, differ dron ', drown, sink (intr.)
ifin , define, destine
difin, du, two
'ig', dike
dig' / I dub', doubt
f
dik'
',ik', thick, stout' '* U,f+
'
duk duke ,
^1-4' /^Trtfo-fo
dilct', dictate dum, during, while,
diligent', diligent whilst
dimanc ', Sunday dung', hire (servant)
dir, say, tell
direkt', direct, steer
dis', d. separation

disJcont', discount ef t. of adv.
dispori dispose
',
eben ', even, smooth
disput', dispute ebl', d. possibility
ESPEEANTO AT A GLANCE 47

ec ,
d. abst. idea envi , envy
ec, even (adv.) er ,
d. unit
edif, edify erar, error, mistake
eduk', educate erinac, hedgehog
edz, husband ermit', hermit
efehtiv, real, actual erp' , harrow
efik', have effect escept', except
eg', d. increase eskadr, squadron
egaT, equal esper', hope
eft'", echo esplor', explore
ej'', d. place allotted to espriin, express
eJc', d. sudden or open- est'jbe (verb aux.)
ing act estim, esteem
eks', ex- (who has been) esting', extinguish
elcscit', excite estr', d. chief
ekskurs' , trip esafod', scaffold
eksped', dispatch et', d. diminution
ekster, outside etag ', story (of house)
ehsterm', crush out etend', extend (tr.)
ekstrem', extreme eterri, eternal
ekzamen, examine evit' f avoid
ekzempl'j example ezolc'', pike (fish)
elczerc'j exercise
ekzil', banish F
ekzist'y exist fab', bean
el, out of, from among -fab el', tale, story
elefant', elephant faW, fable
elekt', choose fdbriJc'y factory
0m', d. propensity faciT, easy
embaras', puzzle, embar- faderi, thread
rass fag, beech-tree
embuslc', ambush fajf, whistle
enigm, puzzle fajl', file (tool)
entrepren', undertake fajr', fire
enu', be wearied fak', compartment
48 ESPERANTO AT A GLANCE
fakt', fact fervor', zeal
fakiur, invoice
f
/esf , festival
fal ,
fall festen', banquet
falc, mow, cut grass /?awc', betrothed
fald', fold /&/, fibre
folk', falcon fid',to rely upon
fals, falsify Adrf', faithful
fam, fame, rumour
famili', family
fand', cast (metal)
^%
fier, proud

figur, image, represent
fantom', ghost fil', son
far, do, make filik', fern
faring', pharynx ;?n', end, finish (tr.)
farm', take on lease fingr', finger
fart', be (well or un- firm', firm
well) /w', fish
faruri, flour ^am', flame
fask', bundle flank', side, flank
fast', fast (vb.) /?ar', smell (tr.)
'

fauk' , jaws, gullet flat', flatter

favor, favour /Zav', yellow
fazan, pheasant ^^', nurse (the sick)
febr, fever fleks bend',

Februar, February fliJc's patch, mend
fee', lees, sediment flirt', flit, flirt

fein', fairy flok', flake
fel', hide, fleece /?or', flower
fefa'c', happy, lucky flos', raft
felt', felt ',
flow
femur', thigh flug', flyf
(vb.)
/end', split, rive (tr.) fluid', fluid
fenestr', window f, flute
fer, iron ir',fair (subst.)
ferdek', deck (of ship) foj', time (three times,
ferm'y shut, close &c.)
ESPERANTO AT A GLANCE 49

fojn, hay fromag', cheese
fok', seal (animal) frost' , frost
foil, leaf, sheet frot' , rub
fond', found, start fru, early
font' , spring, fount frugileg', rook
-fontari, fountain frukt' , fruit
for, forth, out, away frunt', forehead
forges, forget ftiz'y phthisis
forg', forge, smithy fulg', soot
fork', fork fulm'y lightning
form', shape fum'y smoke
formik', ant fund', bottom
forn, stove, furnace fundament ,
foundation
fort', strength funebr', funeral
fortik', strong, solid funel', funnel
foi, dig fung', mushroom
fost' , post, stake funt', pound
frag', strawberry furag', forage
fraf, spawn furioz'y rage
frak', dress coat fits' 9 bungle
frafcas', shatter fut'y foot (measure)
frakseri, ash (tree)
framasori, freemason
framb', raspberry
fraud', -a}o, sweets, dain- gay, merry
ties gain, earn
frang', fringe gal', gall
frap, hit, strike galos'y rubber-shoe
fraf, brother gamas, gaiter
fraul', bachelor gant'y glove
fremd', foreign garanti', guarantee
frenez, crazy, mad garl', sheaf, shock
fres, fresh, new gard', guard
fripori, rogue gargar, rinse, gargle
friz, dress (hair) gas'y gas
50 ESPEEANTO AT A GLANCE
gast' , guest grinc', to grate (intr.)
gazef, newspaper griz, grey
ge, d. both sexes gros , gooseberry
general', general (mili gru'y crane (bird)
tary officer) grup group ,

gent'., tribe gudr, tar
genu, knee gum, gum, mucilage
gesf , gesture gurd barrel organ
',

glad' ',
ice 0s', taste (noun)
I',
to iron ^uf drop, drip
,

glan ,
acorn guvem', -istino, govern-
'

glas tumbler
, glass, ess

glaf smooth, gvardi, guard (military)
glav swor ', gvid', to guide
glif, glide, slide
glob', globe
glor', glory
glu, glue garden', garden
J',
swallow (vb.) gem , groan
T, throat gen, incommode
graci', graceful
'
general', general (adj.)
grad' , degree gentil', polite
graf, earl, count germ, germ
grajri, a grain, pip gi, it
grand' great, tall , gib', hump
gras fat , </t'mf , giraffe
graf, scratch gis, until, as far as
gratul', congratulate
grav, important gu, enoy
graved', pregnant ', exact, right
gravur' , engrave
greri, grain
gri, gruel
H
grifeT, slatepencil ha, ah
gril', cricket (insect) /',, hail
ESPERANTO AT A GLANCE 51

hale', to chop hosti' , sacred host
haT great room, hall
, huf, hoof
haladz, bad exhalation humiT, humble
halt', stop (intr.) humor', humour, temper
liar, hair hund', dog
hard', harden
haring', herring H
harp , harp '

haut', skin, hairless haos ,
chaos
hav have
, hemi', chemical
haven port, harbour
, himer, chimera
heder , ivy holer', cholera
hejm, home hor, chorus, choir
7te/T, heat (vb.)
W, bright, glaring
ftefy/, help
" ,

MT feejwrf', liver i, t. of infinitive
^4A&. some (any) kind
grass
fierb'^ ia,
hered inherit
', ial; for some (any) cause,

hero', hero reason
hierau, yesterday iam, at some (any) time,
hipolcrit', feign ever, once
'

hirud leech , id', d. descendant of

hirund', swallow (bird) ide', idea
histrik', porcupine ie, some-, anywhere
feo/ oh! iel, some-, anyhow
hodiau, to-day ies, some-, any one's
Tio^', hook ig, d. causing to be
horn, man ig' , d. becoming
honest' , honest il', d. instrument
honor honour , Hi, they, them
shame
hont' , ilumiri, illuminate
hor, hour imag', imagine
horde , barley imit', imitate
'

horlog , clock, watch imperi', empire
52 ESPERANTO AT A GLANCE
d.
profession
implik', entangle ist',
d.
past part.
impres, impression felt, it',

influence iu, some-, any one

in', d. feminine izol', isolate

indt', provoke, incite,
tease
ind', d. worthy of
indigri, indignant /, t. of the plural .

indulg, to be indulgent ja f in fact trnJi/tfJi,
infan, child jdk'y jacket
infekt', infect jam, already
infer', hell Januar, January
influ, influence jar, year
ing', d. holder jef indefinite preposition
iniciat', initiate jen, behold ! lo !

ink', ink jes, yes
inlclin, inclined to ju des, the. .the
inseJct', insect jug, yoke
insid', ensnare jugland', walnut .

instig', instigate
'
jug', judge
instru' , teach juti, itch
insul', island July
Juli',
insult', insult, abuse jun, young
int', past part. act. jung', to couple, harness
intenc, intend Juni', June
inter, between, among jup, petticoat, skirt
interes, interest just', just, righteous
intern', inner, inside juvel', jewel
intest', intestine
f
intrig , to plot
invit', invite
io, some-, anything faluz, jealous
iom, a little, some, rather }aud', Thursday
{/, go jet', throw
is, d. past tense jongT, juggle
ESPERANTO AT A GLANCE 53

r

,
swear kankr , crayfish
'

jus , just, at the very leant' , sing
moment ',
head
Jcapabl', capable
chapel / / Ir7\ /
goat IL&fVU^U* tl-^C
Tcac', pap Jcapric, whim
Tcadr, frame , catch
leaduk', frail fear', dear
leaf, coffee Tcaraf'y carafe, decanter
karb', coal
^

Tcdhel'j dutch tile kard', thistle
fco/, and kares', caress
"kajer, paper-covered book Tear of, carrot
leajut', cabin, hut , carp (fish)
leal', corn (on foot) ', card, map
Tcaldroriy boiler Jcartori', cardboard
holes', carriage leas', cash box

TcaliTc', chalice, cup leaser oT , stewpan
IcalJc'', lime JcasJc', helmet

JcalJcan ', heel hostel', castle
', kastor, beaver
reckon
* underdrawers
leas, hide (vb.)
Tcalumni, slander Jcaston, chestnut
'kambi ', bill of exchange leaf, cat
learner, camel Tcotar, catarrh
Teamen', fireplace leaten', fetter
'

learner ', camera leauz ,
cause
,
field Icav', cave, hollow
Jcavern, cavern
Jcanab', hemp Tcaz'ycase (gram.)
TcanajV, scoundrel lee, that (conj.)
Tcanap, sofa, lounge lcel' 9 cellar
Tcanari', canary JbeZfc', some, several
Undel', candle leelner, waiter
54 ESPEKANTO AT A GLANCE
kern, kernel , comma
~kest' chest, box
', 'y
comb
kia, what kind of Jcomenc', commence (tr.)
kial, why, wherefore Jcomerc, trade
Ham, when Jcomfort',comfort
Icie,where Jeomisi'ycommission
kiel, how, as komitat', committee
kies, whose Icomiz', clerk
Icio, what (thing) komod', chest of drawers
Horn, how much Jeompar, compare
Ids', kiss Icompat', to pity
kiu, who, which JeompleXj obliging, kind
klaft', fathom (ms.) kompost', set (type)
klar, clear, plain kompreri, understand
fcZas', class, sort bomun', common
klav', key (piano) Icon 9 know (be acquaint-
Icier ,
educated ed with)
Tcliri, bend, incline kondamri, condemn
klopod', take trouble kondic, stipulation
Tcluz', sluice konduk', to conduct
~knab'', boy konduf, to behave
fcned', to knead konfid', to trust
kobold', goblin, imp konfuz, to confuse
Jcojri, wedge Iconic', shell
Tcok' 9 cock konklud', conclude, infer
koks', hip konkur, compete
IcoV, neck konkurs', enter into com-
Tcolbas, sausage petition
Icoleg', colleague konsci', be conscious
IcoleJct', collect konserv', preserve
Jcoler',angry konsil', to advise
Jcolomb' dove ', konsol', console
kolon, column konstat', to state, estab-
Tcolor, colour lish (a fact)
Tcol'um, collar Jconstern', amaze
ESPERANTO AT A GLANCE 55

Jconstru, to build Jcret' , chalk

Jcontant', cash down fcm/, burst (intr.)
Icontor, office (com.) Tcri 9 cry, shout

Jcontrau, against Tcribr'., to sift
Iconveri, to suit, befitting Jcrim', crime
Tconvink'', convince kripl', crippled
Icor, heart Jcroc, hook to, cling to
korb', basket fcrom, besides, in ad-
Icord', cord (music) dition to
korekt', to correct Tcron ', crown
Tcork', cork A:ro2;', to cruise
Icorn', horn kruc, jug, pitcher
Jcorp, body kruc, cross
~kort' , court, yard Z;r^^', raw
Tcorv, raven Jcruel', cruel'
Tcost' , cost, price ', leg
fcof, dirt , steep
Tcoton, cotton Icubut' , elbow
~koturn, quail (bird) fc^dr', sew
Jcov', to brood fcw/', woman's cap
Icovert',envelope Jcugl', bullet
'

Icovr, cover Jcuir ,
cook
^rac', spit (saliva) kuk' , cooky, cake
Tcrad', grate Jcukol', cuckoo
Icrajon, pencil kukum, cucumber
Tcramp , clamp kukurb', pumpkin
^ran', tap, spigot Tcul', gnat
krani', skull kuler, spoon
Jcravat', cravat Tculp', fault, blame
Tcre ,
create Icun, with, Jcun'e together
lcred' 9 believe JcuniJcl', rabbit
Jcrem', cream kupr' 9 copper
Icreri, horse-radish kur', to run
(wild) kurac, cure, treat
Icreslc', grow, increase hurag', courage
56 ESPEKANTO AT A GLANCE
kurb', curve lang',
kurten', curtain lantern ,
lantern
kusen, cushion lanug', down, fluff
kus, lie (down) lard', bacon
kutim', custom larg', broad, wide
Jcuv', tub, vat laving larynx ',

kuz, cousin larm, tear (of eye)
kvankam, although las' , leave, let
kvant', quantity last', last, latest
kvar, four lau, according to
kvartal', quarter (of laub, green arbour
town) laud', praise
kvazau, as if lout', loud, aloud
kverk', oak lav', wash
kviet', calm lecion, lesson
levin, five led',leather
kvitanc, receipt leg', read
legom', vegetable
leg', law
Z', the
to, lek', lick
labor , labour lent', lentil
lac, weary, tired lentug', freckle
lacert', lizard leon, lion
lac, lace (boot) lepor, hare
lad', tin plate lern, learn
laf, lava lert' , skilful, clever
lag', lake later , letter, epistle
lak', varnish lev', lift, raise
lake', lackey li, he (him)
laks', diarrhoea liber ,
free
lakt', milk Zi&r', book
lam, lame Zim', spleen
lamp, lamp lig', bind, tie
ton', wool Ztgrra',
wood (the sub-
land', land, country stance)
ESPEKANTO AT A GLANCE 57

Urn', limit Maj' May
9

limalc ', snail majest', majesty
lin, flax majstr, master (pro-
t<| . Zm#t/, language fession)
-^-, lini, line makler', broker '

Zip', lip makul' , stain, spot
lit', bed makzel' , jaw
Zitfe/, letter (of the al- mal', d. opposites
phabet) malgrau, in spite of
liver supply, deliver
, mam', breast (female)
log', entice hand
mari,^
log, to lodge, live mang', to eat
lok', place, locality manier, manner
long', long manik', sleeve
Zom', opera-glass manti, lack, want
. Zof, draw lots mar', sea
/ lu', rent marc , swamp
^
'

Zrf, play marcand" to bargain ,

ZwZ', lull
asleep mard', Tuesday
*y
^Of. lum, light, -t to shine mark' , mark, stamp
lumb', loins marmor marble ,

Zt^rt', moon Mart', March
,
Monday mars' march,

Zt//?',
wolf martel', hammer
lupol', hops mason ,
do mason's work
', chandelier mast' , mast
,
solder mastr, master (of house)
otter mas, mesh
masin, machine
M maten, morning
matrac, mattress
'

mac, unleavened bread matur , ripe
mac chew , mebl', piece of furniture
magazen, warehouse mec, wick
magi', magic mejl', mile
58 ESPEBANTO AT A GLANCE
met badger
,
monah' ',
monk
meleagr', turkey monarfi', monarch
melk', milk (vb.) monat', month
mem, self, selves mond', world
'

membr, member. mont' , mountain
memor', memory montr show ',

mend', order (goods) mor, habit, usage
mensog', tell a lie morbil', measles
menton, chin mord', bite
merit', merit morgau, to-morrow
merkred', Wednesday mort', die
met' , put, place morter, mortar
meti', handicraft most', general title. Vi'a
mev, sea-gull reg'a most'o, your maj-
mez, middle esty, vi'a most'o, your
mezur', measure honour
mi, I (me) mov', move (tr.)
miel', honey muel', mill vie
mien, mien mug', to roar (wind, &c.)
migdal', almond muk', mucus
migr, migrate mult', much, many
miks, mix mur, wall
mil, thousand mus', mouse
milit', war moss
music'',
minac, to threaten muskoT muscle ',

miop, short-sight mustard', mustard
miozot', forget-me-not mus'. fly (a)
mir, wonder mut', dumb
mister, mystery
mizer', misery
moder', moderate N
modest', modest
mok', to mock n, end. of direct obj.
moT, soft naci', nation
mori, money nag', swim
ESPEKANTO AT A GLANCE 59

najbar', neighbour nokt', night
najl', nail nom, name
najtingal', nightingale nombr, number
nap', turnip nord', north
nask', give oirth new
not;',

naskig', be born Noyembr, November
natur', nature nu! well!
nau, nine nuanc, shade, hue
nauz', to sicken nub', cloud
naz, nose nud', naked
ne, no, not nuk', nape of neck
nebul', fog nuks, nut
neces necessary
, riw/', zero
negoc, business numer, number (No.)
neg, snow ni/w, now
nek nek, neither nor nur, only (adv.)
nenia, no kind of nourish, feed
',,

neniam, never
nenie, nowhere
nenielj nohow
nenies, no one's o } end. of nouns
neniOj nothing obe, obey
neniom, not a bit objeM, thing, object
neniu, nobody obi' , .
.-fold, duo'bT, two-
nep ', grandson fold
nepr', unfailingly obstin, obstinate
nest', nest odor , odour, smell
net', clean copy of end', offend
nev', nephew ofer, to offer (as sacri-
ni, we, us fice, gift, &c.)
nigr black o^c', office (employment)
*
nivel', level o/f often
,

nj , d. fern, affect, dim. eight
nob el', nobleman y occur, -0 occasion,
nobl', noble case
60 ESPERANTO AT A GLANCE
okcident', west
OTetobr, October
okul', eye pac peace
,

okup, occupy pacienc patience
'
',

ol, than paf , shoot, fire
ole, oil pag',pay t A *

omar, lobster pag, page (book) flAty^fj
ombr, shadow pajl', straw V * '* *
ombrel' umbrella put up L
'

', pak', pack,
on, d. fractions pa/', pale
ond', wave palac, palace
oni, one, people, they pa/is', stake
onlcl' , uncle palp, touch, feel
out', end. fut. part. act. palpebr, eyelid
'

op , d. collective numer- pan, bread
als pantalon, trousers
opini', to opine pantofl', slipper
oporturi, handy pap, pope
or', gold papag', parrot
ord', order, regularity papav, poppy
or den , order (decora- paper' paper,

tion) papili, butterfly
or don , order, command par, pair, brace
ore?', ear pardon, forgive
or/', orphan parenc, relation
orgen', '
organ (music) parlcer, by heart
orient' , east parol'', speak
ornam', ornament part', part
05, end. of fut. tense parti', party, partial
osced', yawn pas', pass
ost', bone paser, sparrow
ostr', oyster pasi', passion
of t end. fut. part. pass. pasTc, Easter
ov', egg past', paste
', oval pasted', pie
ESPEKANTO AT A GLANCE 61
'

pastr , priest, pastor persik' , peach
pas, to step pes, weigh (tr.)
past', pasture (for cattle) pest' , plague
pat' , frying-pan pet', request, beg
pair, father petal', be roguish, play
pauz, to pause the wanton
pav', peacock petrol', paraffin oil
pavim, pavement petrosel', parsley
pec, piece pez, weigh (intr.)
pec', pitch pi', pious
peg', woodpecker pied', foot (leg)
pejzag, landscape pig, magpie
pek', sin pik', prick, sting
pekl', to pickle pillc, ball (for playing)
pel', drive, chase away pin', pine-tree
pelt', fur pine, pinch
pelv, basin pingl', pin
pen pint', pointed
pend', hang (intr.) pip, pipe (tobacco)
'

penile paint-brush
, pipr , pepper
pens', think pir, pear
pent' , to repent pirit', gravel
pentr, paint pist' , to pound, crush
'

pep', to chirp piz , pea
per, by means of, with plac, public square
perc, perch (fish) plac', please
perd", lose plad', plate
perdrik', partridge plafon', ceiling
pere, perish pland', sole (of the foot)
perfekt', to perfect plank' , floor
perfid', betray plant', plant (vb.)
pergamen, parchment plat', flat, plain
perl', pearl plaud; clap
permes, permit /?/e/, most
perori, front-steps, stoop plelct', weave, plait
62 ESPEKANTO AT A GLANCE
pi en', full pra'(avo), great (grand-
plend', complain father)
plet',tray prav right (adj.)
',

plezur, pleasure precip', chiefly
pli, more preciz, precise
plor'y mourn, weep prediJc', preach
pin, further, longer prefer', prefer
plug, plough preg', pray
plum, pen prem press
,

plumb', lead (metal) premi', prize (subst.)
pluv', rain preri take
',

po, apiece, at rate of pres, print (vb.)
pokal', cup, goblet preskau, almost
polic, police pret', ready
poligon, buckwheat preter, beyond (prep.)
polur, polish prez' f price
prezent', to present
polv ,
dust pri, Concerning, about
pom, apple princ, prince
ponard', dagger princip, principle
pont', bridge printemp, springtime
popT, poplar-tree privat', private
popol', people pro, owing to, for the sake
por, for, for benefit of
'
of
pord' , door procent', interest
pork', hog, pig proces, lawsuit
port', wear, carry produkt',
posed', possess profund', deep
post, after, behind prokrast', to delay
posten'y garrison, station proksim, near
postul', require, demand promeri, to walk, stroll

pos, pocket promes, promise
post' , post, mail propon, propose
potenc', mighty propr', (one's) own
pov, be able, can, could prosper , succeed, thrive
ESPEBANTO AT A GLANCE 63

prov, T rajt', right, authority
proviz, provide raJcont', relate
prujri, hoar (frost) ramp', crawl
pruri, plum ran, frog
prunt', to lend rone , rancid
/ pruv', to prove rand', edge, margin
UlO pugn', fist rang', rank, grade
,.- pul', flea rap, long radish
/ pulm, lung rapid', quick, rapid
*^l m/i/, gunpowder
'

raport' , report
pulvor powder
, rast', to rake
pump', to pump rat' , rat

pwn', to punish rauk', hoarse
punlct', point raup, caterpillar
punt', lace rav, ravish, delight
pup, doll raz, shave
/m/, pure re', d. again, back
pus, pus, matter redakci', editorial office
/ras', push reg', rule, govern
put', well (subst.) regal', regale
/ra/, to rot regn, State, realm
regul'y rule
reg',king
relcompenc, reward
rob', rob relct' , straight
robot', rebate, discount rel', rail
rob en, rabbi rem', to row
robot', to plane rembur, to stuff (chair)
'

ratf , wheel rempar bulwark ,

nkW, beam., ray ren, kidney
radik', root renkont' , meet
rafan, horseradish renvers, upset
rafin', refine respond', reply-
rajd', to ride (on horse- rest', remain
back) restoraci ,
restaurant
64 ESPERANTO AT A GLANCE
ret', net ruband', ribbon
rev', day-dream rub en , ruby
rezultat', result rug, red
rib', currant rwfcf , eructate
rib el', to rebel ruT, roll (tr.)
ricev, obtain, get, receive rusf, rust (tr.)
rid', rich ruz, trick, ruse
rid', laugh
rifug, take refuge
rifuz, to refuse sabat', Saturday
rigard', look at scibl', sand
rigl', bolt sa^', arrow
riJcolt', reap sag ,
wise
rilat', relate to, concern safc', sack
rim', rhyme sa/', salt
rimark', to notice salat', salad
rimed', means salajr, salary
rimen, strap salik', willow
ring', ring (subst.) ',
salmon
n//, rib , leap, jump
ripet', repeat salut', salute, greet
ripoz', repose, rest sam ',
same
riproc, reproach sari, health
river', river sang, blood
riz', rice holy
sarikt',
rod', roadstead sa/, soap
romp', break sarlc' , to weed
rond', round, circle saf , satiated
ronlc', to snore sauc sauce ',

ros, dew sav, save
rosf , roast sci', know (mentally)
rostr, trunk (of anim.) scienc, science
rof , company (military) sciur, squirrel
f
roz ,
rose se, if
ru&', rubbish seb', grease, fat
ESPERANTO AT A GLANCE 65

sed, but silent', to be silent
seg', saw siliJc', flint

seg, seat, chair st'ZA;', silk

seTc', dry simi', monkey
sekal', rye simiT, like, similar
selcc, dissect simpl'y simple
selcs, sex singult'y hiccup
seJcv'y follow sinjor', Sir, Mr.
sel', saddle sitel'y bucket
sera', sow situad'y situation
semajri, week sfcal', scale

sen., without skapol'y shoulder-blade
senc, sense skarab', beetle
send', send slcatol', small box
senf , feel, perceive skerm', to fence (sword)
sep, seven sJciz', to sketch

SeptemW, September sklav'y slave
sere, search shrib', write
sen', series sfcw', shake
serioz ', serious sculpture
sJculpt'y
serur', lock (subst.) skvam'y scale (fish)
serv'y serve smerald'y emerald
S65, Six sobr, sober
sezon'j season societ'y society
si, him-, her-, it-, one- soif , thirst
self, themselves (re- soft, threshold
flexive) sol'y only, alone

sibl', to hiss soldat'y soldier
sid' 9 sit soleri, solemn
sieg', besiege solv', loosen, solve
sigel'y seal (vb.) somer'y summer
sign, sign, token son' , sound (subst.)
signify signify song , dream
silab', syllable, sildb'i to sonor, give out a sound
spell (as a bell)
66 ESPEKANTO AT A GLANCE
sopir, long for stern', stretch out, -ita,
sorb', absorb prostrate
sore, witchcraft stertor', (death) rattle
sovag', wild, savage stomak' , stomach
sort' , fate, lot strab', squint
'

spac, space strang , strange, peculiar
spec', kind, species
'
strat', street
spegul' , mirror strec, stretch
spert', experience strek', streak, line
spez', el'spez disburse, eri- stri', stripe, wide streak
spez receive (money) strig', owl
spic, spice strut', ostrich
spile', ear (of corn) stup', tow (subst.)
spin , spine sturn, starling
spinac', spinach sub, under, beneath
spir ',
breathe subit', sudden
spirit', spirit, mind sue', suck
spit', in defiance (of) sud', south
spong', sponge sufer, suffer
sprit', wit sufic, sufficient
sprori, spur sufofc', suffocate (tr.)
sput', expectorate suk', sap, juice
stab', staff (milit.) sukceri amber ,

stabl', trestle, frame-wor sukces, succeed
'

staci', station (A^l suker sugar ,

stal', stall, sty sulfur sulphur
',

stamp , stamp, mark sulk', wrinkle
stari, tin sun, sun
standard', flag sup', soup
stang, pole super, over, above
star , stand supoz, suppose
stat', state, condition supr, upper (adj.)
steb', stitch sur, upon, on
stel', star surd', deaf
sterk', manure surtut', overcoat
ESPERANTO AT A GLANCE 67

svat' , arrange matri spin, spin
mony sprue , sprinkle
sven, to swoon srank', cupboard
sving' f brandish, wave sraub', screw
stal', steel

stat', State
stip, log of wood
saf, sheep stel', steal
sajri, seem stof, stuff, tissue
sak', chess ston, stone
sancel' , shake (tr.) s/op', stop up
sang', change (tr.) strump' , stocking
sarg'', load (a gun) stup', step (ladder, stair-
sarg', load, burden way)
sat', to prize, like su, shoe
saum', foam, spray owe
set, shell, peel, rind sultr, shoulder . 4
selk', braces, suspenders sut',^
shoot out (corn, &c.) /3<ru/v S<r^
'
sere, joke sveZ', swell
si, she (her) svit' f sweat
sild', shield
'

sim , mould
sind', shingle
sink', ham tabalc', tobacco
sip, ship to&eZ', list

, tear, rend
sir tabl', table
sirm, shelter tabul', plank, board
slim ,
mud tag, day
slos, lock, fasten tajlor, tailor
smac', hearty kiss talcs, estimate
smir, smear, anoint
'
tali', waist
snur , string tfaZ^', mole (animal)
sov, push forward tambur', drum
sovel', shovel VTC tamen, however
spar, be sparing tapet', tapestry
68 ESPERANTO AT A GLANCE
tapis, carpet tol', linen
tas', cup (tea) /o/er', tolerate
taiig', be fit for tomb', tomb, grave
'
1

tavol', layer tond , clip, shear
te, tea tondr, thunder
ted', tedious tord', wind, twist
teg, cover ( furniture, &c. )
'
torf', peat
tegment' , roof torn', turn (lathe)
teles', weave tornistr, knapsack
teler, plate tort' , tart

temp', time tra, through
tempi', temple (anat.) trab', beam (of wood)
ten', hold, grasp traduk', translate /
*^-
/end', tent traf , attain one's object,
rU*> <

tent', tempt ^ra-;f, feature
ter, earth tralct', transac
tern', sneeze tranc, cut
terur, terror trankvil', quiet
testud', tortoise , across
tetr, grouse /re, very
tia, such a trem, tremble
tial, therefore tremp, to dip
tiam, then /ren', drag, trail
/te, there trezor, treasure
tiel, thus, so /ri, three

/tfcZ', tickle tririk', drink
lime-tree
tili', tritiJc', wheat
tim', fear /ro, too (much)
tine ,
moth tromp ',
deceive
fo'nf, clink of glasses trotuar', sidewalk
tio, that (thing) trov ', find ^

tiom, so much /rw',hole
^--
H/
fo'r', draw, pull /m^', force upon vnAMM*' ^
titoV, title trunk', trunk, stem
/m, that tub', tube, pipe
ESPERANTO AT A GLANCE 69

tuber', bulb valor', be worth
tuf, tuft -yaw', vain, needless
tuj, immediately v ang', cheek
tuV, cloth vant', vain, futile
tur tower
', vapor', steam
turd', thrush t>ar&', to recruit
turment', torment variol', smallpox
turn', turn (v. a.) varm, warm
tus', cough varf, to nurse (child)
tus, touch vast', wide, vast
tut' , whole, quite vo', vase
vejri, vein
^e^', wake, arouse
U vel', sail (subst.)
ve^', fade
u, e. imperative
velur, velvet
uj' f d. containing
vew', come
ul', d. remarkable for
vend', sell
urn, indef. suffix
vendred', Friday
umbilik' , navel
veneri, poison
ung', nail (finger)
veng , vengeance
unu, one
venlc', conquer
w&', town vent' , wind
urs, bear (animal)
ventol', to air
urtik', nettle
ventr , belly
us', e. of conditional
ver', true
wter', womb
utU' f useful ver<f, green
verg', rod, -t whip,
uz', use
switch
verlc , work (literary)
verm', worm
vers', verse ^ , , / O
<***
vag ,
roam vw^, pour Jk
', wax veruh', wart
', valley vesp', wasp
ESPERANTO AT A
vesper, evening vitr, glass (substance)
vespert', bat wi/, live
vest' , to clothe vizag', face
vest', waistcoat vizit', visit, call on
vet', bet, wager voc', voice
veter', weather vojf', way, road
vetur ', go (by vehicle) vojag', voyage
vezik', bladder vole', call

vi, you vol', wish, will
viand', meat, flesh volont', willingly
vie, row, rank, turn volv, wrap around, roll
vid', see up
vidv', widower vom vomit,

vigl' 9 alert vort', word
vilag', village vost', tail
viri, wine vual', veil
vinagr, vinegar im/;/, fox
vintr', winter vultur, vulture
viol', violet vund', wound
violori, violin
v ip, whip
vir' 9 man, male
virg', virginal zon, girdle
virt', virtue zor^', care for
vis, wipe zum, to buzz
SHORT VOCABULARY
ENGLISH ESPERANTO
The words contained in this vocabulary are
sufficient formost ordinary purposes. Although
they seem few, it must be remembered that from
these many other words may be easily formed by
means of suffixes and grammatical endings. For
instance, although "beautiful" is found in the
vocabulary, both "ugly" and "beauty" are want-
ing. However, any one can form these words:
malbela, ugly; beleco, beauty. Other examples
are: mal-san-ul-o (an from
invalid) sari

(healthy) ;
antau-vid-i (to foresee) ; and mat-
help-i (to hinder) from helpi (to help). Fur-
thermore, it has not been considered necessary to
include such international words as "locomotive,"

"telephone," etc. These are the same in Esperanto
as in English ; but of course they must be spelled

phonetically: loJcomotivo, telefono, etc.
*
Only words with the sign are invariable.
*
across., trans
act, agi
about, *pri, *cirkau actual, efektiva
above, *super add, aldoni
accompany, akompani address (a letter), adresi
according to, *lau adept, adepto
account, kalkulo adieu, *adiaii
accurate, akurata administer, administri
accustom, kutimigi admire, admiri
acid, acido adore, adori
acquire, akiri advertise, anonci
71
ESPERANTO AT A GLANCE
affair, afero anyhow, *iel
after, *post any one, *iu
again, re any one's, *ies
against, *kontraii anything, *io
age, ago anytime, *iam
agreeable, agrabla anywhere, *ie
agree, konsenti appear, aperi
ah! *ha! apple, porno
aim, cell apricot, abrikoto
air (subst.), aero argue, disputi
air (vb.), aenimi argument, argumento
album, albumo arm, brako
all, *cio, *ciuj around, *cirkau
allow, permesi arouse, veki
almost, *preskaii arrange, arangi
alms, almozo art, arto
alone, sola 05^ *kiel
alphabet, alfabeto ash, cindro
already, *jam ask, demand!
also, *ankau ass, azeno
although, *kvankam assist, help!
always, *ciam at, *en, *ce, *apud
among, *inter at least, *almenau
amuse, amuzi attack, ataki
anchor, ankro attain, a ting!
ancient, antikva attempt, provi
and, *kaj attentive, atenta
angel, angelo attest, atesti
anger, kolero author, aiitoro
angle, angulo authority, raj to, aiitori-

annoy, enuigi tato
answer, respond! average, meznombro
ant, formiko avoid, eviti
anxiety, maltrankvilo await, atendi
any, *ia, *iu awake, veki
ESPEBANTO AT A GLANCE
away, 'for , bati

axis, akso beautiful, bela
become, farigi
&e^ lito

B free, abelo
beech, fago
"bachelor, fraulo 6eer^ biero
"back (subst), dorso before, *antaii
back (adv.), re- &e^, peti
bag, sako begin, komenci
baggage, pakajo behind, *post
bake, baki behold, rigardi
balance, balanci believe, kredi
bank, banko &e%, ventro
baptise, bapti belong, aparteni
bar, bari bench, benko
bare, nuda bend (v. a.), fleksi
baric (of dog), bojo bend (v. n.), klini
baric (of tree), selo beneath, *sub
barley, hordeo &erri/, bero
barrel, barelo beside, *preter, *ekster
basic et, korbo bet, veti
bath, bano betroth, fiancigi
battle, batalo between, *inter
be, esti bicycle, biciklo
bealc, beko bind, ligi
beam (of sun), radio bind (books), bindi
beam (of wood), trabo bird, birdo
bean, fabo biscuit, biskvito
bear (subst.), urso bite, mordi
bear (vb.), porti, toleri black, nigra
bear (to produce), pro- blame, mallaudi
dukti bleat, bleld,
beard, barbo bless, beni
beast, besto (adj.),blinda
ESPERANTO AT A GLANCE
'blood, sango bucket, sitelo
blow (vb.), blovi buffet, bufedo
blue, blua , konstrui
body, korpo , bulbo
boil (vb.), boli , virbovo
bone, osto bullet, kuglo
bonnet, capelo bureau, oficejo
book, libro (v. n.), bruli
book-keeping, librotenado (v. a.), bruligi
boot, boto 6w^ *sed
&ore (vb.), bori butter, butero
borrow, prunte preni butterfly, papilio
both, *ambau button, butono
bottle, botelo buy, aceti
bottom, fundo by, *per, *apud
boundary, limo
bouquet, bukedo
bourse, borso
6oz (subst.), kesto, ska- cabbage, brasiko
tolo cabin, kajuto
box (vb.), bati, pugni cage, kago
&o#, knabo cake, kuko
brain, cerbo calculate, kalkuli
branch, branco call, voki
bread, pano camel, kamelo
break, rompi can (subst), kruco
breast, brusto can (vb.), povi
breathe, spiri candle, kandelo
brick, briko candy, bombono
bridge, ponto cane, kano
bright, brila capable, kapabla
broad, larga car (railroad), vagono
brother, frato carafe, karafo
brown, bmna card, karto
brush, brosi care, zorgi
ESPERANTO AT A GLANCE
caress, karesi , sakoj
carpenter, carpento chew, maci
7

carpet, tapiso c/ite/
, cefo, estro
carriage, kaleso child, infano
carrot, karoto chin, mentono
case, skatolo chocolate, cokolado
cash, kaso choose, elekti
cast (metals), fandi cigar, cigaro
cast (throw), jeti cigarette, cigaredo
castle, kastelo cinder, cindro
cat, kato circumstance, c i r k o in-

catch, kapti stance
cause, kauzi claim, postuli
cave, kavo clamp (bracket), krampo
cavern, kaverno clay, argilo
cease, cesi, halti clean, pura
ceiling, plafono clear, klara
cellar, kelo clerk, komizo
cement, cemento clever, lerta
certain, certa clock, horlogo
chagrin, cagreno cloth (a), tuko
chain, ceno cloth (goods), drapo
chamber, cambro clothe, vesti
change, sangi cloud, nubo
chapter, capitro club, klubo
charm, carmi coal, karbo
chase, casi coal-oil, petrolo
chatter, babili coast, bordo
cheat, trompi coffee, kafo
cheek, vango coffin, cerko
cheese, fromago collar, kolumo
chemise, cemizo collect, kolekti
chemistry, hemio colour, koloro
cheque, ceko column, kolono
cherry, cerizo comb, kombi
ESPEEANTO AT A GLANCE
come, veni convenient, oportuna
comma, komo convince, konvinki
command, ordoni cook, kniri
commerce, komerco copper, kupro
commission,, komisio copy, kopio
committee, komitato cork, korko
common, kornuna,, ordi- corn, greno
,
nara corner, angulo
communicate, komuniki correct, korekti
companion, kolego correspond, korespondi
compare, kompari cost, kosti
compassion, kompato cotton, kotono
complain, plendi cough, tusi
conceal, kasi count, kalkuli
concerning, *pri counter, kontoro
conclude, konkludi country, lando
condition, kondico cousin, kuzo
conduct, konduto cover, kovri
conduct (vb.), konduki covetous, avara
confess, konfesi crafty, ruza
confide, konfidi cravat, kravato
confuse, konfuzi crawl, rampi
congratulate, gratuli cream, kremo
conquer, venki, subreg- create, krei
nigi crime, krimo
conscience, konscienco cross (subst.), kruco
conscious, konscia crowd, amaso
consent, konsenti crown, kroni
console, konsoli cruel, kmela
constant, konstanta crumple, cifi

construct, konstrui cry, krii
content, kontenta cry (of beasts), bleki
contents (subst), enhavo cuff, mamimo
continue, daiiri cup, taso
contract, kontrakti cupboard, sranko
ESPERANTO AT A GLANCE
curtain, kurteno detail, detalo
curved, kurba devil, diablo
cushion, kuseno dew, roso
custom, kutimo diameter, diametro
cut, tranci diamond, diamante
die, morti
dig, fosi
diligent, diligenta
direct, direkti
damage, difekto disappoint, cagreni
dance, danci discharge (pour out),
danger, dangero suti
day, tago discount, d i s kon t o,

deaf, surda rabato
dear, kara dish, plado
deceive, trompi dispute, disputi
decide, decidi distract, distri
deck, ferdeko distribution, disdono
dedicate, dedici diverse, di versa
deep, profunda divide, dividi
deer, cervo divine (vb.),diveni
defend, defend! do, far!
define, difini dog, hundo
deformed, kripla doll, pupo
demand, postuli dollar, dolaro
denounce, denunci door, pordo
dense, densa dot, punkto
department, fako doubt, dub!
depict, pentri, figuri dough, pasto
desert, dezerto dove,kolombo
desert (verb), forlasi draw (out), tiri
deserve, merit! draw (along), treni
design, desegni draw (pictures), pentri
desire, deziri drawers (chest of), ko-
destroy, detrui modo
78 ESPERANTO AT A GLANCE
dream, songi embrace, cirkaiipreni
drink, trinki eminent, eminenta
drop, guto enceinte, graveda
drown, droni end, fini
drug, drogo endeavour, peni
drum, tamburo endure, toleri, suferi
dry, seka engage, rizervi,, promesi
duck, anaso engineer, ingeniero
dumb, muta enough, sufica
d^, polvo entice, logi
duty, devo envelope, koverto
envy, envio
epoch, epoko
e^^a^ egala
* cu
*cia, error, eraro
eagle, agio especially, precipe
ear, orelo establish, fondi
earfo/, frua esteem, estimi
earth, tero eternal, eterna
eo5^ oriento even (adj.), ebena
Easter, pasko even (adv.), *ec
easy, facila evening, vespero
e#, mangi every, *cia
ecstasy, ravo every one, *ciu
ed<?e, rando everything, *cio
editor, redaktoro everywhere, *cie
educate, eduki examine, ekzameni
e/fect, efiki example, ekzemplo
e^, ovo except, escepti
*ok exchange (bill of), kam-
elastic, elasta bio
elbow, kubuto execute, ekzekuti
elect, elekti exercise, ekzerco
elephant, elefanto exhibition, ekspozicio
embarrass, geni exist, ekzisti
ESPEKANTO AT A GLANCE 79

expedite, ekspedi
80 ESPERANTO AT A GLANCE
follow, sekvi furniture, meblaro
foot, piedo furrow, sulko
for, *por, *pro, *car
forehead, frunto
foreign, fremda
forge, forgi gain, gajni
forget, forgesi gall, galo
forget-me-not, miozoto garden, gardeno
forgive, pardoni garlic, ajlo
fork, forko gas, gaso
forth, *for gather, kolekti
fortified, fortika 9&y> gaja
fortunate, felica gentle, gentila
fountain, fonto gentleman, sinjoro
four, *kvar genus, gento
fox, vulpo get, ricevi
frame, kadro give, doni, donaci
franc, franko ptos, vitro
free, liber a glass (a), glaso
fresh, fresa #/0&e, globo
Friday, vendredo glory, gloro
friend, amiko <7/6we, ganto
fright, teruro glue, gluo
frog, rano kulo
from, *el, *de ^o,
front, fronto goat, kapro
frost, frosto God, Dio
fruit, f rukto gold, oro
frying pan, pato <70o<i, bona
fulfil,, plenum! good-bye, *adiaii
full,plena goods, stofo
fume (subst), haladzo ^oose^ ansero
funeral, funebro grain, greno
fur, pelto grain (a), grajno
furious, freneza grandfather, avo .
ESPERANTO AT A GLANCE 81

grandson, nepo
82 ESPERANTO AT A GLANCE
honey, mielo indeed, *ja
honour,, honor! industrious, diligenta
hoof, hufo industry, industrio
hook, hoko infant, infano
hope, esperi infect, infekti
horse, cevalo influence, influi
horse-radish, rafano inherit, heredi
host, mastro injure, vundi, difekti
hotel, hotelo ink, inko
hour, horo inner, interna
house, domo insect, insekto
how, *kiel insert, enmeti
however, *tamen, *do instead, *anstataii
how much, many, *kiom instruct, instrui
humble, humila insult, insulti
humour, humoro insure, asekuri
hump, gibo intend, intenci
hundred, *cent interest, interesi
hunt, casi intestine, intesto
hurt, vundi, dolori invite, inviti
husband, edzo iron, fero
iron (vb.), gladi

I
island, insulo
it, gi _

I, mi itch, juko
ice, glacio ivy, hedero
if, *se
illustration, ilustrajo
imitate, imiti
immediately, *tuj jacket, jako
important, grava jaw, faiiko
inch, colo jealous, jaluza
incite, inciti jewel, juvelo
incline, klini join, jungi, aligi
increase, kreski joint, artiko
ESPEBANTO AT A GLANCE 83

joke, serci language, lingvo
journal, jurnalo lantern, lanterno
journey, veturo lard, lardo

jpy, gO'jo large, granda
judge, jugi lark, alaiido
jug, kruco last (adj.), lasta

juice, suko last (vb.) ?
daiiri

just (adj.), justa laugh, ridi
just (adv.), *jus, guste law, lego
lead (subst.), plumbo
lead es-
(yb.), konduki,
tradi
keep, konservi leaf, folio
keg, barelo lean (vb.), apogi
kernel, kerno /eap^ salti
kerosene, petrolo learn, lerni
kettle, kaldrono leather, ledo
key, slosilo (subst.), permeso
kidney, reno (vb.), lasi
kind (subst.), speco legend, legendo
kind (adj.), aminda, afa- legume, legomo
^bla
lemon, citrono
king, rego lend, prunte doni
kingdom, regno, reglando lentil, lento
kiss, kisi lesson, leciono
knee, gemio letter, letero
know, scii, koni letter (of alphabet), li-

tero
lick, leki
lie (down), kusi
labour, labor! lie (tell a), mensogi
lace, pasamento lift, levi
lake, lago light (subst), lumo
lame, lama lightning, fulmo
land, lando like (vb.), sati, ami
84 ESPERANTO AT A GLANCE
like (adj.), simila je maize., maizo
lily, lilio majesty, majesto
lime, kalko make, fari
limit, limo man, homo, viro
line, limo manner, maniero
linen, tolo manufactory, fabriko
lion, leono many, multa
lip, lipo maple, acero
listen, aiiskulti marble, marmoro
live, vivi, logi margin, margeno
Zwer, hepato marsh, marco
lizard, lacerto mason, masonisto
Zo/ *jen mass, amaso
Zoa^ (a gun), sargi mast, masto
lock (subst), seruro master, mastro
lock (vb.), slosi mat, mato
locomotive, lokomotivo match, alumeto
lodge, logi mattress, matraco
long (adj.), longa meal, faruno, mangado
long (vb.), sopiri means, rimedo
lose, perdi measure, mezuri
lot (cast), loto meat, viando
lottery, loterio medicine, kuracilo
loud, laiita meet, renkonti
lounge, kanapo melon, melono
love, ami member, membro
lucifer, alumeto memory, memoro
lung, pulmo mercury, hidrargo
mesh, maso
M middle, mezo
migrate, migri
machine, masino mile, mejlo
mad, kolera, freneza milk (subst), lakto
magpie, pigo milk (vb.), melki
mail, posto mill, mueli
ESPERANTO AT A GLANCE 85

mind, animo, cerbo
mine, mia (poss. pron.)
mirror, spegulo nail, najlo
misery, mizero nail (finger), ungo
mix, miksi naJced, nuda
mixture, miksajo name, nomi
model, model! nape, nuko
moderate, modera nation, nacio
modest, modesta nature, naturo
molasses, siropo near, proksima
mole, talpo near to (prep.),
*apud
Monday, lundo necessary, necesa
money, mono neck, kolo
monk, monaho need (vb.), bezoni
monkey, simio neigh, bleki
month, monato neighbour, najbaro
moon, hmo neither,*nek
more, *pli nephew, nevo
morning., mateno nest, nesto
moss, musko net, reto
most, *plej nettle, urtiko
mountain, monto never, *neniam
mourn, plori new, nova
mouse, muso night, nokto
mouth, buso nightingale, najtingalo
*
move, movi
mow, falci ne
much, multe ^ nobla

mucilage, gumo nobleman, nobelo
mud, koto nobody, *neniu
mule, mulo nohow, *neniel
murmur, murmuri noise, bruo
must (vb.), devi none, *neniom
mustard, mustardo one's, *nenies
mutter, nmrmuregi nor, *nek
86 ESPERANTO AT A GLANCE
north, nordo (adv.), *nur
nose, nazo opinion, opinio
not, *ne opportune, gustatempe
nothing, *nenio opposite, *kontraii
nourish, nutri *auor,
now, *mm orange, orango
nowhere, *nenie order (subst), ordo
number, nombro, numero order ( vb. ) o r d on, i,

nut, nukso mendi
ordinary, ordinara
organ, ^orgeno
oriental, orienta
oak, kverko ornament, ornamo
oar, remilo orphan, orfo
oats, aveno other, alia
obey, obei ought, devi
object, objekto out, *for
object, kontraustari outside, *ekster
obstinate, obstina oval, ovalo
obstruct, bari oven, forno
occasion, okazo over, *super
occupy, okupi overcoat, surtuto, super-
odour, odoro vesto
of, *de, *da overthrow, renversi
offend, ofendi owe, suldi
offer (sacrifice), oferi owl, strigo
offer (present), prezenti own (vb.), posedi
officiate, agi own (adj.), propra
often, ofte ox, bovo
oh! *ho! oyster, ostro
oil, oleo
on, *sur
one, *umi
onion, bulbo pack, paki
on/i/ (adj.), sola page, page-
ESPERANTO AT A GLANCE 87

pail, sitelo perish, perei
pain, doloro permit, permesi
paint, pentri persecute, persekuti
pale, pala person, persono
palace, palaco perspire, sviti
palate, palato petticoat, jupo
pants, pantalono pheasant, fazano
paper, papero piano, fortepiano
paradise, paradizo pickle, pekli
pardon, pardoni piece, peco
parrot, papago pillar, kolono
part, parto pin, pinglo
particularly, precipe pinch, pinci
partridge, perdriko pine, pino
pass, pasi pineapple, ananaso
passion, pasio pious, pia
pastor, pastro pipe, pipo, tubo
pasture, pasto pitch, peco
patch, fliki pity (vb.) ? kompati
patience, pacienco pity [it is a], domago
pause, halti place, loko
pavement, pavimo plague, pesto
pay, pagi plait, plekti
pea, pizo (vb.), raboti
peace, paco plant (vb.), planti
peacock, pavo (subst.), kreskajo
pear, piro ^ telero
pearl, perlo ludi
pen, plumo please, placi
pencil, krajono pleasure, plezuro
penny, penco plough (vb.), plugi
people, popolo plum, pruno
pepper, pipro pocket, poso
perceive, rimarki, eksenti , punkto

perfect, perfekta poson, veneno
88 ESPERANTO AT A GLANCE
pole, stango prosper, prosperi
police, police protect, gardi, defendi
polish, poluri proud, fiera

polish (for shoes), ciro prove, pruvi
poplar, poplo proverb, proverbo
poppy, papavo prudent, prudenta
porcelain, porcelano pull, tin
possess, posedi pump, pumpilo
post (mail), posto punish, puni
pot, poto pure, pura
pour, versi purple, purpura
powder (gun), pulvo pus, puso
powder (dust), pulvoro push, pusi
praise, laiidi put, meti
pray, pregi puzzle, enigmo
preach, prediki
precise, preciza
prepare, prepari
present (subst.), donaco
quality, eco
present (vb.), prezenti
quantity, kvanto
preserve, konservi
quick, rapida
press, premi
quiet, trankvila
pretty, beleta
quit, forlasi
price, kosto
prick, piki
priest, pastro
prince, princo
print, presi rabbit, kuniklo
private, privata race, gento
prize, prezo rag, cifono
produce, produkti rail, relo
promise, promesi railroad, fervojo
proper, propra rain, pluvi
property, posedajo rake, rasti
propose, proponi rapid, rapida
ESPEKANTO AT A GLANCE 89

raspberry, frambo revenge, vengi
rat, rato reward, rekompenci
rate (at the of), *po rhyme, rimo
raven, korvo rib, ripo
ravish, ravi ribbon, rubando
ray (of sun), radio rice, rizo
reach, atingi rich, rica
read, legi n'cZe, rajdi
ready, preta right (in the), prava
real, efektiva right (authority), raj to
reap, rikolti right (hand), dekstra
receive, ricevi righteous, justa
recognise, rekoni ring, ringo
rectangle, rektangulo ripe, matura
red, ruga river, river o
regard, rigardi road, vojo, strato
regiment, regimento roast, rosti
register (a letter), reko- roZ^ rabi
mendi roll, ruli
reign, regi roo/, tegmento
rejoice, goji rook, frugilego
relate to, rilati room, cambro
relation, parenco rooster, koko
remain, resti root, radiko
remark, rimarki rope, snuro
remedy, rimedo rose, rozo
rent, rento rotten, putra
repeat, ripeti round, ronda
repose, ripozi row (rank), vico
represent, figuri row (vb.), remi
reproach, riproci rub, froti
request, peti rubber-shoe, galoso
require, postuli rule, regulo
resound, sonori, resoni rum, rumo
rest [the], cetero run, kuri
90 ESPERANTO AT A GLANCE
self, si; mem
seZZ, vendi
sack, sako send, sendi
sacrifice (v.), oferi sense, senco
sad, malgoja separate, aparta
saddle, selo serpent, serpento
sail, velo serve, servi
salad, salato setf
(type), komposti
salmon, salmo seven, *sep
salt, salo severe, severa
salute, saluti sew, kudri
same, sama shadow, ombro
sand, sablo shaft (of carriage, etc.),
Saturday, sabato timono
sauce, sauco shake, skui, premi
?, savi shame, honto
segi sharp, akra
say, diri shave, razi
oTi
scarcely, *apenau, mal- /? Qi

volonte sheaf, garbo
science, scienco shear, tondi
scissors, tondilo sheep, safo
scratch, grati sfte//, selo, konko
screw, sraiibo shield, sildo
sculpture, skulpti shilling, silingo
sea, maro shine, brili
seagull, mevo s/iip, sipo
seal (animal), foko tri, cemizo
seal (vb.), sigeli suo
search, serci shoot, pafi
season, sezono shore, bordo
seat, segi short-sighted, miopa
seductive, deloga shoulder, sultro
see, vidi shovel, soveli
seem, sajni ^ montri
ESPERANTO AT A GLANCE 91

shut, fermi soft, mola
side, flanko sole (of foot), plando
sign, signo solve, solvi
signify, signifi some, *ia, kelka, *iom
silent, silenta somehow, *iel
silk, silko some owe,, *iu
silver, argento some one's, *ies
similar, simila something, *io
simple, simpla sometime, *iam
sin, peki somewhat, *iom, *iel
sing, kanti somewhere, *ie
sir, sinjoro 50 much, *tiom
sit, sidi 50^ filo
situation, situacio 500^ *baldaii
six, *ses sorcery, sorco
skate, gliti sorrow, malgojo, cagreno
skilful, lerta scm/,, animo
skin, haiito sound, soni
sleep, dormi sow^ supo
sleeve, maniko south, sudo
slide, gliti sow^ semi
slippery, glata sparrow, pasero
smear, smiri speak, paroli
smell (subst.), odoro special, speciala
smell (vb.), flari ^ silabi
smoke, fumi spico
smooth, ebena, glata spider, araneo
snail, limako spin, spini
sneeze, terni spirit, spirito
snow, nego spit, kraci
so, *tiel 5^e [in of], *mal-
soap, sapo graii
so&er, sobra split, fendi
society, societo sponge, spongo
sofa, kanapo, sofo spoon, kulero
92 ESPERANTO AT A GLANCE
spot, makulo store, magazeno, vendejo
spring (time) , pr i n -
stork, cikonio
tempo story, rakonto
spring (wire), risorto story (of house), etago
sprinkle, spruci stove, forno
spur., sprono straight, rekta
square (public), placo strange, stranga
squirrel, sciuro strap, rimeno
stable, cevalejo straw, pajlo
stain, makulo strawberry, frago
stairs, stuparo streak, streko
stammer, balbuti street, strato
stamp (metal, etc.), stretch (v. a.), streci
marko stride, paso
stamp (postage), post- strike (hit), frapi
marko string, kordo (music)!
stand, stari string, snuro
star, stelo strive, peni
state (condition), stato strong, forta
state (country), stato stuff, stofo
station, stacio success, sukceso
steal, steli such, *tia
steam, Vaporo suck, suci
steel, stalo sudden, subita
step, stupo suffer, suferi
stewpan, kaserolo suffocate, sufoki
stick (cane), bastono sugar, sukero
still (adj.), kvieta sulphur, sulfuro
still (adv.), *ankorau summer, somero
sting, piki sun, suno
stocking, strumpo Sunday, dimanco
stomach, stomako supplement, aldono
stone,, stono support, subapogi, helpi
stop, cesi, halti suppose, supozi
stop up, stopi suspect, suspekti
ESPERANTO AT A GLANCE 93

suspenders, selko tell, rakonti, diri
swallow (bird), hirundo temple, templo
swallow (vb.), gluti temple (of head), tem-
swan, cigno pio
swear, juri ten, *dek
sweep, balai territory, teritorio
swell, sveli than, *ol
swim, nagi thank, danki
swing, svingi that (pron.), tiu; tio
sword, glavo that (conj.), *ke
syllable, silabo that (rel.), kiu, kio
sympathise, kompati thaw, degeli
the, *la, *F
the more the, *ju pli
des
table, tablo theatre, teatro
tablet, tabuleto then, *tiam
tail, vosto there, *tie
tailor, tajloro therefore, *tial
tafce, preni ^e^ ill

tale, fabelo thick, dika
tall, alta tai'nfc, pensi
tallow, sebo thirst, soifo
tap (water, etc.), krano ^is, *tiu ci
tapestry, tapeto though, *kvankam
tassel, glano thousand, *mil
taste, gristi thread, fadeno
tax, takso threaten, minaci
tfea, teo t three, *tri
teach, instrui threshold, sojlo
tear, larmo thrift, sparo
tear (vb.), siri throat, gorgo
tedious, teda, malagra- through, *tra; *per
bla throw, JQti
telegraph, telegrafi thunder, tondro
94 ESPEKANTO AT A GLANCE
Thursday, Jaudo true, vera
thus, *tiel trumpet, trumpeto
ticket, bileto trunk (of tree), trunko
tickle, tikli trust, konfidi
tie, ligi try, provi
time,, tempo, fojo tub, kuvo
tin, stano tube, tubo
tinplate, lado Tuesday, mardo
tired, laca tulip, tulipo
to, *al tune (subst.), melodio,
toad, bufo aerio
to-day, *hodiaii tune (vb.), agordi
together, *kune turkey, meleagro
toilet, tualeto turn, turni
tomb, tombo turn (wood), torni
tomorrow, *morgau turnip, rapo
tongue, lango twist (v. a.), tordi
too, *tro twist, (v. n.), volvi
tooth, dento two, *du
torment, turmenti type, tipo
tortoise, testudo
totter, sanceligi U
touch, tusi wZcer^ ulcero
'
towel, fasilo umbrella, ombrelo
tower, turo uncle, onklo
town, urbo under, *sub
trade (subst.), komerco understand, kompreni
trade (vb.), komerci undertake, entrepreni
transact, trakti
1^
translate, traduki upper, supra f^f^^f^^
treaty,,kontrakto upset, renversi
tree, arbo urge, inciti
tremble, tremi 1/56^ uzi

triangle, triangulo useful, utila
trouble, zorgo, peno utilise, utiligi
ESPERANTO AT A GLANCE 95

wander, vagi
want, bezoni
vain (useless), vana war, milito
valise, valizo warm, varma
valley, valo wash, lavi
various, diversa wasp, vespo
vase, vazo water, akvo
vast, vasta wave, ondo
vein, vejno wax, vakso
velvet, vehiro way, vojo
verse, verso we, *ni
vertical, vertikala weary, laca, enua
very, *tre weather, vetero
vest, vesto weave, teksi
vignette, vinjeto wedge, kojno
village, vilago Wednesday, merkredo
vinegar, vinagro week, semajno
violet, violo weep, plori
violet (adj.), violkolora weigh (v. a.), pesi
violin, violono weigh pezi
(v. n.),
virtue, virto we/? (subst.), puto
visit, viziti well (adv.), bone
voice, voco west, okcidento
volcano, vulkano whale, baleno
volume, volume what, *kia, *kio
voyage, vojago wheel, rado
when, *kiam
W where, *kie
whether, *cu
wages, salajro while, *dum
waist, talio whip, vipo
wait, atendi whistle, fajfi
walk, promeni, marsi white, blanka
wall, muro w/io, *kiu
walnut, juglando whole, tuta
96 ESPERANTO AT A GLANCE
whose, *kies word, vorto
why, *kial work, laboro
wick, meco work (of an author),
wide, larga, vasta verko
widower, vidvo world, mondo
wild, sovaga worm, vermo
will, voli wound, vundi
willow, saliko write, skribi
wind (vb.), vindi, bobe-
numi, streci
wind (subst.), vento
window, fenestro yawn, oscedi
wine, vino year, jaro
wing, flugilo {, fermentilo
winter, vintro low, flava
wipe, visi yes, *jes
wise, saga yesterday, *hieraii
wish, deziri yet, *ankoraii
wit, sprite yoke, jugo
with, *kun you, vi
within, interne young, juna
without (wanting), *sen
without (outside), ek-
stere
wolf, lupo zenith, zenito
wonder, miri z;#2a#, zigzago
wood (substance), ligno ^inc^ zinko
wool, lano zone, zono
ESPERANTO
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CENTRAL ORGANIZATION FOR
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NEW YORK BRANCH
SCHOOL OF ESPERANTO
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Inaugurated the 1st of October, 1908

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