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Title : Investigation of Action of Saliva and 3 M Hydrochloric Acid in Two Carbohydrate

Solutions
Objective : To investigate the action of saliva and 3 M Hydrochloric Acid in Two
Carbohydrate Solutions
esults :
Table 1 : Identification of types of carbohydrate in solutions
Observations Conclusion
Solution A Benedict's Test: O!a"ue #ric$%red
!reci!itate for& fro& trans!arent blue
solution
Iodine Test : Trans!arent 'ellowish%
#rown colour solution re&ains the
sa&e
(resence reducing sugar )
starch is absent
Solution B Benedict's Test : Trans!arent #lue
solution re&ains the sa&e
Iodide Test :Trans!arent 'ellowish%
#rown colour changed to *ar$%blue in
colour
(resence of Starch ) absent of
reducing sugar
Table 2 : Identification of the presence of reducing sugar in solutions
Tube Contents Tep
!"C#
Benedict's Test $ Colour Observation
After %th in !fro
tubes 1$& into 1'$&'#
After '%th in !fro
tubes 1$& into 1'$&'#
+ +, &l solution # - +&l
saliva
3. Trans!arent #lue
colour solution turns
green
#ric$%red !reci!itate
is for&ed fro&
trans!arent blue
solution/ After awhile )
two layer of solution
for&ed/
0 +,&l solution # - +&l 3 M
HCl
3. Trans!arent #lue
solution re&ains
unchanged
Trans!arent #lue
solution re&ains
unchanged
3 +,&l solution # - +&l 3 M
HCl
12 Trans!arent #lue
solution re&ains
unchanged
Initial trans!arent
#lue Colour solution
turns into green
solution
3 +,&l solution # - +&l saliva 12 Trans!arent #lue
solution re&ains
unchanged
Trans!arent #lue
solution re&ains
unchanged
(iscussion :
+4 5n6y&e involved in this e7!eri&ent is a&ylase en6y&e which found richly in our
saliva/
04 Salivary a&ylase is highly s!ecify to brea$down (olysaccharides into
Monosaccharide and *isaccharide/ 5n6y&e wor$ as a biological catalyst / 5n6y&e is used
to s!eed u! bioche&ical reaction by lowering the activation energy / Substrate bind into the
active site of the !rotein and !roduct is for&ed / 5n6y&e will not be used u! in this !rocess/
ate of reaction will increase due to the !resent of the en6y&e /
34 Hydrochloric acid ) HCl contain high concentration of H- ions / At high te&!erature )
hydrogen ion hydrolyse solution # and brea$ the bond between solution #/ Solution #
8(olysaccharide4 is hydrolysed to for& disaccharide and &onosaccharide /
24 A&ylase wor$s best at 3.9C/ The solution # in test tube + is bro$en down co&!letely
by the saliva en6y&e/ At te&!erature 129C ) salivary a&ylase denatured /This is because
high te&!erature causes the en6y&e to vibrate violently ) and it would brea$ down the wea$
bond holding the tertiary structure and followed by the strong bond to be bro$en down /
*estroying the 3* structure of salivary a&ylase en6y&e/ The active sites of en6y&e altered
and were no longer co&!le&entary to the substrate/ 5n6y&e lose its catalytic function / :o
glucose was !roduced) hence no reaction too$ !lace/ Causing the solution to re&ain blue in
colour at 129C
;/a4 The !roduct of the e7!eri&ent conducted in Table 0 is !redicted to be
Monosaccharide and *isaccharide / The e7a&!le of disaccharide &olecule is Maltose and
&onosaccharide &olecule is <lucose /
;/b4 Monosaccharide is the si&!lest for& of carbohydrate / Monosaccharide are the
co&&on base unit of all carbohydrate &olecule/ The &ost co&&only $nown
&onosaccharide is glucose / *isaccharide &olecule consists of e7actly two unit of
&onosaccharide joined together /57a&!le of disaccharide &olecule is &altose/
.4 =or test + )identification of ty!es of carbohydrate ) !olyiodide co&!le7 is for&ed with
the !resence of starch / =or test 0 ) identification of the !resence of reducing sugar )
#enedict>s solution is used / #enedict>s solution contains co!!er sul!hate/ educing sugars
will reduce soluble al$aline blue co!!er sul!hate containing co!!er 8II4 ions ) Cu
0-
to
insoluble red%brown co!!er o7ide containing co!!er 8I4 / The latter is seen as a !reci!itate /
?4 Carbohydrate in solution # is &ore co&!le7 co&!ared to Carbohydrate in solution A/
This is because Carbohydrate in solution # is starch / Starch is a ty!e of !olysaccharides /
The structure of Starch is &uch &ore co&!le7/ (olysaccharides is &ade out of &any si&!le
sugar ) &onosaccharide and it has a co&!le7 structure / Carbohydrate in solution A is either
&onosaccharide or disaccharide / Hence ) structure of &olecule in solution # has a &ore
co&!le7 structure /
14 Saliva will convert starch to &onosaccharide and disaccharides at 3.9C and
Hydrochloric acid will hydrolyse !olysaccharide to &onosaccharide and disaccharide at
129C /