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Membranes for energy (CH

4
and H
2
) and CO
2
capture
Hydrogen
Global 2030 needs
2x Electricity
0
5,000
10,000
15,000
20,000
25,000
30,000
35,000
40,000
2008 2010 2015 2020 2025 2030
Emerging
Developed
(Billions of kW hours)
19.9
U
.
S
.
0
5
10
15
20
S
a
u
d
i

A
r
a
b
i
a
A
l
g
e
r
i
a
K
o
r
e
a
F
r
a
n
c
e
S
p
a
i
n
I
n
d
i
a
J
a
p
a
n
R
u
s
s
i
a
C
h
i
n
a
50.2
62.2
B
r
a
z
i
l
*at same consumption rate
3x Water
(In billion cubic meters)
This slide is borrowed from GE water but the actual numbers on the slides are from source unknown
We need Water to produce Energy & Power
Energy production is water intensive
Unconventional
Gas
Oil Sands
Mining
90% for once
through cooling
95% water reuse
target
Process Water
Challenges
>70% in water
scarce regions
Power production
This slide is borrowed from GE water
Japan earthquake: New fire at Fukushima nuclear plant
Energy production
Water and Energy are co-dependent
NeedsEnormousWater
1 MM Btu of Energy produced requires:
Powerproduction
Nuclearplant
Biofuel
75000 gallons of water
Ethanolcorn
29100 gallons of water
Requires 185 billion gallons of
water per day for cooling & ongoing
maintenance
http://www.powerscorecard.org/issue_detail.cfm?issue_id=5 http://www.greeningofoil.com/post/Deep-shale-gas-drilling-uses-least-amount-of-water.aspx
What are our next preferred energy sources?
SolarEnergy OceanEnergy
Microalgae FuelCell Batteries WindEnergy
NaturalGas
Hydrogengas
PalmOil
Coal
NButanol
Ethanol
NuclearEnergy

Energy and prosperity go hand in hand, but stability and


sustainability are the key issues!
Naturalgasto
backup
What happens if there is a
breakdown in power
generation?
Can coal, solar and wind energy, battery and fuel cell provide
the Stability and Sustainability?
Solar Energy
Fuel Cell
Batteries
Wind Energy
Coal
What are the next? Strongly depend on the natural
resources of the country
NaturalGas
Fuelcell
Bioenergy
Solarenergy
Battery
Windenergy
Oceanenergy
Coal
CO
2
capture
technology
mustalsobe
developed
Hydrogen
NuclearEnergy
Polymeric Membranes for Energy (Natural Gas) Polymeric Membranes for Energy (Natural Gas)
British Gas-NUS-IMRE-ETI collaboration of S$2 millions (1999-2001)
UOP (Universal Oil Products)-NUS collaboration of S$0.65 million (2004-2006)
Mitsui Chemical-NUS collaboration (2004-2008)
NRF-CRP grant of about S$10 millions (2008-2013)
Crude oil
Solids, H
2
O, H
2
S
Hydrocarbons
CO
2
H
2
S
CH
4
CH
4
CO
2
2-4%
H
2
S 4 ppm
Hollow Fiber
Membrane Module
CO
2
< (10-50%)
Well Fluids
Oil/Gasseparation
Phaseseparation
Acidgastreating
IdealMembranes:
Highflux,Highselectivity,Noageing,Inerttohydrocarbons,Noplasticization
toCO
2
andH
2
S
Off-shore platform
11
AirProduct:PRISMmembrane
http://www.airproducts.com & http://www.medal.airliquide.com/en/co-membrane/co2-
membrane-natural-gas-sweetening/natural-gas-sweetening-pipeline-and-offshore.html
Gas separation membranes for natural gas
BuiltbyPetreco in2004
Capacityof8MMSCFD
ReducedCO
2
levelfrom
4.5%to<2%
Medal membrane ina3stagesystemfor
treatmentof43,000Nm3/hofnaturalgas
with19%CO2 (Argentina).
Just as the 19th century was shaped by coal and the 20th century by oil, people in the energy
industry say, this century will belong to natural gas, a front page article, New York Times,
June 15, 2005.
2007
Major Challenge: Plasticization Phenomenon
DENSE
MEMBRANE
SORPTION
DESORPTION
l
DIFFUSION
Permeability
Dual-sorption model
Penetrant induced
Plasticization
Selectivity
CO
2
/CH
4
Pressure
Selectivity lost
Identified material strategy to molecularly design polymers and
synthesized several high performance polyimides for natural
gas applications
#Barrer=1 10
-10
cm
3
(STP)cm/cm
2
-s-cmHg
28.32 456 16.1
C
C
N
O
O
C
C
N
O
O
C
CF
3
CF
3
H
3
C
H
3
C
CH
3
CH
3
n
Polymer Structure
PCH
4
(Barrer
#
)
PCO
2
(Barrer)

CO
2
/CH
4
4.82 126 26.1
6FDA-pPDA
b
6FDA-Durene
a
6F-[Durene/pPDA
(50:50)]
a
n
CF
C
C
N
O
O
C
C
N
O
O
C
3
CF
3
N
O
O
N
O
O
C
CF3
CF3
m
C
C
N
O
O
C
C
N
O
O
C
CF3
CF3
H3C
H3C CH3
CH3
n
3.53 15.3 54.0
Developed Patentable Cross-linking Technologies to
Enhance Anti-Plasticization
Identify new room-temperature chemical cross-linking agents different from p-xylene diamine, other
aromatic and aliphatic diamines
Study if PAMAM (polyamidoamine) dendrimer, generation 0, can be employed as a cross-linking agent at
ambient temperature.
C C
C
C
C
F
3
C CF
3
O
N
O
O
O
N
( )
n
CH
3
H
3
C CH
3
H
3
C
H
2
NH
2
C CH
2
NH
2
C C
C
C
C
F
3
C CF
3
O
N
O
O
O
N
( )
x
CH
3
H
3
C CH
3
H
3
C
C C
C
C
C
F
3
C CF
3
O
N
O
O
O
HN
( )
y
CH
3
H
3
C CH
3
H
3
C
C C
C
C
C
F
3
C CF
3
O
N
O
O
O
NH
( )
x
CH
3
H
3
C CH
3
H
3
C
NH
CH
2
CH
2
HN
Chemicalcrosslinkingmodificationinducedby
para andmetaxylenediamine
Liuetal.,J.MembraneSci.,2001
Zen,J.MembraneSci.,2003
Jiangetal,AIChE J.,2006
Lowetal.,Macromolecules,2008
N
N
NH
H
2
N
HN
H
2
N
HN
NH
2
NH
NH
2
O
O
O
O
PAMAMGeneration0(4aminegroups)
Highdensityofterminalaminegroup
Chungetal.,Langmuir,2004
Xiaoetal.,Langmuir,2004
Shaoetal.,J.MembraneSci.,2004
Xiaoetal,IECResearch,2005
Polymer/Zeolite Mixed Matrix Membranes (MMMs) for Gas
Separation and Energy Development
(f)
Scale bar 1 m
UOP (Universal Oil Products-NUS collaboration (2003-2005) S$500,000
Dr. Santi Kulprathipanja
The inventor of MMMs, UOP
Transformed UOP MMM patents from flat sheet membranes to marketable hollow
fiber membranes with much enhanced separation performance
http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/journal/107061889/home/MostCited.html
The 10 most-cited articles in the AIChE Journal from 2007
The data have been compiled from Thomson Reuters Web of Science.
Fault-tolerant control of nonlinear process systems subject to sensor faults
Prashant Mhaskar, Adiwinata Gani, Charles McFall, Panagiotis D. Christofides, James F. Davis
Volume 53, Issue 3, February 2007, p 654-668
Abstract | References | Full Text: HTML , PDF (Size: 559K)
Novel Ag+-zeolite/polymer mixed matrix membranes with a high CO2/CH4 selectivity
Yi Li, Tai-Shung Chung, Santi Kulprathipanja
Volume 53, Issue 3, January 2007, p 610-616
Abstract | References | Full Text: HTML , PDF (Size: 322K)
The effect of CaO sintering on cyclic CO2 capture in energy systems
P. Sun, J. R. Grace, C. J. Lim, E. J. Anthony
Volume 53, Issue 9, September 2007, p 2432-2442
Abstract | References | Full Text: HTML , PDF (Size: 652K)
Quantitative measurements of liquid holdup and drainage in foam using NMRI
Paul Stevenson, Michael D. Mantle, Andrew J. Sederman, Lynn F. Gladden
Volume 53, Issue 2, December 2006, p 290-296
Abstract | References | Full Text: HTML , PDF (Size: 273K)
Drag force of intermediate Reynolds number flow past mono- and bidisperse arrays of spheres
R. Beetstra, M. A. van der Hoef, J. A. M. Kuipers
Volume 53, Issue 2, February 2007, p 489-501
Abstract | References | Full Text: HTML , PDF (Size: 435K)
Header design for flow equalization in microstructured reactors
Evgeny V. Rebrov, Ilyas Z. Ismagilov, Rahul P. Ekatpure, Mart H.J.M. de Croon, Jaap C. Schouten
Volume 53, Issue 1, January 2007, p 28-38
Abstract | References | Full Text: HTML , PDF (Size: 261K)
Prof. Chung paper
Hydrogen Production
Generally, the most favorite route to produce hydrogen is via steam reforming of hydrocarbons or methane
for the large-scale hydrogen production.
Steam reforming of hydrocarbons
C
n
H
n
+ n H
2
O n CO + 1.5 n H
2
Steam-methane reforming (SMR)
CH
4
+H
2
O CO + 3 H
2
Water gas shift (WGS) reaction
CO + H
2
O CO
2
+ H
2
The final composition of the gas leaving the reformer is primarily determined by the molar steam and
carbon ratio, temperature and pressure. It contains
H
2
(2.89 , Tc= 33K), CO
2
(3.3 , Tc= 304.2K) and CO (3.76 , Tc= 133K)
Strategies to enhance H
2
and CO
2
separation
Selectivity
= P
A
/P
B
=(D
A
/D
B
)( S
A
/S
B
)
diffusion
selectivity
solubility
selectivity
1. increasing
H2,CO2
via an increase in D
H2
/D
CO2
(diffusivity selectivity) and/or
S
H2
/S
CO2
(solubility selectivity),
2. increasing
CO2,H2
via an increase in S
CO2
/S
H2
(solubility selectivity) and/or
D
CO2
/D
H2
(diffusivity selectivity).
H
2
-selective or CO
2
-selective membranes
Feed
H
2
CO
2
High Temperature
and Pressure
Feed
H
2
CO
2
High Temperature
and Pressure
Selectivity
= P
A
/P
B
=(D
A
/D
B
)( S
A
/S
B
)
diffusion
selectivity
solubility
selectivity
No need to
recompress CO
2
for storage
No need to
recompress H
2
for
storage
NUS is one of the World Leaders on Polymeric
Membranes for H
2
and CO
2
separation
Mitsui Chemical-NUS collaboration (2004-2009)
NRF-CRP grant of about S$10 millions (2008-2010)
0.01 0.1 1 10 100 1000
1
10
100
Traditional
Polymeric
Membranes
PDA-5min-Binary
PDA-10min-Binary
PDA-10min
PDA-5min
BuDA-5min
EDA-5min
H
2
/
C
O
2

I
d
e
a
l

S
e
l
e
c
t
i
v
i
t
y
H
2
Permeability (Barrers)
Trade-off Line
Original 6FDA-durene
PDA-1min
(Puregas)
40
Chung,Shao,Tin (2006).
puregas
mixedgas
Low, Xiao, Chung., Liu,
Macromolecules (2008)
Lau/Paul/Chung
6
Graftedorganicinorganic
membranes
Lin/Wagner/Freeman
1
PEGMEA/PEGDA
Yave/Car/Peinemann
2
PEOPBT/PEGDBE
Reijerkerk/Wessling/Nijmeijer
3
Pebax/PDMSPEO
Xia/Liu/Chung
5
Blendedorganic
inorganicmembranes
1. Lin et al. Science, 2006
2. Yave et al. Macromolecules, 2010.
3. Reijerkerk et al. JMS, 2010
4. Shao and Chung, Int. J. of Hydrogen
Energy 2009
Shao/Chung
4
organicinorganicmembranes
5. Xia et al. Macromolecules, 2011
6. Lau et al. Adv. Energy Mat., 2011
7. Lau and Chung, Macromolecules,
2011
Selectedpermeability/selectivitydataforCO
2
/H
2
separationat35C
Mixed gas 50/50 CO
2
/H
2
:
P
CO2
is 1990 Barrer

CO2/H2
is 11
1. Smaihi et al. JMS, 161, 157. (1999)
2. Guiver et al. U.S. Pat. 20,020,062,737 (2002)
3. Chung et al. Macromol. Rapid Commun., 27, 998 (2006)
4. Low et al. Polymer, 50, 3250 (2009).
5. Yang et al. Energy Environ. Sci. (2011)
Membranes for H
2
Production and CO
2
Capture (35C, pure gas)
Guiver et al.
2
(Polysulfone/zeolite MMM)
Chung/Shao/Tin
3
(6FDA/durene/PDA)
Low/Xiao/Chung
4
(6FDA/NDA/PDA)
Yang/Xiao/Chung
5
(PBI/ZIF-7 MMM)
Yang/Xiao/Chung
Li/Xiao/Chung
H
2
/ CO
2
Selectivity
NEW
Smaihi et al.
1
(Poly(imidesiloxane) copolymer)
Lee YM et al.
(TR polymer)
HighTransparency ProperFlexibility
Global warming
* Inventory of U.S. greenhouse gas emissions and sinks: 19902008, EPA 430-R-10-006, (2010).
Global warming and CO
2
Capture
25/36
1. Remove CO
2
from Natural Gas
2. Remove CO
2
from Synthesis Gas or Hydrogen Production
3. Remove CO
2
from Flue Gas from Power Plants
CO
2
Emission Sources and Capture Strategies
CO
2
can be captured before and after combustion
CO
2
capture and storage
http://www.co2crc.com.au/publications/all_factsheets.html
Offshore geological storage involves the CO
2
being injected into a geological formation deep beneath the seabed where it will be
stored for thousands of years, isolated from the ocean water.
In the case of ocean storage, the CO
2
is injected directly into the water column either at mid-depth (1500 to 3000 metres), where it
dissolves in the ocean waters, or at greater depths (below 3000 metres), where it forms a deep CO
2
lake.
http://www.co2crc.com.au/publications/all_factsheets.html
Energy, CO
2
capture and storage
Membranes for Energy Sustainability
(Bio-Energy)
Our goal is to sustain Singapores leadership on both
petrochemical-refinery and biofuel-refinery
Jurong Island: Singapores Petrochemical Hub
ExxonMobils Singapore complex is one of the largest
integrated manufacturing sites in the world
Singapore
Other limitations, independence for imported energy and
balance R & D are the keys!
Liquid fuel
Liquid fuel, Natural
gas, Battery, Fuel
cell
Natural gas,
Solar and Wind energy
Battery
Fuel cell
http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/aer/pdf/pages/sec2_4.pdf
1
st
generation biofuel
2
nd
generation biofuel
Feed stocks: grain corn or sugar cane Feed stock: Lignin-cellulosic residuals
The separation and purification stage for either generation biofuel accounts for
at least 40% (up to 80%*) of the process cost.
A Comparison of Process Costs for Biofuel
A.J. Ragauskas et al., The Path Forward for Biofuels and Biomaterials, Science, 311 (2006), 484.
Separation &
Purification
Starch from corn
Milling
Liquification &
Saccharification Fermentation
Corn stover or other agricultural residuals
Milling Enzyme Production &
Saccharification
Fermentation
Separation &
Purification
Pretreatment & Cleanup
Separation &
Purification
Pervaporation is used to remove a small amount of H
2
O from an azeotropic liquid
mixture where simple distillation cant make the separation.
Hybrid processes (distillation and pervaporation) will be the
future for the dehydration of biofuels
low alcohol
content
Pervaporation
membrane
biofuel
Feed from
fermentation
broths
distillation
Pervaporation membranes for the dehydration of biofuel (ethanol
& butanol) and other alcohols
UOP-NUS (2002-2005), Merck-NUS (2004-2007), A-Star & NUS grants (2008-2012)
Isopropanol (IPA) 1-butanol 2-butanol iso-butanol tert-butanol
Acetone Acetic acid Ethanol ethylene glycol
Concentrate ethanol, IPA, and biofuel
Separate non-aqueous solvent mixtures
Facilitate pharmaceutical syntheses
Phenol Tetrafluoro-propanol (TFP)
Flat membranes
Hollow fiber membranes
Toluene iso-octane
* S
O
O
O *
n
O S
O
O
* O C
CH
3
O
S O O
O
O S
O
O
* O
linear polyethersulfone (LPES)
Identified the effects of structure differences between the traditional PES and new-
generation PES on kidney dialysis membranes
hyperbranched polyethersulfone (HPES)
Kidney dialysis membrane module
Membranes for Kidney Dialysis
BASF-NUS collaboration (2005-2009) S$490,000
Prof. Dr. Volker Warzelhan
Senior Group VP, BASF
Rejection
(%)
0
20
40
60
80
100
100 1000 10000 100000
Kidney
High flux
membrane
Low flux
membrane
Molecular weight (Dalton)
Creatinine
(113)
Vit B
12
(1355)
Inulin
(5200)
B
2
-M
(11,800)
Albumin
(68,000)
Year of Dialysis Survival Rate
1 77.8%
2 62.9%
5 31.9%
10 9%
1. Poor biocompatibility and pore size distribution
2. Increasing possibility of bleeding risk in patient with the
injection of anticoagulant during dialysis
3. Possibility of backtransport of pyrogenic and cytokines-
inducing materials
http://www.baxter.com/conditions/sub/renal_failure.html
http://www.wrongdiagnosis.com/k/kidney_dialysis/prognosis.htm
Kidney Diseases Facts and Challenges
Dialysis
fluid out
Dialysis
fluid in
Nephron tubules
work as
membranes to
remove waste, salt
and extra water
BASF-NUS Collaboration on Kidney Dialysis Membranes (2005-2007)
Transdermal applied to skin
Membranes for Medical and Life Science Applications
Transdermal
One of microporous
membranes used for
transdermal
Celgard
tm
0
0.005
0.01
0.015
0.02
0.025
0.03
0.035
0.04
0.045
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80
Time (hrs)
C
u
m
u
l
a
t
i
v
e

d
r
u
g

r
e
l
e
a
s
e
d

(
m
g
/
m
g

m
e
m
b
r
a
n
e
)
Scopolamine (for anti-motion sickness)
release from cellulose acetate membranes
fabricated at different temperatures
40C
22C
Drug-Loaded Polymeric Membrane
(Transdermal delivery)
B, fabricated at 22C
A, fabricated at 40C
Membranes for Chiral Separation
Importance:
The majority of the active pharmaceutical ingredients (API)
are chiral in nature
Wrong chirality can result in severe adverse
consequences.
Enantiomerically pure drug compounds will be one of the
criteria for APIs to be accepted by the US Food and Drug
Administration (FDA)
The ability to separate optical isomers is important in
producing pharmaceutical drugs.
1. Crystallization
2. Chromatography
3. Distillation
4. Membrane
Current technologies to separate chiral compounds
A continuous and large scale process
New and emerging research!
Batch process, low scale. slow process. labor
intensive. Expensive.
Enantiomers
Electrophoretic membrane contactor based on free flow
isoelectric focusing (FFIEF)
1. Combine electric force and pH gradient
2. Separation based on protein isoelectric point (pI)
3. Concentrate targeted molecules in specific zones where pH = pI
Protein changes its net charge with
surrounding pH
A. pH < pI positively charged
B. pH > pI negatively charged
C. pH = pI zero charged
membranes
pH~3 pH~4 pH~6 pH~7 pH~8 pH~9 pH~5
+
_
Mechanisms
Migration of charged protein molecules by electric fields to specific zones
where pH = protein isoelectric point (pI)
Distribution of protein molecules over a medium that has a pH gradient
Neutral or charged UF membranes
Major contributions in 16 years at NUS
1. Contributions to membrane science and technology
i. Energy, bio-Energy and CO2 capture
ii. Water
iii. Life science
2. Contributions to chemical, polymer, pharmaceutical and environmental
Industries
i. collaborations
ii. Hyflux
iii.UOP, Merck, PBI, BASF, Mitsui Chemicals, Eastman Chemicals, GSK
3. Contributions to Singapores world status & NUS leadership on global
membrane R & D
Search engine:Web of Science
Key Word: Membrane
Location: Asia (Japan, South Korea, China, Taiwan, Singapore, India,
Saudi Arabia and Israel); USA; Canada
Date: Apr 2012
A Comparison of the Number of Membrane Publications in Asia* (All
Journals) (Apr 2012)
*Asia: Japan, South Korea, China, Taiwan, Singapore, India, Saudi Arabia and Israel
China
South Korea
Japan
Israel
Taiwan
Singapore
India
Saudi Arabia
A Comparison of the Number of Membrane Publications in Asia*
(publications / million people) (Apr 2012)
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_countries_by_population
*Asia: Japan, South Korea, China, Taiwan, Singapore, India, Saudi Arabia and Israel
Israel
South Korea
Taiwan
Japan
Singapore
China, India and Saudi Arabia
Country Population
China 1,347,350,000
India 1,210,193,422
Japan 127,650,000
South Korea 48,580,000
Saudi Arabia 27,136,977
Taiwan 23,234,003
Israel 7,848,800
Singapore 5,183,700
A Comparison of the Number of Membrane Publications in Asia*, USA and Canada
(Publications / million people) (Apr 2012)
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_countries_by_population
*Asia: Japan, South Korea, China, Taiwan, Singapore, India, Saudi Arabia and Israel
Israel
South Korea
Taiwan
Japan
Singapore
China, India and Saudi Arabia
USA
Canada
Country Population
China 1,347,350,000
India 1,210,193,422
United States 313,326,000
Japan 127,650,000
South Korea 48,580,000
Canada 34,762,600
Saudi Arabia 27,136,977
Taiwan 23,234,003
Israel 7,848,800
Singapore 5,183,700
Importance of Membrane Science and Engineering Importance of Membrane Science and Engineering
5
The development of membranes is essential to
water reuses, drinking water
Remove toxic species from water
ultra-high purity water (for wafer and pharmaceutical companies)
enriched oxygen
high purity nitrogen
energy: high purity natural gas, H
2
, fuel cell
valuable chemicals & monomers
reduce green house effects & capture CO
2
pharmaceutics synthesis (medicines & solvent recovery)
protein separation
kidney dialysis and artificial organs
Course Content
1. Introduction of membrane science, engineering and applications.
2. Basic knowledge about water, MF, UF, NF, RO, MD, FO membranes
3. Celgard melt spun hollow fibers
4. Phase inversion mechanisms, material requirements, solubility parameters.
5. Asymmetric phase inversion hollow fiber membranes
6. Basic knowledge about solution-diffusion, dual sorption models, resistance models.
7. Composite membranes
8. Dual-layer membranes
9. Mixed matrix membranes
10. Membranes for gas separation
11. Membranes for CO
2
capture
12. Membranes for others (if we have time)
Reference Books:
1. Marcel Mulder, Basic principles of membrane technology
2. W. S. W. Ho and K. K. Sirkar, Membrane handbook
3. D. R. Paul and Y. P. Yampoliskii, Polymeric gas separation membranes
4. Read at least 15-20 journal papers
Tutorial class
We will combine tutorial classes with lectures. In
other words, 2-3 tutorial classes will be given in the
end of lectures so that more students can get
benefits.
We will have a lab tour as part of tutorial classes
sometimes in Feb.
We will have open question-and-answer sessions in
the end of every class from Feb so that if you have
questions, I can answer to all students so that more
students get benefits.
Potential Term Paper Titles: please choose one.
1. Membranes for bioreactors in water recycle
2. Anti-fouling technologies for MF and UF membranes
3. Membrane distillation (MD) to get water from seawater
4. Membrane contactor or membrane extraction
5. Nanofiltration membranes
6. Forward osmosis (FO) membranes
7. Draw solutions for forward osmosis processes
8. FO-MD or FO-FO integration
9. Ionic exchange membranes
10. Membranes for oil/water separation
11. Membranes using ionic liquids
12. Pervaporation membranes for organics solvent removal or recovery
13. Membranes for H
2
/CO
2
separation
14. Membranes for CO
2
/CH
4
separation
15. CO
2
capture
16. Membranes for C
3
hydrocarbon separation
17. Membranes for biofuel separation
18. Membrane for biomass separation
19. Membranes for pharmaceuticals (drugs) separations
20. Membrane for protein separation
21. Membrane for chiral separation
22. Kidney dialysis membranes
23. Membranes for travascular membrane oxygenation
24. Membranes for transdermal applications
25. Artificial skins
26. Membrane for food process
27. Gore-text membrane technology
28. pH sensitive membranes
29. Temperature sensitive membranes
30. Bio-mimetic membranes
Term Paper Format
Text: Minimum 23 pages, Maximum 28 pages
Format: Power Point with description or explanation
File size: 5 Mb.
First page: Must have
1) Your name, 2) dept name, 3) degree studied, 4) Student number
File name: student name CN????.ppt
Add module number after your name: 5251 or 6251
No special movies and software.
Send by e-mail to me: chencts@nus.edu.sg
If you copy from somewhere else, you MUST highlight them in red with
references and websites (tell me where you copy from)
How do we conduct the module and calculate your grades
1. Final examination: 60-70% (tentatively)
2. 4210/5251: 1 term paper: 30-40% (23-28 slides)
3. 6251: 2 team papers, total 30-40% (each 23-28 slides)
CN62651 1
st
term paper deadline (Sept 21, midnight Friday)
CN4210/5251 1st term paper and CN6251 2
nd
term paper deadline (Oct 25, Thursday)
Final exam will be in the multiply choice format and/or written questions