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Internship

Report
July 15
2011
The internship was not project based rather it was more oriented towards
learning functioning and purposes of the equipment used in the company.
The internship constituted of studying about heat exchangers, steam
turbines, centrifugal pumps, glass level gauges and different
manufacturing processes used in the factory. Each component was taught
in detail. Both the parts and the function of each part and the assembly
was studied in detail. Following is a comprehensive summary of different
types of equipment studied in different areas of the company.
Fauji
Fertilizer
Company


CONTENTS
Executive Summary ....................................................................................................................................... 3
Utilities (Mach 1) ........................................................................................................................................... 4
Target ........................................................................................................................................................ 4
TP601 ............................................................................................................................................................ 4
Overview ................................................................................................................................................... 4
CONSTRUCTION AND OTHER DETAILS ...................................................................................................... 4
Casing .................................................................................................................................................... 4
Internal details ...................................................................................................................................... 4
Maintenance ......................................................................................................................................... 5
P601 .............................................................................................................................................................. 5
Construction .............................................................................................................................................. 5
Summary ................................................................................................................................................... 5
Fabrication Shop ........................................................................................................................................... 6
Machine tools and facilities ...................................................................................................................... 6
Heat exchangers........................................................................................................................................ 6
Construction .......................................................................................................................................... 6
Welding Technology.................................................................................................................................. 7
Planning and Scheduling ............................................................................................................................... 7
Turnaround planning and scheduling ................................................................................................... 7
SAP ........................................................................................................................................................ 7
Machine Shop ............................................................................................................................................... 7
DSTK-4431 AND K-4431 ................................................................................................................................ 8
K-4431 ....................................................................................................................................................... 8
DSTK-4431 ................................................................................................................................................. 8
E4213 ............................................................................................................................................................ 9
Glass Level Gauges (GLGS) ........................................................................................................................... 9
transparent level gauges ........................................................................................................................... 9
reflex level gauges..................................................................................................................................... 9
Bicolor GlGs ............................................................................................................................................ 10
Graduated Cylinder Glass Level Gauges ................................................................................................. 10
magnetic glass level gauges .................................................................................................................... 10
E123 ............................................................................................................................................................ 10
Valves .......................................................................................................................................................... 10



















EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
The internship was not project based rather it was more oriented towards learning functioning and
purposes of the equipment used in the company. The internship constituted of studying about heat
exchangers, steam turbines, centrifugal pumps, glass level gauges and different manufacturing
processes used in the factory. Each component was taught in detail. Both the parts and the function of
each part and the assembly was studied in detail. Although it is enough to mention the working of the
different equipment only but due to difference in the constructions and way of handling the process, I
define individually, the working and construction of equipments in different areas. Following is a
comprehensive summary of different types of equipment studied in different areas of the company.




















UTILITIES (MACH 1)
Target
TP601
P601
TP601
Overview
TP601 is a backpressure impulse type turbine. A backpressure turbine is a turbine in which the exhaust
pressure is equal to or higher than the atmospheric pressure. Nomenclature of this turbine represents
that this turbine is driving a pump.
CONSTRUCTION AND OTHER DETAILS
Casing
Steel casing encapsulates all the internal parts of the turbine. It has two halves. Upper half can be
removed for inspection and maintenance without disturbing the lower half.
Internal details
The turbine is a six stage turbine having a single row of buckets in the single rotor of each stage. Dovetail
base provides base to the buckets where they are to be fixed in. Each of the six wheels are shrunk and
keyed on the shaft. Shroud bands are provided on the buckets to prevent the spilling of the steam.
Most of the details of the turbine are the same as listed in the general description of the steam turbines
in the API (books taught in the internship). The carbon as well as the labyrinth seals is used to prevent
the leakage of steam and oil respectively.
Two sleeve bearings (journal bearings) are used for supporting the shaft. The two main bearings
designated as the steam end bearing and the exhaust end bearing. They support radial load. Stops are
used to prevent the bearing to rotate with the shaft. The axial motion of the shaft is resisted by two
collars which act as thrust bearing. Oil at 1.5 bar is provided to all the bearings and the parts needing
lubrication.
Speed control is achieved by Woodward type governor. Governor drive shaft driven by a worm gear
through a bronze gear is sensing the speed of the turbine due to which the flow of the steam in the
nozzles is controlled.
EMERGENCY OVERSPEED TRIP AND LOW OIL PRESSURE TRIP is achieved by a weight acting centrifugally
on trip finger to stop the flow of the steam to the rotors, in order to protect the turbine from damaging.
Maintenance
For shutting the turbine down, the steam inlet is closed first and the exhaust is closed next. For starting
the turbine, the exhaust valve is opened first and then the inlet is opened. This is done to avoid the
buildup of unnecessary pressure. For avoiding bow, necessary precautionary measures are taken. For
shutting down, the usual practice is to use the tripping mechanism.
P601
As the nomenclature suggest, P601 is driven by TP601. The pump is a high pressure centrifugal, boiler
feed water pump.
SUCTION TEMPERATURE: 110/110/135 (20
O
C @startup). SUCTION PRESSURE: 2.27 min & 7.04
maximum. DISCHARGE PRESSURE: 146 (normal). SPEED (RPM): 2980.

Construction
It is a multistage pump having 8 stages. It has radially split casing. The casing consists of the suction and
discharge casing and a number of stage casings. The casing components are sealed off against one
another by ground metal-to-metal sealing faces, and are clamped together by tie bolts. O rings are used
to seal off the stuffing box housings. In order to achieve a favorable net positive suction head (NPSH)
requirement as possible, the suction nozzles are sized two nominal sizes larger than the discharge
nozzles.
Balancing device is used in this pump to compensate the axial thrust which sets in the direction of the
suction end of the unbalanced differential area of the impellers, which is due to the sealing diameter at
the sealing diameter at the impeller hub. The balance disc seat is firmly fastened in the discharge casing.
any wear which occurs on the balancing device is indicated on the rotor (axial) position indicator
attached to the pump stub shaft at the discharge end.
Shaft is protected against the aggressive action of the fluid pumped by sleeves and spacer sleeve. The
stage sleeves also serve to locate the impellers axially on the shaft.
As discussed above, most of the function of this pump is the same as usual centrifugal pumps. Above
was the crux of what I learned studying P601.
Summary
8 stage centrifugal compressor.
Boiler feed water pump.
Mechanical seals used where required, as in TP-601.
Pass Partition
Plate
FABRICATION SHOP
Machine tools and facilities
Following are some of machine tools and facilities that are present in the fabrication shop of FFC.
Hot tapping machine (used to make holes in fixed tubes/pipes).
High pressure jetting machine (used for providing pressurized water to cure fouling).
Welding generators and machines.
Hydraulic pumps (used for providing pressurized water for checking leakage).
Magnetic drilling machine.
Pulling machine (Machine for pulling out exchanger tubes).
MINI C (Machine used for facing and other operations on the tubes).
Heat exchangers
For heat transfer between different fluids, heat exchangers are used everywhere in this industry. There
are different types of heat exchangers used. Most of the heat exchangers used are shell and tube heat
exchangers.
Construction
Following are some main components of a heat
exchanger.
Bonnet, Shell, Tube Sheet, Channel,
Channel Baffle, Channel Cover, Tube Bundle,
Connections.
The tubes are either welded or fastened in
a mechanical
way to the tube sheets. Baffles are installed to
support the tubes. Baffles are segmented sometimes to
change the direction of flow as well as to increase the
stay time of the fluid on the tubes. The size of the heat exchanger is designated in the format:
(Shell inner diameter) X (length of tube)
The heat exchanger tubes can be fined or unfinned. There are different arrangements of the tubes for
efficient heat transfer.
The fins can be internal or external. For prolonged use of the heat exchanger, fouling occurs in the heat
exchangers on the shell and the tube sides. Different chemical and mechanical processes are used to
remove the sediments from the shell and tube.
Welding Technology
There are three major types of welding process used in the fabrication shop, namely
1. SMAW (shielded metal arc welding).
2. GTAW (gas tungsten arc welding).
3. Oxyacetylene welding.
Welding processes are mainly classified on the basis whether they consume their electrode or not. To
name a few from a variety of processes submerged arc welding, submerged arc welding, MIG, TIG
(GTAW or WIG), plasma arc welding, stud welding, electro slag welding, electro-gas welding, FCAW and
GMAW are the most common ones. The basic mechanism behind welding is joining two metal parts by
creating a frozen metal pool from the arc produced by electrode (consumable/non-consumable). Excess
metal of the frozen weld pool is chipped away by hammers or other mechanical means whenever
necessary.
PLANNING AND SCHEDULING
Turnaround planning and scheduling
After a predefined period of time, the plant is shut down and the required jobs to be carried out after
that particular period of time are carried out with a large work force. Turnaround is a preventive
maintenance measure. There are three phases in the turnaround planning:
PHASE-I: PLANNING/PRE-TURNAROUND ACTIVITIES.
PHASE-II: EXECUTION, CONTROLLING AND MANAGING.
PHASE-III: WIND-UP/ CLOSE-UP AND POST TURNAROUND ACTIVITIES.
SAP
SAP is the new software that is implemented in Fauji Fertilizers limited. With the help of this software,
all the paper work is being replaced with an electronic procedure. The procedures carried out are the
same. The only difference is that everything will be electronic.
MACHINE SHOP
Three areas come under machine shop.
1. Machine shop
2. Tool room
3. Vehicle shop
In machine shop, different industrial lathes, milling, drilling, boring grinding and balancing machines are
used to carry out the required maintenance jobs of the industry. Lapping machines are also used to
provide super finishing wherever required. All the machines are electrical and use a rotating portion to
carry out the machining. Machining capability of the large vertical lathe machine is 1600 x 1200 mm
(diameter x height). In all the machines, tools with sharp cutting edges are used to remove the material
for the required purpose. There are almost 34000 tool pieces in the tool room which are issued daily for
use in the factory. Total of 5000 kinds of tools are present.
The purpose of vehicle shop is to provide moving vehicles to the factory for different factory uses and it
is the duty of maintenance department of the vehicle shop to maintain the vehicles. Vehicle shop has
heavy duty cranes as well as lifters and other vehicles for factory use.
DSTK-4431 AND K-4431
As the nomenclature suggests, the compressor K4431 is driven by steam driven turbine DSTK-4431.
These two machines are assembled such that the turbine DSTK4431 is present in between the two
stages of the compressor namely: HP and LP. The whole assembly of the turbine and the pump is called
syn-machine because it is able to handle mixture of different gases.
K-4431
There are two stages of the compressor: Low pressure and high pressure. The low pressure stage has 8
impellers with two inlets and two outlets. In one stage, fluid entering the compressor from the inlet,
exits after passing through four rotors and after cooling enters the next four rotors for completing low
pressure compression. After low pressure compression, the fluid being compressed enters the high
pressure compressor having 9 impellers which also has two inlets and two outlets. The fluid mixture is
transferred from one impeller to the other by means of channels which guide the fluid mixture.The
construction of this compressor is the same as the centrifugal pumps. The energy from the steam
turbine turns the rotor of the compressor which increases the speed of the fluid by forcing the fluid
centrifugally towards the exit where the dynamic pressure head is converted to increase the static
pressure head. Each rotor is separated by means of a diaphragm which has diffusers in it for the
conversion of dynamic pressure head to static pressure head (increase). Balancing drums and spacers
along with the thrust bearing are used to control the axial thrust of the rotor. Common seal used in the
compressor is the labyrinth seal and ring seals. Balancing drum is used to balance the axial thrust
produced by the pressure difference.
DSTK-4431
This turbine is used to drive the compressor K-4431. The construction is very similar to all the other
turbines. Stainless steel with 14% chromium is used for the manufacturing of the turbine blades. The
turbine has 3 numbers of stages for expansion of steamThe three stage turbine has three impellers
which are mounted on a shaft which in turn is mounted in casing by means of journal bearing. All other
parts for other functions like thrust balancing etc. are also present in this turbine.
E4213
This heat exchanger exchanges heat between the process gas and boiler feed water. The BFW is on the
tube side. This is a 2 shell and 4 tube pass heat exchanger. The diameter of the tube is and that of
tube inner side is 1365 mm. There are two inlets in each shell. The fluid enters the upper shell and
leaves the lower shell. Vents are provided in the inlets and the outlets which are opened when the
operation of HE stops so that the gases present in the heat exchanger escape. The shell side fluid enters
the lower shell tubes from one side and leaves the same shell on the same side and then enters the
lower side of the upper shell. The tube bundle is U-tube. The saddle supports both the shells. 8000 mm
is the useful length of each tube. The working temperature of the shell side is 300
o
C and that of the
tube side is 276
o
C. Segmented baffles are used to direct the flow on the shell side and support the tube
bundle.
GLASS LEVEL GAUGES (GLGS)
Glass level gauges are vertical gauges with its bottom end connected to the bottom of the equipment
and the top end connected to the top end of the equipment. According to archemidius principle, the
level in the equipment is shown by the glass level gauge. There are five types of glass level gauges.
1. Transparent level gauges
2. Reflex glass level gauges.
3. Bicolor glass level gauges
4. Graduated cylinder glass level gauges
5. Magnetic glass level gauges.
transparent level gauges
These gauges are simple glass columns with no graduations. The level in the gauge tells the level in the
equipment.
reflex level gauges
Reflex level gauge consists of an enclosure with a glass in its opening. The front end of the glass is facing
the user and the other end, which is serrated, is exposed to the fluid whose level is being measured.
Light entering the open end tries to penetrate inside towards the fluid. The design of the serrations are
such that the refractive properties of the serrations only allow light to enter into the fluid while does not
allow the light to enter where the space is empty. The light that enters the fluid does not gets out of the
gauge because the design allows the phenomenon of total internal reflection and hence only the portion
of the level gauge where there is fluid seems dark and the portion which is empty looks brighter. And
hence the level of the fluid is the dark portion of the gauge.
Bicolor GlGs
It consists of a trapezoidal extrusion with holes on two equal sides of the solid. The holes has such
coverings which only allow two wavelengths of light to pass through. These two wavelengths are Red
and Green. When there is a liquid level in the gauge, the refractive angle of the green light is such that
total internal reflection does not allow the green light to escape from the portion where there is liquid,
and the liquid portion seems red. The portion where there Is steam looks green because of the same
phenomenon.
Graduated Cylinder Glass Level Gauges
This is a simple glass column with graduations on it which show the level of the liquid in the equipment.
magnetic glass level gauges
This glass level gauge consists of a column of pivoted small magnets which is in contact with the liquid
column. The liquid column has a magnet in it on the surface. When the level of the liquid changes, the
motion of the single large magnet on the surface forces the small pivoted magnets to rotate, such that
the portion of the liquid level from which the large magnet has travelled, has one pole (S/N) pointing
towards it. The pivoted magnets above that level are facing the opposite pole. In this way the different
orientation of the colored poles allow the user to see different color for different level of the liquids.
E123
This heat exchanger is a turbine steam condenser
Since the heat exchanger is a condenser, so the body of the heat exchanger is elliptical. The shell is
made up of carbon steel. The heat exchanger is mill test certified.
VALVES
A valve is a mechanical device which we use in a pipe line to regulate the flow of any fluid between two
points. A valve may be mechanically operated or operated by a pneumatic system or by using some
motors or chain sprocket system.
A valve can control the flow rate of fluid, Pressure differential of fluid across the valve
(Throttling phenomenon), Velocity of fluid and Temperature of the fluid. Following are the main types of
valves:
Gate valve, Globe valve, Check valve, Plug valve, Butterfly valve, Diaphragm valve.
Following are the few components of which a valve is composed of Body of valve, Bonnet , Seat
rings, Yoke , Stem , Obstruction to flow i.e. (gate, globe etc), Stuffing box, Hand wheel or lever,
Gland, Flanges , Gaskets , Nut and Bolts.