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Relative / Adjective Clauses

Summary
Adding a Modifying Phrase
Joining two sentences into one:
the main sentence - the independent clause
a modifying phrase - the dependent clause
The woman who is standing in the elevator is a
TV reporter.
Relative Pronouns
Adding a clause that modifies a person or thing.
who
whom
that
which
Omitting an object pronoun
The woman who called you is here.
The woman whom ! you called is here.
Adding a clause that modifies an animate possessive
noun.
whose for people!
The woman whose name is "ree# is on the
phone.
Adding a clause that modifies a noun of time or place:
where where!
when time!
$an %rancisco where the &flower children&
began is a colorful city.
The '()*s when the &flower children&
thrived was a colorful decade.
Adding a clause that modifies a noun that is an e+pression
of ,uantity
little of which
some of which
most of which
all of which
-alifornia has a lot of visitors. most of which
come to see /isneyland.
Adding a clause that modifies a noun that is possessive:
the X of which for things!
whose for people or things!
The car the door of which 0 dented cost a
fortune to repair.
The car whose door 0 dented cost a fortune to
repair.
Using Punctuation to Clarify Meaning
1unctuating an adjective clause that
identifies the noun it modifies no commas!
adds e+tra information to the noun it modifies commas!
The water that 0 dran# last night contained
sodium.
The 2vian water. which 0 dran# last night.
contained sodium.
1unctuating a sentence to include
a few or some - specific restrictive!
all non-restrictive!
The bio-scientist who creates green energy will
ma#e a profit.
The bio-scientist. who creates green energy.
will ma#e a profit.
3eferring to part or all of a clause
that noun!
which noun. phrase or clause!
4e deleted the picture that upset me. The
picture upset me.!
4e deleted the picture. which upset me. The
action upset me.!
Shortening Clauses
3educing a clause using that 5 &be& deletion
who is
that is
which is
A tal# show 6which is7 trying to improve its
rating may plan a fight.
A tal# show trying to improve its rating may
plan a fight.
3educing a clause by changing that 5 verb to an &ing&
phrase
who lives 8 living
-ongress. 6which consists7 of two houses. is
on a brea#.
-ongress. consisting of two houses. is on a
'
that brea#s 8 brea#ing
which lies 8 lying
brea#.
Adding an Adjective Clause
An adjective can be one word, a hrase or a clause:
A neighborhood woman is calling you. adjective!
The woman ne!t door is calling you. reositional hrase!
The woman who lives ne!t door is calling you. adjective clause!

Adding an adjective clause, joins two sentences into one:
One becomes the main sentence - the independent clause
The other becomes a modifying phrase - the dependent clause
"oining the Subject of a #eendent Clause
"$%& '() S)&')&C)S* %&#)P)&#)&' C+AUS) #)P)&#)&' C+AUS)
'. 3eplace the subject pronoun
She with who.
'he woman is a TV reporter. She is standing in the elevator.
who is standing in the elevator.
9. :ove the relative pronoun to the
front of the sentence.
;. 0nsert the clause into the main
sentence. 'he woman who is standing in the elevator is
a TV reporter.
Common Mista,e
)RR$R -%. /match adverbs with tense usage0
1 The woman is a TV reporter who is standing in the
elevator.
:isplaced modifier< place it after &woman&.!
The woman who is standing in the elevator is a TV
reporter.
"oining the $bject of a #eendent Clause
"$%& '() S)&')&C)S* %&#)P)&#)&' C+AUS) #)P)&#)&' C+AUS)
'. 3eplace the object pronoun her
with who /whom
'he woman is a TV reporter. 0 met her in the elevator.
0 met whom in the elevator.
9. :ove the relative pronoun to the
front of the sentence.
;. 0nsert the clause into the main
sentence. 'he woman whom 0 met in the elevator is a TV
reporter.
Common Mista,e
)RR$R -%.
= The woman whom I met her is a news reporter.
/elete &her&. Otherwise. there are two pronouns
referring to the woman.!
The woman whom % met is a TV reporter.
Practice
"oin the two sentences into a clause2 >eave the prepositions at the end of the sentence.!
'. The woman is an assistant. $he is tal#ing to the 1resident.
The woman who is talking to the President is an assistant.
9. The $ecret $ervice Agent is standing by the 1resident. 4e is wearing sunglasses.
The Secret Service Agent who is wearing sunglasses is standing by the President.
;. The woman is also an agent. ?ou met her.
The woman who(m) you met is also an agent.
@. The $enator is well #nown on -apitol 4ill. $he is seated ne+t to you.
The Senator who is seated next to you is well-known on Caitol !ill.
A. The guest is nervous. 4e will spea# at noon.
The guest who will seak at noon is nervous.
). The 1resident was tal#ing about a candidate. 4e doesnBt li#e the candidate.
The President was talking about a candidate who(m) he doesn"t like.
C. The man was acting suspicious. The secret service agent was watching him.
The man who(m) the Secret Service Agent was watching was acting susicious.
D. :ost of the people were /emocrats. They were attending the fundraiser.
9
#ost o$ the eole who were attending the $undraiser were %emocrats.
Relative Pronouns
An adjective clause uses ronouns to connect the deendent clause to the indeendent clause2
who people!
that things or people!
which things!
Using 34ho3
4($ 5 SU6")C' $- '() C+AUS) 4($M 5 $6")C' $- '() C+AUS)
'he woman who called you is here.
She called you!
'he woman /whom0 you called is here.
7ou called her!
O1T0OE: 7ou can omit the object ronoun2
Using 3'hat3
'(A' / 4(%C( 5 SU6")C' $- '() C+AUS) '(A'/ 4(%C( 5 $6")C' $- '() C+AUS)
'he hone that is red is here.
%t is red!
'he hone that you bought is here.
7ou bought it!
O1T0OE: &'hat3 can also refer to a erson8 3which3
cannot2
O1T0OE: 7ou can omit the object ronoun2
Common Mista,es
)RR$RS -%.)S
1 The telephone is here that is yours. The pronoun
must be ne+t to the word it modifies.!
The phone that is yours is here.
1 The man which you are tal#ing about isnBt a friend. The man that you are tal#ing about isnBt a friend.
&Fhich& cannot refer to a person< use &that&.!
$mitting an $bject Pronoun
CA&&$' $M%' 5 SU6")C' PR$&$U& $- C+AUS) CA& $M%' 5 $6")C' PR$&$U& $- C+AUS)
'he woman who called you is here.
/She called you!
'he woman /whom0 you called is here.
/7ou called her!
'he hone that is red is here.
/%t is red0
'he telehone /that0 you bought is here.
'he hone which is red is here 'he telehone /which0 you bought is here.
Practice
4hich Relative Pronoun/s0 can comlete each sentence9
'. :y friend told me about a student GGGGG has ta#en the TO2%> test twelve timesH
a. who b. whom c. which d.that
9. The professor GGGGG 0 tal#ed to didnBt #now the answer to my ,uestion.
a. who b. whom c. which d. that
;. 0 am loo#ing for a college program GGGGG offers a lot of computer courses.
a. who b. * omit the pronoun! c. which d. that
@. $ome of the courses GGGGG 0 too# last semester have been very useful.
a. who b. & (omit the ronoun) c. which d. that
A. :y friend GGGGG is in my Eetwor#s class studies with me in the afternoon.
a. who b. whom c. which d. * omit the pronoun!
;
). -omputer 0nformation $ystems is the #ind of major GGGGG will guarantee a good job after graduation.
a. who b. * omit the pronoun! c. which d. that
C. The class GGGGG 0 didnBt do well in was B1rogramming with 141.
a. who b. & (omit the ronoun) c. which d. that
D. The courses GGGGG are taught in the evening are mostly graphic arts classes.
a. * omit the pronoun! b. which c. that d. who
(. ?ou should always study the subjects GGGGG you really li#e.
a. who b. * omit the pronoun! c. which d. that
'*. A person GGGGG has a positive outloo# will do well in life.
a. who b. * omit the pronoun! c. which d. whom
Relative Pronoun 5 whose
An adjective clause uses ronouns to connect the deendent clause to the indeendent clause.
whose possessive for people or things!
34ho3 vs2 34hose3 5 subject ronouns
4($ 5 R)P+AC)S A SU6")C' &$U& 4($S) 5 R)P+AC)S A P$SS)SS%:) SU6")C'
PR$&$U&
'he woman who is "ree# is on the phone.
She is ;ree,0
'he woman whose name is "ree# is on the
phone.
/(er name is ;ree,0
Adding a Clause with 34hose3 5 subject ronouns
"$%& '() S)&')&C)S* %&#)P)&#)&' C+AUS) #)P)&#)&' C+AUS)
'. 3eplace the subject pronoun
She with who.
'he woman is on the phone. (er name is "ree#.
whose name is "ree#
9. :ove the relative pronoun to the
front of the sentence.
;. 0nsert the clause into the main
sentence. 'he woman whose name is "ree# is on the
phone.
Common Mista,e
)RR$R -%. /match adverbs with tense usage0
= The woman who her husband is from Iruguay is
going to be the -2O of the company.
-hange &who her& to &whose&.!
The woman whose husband is from Iruguay is going
to be the -2O of the company.
34ho3 vs2 34hose3 5 object ronouns
4($ 5 R)P+AC)S A& $6")C' &$U& 4($S) 5 R)P+AC)S A P$SS)SS%:) $6")C'
PR$&$U&
'he woman who you met is on the phone.
7ou met her0
'he woman whose husband you met is on the
phone.
7ou met her husband0
Adding a Clause with 34hose3 5 object rounouns
'. 3eplace the object pronoun her
with whose
'he woman is on the phone. ?ou met her husband.
?ou met whose husband.
9. :ove the relative pronoun to the
front of the sentence.
;. 0nsert the clause into the main
sentence. 'he woman whose husband you met is on
the phone.
Common Mista,e
@
)RR$R -%. /match adverbs with tense usage0
= The woman whose husband we chatted with him
lives ne+t door.
= The woman whose husband we chatted with <him=
lives ne+t door.
Practice
"oin the two sentences into one sentence2 Change the second sentence into a clause. >eave the
prepositions at the end of the sentence.!
'. 0 li#e the TV program about a funny guy. 4is dog stares at him all the time.
' like the T( rogram about a $unny guy whose dog stares at him all the time.
9. The man has a great outloo# on life. 4is family encourges him.
The man whose $amily encourges himhas a great outlook on li$e.
;. One TV episode was about the man. 4is brother tapes his mouth shut to stop his snoring.
)ne T( eisode was about a man whose brother taes his mouth shut to sto his snoring.
@. The main character is very pic#y. 4is tastes are very eccentric. pic#y 8 choosy! eccentric 8 unusual!
The main character whose tastes are very eccentricis very icky.
A. The man lives in $eattle. 4is father is an e+-police officer.
The man whose $ather is an ex-olice o$$icerlives in Seattle.
). The father is always ma#ing fun of his son. 4is physical therapist is very pretty.
The $ather whose hysical theraist is very retty is always making $un o$ his son.
C. After a while we get to #now the manBs brother. Fe laugh at his cleanliness phobias. phobias8 fears!
A$ter a while we get to know the man"s brother whose cleanliness hobias we laugh at.
D. The TV show has been very popular. The showBs fans are loyal.
The T( show whose $ans are very loyal has been very oular.
3elative 1ronouns - when J where
Adding a 4hen or 4here Clause
where for a place!
when for a time!
34hen3 and 3where3 /object ronouns0
4()& 5 R)P+AC)S A& $6")C' &$U& 4()R) 5 R)P+AC)S A& $6")C' &$U&
San -rancisco where the &flower children&
began is a colorful city.
'he 3flower children3 began there2
colorful 8 interesting and unusual
'he >?@As when the &flower children& thrived was a
colorful decade.
'he 3flower children3 thrived then2
decade 8 '* year period< thrive 8 live well and e+pand
Adding a Clause with 34here3
"$%& '() S)&')&C)S* %&#)P)&#)&' C+AUS) #)P)&#)&' C+AUS)
'. 3eplace the object pronoun San
Francisco with where
San -rancisco is a colorful city. The &flower children& began in San
-rancisco.
The &flower children& began where
9. :ove the relative pronoun to the
front of the sentence.
;. 0nsert the clause into the main
sentence. San -rancisco where the &flower children& began
is a colorful city.
Adding a Clause with 34hen3
"$%& '() S)&')&C)S* %&#)P)&#)&' C+AUS) #)P)&#)&' C+AUS)
3eplace the object pronoun 1960s
with when
'he >?@As was a colorful decade. The &flower children& thrived in the
>?@As.
The &flower children& thrived when
:ove the relative pronoun to the
front of the sentence.
0nsert the clause into the main
sentence. 'he >?@As when the &flower children& thrived
was a colorful decade.
A
34here3 can relace
A' 4(%C( $& 4(%C( %& 4(%C(
The building at which % wor,
is nearby.
The street on which %
wor, is nearby.
The city in which % wor,
is nearby.
The location at which % wor,
at home!
The corner on which %
wor,
The state in which % ay
ta!es is Itah.
The address at which % wor,
at ;'* 2lm $t.!
The island on which %
wor,
The country in which % ay
ta!es is the
I.$.A.
e+act address or residence! street location. geographical place! city. area. state. country!
34hen3 can relace
A' 4(%C( $& 4(%C( %& 4(%C(
The time at which % eat
lunch is noon.
The day on which % was
born was
snowy.
The month in which % ay
ta!es is April.
The hour at which % eat
lunch at
'9:**!
The day on which %
wor, Tuesday!
The season in which % ay
ta!es is spring.
The time at which % eat
lunch at night!
The day on which % Buit
June ;'!
The year in which % will
retire is near.
hour. time of the day! day! month. season. year. decade.
century!
Practice
Change the sentence with 3whenC or 3where3 to a sentence with 3in3, 3on3 or 3at which32
Change the second sentence into a clause2 >eave the prepositions at the end of the sentence.!
'. :onday is the day when we begin the wor# wee#.
#onday is the day on which we begin the work week .
9. :idnight is the time when the date changes.
#idnight is the time at which the date changes.
;. Three-fifty :ain street is the address where you can write me.
Three-$i$ty #ain street is the address at which you can write me.
@. The la#e where we swam was clean and clear.
The lake in which we swam was clean and clear.
A. 9**' was the year when the new century began.
*&&+ was the year in which the new century began.
). $even oBcloc# is the time when 0 get up.
Seven o"clock is the time at which ' get u.
C. -alifornia is the state where 0 live.
Cali$ornia is the state in which ' live .
D. 1ar#ing lot / is the place where 0 par#ed my car.
Parking lot % is the lace in which ' arked my car.










)
Punctuating Adjective Clauses
Punctuation in a sentence with an adjective clause deends on whether the clause is:
identifying no commas!
non-identifying commas!
%dentifying vs2 &on5identifying Clauses
A& %#)&'%-7%&; C+AUS) 5 &$ C$MMAS A &$&5%#)&'%-7%&; C+AUS) 5 C$MMAS
The water that % dran, last night contained sodium. The )vian water, which % dran, last night, contained
sodium.
&That 0 dran# last night& helps to clarify which water we
are referring to.
&The 2vian water& clearly says which water we are
tal#ing about. so &which 0 dran# last night& provides
e+tra information.
EOT2: Which or that can be used. EOT2: That cannot be used in a non-identifying
clause.
(ow can a clause add identifying information9
by telling which one
by telling where
by telling when
Methods of %dentification
67 M)'($#S $- %#)&'%-%CA'%$& 4%'( A& 3).'RA3 &$&5
%#)&'%-7%&; C+AUS)
/none0 'he store sells organic produce.
unidentified!
a clause 'he store where % sho sells
organic produce.
a hrase 'he store on the corner of
Channing and University sells
organic produce.
'he store on the corner of
Channing and University, where %
sho, sells organic produce.
a name 4hole -oods sells organic
produce.
4hole -oods. where % sho. sells
organic produce.
later mention 'he store that sells organic
produce is 4hole -oods2
'he store selling organic produce.
where % sho. is 4hole -oods2
,)T-. /where ' sho/ 0 /in which '
sho/ 0 /which ' sho in/ (in$ormal)
Practice
"oin the two sentences into one2 #ecide whether to add commas to the clause*
0f the clause adds information that helps identify noun. donBt add commas.
0f the clause adds &e+tra& non-identifying information! to the noun it modifies. add commas!.
'. $an %rancisco is a beautiful city. 0t is on the west coast.
a. use commas b. no commas
San 1rancisco 2 (which is) on the west coast2is a beauti$ul city.
9. The bay is a major shipping port. 0t is on the shore of Oa#land.
a. use commas b. no commas
The bay (which is) on the shore o$ )aklandis a ma3or shiing ort.
;. %ishermanBs Fharf has several restaurants and attractions. Visitors can wal# there.
a. use commas b. no commas
1isherman"s 4har$ 2 where visitors can walk2has several restaurants and attractions.
@. The mission was founded by %ranciscan padres from :e+ico $pain!. 0t dates bac# to 'CC).
a. use commas b. no commas
The mission that dates back to +556 was $ounded by the 1ranciscan adres $rom #exico (Sain).
A. The most famous landmar# in $an %rancisco is the "olden "ate Kridge. 0t spans the opening to the bay.
a. use commas b. no commas
The most $amous landmark in San 1rancisco is the 7olden 7ate 8ridge2 which sans the oening to the bay.
). The city was hit by a destructive earth,ua#e. ?ou may remember it in '(D(.
a. use commas b. no commas
The city was hit by a destructive earth9uake : ,o2 commas.
C
C. The restaurants serve all #inds of $outh and -entral American cuisines. They are in the :ission /istrict.
a. use commas b. no commas
The restaurants : ,o2 commas.serve all kinds o$ South and Central American cuisines.
D. The Kay Kridge is one of the longest suspension bridges the world. 0t passes through ?erba Kuena 0sland.
a. use commas b. no commas
The 8ay 8ridge 2 which asses through ;erba 8uena 'sland2 is one o$ the longest susension bridges the world.
(. -arlos $antana has been a resident of $an %rancisco. 4e has won several grammy awards.
a. use commas b. no commas
Carlos Santana 2 who has won several grammy awards2 has been a resident o$ San 1rancisco.
'*. The $an %rancisco %orty-niners play football at -andlestic# 1ar#. They were named after the gold miners of
'D@(.
a. use commas b. no commas
The San 1rancisco 1orty-niners 2 (who were) named a$ter the gold miners o$ +<=>2lay $ootball at Candlestick
Park.
Punctuating Adjective Clauses
'he way you unctuate a sentence with a clause can change it meaningD
specific restrictive!
all non-restrictive!
Secific vs2 All
R)-)RS '$ A SP)C%-%C $&)/ E%&# 5 &$
C$MMAS
R)-)RS '$ A++ F C$MMAS
'he bio5scientist who creates green energy will
ma#e a profit.
True for one #ind of bio-scientist.!
'he bio5scientist. who creates green energy, will
ma#e a profit.
True for all scientists classified as bio-scientists.!
'he 3green3 household that reduces waste will save
energy.
True for one #ind of household.!
'he 3green3 household. which reduces waste, will
save energy.
True for all green households.!
EOT2: Who or that can be used. not which
household0all the eole living and working in the
house
EOT2: Who or which can be used. not that
Practice
"oin the two sentences into one2 #ecide whether to add commas to the clause:
0f the clause adds information that helps identify noun. donBt add commas.
0f the clause adds &e+tra& non-identifying information! to the noun it modifies. add commas!.
'. The cat is independent. 4e loves freedom. true of all cats!
a. use commas b. no commas
The cat 2 who loves $reedom2 is indeendent.
9. The dog needs to be ta#en away. The dog bit five children. true of one dog!
a. use commas b. no commas
The dog 6: ,o2 commas.7 needs to be taken away. The others can stay.
;. The rabbits hopped out into the field. They wanted to eat alfalfa grass. true of some.!
a. use commas b. no commas
The rabbits 2 where visitors can walk2 hoed out into the $ield. The others stayed in their holes.
@. The birds catch the worms. They wa#e up early. true of some!
a. use commas b. no commas
The birds ?: ,o2 commas@ catch their worms.
A. /ogs are treasured. They love their owners. true of some dogs!
a. use commas b. no commas
The dog ?: ,o2 commas.@ are treasured .
). /ogs are treasured. They love their owners. true of all dogs!
a. use commas b. no commas
The dog ?: Commas are needed.@ are treasured .
C. 1eople may suffer heart disease or diabetes. They are obese. true of some people! (obese. extremely overweight)
a. use commas b. no commas
Peole ?: ,o2 commas.@ may su$$er heart disease or diabetes.
D. Athletes have fewer health problems. They e+ercise daily. true of all athletes!
a. use commas b. no commas
Athletes 2 who exercise daily2 have $ewer health roblems.
(. 1eople get better cardio-e+ercise. They go on wal#s twice a day true of some people!
D
a. use commas b. no commas
Peole who go on walks twice a day get better cardio-exercise.
'*. The bald eagle is a bird of prey. 0t has a wing-span of about CA inches. true of all eagles!
a. use commas b. no
The bald eagle 2 which has a wing-san o$ 5A inches2 is a bird o$ rey.
)!ressions of Guantity 5 3of3
An adjective clause uses ronouns to connect the deendent clause to the indeendent clause.
little of which pronouns for ,uantity!
some of which
most of which
all of which
3. of which3 5 subject ronoun
"$%& '() S)&')&C)S* %&#)P)&#)&' C+AUS) #)P)&#)&' C+AUS)
'. 3eplace the subject pronoun
!most of them! with !most of
which!
-alifornia has a lot of visitors. Most of them come to see
/isneyland.
9. :ove the relative pronoun to the
front of the sentence.
most of which come to see
/isneyland.
;. 0nsert the clause into the main
sentence.
@. Add punctuation. -alifornia has a lot of visitors , most of which come to see
/isneyland.
3. of which3 5 object ronoun
"$%& '() S)&')&C)S* %&#)P)&#)&' C+AUS) #)P)&#)&' C+AUS)
'. 3eplace the object pronoun !a
lot of them! with !a lot of which!
-alifornia has a lot of visitors. ?ou can see a lot of them at
/isneyland.
9. :ove the relative pronoun to the
front of the sentence.
;. 0nsert the clause into the main
sentence.
a lot of which you can see at
/isneyland.
@. Add punctuation. -alifornia has a lot of visitors , a lot of which you can see at
/isneyland.
34hose3 5 subject ronoun
"$%& '() S)&')&C)S* %&#)P)&#)&' C+AUS) #)P)&#)&' C+AUS)
'. 3eplace the subject pronoun
!most of her! with !most of
whose!
$he listens to Mariah Carey. Most of her songs have been
number one hits.
9. :ove the relative pronoun to the
front of the sentence.
;. 0nsert the clause into the main
sentence.
Most of whose songs have been
number one hits.
@. Add punctuation $he listens to Mariah Carey , several of whose songs have
been number one hits.
$ther )!ressions of Guantity 5 3of3 hrases
some of many of most of none of two of
half of both of neither of each of all of
both of several of a few of a little of a number of
Practice
"oin the two sentences into one2 #ecide which ronoun to use2
Then. write the clause. 3emember punctuation.

The 2state of 2lvis 1resley -- Fhen 2lvis died on August '). '(CC he was by no means bro#e. but his estate at
"raceland was costing far too much to #eep.
(
'. 1riscilla received a lot of suggestions from friends. :any of them had been financial advisors to 2lvis.
Priscilla received a lot o$ suggestions $rom $riends many o$ who(m) had been $inancial advisors to -lvis. ?estate 0
large house with land@
9. The suggestions involved selling off "raceland. Eone of them felt right to 1riscilla.
The suggestions2 none o$ which $elt right to Priscilla2 involved selling o$$ 7raceland.
;. Today. "raceland welcomes over )**.*** visitors. :ost of them come from outside of the city. a year.
Today2 7raceland welcomes over 6&&2&&& visitors2 most o$ whom (which) come $rom outside o$ the city2 a year.
@. The rooms are on view to the daily tours. All of them have been left as they were in '(CC.
The rooms2 all o$ which have been le$t as they were in +>552 are on view to the daily tours.
A. 4is cars can be seen in the garage. 4alf of them are -adillacs.
!is cars2 hal$ o$ which are Cadillacs2 can be seen in the garage.
). 2lvis loved -adillacs. One of them was his favorite - a '(AA pin# %leetwood.
-lvis loved Cadillacs2 one o$ which was his $avorite - a +>AA ink 1leetwood.
C. A museum across the street displays 2lvisB planes. One of them he named after his daughter.
A museum across the street dislays -lvis" lanes2 one o$ which he named a$ter his daughter.
D. :ore projects are planned in the area surrounding the "raceland :ansion. A number of them include
e+pansion.
:ore projects. a number of which include e+pansion. are planned in the area surrounding the "raceland
:ansion.
(. 4owever. 212. 2lvis 1resley 2nterprises manages licensing and sales of 2lvisB products. :any of them are
available on the website.
!owever2 -lvis Presley -nterrises manages licensing and sales o$ -lvis" roducts 2 many o$ which are available
on the website.
'*. 0n 9**A. >isa :arie sold several 212 shares. The majority of them were bought by an entertainment
company.
'n *&&A2 Bisa #arie sold several -P- shares2 the ma3ority o$ which were bought by an entertainment comany.
?shares0 $inancial ortions o$ a comany@
'he )state of )lvis Presley Te+t View!
Fhen 2lvis died on August '). '(CC he was by no means bro#e. but his estate at "raceland was costing far too
much to maintain. 1riscilla received a lot of suggestions from friends. many of whom had been financial
advisors to 2lvis. The suggestions. none of which felt right to 1riscilla. involved selling off "raceland. 0nstead.
1riscilla decided to open "raceland to the public. Today. "raceland welcomes over )**.*** visitors . most of
whom come from outside of the city. a year. They bring 'A* million per year into the economy of :emphis. The
rooms. all of which have been left as they were in '(CC. are on view daily. Also. 2lvisB personal items:
costumes. wardrobe. awards are on view on the "raceland tour. 4is cars. half of which were -adillacs. can be
seen in the garage. 2lvis loved -adillacs. one of which was his favorite - a '(AA pin# and white %leetwood.
A museum across the street displays 2lvisB planes. one of which he named after his daughter and the other of
which he named after his song &4ound /og&. :ore projects. a number of which include e+pansion. are
planned in the area surrounding the "raceland :ansion. Today. >isa :arie 1resley owns '**L of "raceland
2state. 4owever. 2lvis 1resley 2nterprises manages licensing and sales of 2lvisB products. many of which are
available on their website. 0n 9**A. >isa :arie sold several 212 shares. the majority of which were bought by
an entertainment company -MN. 0nc.
'*
Relative Pronouns for 'hings
An adjective clause uses ronouns to connect the deendent clause to the indeendent clause2
the N of which possessive pronoun - things!
whose possessive pronoun - people or things!
Possessive Pronouns 5 Peole vs2 'hings
P$SS)SS%:) PR$&$U& 5 P)$P+) H '(%&;S P$SS)SS%:) PR$&$U& F '(%&;S
'he woman whose ma#e over we watched on
TV loo#s great.
/4e watched her ma,e5over0
makeover 0 renewalC udating
'he house the ma,eover of which we watched on
TV loo#s great.
/4e watched its ma,e5over0
Subject Clause
"$%& '() S)&')&C)S* %&#)P)&#)&' C+AUS) #)P)&#)&' C+AUS) with
subject ronoun
'. 3eplace the object pronoun its
ma"eover with the ma"eover of
which
'he house loo#s great. %ts e!terior is brown.
the e!terior of which is brown
9. 0nsert the clause into the main
sentence.
;. Add punctuation unless it is an
identifying clause.!
'he house the e!terior of which is brown
loo#s great.
$bject Clause
"$%& '() S)&')&C)S* %&#)P)&#)&' C+AUS) #)P)&#)&' C+AUS) with
object ronoun
'. 3eplace the object pronoun its
ma"eover with the ma"eover of
which
'he house loo#s great. We watched its ma,eover on TV.
9. 0nsert the clause into the main
sentence.
we watched the ma,eover of
which on TV.
;. :ove the relative pronoun to the
front of the sentence.
@. Add punctuation unless it is an
identifying clause.!
'he house the ma,e5over of which we
watched on TV loo#s great.
Practice
Change the second sentence into an adjective clause2 "oin it with the first sentence2
'. Fe bought a used car. The fender of it was dented. I$2 &F40-4&!
4e bought a used car2 the $ender o$ which was dented.
9. Fe wanted to buy a used car. The price of the car depended on the mar#et. I$2 &F40-4&!
4e wanted to buy a used car2 the rice o$ which deended on the market. ?used car 0 re-owned car@
;. 0 found my husband reading a magaOine. The cover of it had a picture of a hybrid car. I$2 &F4O$2&!
' $ound my husband reading a magaDine whose cover had a icture o$ a hybrid car.
@. The sun destroyed the car paint. The finish of the paint was o+idiOed. I$2 &F40-4&!
The sun destroyed the car aint2 the $inish o$ which was oxidiDed.
A. 0 called a body shop for an appointment. The time of the appointment was early in the morning. I$2
&F40-4&! ?body sho 0 reairs the body o$ a car@
' called a body sho $or an aointment2 the time o$ which was very early in the morning.
''
). :y car needs to go into the body shop. The fender is dented. I$2 &F4O$2&!
#y car2 whose $ender is dented2 needs to go into the body sho.
C. 0 #now of a good body shop. 0 canBt remember its name right now. I$2 &F40-4&!
' know o$ a good body sho2 the name o$ which ' can"t remember right now.
D. 0 received a reasonable estimate. The amount of the estimate was the lowest of all. I$2 &F40-4&!
' received a reasonable estimate2 the amount o$ which was the lowest o$ all.
(. 4e repainted my car. The color of my car is burgundy. I$2 &F40-4&!
4e repainted my car. the color of which is burgundy.
'*. 0 recommended the body shop to a friend. 4er car is in need of body wor#. I$2 &F4O$2&!
' recommended the body sho to a $riend2 whose car is in need o$ body work.
Referring to Part or All of a Clause
Referring to Part or All of a Clause
that preceding noun!
which preceding noun. phrase or clause!
Referring to just the receding noun vs2 whole idea
'(A' $R 4(%C( 5 PR)C)#%&; &$U& 4(%C( 5 '() 4($+) %#)A $- '() S)&')&C)
4e deleted the icture that upset me. The picture
upset me.!
4e deleted the icture, which upset me. The action
upset me.!
Also see that J which in Punctuating Adj2 Clauses
,ote. using /which/ to modi$y a sentence is in$ormal and occurs
mostly in soken -nglish.
Practice
0f the pronoun refers to the phrase. use &. which&. Add a comma.!
0f the pronoun refers to the noun. use &that&. ?ou could also use &which&. but for this practice. use &that&.!
'. >ast night. we closed the curtains GGGGGG ma#es us feel more secure. which
9. >ast night. we closed the curtains GGGGGG we had left open. that
;. :y friend didnBt ma#e it to the movie on time GGGGGG disappointed me. 2which
@. 0 went to see a movie GGGGGG disappointed me. that
A. Fe got lost in the city GGGGGG 0 used to #now so well. that
). Fe got lost in the city GGGGGG caused us to be very late. 2 which
C. 0 dropped my #eys down a drain on the street GGGGGG was careless. 2 which
D. 0 dropped my #eys down a drain on the street GGGGGG is outside of my house. that
(. Fe paid off our house GGGGGG we have lived in for ;* years. that
'*. Fe paid off our house GGGGGG made us feel very proud. 2 which


Shortening Clauses to Phrases >
An adjective clause may be shortened if the ronoun is a subject ronoun and it occurs with a 3be3
form2
'(A' $R 4(%C( R)-)R '$ "US' '()
PR)C)#%&; &$U&
4(%C( R)-)RS '$ '() 4($+) %#)A $- '()
S)&')&C)
The seat <that was= ne+t to me was empty. The seat ne!t to me was empty.
The woman <who was= seated behind me was eating
popcorn.
The woman seated behind me was eating popcorn.
A tal# show <which is= trying to improve its rating may
plan a fight.
A tal# show trying to improve its rating may plan a
fight.
Practice
"oin the sentences into one by using an adjective clause2 'hen, shorten the clause if ossible2
'. A woman told all her husbandBs personal secrets. $he was angry at her husband.
A woman angry at her husbandtold all her husband"s ersonal secrets.
9. A man found himself face to face with his girlfriend on stage. 4e was =trashing his girlfriend. ?:seaking unkindly2
or rudely about her@
A man trashing his girl$riend $ound himsel$ $ace to $ace with her on stage.
;. A man met his brother for the first time on stage. 4e was separated from his brother at birth.
A man searated $rom his brother at birth met his brother $or the $irst time on stage.
'9
@. A man was e+plaining how comfortable the s#irt was. The man was wearing a s#irt.
A man wearing a skirt was exlaining how com$ortable it was.
A. A man was tal#ing about how unfair the law is. 4e was arrested for smo#ing marijuana.
A man arrested $or smoking mari3uana was talking about how un$air the law is.
). A woman told what it was li#e to live with her name. The woman was also named :onica >ewins#y.
A woman also named #onica Bewinsky told what it w as like to live with her name.
C. Two women were fighting in a pool of mud. They were wearing bi#inis.
Two women wearing bikinis were $ighting in a ool o$ mud.
D. Two men told everyone e+actly what they thought of her. They were married to the same woman.
Two men married to the same woman told everyone exactly what they thought o$ her.
(. A mother-in-law called her daughter-in-law &an undeserving pig&. $he was jealous of her daughter-in-law.
A mother-in-law 3ealous o$ her daughter-in-law called her /an undeserving ig/ .
'*. The host was hit by a flying chair. 4e was standing in between two angry boyfriends.
The host standing in between two angry boy$riends was hit by a $lying chair .

Shortening Clauses to Phrases I
An adjective clause may be shortened if its ronoun is a subject ronoun and the verb can be changed
to an 35ing3 form2
'(A' $R 4(%C( R)-)R '$ "US' '()
PR)C)#%&; &$U&
4(%C( R)-)RS '$ '() 4($+) %#)A $- '()
S)&')&C)
-ongress, <which consists= of two houses, is on a
brea#.
-ongress, consisting of two houses, is on a brea#.
The stoc# mar#et, <which crashed= to its lowest
oint of the year, worried us.
The stoc# mar#et, crashing to its lowest oint of the
year, worried us.
"as <which costs= over JK a gallon can be seen in
the Kay Area.
"as costing over JK a gallon can be seen in the Kay
Area.
Practice
Shorten the adjective clause using the 5ing form method2
'. A healthy diet that includes fruit and fiber will decrease oneBs ris# of cancer.
A healthy diet including $ruit and $iber will decrease one"s risk o$ cancer.
9. A family that ta#es vitamins has fewer visits to the doctor.
A $amily talking vitamins has $ewer visits to the doctor.
;. The study said that children who attended preschool often had more colds.
The study said that children attending reschool o$ten had more colds.
@. Joggers who will run in the marathon should get to the stadium early to warm up.
Eoggers running in the marathon should get to the stadium early to warm u.
A. A person who does at least ;* minutes of e+ercise a day will feel better.
A erson doing at least F& minutes o$ exercise a day will $eel better.
). $enior citiOens who #eep active tend to live longer. happier lives.
Senior citiDens keeing active tend to live longer2 haier lives.
C. %ifty years ago. many people who suffered from Tuberculosis eventually died.
1i$ty years ago2 many eole su$$ering $rom Tuberculosis eventually died.
D. Today. the number of people who die from A0/s is finally decreasing.
Today2 the number o$ eole dying $rom A'%s is $inally decreasing.
(. 1eople who donBt vote should not complain about their government.
Peole not voting should not comlain about their government. .
'*. /o you thin# that a person who smo#es around children in public should be citedP
%o you think that a erson smoking around children in ublic should be citedG
';

Reducing Adverb Clauses to Modifying Phrases
Modifying hrases can be made from adverbial
clauses after adverbs*
be$ore
a$ter
while
when
since
4(%+) 5 A#:)R6 C+AUS) 4(%+) 5 M$#%-7%&; P(RAS)
4hile he was reading the paper. he saw a story
about an old friend.
4hile reading the paper. he saw a story about an old
friend.
'he subjects of both clauses must be the same to
shorten them2
6)R-$R) 5 A#:)R6 C+AUS) 6)-$R) 5 M$#%-7%&; P(RAS)
6efore she left home. she chec#ed to see the doors
were loc#ed.
6efore leaving home. she chec#ed to see the doors
were loc#ed.
'he subjects of both clauses must be the same to
ma,e this ,ind of reduction2
Common Mista,e
)RR$R -%.
= Kefore ta#ing a driving course. his father told him to
be careful.
Fho is ta#ing the driving courseP!
Kefore my son too# a driving course. his father told him
to be careful.
The subject of both clauses must be the same if using a modifying
phrase.!
Practice
#ecide whether the clause can be shortened to a modifying hrase2
'. Fhile 0 was falling asleep. 0 was counting sheep.
4hile $alling aslee2 ' was listening to the radio.
9. Kefore 0 left the house. my roommate handed me my car #eys.
?no change ossible H di$$erent sub3ects@
;. Fhile 0 drive to school. 0 thin# about what 0 was supposed to study.
4hile driving to school2 ' think about what ' was suosed to study.
@. Kefore my classmates arrive in the room. 0 catch up in my grammar boo#.
?no change ossible H di$$erent sub3ects@
A. After the class finishes. 0 always feel li#e 0 should go home and get busy studying.
?no change ossible H di$$erent sub3ects@
). After 0 get out of class. 0 always feel li#e 0 should go home and get busy studying.
A$ter getting out o$ class2 ' always $eel like ' should go home and get busy studying.
C. $ince 0 came to this country. my 2nglish abilities have #ept me from e+pressing myself.
?no change ossible H di$$erent sub3ects@
D. Fhile 0 am learning to spea# a second language. 0 am coming to understand the nature of language better.
4hile learning to seak a second language2 ' am coming to understand the nature o$ language better.
(. 0 am more compassionate with others when they struggle with 2nglish.
?no change ossible H di$$erent sub3ects@
note that no punctuation is necessary when the adverb is between the clauses!
'@
'*. 0 will carry this e+perience with me long after 0 leave this country.
' will carry this exerience with me long a$ter leaving this country
'A