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Digitized by the Internet Archive
in 2007 with funding from
IVIicrosoft Corporation
http://www.archive.org/details/essentialrussianOOanpiuoft
B. G. ANPILOGOVA, E. Y. VLADIMIRSKY,
V. I. ZIMIN, E. Y. SOSENKO
ESSENTIAL
RUSSIAN-ENGLISH
DICTIONARY
PROGRESS
PUBLISHERS
Moscow
PyCCKO-AHrJlHflCKHft JIEKCHHECKHfl MHHHMVM
ENGLISH TRANSLATIONS BY V. KOROTKY
EDITED BY R. DIXON
COVER DESIGNED BY B. TRIFONOV
Ot"^
vS^^
FOREWORD
This book is intended for students studying Russian with or without a
teacher (in study groups, at courses, etc.] outside Russian linguistic milieu.
It is a dictionary, i.e., besides lists oi the commonest Russian words (vo-
cabulary) with English translations, it gives grammatical characteristics of the
words and illustrative material, explaining not only the meanings of the words
but their uses as well.
The illustrative material consists of phrases and sentences showing the
meanings of the words, and brief contexts, which are traditional, ordinary,
semantically stable or, in any case, very commonly used, e.g. jiioSobf, k p6-
flHHe love for
one*s country, c^^eJiaxB BLiBo;t to draw a conclusion, coBepmiixb no-
ciynoK to perform an action, KaK Bac 30ByT? What is your name?, Mbi onosfla-
JiH K na^ajiy cneKTaKJiH We were late for the performance, etc. A number of
words are followed by the sign <>, after which phrases, proverbs or figurative
expressions containing these words are given, e.g. JIlct KaK H3 Be^pa It is
raining cats and dogs, Bcero xoporaero All the best, Vm xopomo, a ABa jiynrae
Two heads are better than one, etc.
The vocabulary comprises some 3,000 of the commonest Russian words.
At the end of the Dictionary, thematic word lists are supplied, which
widen the scope of the vocabulary.
It is hoped that the study of the lexico-grammatical material of the Dic-
tionary will provide the necessary foundation for conversation on various
everyday subjects and reading of modern Russian fiction and periodicals
without consulting a Russian-English dictionary too often.
Every article in this Dictionary includes the word under consideration in
its initial form and defines it grammatically (either stating what part of speech
it is or giving its forms). If a word has several meanings, only the commonest
of these are given, each under a separate figure. Homonyms are entered as
separate words marked 1, 2, 3, etc. Derivatives are not generally given in
the same article as their root words but as caption words, since the Dictionary
is based on an exact word count.
The part of speech is indicated only in the case of adverbs, numerals,
pronouns, prepositions, conjunctions and particles. Nouns, verbs and adjectives
have no such labels, as their grammatical characteristics given in the article
define them clearly enough.
Nouns are entered in the nominative singular, their gender and the pecu-
liarities in the formation of the case forms, if any, are indicated. In the case of
an unstable vowel, the genitive singular (e.g. KOB\en, gen. -ua,end) or genitive
plural (e.g. naji|Ka, gen. pi. -ok, stick; okho, gen. pi. okoh, window) is supplied.
The paradigms of nouns declined irregularly are given in full.
Indeclinable nouns are marked indecl.
All those forms of nouns in which there is a stress shift are given, e.g. Bo^a,
ace.
BoAy, water; ctojt, gen. ctoji^, pi. ciojiti, table; etc.
Adjectives are entered in the masculine; the feminine, neuter and plural
endings following the initial form. The comparative is given only if there are
1*
irregularities in its formation (interchange of sounds, suppletion). Short form
adjectives are given in the same article as the long form ones.
Personal pronouns are followed by their declension paradigms. Possessive
and demonstrative pronouns are given in the masculine singular, followed by
the feminine, neuter and plural forms.
Verbs are entered in the infinitive, followed by the 1st and 2nd persons
singular and the 3rd person plural. Cases where a verb form is not used are
specially marked, e.g. npoaoJi>KaTbCH to continue, 1st & 2nd pers. not used; no-
6eAiiTb to win, 1st pers. sing, not used, etc. The peculiarities in the formation
of the past and the imperative are given. The past is supplied only if it is
formed irregularly or if its formation is accompanied by a shift of stress (BesTii
to carry

sea, Besjia; bbhtb to take

bbhji, BSflJia). Irregular formations of the


imperative are also supplied, e.g. 6HTb to beat

Sen.
Aspects of verbs are given in the following manner. In the case of perfec-
tive verbs only the infinitive is given, with reference to the imperfective for
meaning. Articles containing imperfective forms also include the perfective
forms and illustrative examples explaining both forms.
After the imperfective forms questions are aupplied helping to determine
the government of the verb under consideration and of its perfective counter-
part in each of their meanings. If a verb has a different government in one
of its meanings, the questions are given for that particular meaning.
When a verb is used only in one aspect in one of its meanings, this is
always indicated, as well as the cases where the verb has one perfective coun-
terpart in one meaning and a different one in another.
Questions helping to determine the government of a word are also given
after certain nouns, adverbs and adjectives.
Assuming that the student will work at the Dictionary simultaneously
with studying grammar, forms different from their initial forms are not entered
as separate words, e.g. meji (from h^th to go), Bwme (from blicokhh high),
MHC (from H /),
etc. All such forms can be found in the articles on the ini-
tial forms. Exceptions are suppletive forms which are beginning to be used as
independent words with a specific meaning (e.g. jiioah people, jiynme better,
etc.). In such cases the suppletive forms are entered with reference to their
principal forms.
Participles and verbal adverbs are not entered at all.
In the Supplement, the words are grouped thematically.
In the section Names of Nationalities, the head words are the nouns de-
noting nationality in the masculine and feminine singular and in the plural.
These are followed by the names of the countries and the corresponding adjec-
tives, e.g. ^^auny3 Frenchman, (^paunymeuKa Frenchwoman; ^paLRU,y3hi the French,
(DpanuHH France; (J)paHqy3CKHii French.
Forms which have not yet become quite stable are not given.
Stress is indicated throughout the Dictionary. The primary stress is marked
['], the secondary [']. All the words without independent stress should be
merged in pronunciation with the principal word, as xaK me, na ctoji, hc 6 bin,
He cxaji, etc. In some cases the pronunciation is given in square brackets.
The Compilers
THE RUSSUN ALPHABET
A a
B 6
B B
r r
E e
E e
m JK
3 3
H H
H ii
K K
JI ji
M M
H H
o
n n
Pp
C c
T T
y
y
(D(|.
X X
nn
^ q
m m
m
m
^
hi H
b
9 9
10 K)
fl fl
ABBREVIATIONS
ace, accusative
adj., adjective
adv., adverb
ant., antonym
colloq., colloquial
comp., comparative
conj., conjunction
dot., dative
/.,
feminine
fig.,
figurative
fut., future
gen., genitive
i/np., imperfective
iniper., imperative
iinpers., impersonal
indecl., indeclinable
inf., infinitive
instr., instrumental
lit., literal
m., masculine
n., noun
neut., neuter
num., numeral
p.,
perfective
paren., parenthetic
pj^rt., participle
pers., person
philos., philosophy
pi., plural
poss., possessive
pred., predicate
predic, predicative
prep., preposition
prepos., prepositional
pron., pronoun
q. v., which see
sing., singular
superl., superlative
usu., usually
A, a
A conj. and
H ynycL b ynnBepcHTeTe, a hg b hh-
CTHTyxe. / study at a university,
and not at an institute. Mm Hsy^aeM
pyCCKHH fl3LIK, a OHH aHrJinHCKHH,
We study Russian and they, English.
ABryCT m., no pi. August
CeroAHfl AecHToe aBrycTa. Today is
the tenth
of
August. H npiiexan b
aBrycie. / came in August. H npn-
exa.i AecHToro aBrycia. / came on
the tenth
of
August.
ABTOBYC m. bus
Exaxb Ha asToSyce. To go by bus.
B aBT66yce mhofo napofly. There
are many people in the bus.
ABTOMAT m. automatic machine
Tejie(|)6H-aBT0MaT. Public telephone.
CTanoK-aBTOMax. Automatic machine-
tool.
ABTOMOBflJIb m. motor-car
Exaxb Ha aBXOMo6HJie. To go by
car.
ABTOP m. author
Abxoj) KHHrn. The author
of
a book.
ABTOPyMIKA
/.,
gen. pi. -eK foun-
tain-pen
IlHcaxfc aBTopy^KOH. To write with
a fountain-pen.
ArPECCflBHIblfl, -aa, -oe, -tie aggres-
sive
ArpeccHBHaH nojiiixHKa. An aggres-
sive policy.
AFPOHOM m. agronomist
PaSoxaxb arpOHOMOM. To work as
an agronomist.
AJ^PEC m., pi. -a address
J[ame mhg sam ^Apec. Give me your
address. Ilocjiaxb nmchud no a^pe-
cy. To send a letter to an address.
AKA^EMHH
/.
academy
AKa;^6MHH nayK. The Academy
of
Sciences. GejibCKOXosHucxBeHHafl
aKa;teMHfl. The Agricultural Academy.
yqHXbCfl B aKa^eMiiH. To study at
an academy.
AKKYPATHIblfl, -aa, -oe, -He, short
form aKKypaxen, aKKypaxH|a, -o,
-m; adv. aKKypaxHo painstaking,
punctual
AKKypaxHMH cxyA^HT. A painstak-
ing, punctual student. IlHcaxb aK-
KypaxHO. To write carefully.
AHAJIH3 m. analysis
AnajiHS H CHHxea. Analysis and
synthesis. AnajiHa MejKAynapoflHoro
noJiOJKeHHH. An analysis
of
the in-
ternational situation.
<> AnajiHS KpoBH. Blood test.
AHPflHA
/.,
no pi. tonsillitis
y MeHfi anrHHa. / have tonsillitis.
Bojiexb anrHHOH. To be ill with
tonsillitis.
AIIEJIBCflH m. orange
BKycHbiH anejibCHH. A tasty orange.
KnjiorpaMM anejibCHHOB. A kilo-
gramme
of
oranges.
AnJIOAflPIOBATb, -yio, -yemb, -yiox
imp. KOMy? He My? to applaud
AnjiOAHpoBaxb apxiicxy. To applaud
an actor.
AnilETflT m. appetite
XopomHH annexHX. A good appe-
tite. IIpHHXHoro annexHxal / wish
you a good appetite!
AIIPEJIB m., no pi. April
CeroAHfl nepBoe anpeJifl. Today is
the first of
April. Oh npncAex e
anpeJie. He will come in April.
^BaAuaxb xpexbero anpenfl mh ea-
jlHjiH Ha 3KCKypcHH). We went on
an excursion on the twenty-third of
April.
AHTEKA
/.
chemist's
fleJKypnaH anxena. Duty chemist's.
HoKynaxb JieKapcxBa b anxeKe. To
buy medicine at a chemist's shop.
APB]$^3 m. water-melon
Cn^JibiH ap6y3. A ripe water-melon.
APE
BE3
APECTIOBATb, -yio, -yemi.. -yioT
imp. & p. Koro? to arrest
ApecTOBaib npeCTynnHKa. To arrest
a criminal.
APMHH /.
army
CnJibHafl apMHH. A strong army.
APTflCT m. actor
ApTHCT KHHO. A cinema actor. Ha-
poAHMH apTHCT GCGP. A People's
Artist
of
the USSR.
APXHTEKTOP m. architect
TjiaBHWH apxHTCKTop. The chief
architect. IIpoeKT apxHxeKTopa. The
architect's project.
ACOHPAHT m. post-graduate student
AcnnpaHT Ka(J)eApH MaxeMaTHKH.
A post-graduate
of
the Mathematics
Chair.
Atom m. atom
Atom BOHopoAa. A hydrogen atom.
ATOMH|blfl, -afl, -oe, -He atomic
AxoMHaa aneprHH. Atomic energy.
AxoMHafl 8JieKTpocTaHD;Hfl. An atom-
ic power-station. Atomhhh Jie^o-
KOJi. An atomic ice-breaker. Atom-
Hafl 66m6a. An atomic bomb.
AYAHTOPHfl
/.
1. lecture-room. IlHTafl ay^HTopHH.
Lecture-room No. 5. Mm sann-
MacMCfl B TpeTfceu ayAHTopHH.
We have our lessons in Room
Three.
2. audience. BHHMaTejiLnafl ay^H-
TopHH. An attentive audience.
ABPO^POM m. aerodrome
Ha aapoflpoMC. At the aerodrome.
Exaxfc Ha aapoApoM. To drive to
the aerodrome.
A3POnOPT m., prepos. b aaponopxy
airport
BcxpeHaxb ^ejieraqHio b aaponopxy.
To meet a delegation at the airport.
B, 6
BAfiynilKA
/.,
gen. pi. -eK grand-
mother
BA3A
/.
1. basis. 9K0H0MHHecKafl 6a3a. An
economic basis.
2. base. BoeHHaa 6a3a. A military
base.
BAJI m., prepos. ua 6ajiy & o daJie;
pi. -M ball
Ohh nosHaKOMHJiHCB Ha 6ajiy. They
met at a ball.
BAJIET m. ballet
HoBHH 6aJieT. A new ballet. Cmo-
xpexb 6ajiex. To see a ballet. IIohxh
Ha 6a;iex. To go to a ballet.
BAJIKOH m. balcony
BbiiixH Ha 6ajiK6H. To come (go) out
on to the balcony.
BAHK m. bank
TocyAapcxBeHHUH 6aHK. The State
Bank. Hai^iioHajiBHUH 6aHK. The
National Bank.
BAHIKA
/.,
gen. pi. -ok jar
GxeKJiHHHafl 6aHKa. A glass jar.
BAHH /. bath-house
BACKETBOJI m., no pi. basket-ball
IlrpaxB B 6acKex66ji. To play bas-
ket-bfll
.
BACCEHH m.
1. swimming-pool. HjiaBaxb b 6ac-
cefme. To swim in a swimming-
pool.
2. basin. KaMeHHoyroJibHLiw 6ac-
ceHH. A coal basin.
BAnilHH
/.,
gen. pi. -en tower
BbicoKaH 6amHfl. A high tower.
KpeMJieBCKne 6amHH. The Kremlin
towers.
BEFAITb, -10, -emb, -lox imp. to run
JleTii 6eraiox b ca^y. The children
are^ running about in the garden.
EEJIA /.,
pi. 6eAH misfortune, trouble
JXpyr
noMor MHe b 6eAe. My friend
helped me in my need.
BE^HIblH, -aa, -oe, -Lie, short form
6eAeH, 6eAHa, 6eAH|o, -h; adv. 6eAH0
1. poor. BeAHaa cxpana. A poor
country. Oh 6eji 6eAH0 OAex.
He was poorly dressed.
2.
fig.
poor, y aero 6eAHoe boo6-
paJKeHHC. He has a poor imagi-
nation.
3. fig.,
only complete form poor.
BeAHaa meHmiinal Ona noxepajia
Cbiaa. The poor woman! She has
lost her son.
BE^ATB, 6ery, 6eHHmb, 6eryx imp.
1. to run. CnopxcMCH 6e?KHx 6biex-
po. The sportsman runs quickly.
2.
fig.
to fly. BpeMH 6ejKiix. Time
flies.
BE3 prep. -\- gen. without
Han 6e3 caxapa. Tea without sugar.
XoAHXb 6e3 manKH. To go without
a cap.
BE3
BHJI
<> Be3 nflTH MHHyT BOceMb. Five
minutes to eight. Hex j^uMa 6e3
orHfl (proverb). There is no smoke
without a fire.
BE3PAB0TH|blfl m., gen. -oro unem-
ployed person
Oh 6e3pa6oTHHH. He is unemployed.
BEJIIMB, -aH, -oe, -ue white
BeJiaH CKaxepTb. A white table-cloth.
<> Bejibiii xjie5. White bread.
BEJIbE neut., no pi. underwear; linen
HafleTb qiicToe 6ejiLe. To put on
clean underwear. OT^axb 6ejibe b
CTHpKy. To give out one's washing.
IIocTeJibHoe 6ejibe. Bed-linen.
BEPEF m., prepos. o Gepere & na 6e-
pery; pi. -a bank, shore
Beper peKii. The bank
of
the river.
Beper oaepa. The shore
of
the lake.
OxAMxaxb na 6epery MopH. To rest
at the sea'side.
BEPEHB, 6epery, 6epe}KemL, 6eperyx,
past 6eper, 6eperji|a, -6, -h imp.
K r 6? H X o? to take care (of)
Beperwxe SAopoBbe. Take care
of
your health. Bepe^b ^exen. To take
care
of
the children. Bepe^b
BpeMH. To make the most
of
one's
time.
BECEJ^A /. conversation
/lIpyH^ecKafl Secefla. A friendly con-
versation. Becxii 6eceAy. To carry
on a conversation.
BECEJi;iOBATB, -yio, -yemb, -yiox imp.
C KeM? KOM? HCM?//?. DO-
GecefllOBaxb, -yio, -yemb, -yiox to
talk
H 6eceAyK) c xoBapnmeM o hoboh
KHHre. / am talking about a new book
with my friend.
BECKOHEHHIblfl, -aH, oe, -Me, short
form 6ecK0HeHeH, 6ecK0HeHH|a, -o,
-M
1. endless. BecKOHe^naH paBHHHa.
An endless plain.
2. endless. BecKOHe^HbiH cnop. An
endless argument.
3. infinite. Mnp SecKOHeneH. The
world is infinite.
BECnAPTflflHlblfl m., gen. -oro non-
party
Oh 6ecnapxHHHHH. He belongs to no
party.
BECnJIATHIblfl, -an, -oe, -He; adv.
6ecnjiaTH0 free, gratis
BecHJiaxHoe o6yHeHHe. Free educa-
tion. BecnjiaxHoe MeAHi^HHCKoe o5-
CJiyjKHBaHiie. Free medical service.
OxflMxaxb 6ecnjiaxH0 b canaxopuH.
To have free lodgings and board in
a sanatorium.
BECnOKOlHTbCH, -locb, -nmbCH,
-axcfl imp. KOM? o HeM?
1. to worry, to be anxious. Becno-
KOHXbCfl o AexHX. To worry about
the children. BecnoKoiixbCH o
SflopoBbe. To be concerned with
one's health.
2. to bother. He 6ecnoK6fixecb, h
caM 3X0 cp^enaio. Don't bother,
I'll do it
myself.
BECnOKOnHlblfl, -an, -oe, -tie; adv.
SeenOKo MHO
1. restless. BecnoKOHHafl Hi3Hb.
A restless life.
2. restless. BecnoKOHHBiH qejiOBeK.
A restless person.
3.
fig. agitated. BecnoKOHHoe Mope.
A choppy sea.
BECnOJIE3HlbIH, -an, -oe, -tie, short
form 6ecnojre3eH, Secnojieanla, -o,
-bi; adv.
6ecnojie3HO useless
Becnojie3Hoe aauHXHe. A useless
occupation.
BECnOMOmHlbin, -an, -oe, -we, short
form 6ecn6MOm,eH, 6ecn6MomH|a, -o,
-h; adv. GecnoMomHO helpless
BecnoMomHuii peGenoK. A helpless
child
.
BECnOPHAlOK m., gen. -Ka disorder
BecnopHAOK b KOMnaxe. Disorder
in the room.
BHBJIHOTEKA
/. library
HaynnaH 6H6JiHoxeKa. A scientific
literature library. IlySjiHHHafl 6n6-
JiHOxeKa. A public library. Bpaxb
KHiirH b 6H6jTHOxeKe. To borrow
books from a library.
BHJIET m.
1. ticket. Bnjiex b xeaxp, b khho.
Ha KOHuepx; na noean, na napo-
xofl, Ha caMOJiex. A ticket for the
theatre, for the cinema, for a con-
cert;
for a train, for a ship, for
a plane.
2. card. IlapxHHHEiH 6HJiex. A party
membership card. HpHrJiacMxeJib-
HLiH 6HJiex. An invitation card.
Gxyj];eHHecKHH 6HJiex. A stu-
dent's card.
3. 3K3aMeHan;H6HHbiH 6hji6x. A
BHO 10 BOJI
question-paper (for oral examina-
tions) .
BHOrPAOHH /. biography
PaccKaaaxb 6Horpd$iiio. To tell one's
biography.
BHTb, 6b|K), -eniL, -H)t; imper. 6eH imp,
1. Koro? ^eM? noHGMy? to
beat. Oh 6hji co6aKy nanKOH no
CDHHe. He heat the dog on the
hack with a stick.
2. HTO? qeM? p. paaoiiTL, pa-
3o6blK), -emt, -TOT to break.
Pa36HTb CTGKJIO KaMHGM. To
hreak a pane with a stone. Paa-
6HTb cxaKan. To break a glass.
3. Koro? p.
paaCi'iTb to defeat.
PaaSHTb Bpara. To defeat the
enemy.
A. p. npo6iiTb, 1st & 2nd pers. not
used, 3rd pers. npo6b|eT, -k)T
to strike. Bbiox nacbi kpbmjigb-
CKOH 6amHH. The clock
of
the
Kremlin tower is striking.
BflTBCH, 6b|K)Cb, -erabCfl, -iotch imp.
1. to beat. GepAi^e Swjiocb. The
heart was beating.
2. to struggle. Oh aojifo 6viJiCfl na^
peraeHHeM saAa'in. He wrestled
with the problem for a long time.
BJIArO^APlflTb, -K), -limb, -ht imp.
Koro? HTO? 3a ht6?//>. no6jia-
rojtaplHTb, -10, -Hmb, -ht to thank
BjiaroflapK) sac aa BHHMaHHe.
(/)
thank you
for your attention.
BJIArOJ^APH prep.
+
dat. thanks to,
owing to
Bjiaro^apH ynopnoMy Tpy^y ohh
BwpacTHJiH SoraxLiH ypo?KaH. Thanks
to persistent work they've grown a
rich crop.
BJIE^HElTb, -K), -emb, -lox imp.
/p.
noSjieflHelxb, -lo, -emb, -lox to turn
pale
no6jieflHeTb ox cxpaxa. To blanch
with terror.
BJI^J\H\hlVL, -an, -oe, -bie, short form
6jieAeH, 6JIe;^Hd, 6ji^ah|o, -h; adv.
SjieflHO
1. pale. Bji^AHoe jihi^o. A pale face.
BjieflHUH ox BOJiHeHHH. Pale
with excitement.
2.
fig. colourless. Bji^ahmh otb^t.
A colourless answer.
BJIE|CTETB,
-niy, -CTHmb, -cxiix or -my,
6jien;emb, 6ji6n;yT, 1st & 2nd pers.
rarely used, imp. to shine, to sparkle
Gner Sjigctht he cdJiniie. The snow
is sparkling in the sun. Fjiaaa
y
nee
6jiecTHX ox paflocxH. Her eyes are
sparkling with joy.
BJIECT}^I^|Hfl, -aH, -ee, -ne
1. shining. BjiecxamHH npeAM^x.
A shining object.
2.
fig.
brilliant. BjiecTflmne ycn6-
XH. Brilliant success. Bjiecxfln^HH
oxBex. A splendid answer.
BJIfi3K|H0, -an, -oe, -He, short form
6JIH30K, 6jiH3Ka, 6jih3k|o, -h; adv.
6jiu3ko; comp. SjiHjKe
1. near. B;iH3KaH agp^bhh. A near
village. Jlec h pen^ 6jih3KO. The
river and the forest are close by.
R jKHBy 6jiii3K0 ox yHHBepcHxe-
xa. / live near the university.
2. figf close. BJIH3KHH
flpyr. A
close friend.
BJIIOAO neut.
1. dish. Oap$6poBoe 6jik)ao. A
porcelain dish.
2. course. IlepBoe 6jik)A0. The first
course. OSeA hb xpex 6jik)a. A
three-course dinner.
BOr
[6oxl
m., gen. pi. -6b God
BepHXb B 66ra. To believe in God.
BOrATCTBO neut.
1. wealth. Orp6Mnoe 6oraxcxBo.
Great wealth.
2. pi. resources. IIpHpoAHHe 6or^T-
cxBa. Natural resources.
BOrATIblfl, -an, -oe, -He, short form
6or^T, -a, -0, -m
1. rich. BoraxuH nejioBeK. A rich
person
.
2.
fig.
rich. Boraxmn ypoHtan,
yji6B. A rich harvest, catch.
BOfl m., prepos. b 6ok) & o 66e; pi.
6oH, 6oeB battle
norii6Hyxb b 6oi6. To die in bat-
tle. Ha noJie 66h. On the battle-
field.
BOK m., prepos. b (na) 6oKy; pi. -A side
JlejKaxb Ha 6oKy. To lie on one's
side. JIoBepHyxbCH 66kom. To turn
side-ways.
BOJIEE adv. more
B6Jiee bwcokhh. Taller. B6Jiee hh-
xepeCHWH. More interesting.
<> Ten 66jiee (qTo). The more so\
especially as. Bojiee hjih Menee.
More or less.
B0JlE3Hb /. disease, illness
BOJI
II BOH
TflJKejiafl 6o.ie3Hb. A grave
disease.
BOJIEH, 6ojiLHJa, -6, -u short adj. used
as predic. ill
{cf.
BOJIbHOfl)
fl doJien. / am ill. Ona 6ojiLHa yjKe
AaBHo. She has been ill for a long
time.
BOJIE|TBS -K), -eniL, -k)t imp. neM?
to be ill
BojieTB jioJiTo. To be ill for a long
time. Bojiexb rpnnnoM. To be ill
with the 'flu. H 6ojie;i aHniHon. /
had a sore throat.
BOJI|ETb^ 1st & 2nd pars, not used,
3rd pers. -tit, -ht imp. to hurt, to ache
y MGHH 60JIHT Hora. My leg hurts
me. y MGHH Sojinx roJiOBa . / have a
headache. Y Hero 6o;ieJiH sySu.
He had a toothache. Y Hee 60J111T
ropjio. She has a sore throat.
BOJIbHai^A
/. hospital
Fopo/tCKafl 6ojii>HHi^a. A city hospi-
tal. Jle/KaxB B SojiBHiiue. To be in
hospital.
BOJIbHO
1. adv. badly. MaJiLHim Sojibho
yniHScH. The boy hurt himself
badly.
2. predic. impers. it hurts. Mne
GoJTbHO. It hurts me.
BOJIbHlOfl, -afl, -6e, -Lie
1. sick, bad, diseased. BoJibHan
AeBo^Ka. A sick girl. BojibHoe
cepAUe. A bad heart.
2. fig. sore. Bojibhoh Bonpoc. A
sore problem. 3x0 ero 6oJibH6e
Mecxo. This is his sore spot.
BOJIbHlOfl m., gen. -oro; 6ojibH|afl
/.,
gen. -OH, pi. -bie, gen. -tix sick
person, patient
BojibHOH jiemJTX b 6ojibHiin,e. The
patient is in hospital. Bpan ocMax-
pHBaex SojibHoro. The doctor is
examining
the patient.
BOJIblHE
1. comp. 0/ SojibmoH bigger. Mock-
Ba SoJibme JlennHrpaAa. Moscow
is bigger than Leningrad.
2. comp.
of MHoro more. Oh anaex
Sojibme, qeM a (66jibrae mchh).
He knows more than I do.
<> Bojibine Bcero. Most
of
all.
3. adv. more. BoJibme Hex BonpocoB?
No more questions? fl SoJibme He
Mory. / can't endure it any
longer.
BOJIbfflHHCTBO neut., no pi. ma-
jority, most
BojibmHHCXBo cxyfleHxoB sanHMaexca
cnopxoM. Most students go in for
sports.
BOJIbiniOfl, -afl, -6e, -He, comp. 66jib-
me
(q.
v.)
1. big, large. BojibmoH aom. A big
house. Bojibmaa pena. A large
river.
2. great. BojibmaapaAOcxb. A great
joy.
BOMBA /. bomb
AxoMHaH 66M6a. An atomic bomb.
BoAopoAHafl 66M6a. A hydrogen
bomb. BaopBaxb 66M6y. To explode
a bomb.
BOPlEU; m., gen.
-ua fighter
Bopei^ 3a CBo66Ay- ^ fighter for
freedom. Bopii,w aa Miip. Champions
of peace.
BOPOTbCH, 6opi6cb, 66pembCH, 66-
pioxcH imp. 3 a h x 6? 3 a k r 6?
npoxHB Hero? npoxHB ko-
to? c KeM? c HeM? to fight, to
struggle
BopoxbCH c BparoM. To fight the
enemy. BopoxbCH c 6ojie3HHMH.
To fight disease. BopoxbCH 3a Mtip.
To fight for peace.
BOPbBA
/.,
no pi. 3 a hxo? 3 a
Koro? npoxHB nero? npo-
XHB Koro? c KeM? c ^eM?
1. fight, struggle. Bopb6a aa neaa-
BHCiiMOCXb. Struggle
for
independ-
ence. BopbCa npoxHB BparoB.
The fight against the enemies,
KjiaccoBafl 6opb6a. Class struggle.
IIojiHXHHecKafl 6opb6a. A politi-
cal struggle.
2. wrestling. KjiaccHHecKan 6opb-
6a. Greco-Roman wrestling. BoJib-
Hafl 6opb6a. Free style wrestling.
BOTflHlKH pi., gen. pi. -ok; sing.
-OK, gen. -Ka boots
KyHHxb 60XHHKH. To buy boots.
BoxHHKH copoK Bxoporo pasMcpa.
Size number forty-two boots.
BO|)lTbCH, -KCb, -iimbcfl, -hxca imp.
Koro? Hero? &
+ inf. to be
afraid, to fear
BoHXbCfl npocxyAH. To fear a chill.
BoHXbCfl Mopoaa. To be afraid
of
the frost. BoflXbCfl 3a6oJiexb. To be
afraid
of falling ill. fl 6oi6cb, hxo
BPA
12 Byji
ono3flaK) Ha noesA. / am afraid I'll
miss the train.
<> BOJIKOB 60HTbC
B JieC HB
xoAHTb (proverb). Cf. Nothing ven-
ture, nothing have. J^ejio Macxepa
6eHTCfl (proverb). Gf. He works best
who knows his trade.
BPAT m., pi. 6paTLH, 6paTteB
brother
CTapniHH 6paT. The elder (eldest)
brother. Mnaj^miiik opax. The young-
er (youngest) brother.
<> PoflHoii 5paT. Brother.
Jluom-
poAHbiii 5paT. (First) cousin.
BPATb, 6ep|y, -emb, -yx, past 6pa;i,
6pajia, 6paJi|o, -h imp. h t o? ko-
to?//?. B3flTb, B03LM|y, -cniL, -yT,
past BBflJI, BSflJia, BBHUJO, -H
1. to take. Oh Seper khiifh co
CTOJia. He is taking the books
off
the table.
2. 3 a HTo? to take. Bpaxb Koro-
HH6yflb 3a pyny. To take some-
body by the hand.
3. to borrow. Bpaxb KHiini b 6h6-
.iHOTene. To borrow books from
the library.
O
BsfliTb ce6fl B pyKH. To pull
oneself together. BsflTb cjiobo. To
take the floor.
BPATLCfl, 6eplycL, -enibca, -yxcfl,
past 6pajiCH, 6paJi|acb, -ocb, -ncb
imp. 3a Koro? 3a hto
?//?.
BSflTbCH, B03bM|yCb, -euibCH, -yTCfl,
past B3HJICH, B3flJl|aCb, -OCb, -HCb
1. to take hold of. Oh b3hjich sa
pyHKy ,^BepH. He took hold
of
the handle
of
the door.
2.
fig.
to apply oneself (to). Oh ro-
pflHo BSfiJica 3a paSoxy. He set
about the work enthusiastically.
BPHrAj}[A
/. team
Bparafla paSonnx. A team
of
workers.
BPlITbCH, 6pe|K)Cb, -embCH, -ioxch
imp. HeM?//). no6pHXbCfl, no6pe|-
K)Cb, -enibCH, -IOXCH to shave

Bw Speexecb b napHKMaxepcKOH?

Hex, H 6p6K)Cb caM. "Z)o you


shave at a barber's?" ''No, I shave
myself."
BPOB|B
/.,
gen. pi. -6h eyebrow
HepHHe 6p6BH. Black eyebrows.
XMypnxb 6p6BH. To knit one's
brows.
BPO^flTB, 6poHy, CpoAHmb, 6p6AHX
imp. to roam
Mbi AOJiro 6poAHJiH no jiecy. We
roamed the forest for a long time.
BPOCAlTb, -K), -emb, -lox imp.
/
p. 6p6|cHXb, -my, -cnmb, -chx
1. Koro? Hxo?
KyAa? to throw.
BpocHXb pbi6y B BOAy. To throw
a fish into the water, h e m? b
Koro? BO Hxo? Bpociixb
KaMHeM B OKHO. To throw a
stone at a window.
2. -\-inf. to give up. BpocHXb Ky-
pnxb. To give up smoking.
<> Bpocaxb cjiOBa Ha sexep. To
talk at random.
BPOCAITbCH, -locb, -embCH, -ioxch
imp.
KyAa? na Kor6?/iP. 6p6|-
CHXbCfl, -mycb, -cnmbcn, -chxch to
throw oneself (on), to attack
Go6afca 6p6cHJiacB na 4eji0BeKa. The
dog attacked the man. BpociixbCH
B MOpe. To throw oneself into the
sea.
BPOCHTb see BPOCATb
BPOCHTbCH see BPOCATbCH
BPK)KH no sing., gen. pi. 6piOK trou-
sers
My>KCKHe 6pK)KH. Men's trousers.
ByJ^flTb, 6yjKy, 6yAHmb, 6yAHT
imp.
Koro?
/p.
pa36yARXb, pa36yH{y,
pasSyAHHib, pa36yAHx to wake
Pa36yAHXb xoBapiima. To wake up
a friend.
By^TO conj. as if
Oh paccKa3biBaex xaK HHxepecHO,
6yAxo caM Bce axo BiiAeji. He has
such an interesting way
of
telling
things as though he had actually
seen them himself.
B'yj^yimEE neut., gen. -ero the fu-
ture
JlfiTU.

name 6yjs,ymee. Children


are our future. B 6yAyn^eM. In the
future.
B^ayimHH, -afl, -ee, -ne future;
next
ByAymaH pa66xa. Future work. B
6yAymeM roAy. Next year.
B^KBA /. letter
B pyccKOM aji$aBHxe 33 6yKBbi.
There are 33 letters in the Russian
alphabet.
ByjIlKA
/.,
gen. pi. -ok roll
CAoCnafl 6vJiKa. A bun.
ByjIOHHIAH [-mn-]
/.,
gen. -oh bakery
Kyniixb xJieSa b 6yjioHHOH. To buy
some bread at the baker's.
BYM 13 BA3K
BYMArA /.
1. no pi. paper. HiicTaa 6yMara.
Clean paper. ByMara ji^zia nncb-
Ma. Note-paper.
2.: ll,eHHHe SyMarn. Securities.
B^PH /. storm
CwjiBHaH 6ypH. A violent storm.
<> Bypfl B CTEKane boaw. A storm
in a teacup.
ByXEPBPOjt rn. sandwich
ByTep6p6A c MacjioM. Bread and
butter. ByxepSpoA c BexHHHOH. A
ham sandwich.
ByXb'IJIlKA /.,
gen. pi. -ok bottle
ByTWJiKa MOjiOKa. A bottle
of
milk.
Bya)T m.
1. sideboard. B 6y(j)eTe ctoht nam-
KH H CTaKaHBi. There are cups
and glasses in the sideboard.
2. buffet. Bj^er pa66TaeT c 9 ^lacoB.
The buffet
is open from 9 o'clock.
Bbl (B) modal particle, rendered in
English by the Conditional Mood and
also by the compound pronouns and
adverbs whoever, whatever, however,
whenever, etc.
I. 1. ECJIH 6w H 3HaJI, fl 6m hosbo-
HHJi Te6e. Had I known, I would
have called you up.
2. JlexoM H xoxeJi 6w noexaxt b
JleHHHrpaA. / should like to go
to Leningrad in summer.
3. nieji 6li tli cnaibl You ought
to go to bed!
II. 1. Kto 6li Mor 3T0 Cflejiaxb? Whoever
could have done that?
BblBAlTb, -10, -enib, -lox imp.
1. to go, to visit. H Hacxo 6MBaio
B xeaxpe. / often go to the
theatre.
2. to be, to occur. 3hm6h 6biBaiox
6ojibmHe Moposbi. There are
severe frosts in winter.
BKlCTPIblfl, -an, -oe, -me, short form
6bicxp, 6bicxpa, 6bicxp|o, -bi; adv.
6bicxpo quick, swift
Bbicxpaa peKa. A swift river. Bbicx-
po exaxb. To go quickly.
BblTb, 3rd pers. sing,
of
Present Tense
ecxb is often omitted; fut.
6yji;ly.
-enib, -yx; past 6biji, 6bijia, 6bijio,
6bijiH; He 6hji (-o, -h), ne Swjia
im,p.
1. there is (are). B Mockbg ecxb
yuHBepcHxex. There is a univer-
sity in Moscow. Panbrae a^ecb
6biJi Jiec, a xenepb ropo^. There
used to be a forest here, and now
there is a town. B MocKBe MHoro
TeaxpoB. There are many theatres
in Moscow.
2. to have. Y Mena ecxb 6pax. /
have a brother. Y Riena 6bi.T
6pax. / had a brother.
3. to be (ecxb is omitted). Gennac
3HMa. It is winter now. Bnepa
6biJi CHer. There was snow yester-
day. Bnepa 6bijia naxHHna, ce-
rd;i;Ha cy666xa, a saBxpa 6yflex
BOCKpeceHbe. Yesterday was Fri-
day, today is Saturday and to-
morrow will be Sunday.
4. to be (ecxb is omitted) Moii 6pax

HHHteHep. My brother is an en-


gineer. MoH oxen; 6mji BpanoM.
My father was a doctor, fl
6yAy
arpoflOMOM. / shall be an agrono-
mist.
B, B
B (BO) prep.
I.
-\- prepos.
1. in. B HHCbMeHHOM cxojie. In
the desk. HVxETh b Mockbc. To
live in Moscow. IIpoHHxaxb b ra-
3exe. To read in a newspaper.
2. in. Po;:^HXbCfl b 1949 ro^y. To
be born in 1949. B abrycxe. In
August. B nponijiOM BCKe. In
the last century.
3. in. HejioBeK b nepnoM KOcxioMe.
A man in a black suit.
II.
-j- ace.
1. in, to, at. nojio>KHXb b mna^.
To put in the wardrobe. IIpHexaxb
B MocKBy. To come to Moscow.
2. on, at. B cy666xy b xpn ^laca
6yflex coSpanne. There will be a
meeting at three o'clock en
Saturday.
3. not translated. IlepeBbinojiHHXb
njian b j^Ba paaa. To fulfil a
plan twofold.
BAPOH m. (railway) carriage
JKecxKHH Baron. A hard-seated rail-
way carriage. MarKHH BaroH. A soft-
seated railway carriage.
BAHCH|blQ, -an, -oe, -He, short form
Bamen, BaJKna, BajKHJo, -bi; adv.
BaWKHO
1. important. BajKHoe coo6^^eHHe.
BAH
14 BEP
An important announcement (com^
munication). BawHUH Bonpoc.
An important question. 9to hg
Ba>KHO. This is
of
no importance.
2. important, pompous. Oh roBO-
pHJi c Ba?KHHM BHAOM. He was
speaking with an air
of
impor-
tance.
BAHHA /. bath
IIpHHHTb BaHHy. To take a hath.
<> C6jiHe*!Hbie BaHHbi. Sun-baths.
BosAymHbie BaHHbi. Air-baths.
BAPEHIblfl, -an, -oe, -ue boiled
Bapenoe mhco. Boiled meat.
BAPflTb, BapK), Bapnmb, BapflT imp.
qTO? //). CBapnTB, CBapio, CBapnrab,
ceapflT to boil, to cook
BapjiTb Mflco. To boil meat. Cfia-
pHTb cyn. To cook soup. Bapiixb
o6eA-
To cook dinner.
BAIII, -a, -e, -ii pron. your
BoT Baraa KOMHaTa. Here is your
room. KaK Bame SAopoBbe? How are
you?
BBEFX adv. Ky^a? up(ward)
GMOxpexb BBepx. To look up. Jle-
TOTb BBepx. To
fly
upward.
BJ^AJIll adv.
rfle?
in the distance
Bjiajivi HOKaaaJicJi noea^. A train
appeared in the distance.
B/^AJlb adv. Ky^a? into the dis-
tance
CMOTpeTb B^ajib. To look into the
distance.
B^^BOEM adv. two (together)
PaGoTaxb b^bocm. To work together
(two persons).
BJ^OJIb prep. 4- gen. along
Exaxb B^ojib 6epera Mopn. To drive
along the sea coast. B^OJib ^oporH
pacxyx AepeBbH. There are trees
along the road.
B;^Py^ adv. suddenly
B^pyr nomeji ^oJ^At. Suddenly it
started to rain.
BE^PO neut., pi. Be^pa, Be^ep, bca-
paM, etc. bucket
BeApo BOAH. A bucketful
of
water.
<> ^OH<Ab jibGT KaK H3 seApa. //
is raining cats and dogs.
BEflb
1. conj. for. Oh o6H3axejibHO npn-
Aex, BeAb oh snaex, hxo Mti ero
TKjjfiM. He will certainly come,
for
he knows that we are waiting for
him.
2. particle but. Beflb axo npasAal
But this is the truth/
BEHCJlHBIblfl, -an, -oe, -we, short
form BeJKJiHB, -a, -o, -ii; adv. Bern-
JiHBO polite
BeJKnHBbiH Majib^HK. A polite boy.
Be>KjiHBO npocHXb. To ask politely.
BE3J^El adv. r
a
e? everywhere
BesAe Jiewaji cner. There was snow
everywhere.
BE3|Tfl, -y, -emb, -yx, past nea, sea-
Jija, -6, -li imp. Koro? ^to?
KyAa?
1. to take, to carry. Mamjina Beaex
MOjioKO B ropoA. The truck
is carrying the milk to town.
BeaxH peSeHKa b eanaxopHH. To
take the child to the sanatorium.
2. imfers. ko My? to be lucky. EMy
Beaex. He is lucky. Mne He
Besjio. / had no luck.
BEK m.,
pi. -a, -6b century
/^BaAUaxbin BeK. The twentieth cen-
tury. B npomjioM Bene. In the last
century.
BEJIlETb, -K), -limb, -hx imp. &
p.
{past only
p.)
k o M y? qeMy?
-|-
inf. to order
Maxb BeJieJia CMy hohxh b MaraaHH.
His mother told him to go to the
shop. Ona BejieJia, hx66li oh KyniiJi
Macjia. She told him to buy some
butter.
BEJlflK, -a', -6, -H short adj.
(cf.
BOJIblUOfl & BEJIflKHfl) too
large
KocxiOM BeJiHK ewy. The suit is too
large for him. Ty^JiH ea BemiKU.
The shoes are too large for her.
BEJIflKlHfl, -an, -oe, -we, short form
BejiHK, -a, -0, -H great
BejiHKHii yHeHwii. A great scholar.
BEJIOa/inEJJ, m. bicycle
HoBbiH BeJiocHHeA- -4 new bicycle.
Exaxb Ha BejiocnneAe. To ride a
bicycle.
BEPA
f.,
no pi. B Koro? bo qxo?
belief, faith
Bepa B no6eAy- Belief in victory.
Bepa B HeJiOBCKa. Faith in man.
BEPB|KA
/.,
gen. pi. -ok string,
rope
^jiMHHafl BepeBKa. A long piece
of
string.
BEPIHTb, -K), -nmb, -ht imp./
p.
no-
BeplHXb, -K), -Hmb, -ax
BEP 15 BEq
1. KOMy? HGMy? to believe. H
Te6e Bepio. / believe you.
2. B K r 6? BO H T 6? to have
faith (in). BepnTb b Hapo;^, b
erd CHJiH. To have faith in the
people, in their strength.
BEPHI^Tb, -y, -emt, -yT p. Koro?
^TO? KOMy? to return
BepeyTij ji^eHhTU TOsapHmy. To re-
turn money to one's friend.
BEPHiyXBCH, -ycb, -emtcH, -yxcfl
p.
K
y A
^? o T K
y fl
a? to come back
BepnyTLca ;i;om6h. To come back
home. BepnyTbCH H3 noesflKH. To
come back from a trip.
BEPH|blfl, -an, -oe, -ue, short form
Bepen, Bepna, Bepno, Bepnti; adv.
BepHO
1. faithful. BepHHH Apyr.
A faith-
ful friend. Bepno cJiy>KHTb na-
poAy. To serve the people faith-
fully.
2. correct. Bepnoe peraeHiie. The
correct decision. Bepnan mhcjib.
The right idea. Bepno pemnxb
sa^a^y. To solve a problem cor-
rectly.
BEPOHTHO paren. word probably
GerOAHH MH, BepOHTHO, nOHACM B
Knno. Today we shall probably go
to the cinema.
BEPTOJIET m. helicopter
BepTOJieT HOBOH KOnCTpyKDiHH. A
helicopter of a new design.
BEPXHlHfl, -Hfl, -ee. -ne
1. upper. BepxnHH aiaJK. The upper
storey.
2. outdoor. Bepxnee njiaxte. Out-
door clothes. BepxHflH OAe^K^a.
Outdoor clothes.
BEPfflflHA /. top
Bepmnna ^epeBa. The top
of
a tree.
Bepmiina ropH. The top
of
a moun-
tain.
BEC m. weight
Bee Tejia. The weight
of
a body.
BoJibmoH Bee. A great weight.
BECEJIjblfl, -an, -oe, -bie, short form
BecejT, Becejia, Becejilo, -u; adv.
Becejio merry, gay
Becejibie CTyAeBTbi. Gay students.
BecejiaH neCHH. A merry song. Mne
BeceJio. / feel gay.
BECEHHIHfl, -Hfl, -ee, -ne spring
BeceHHHH ji,eEh. A spring day.
Becennee coJiniie. The spring sun.
Becennee najibTo. A spring coat.
BE|CHTb, -my, -cnmb, -cht imp.
to
weigh
Apoya BecHT nnxb KHjiorpaMMOB.
The water-melon weighs
five kilo-
grarnmes.
BECHA
/.,
pi. Becnw spring
BECHOfl adv. in spring
BecHoH na noJinx xaex oner. In
spring the snow thaws in the fields.
BECTH,
BeAl.y,
-erab, -yx, past bcji,
BeJi|a, -6, -ri imp.
1. Koro? Hxo? Ky^a? to take.
Maxb BeAex peSeuKa b AexcKHH
caA. The mother is taking her
child to the kindergarten.
2. Hxo? to conduct. Becxii ypoK.
To conduct a lesson.
<> BecTH xo3flHCTBO. To keep a
house.
3. to lead. KyAa bcaSx 3xa Aopo-
ra? Where does this road lead to?
<> BecTH ceSn. To behave. PeSenoK
BGAeT ce5H xopomo. The child
behaves well. On iie yivieeT bbcth
ce6n. He can't behave himself.
BECb {gen. Bcero), bch {gen. Bceii),
Bce {gen. Bcero), Bce {gen. Bcex)
pron
.
1. all, whole. Pa66xaxb Becb Aenb.
To work the whole day. Pa66xaxb
BCK) HO^b. To work the whole
night.
2. used as n. nee everything. Bce
B nopHAKe. Everything is all
right.
3. used as n. ece everybody. Bce
npnmJiri? Has everybody come?
<> Bcero xoporaero! All the best!
Bce speMH meji ji,o'Mji,h. It was
raining all the time.
BETIEP m., gen. -pa wind
IIoAyJi CHJibHWH Bexep. A strong
wind blew.
Bf.TlKA
/.,
gen. pi. -ok
1. branch. BexKa SepesLi. A branch
of
a birch-tree.
2. branch-line. JKeJieanoAopoiKHafl
BexKa. A railway branch-line.
BEHEP m., pi. -a
1. evening. IIpHHXH aomoh b ceMb
HacoB Be^epa. To come home at
seven o'clock in the evening.
2. evening-party. IlpaaAHHHHbiH
Benep. A festive evening.
BEH 16 BHH
MyatmaJiBHUH Beiep. A musical
evening. JlnTepaxypHUH Be^ep.
A literary evening.
BEHEPHlHfl, -Hfl, -ee, -ne
1. evening. BeHepHHH aapH. Eve-
ning twilight.
2. evening. Beqepnee nJiaxLe. An
evening dress. BeHepHHH (|)a-
KyJiLTex. Evening department.
BEHEFOM adv. in the evening
H npHfly K BaM BenepoM. / shall
come to see you in the evening. Bqe-
pa Be^epoM
y
nac 6ujiii tocth. We
had guests yesterday evening.
BEinAlTb, -K), -eniL, -k)t itiip. k o-
ro? HTO? Kyjs,a?/p. noBe|cHTb,
-my, -CHmb, -cht to hang
Bemaxb KapTHHy na cieny. To hang
a picture on the wall.
BEmECTBO neut. substance
TBepfl;oe BemecxBo. Solid substance.
TKiijiKoe Beni;ecxB6. Liquid substance.
ra30o6pa3Hoe Ben^ecxBo. Gaseous
substance.
BEmib /.,
gen. pi. -eft
1. thing. Hy>KHafl Bem;i>. A thing
one needs. \\Usu.pl. Beiii,ii things.
OxBeaxH Bemn na BOKsaJi. To
take one's things to the station.
2. thing. KoMno3Hxop nanncaji xo-
pomyio BemB. The composer
wrote a good piece.
B3AflMH|blfl, -afl, -oe, -me mutual
BaaiiMHafl jik)66bl. Mutual love.
B3B0JIH0BATb see BOJIHOBATb
B3rJIHA m.
1. look. IIpHCXaJIbHMH B3rJIHA. A
stare. HezKHuft B3rJiflji;. -^'^
affectionate look. BpoCHXb
B3rJiH^. To cast a glance.
2. view. HayHHHe bsfjihabi. Scien-
tific views.
BBrJIflH^Tb, BsrJiHHy, BsrJiRHemb,
BsrJiHHyT
p. HaKoro? na hxo?
to glance
Oh B3rJiHHyji na nacu. He looked
at the clock.
BSAOXHyTb see Ba^blXATb
B3;:^bIXA|Tb,^ -K), -erab, -lox imp./
p. B3AoxH|yxb, -y, -emb, -yx to sigh
TjiySoKo BSAOXHVxb. To heave a
deep sigh.
B30flTfl see BCXOflflTb
B3P(3CJI|blfl, -afl, -oe, -bie
1. grown-up. BspocJibiH cwh. A
grown-up son.
2. n, grown-up. GJiymancfl B3p6c-
Jibix! Listen to grown-ups/
B3PbIB m.
1. explosion. BspbiB SomSm. A
bomb explosion.
2.
fig. outburst. BspwB cMexa. An
outburst
of
laughter.
B3flTb see BPATb
B3HTbCH see BPATbCH
BJIJI}
m.
1. look. BAopoBbiH BHfl. A healthy
look. BoJibHoft BH/i;. An unhealthy
look.
2. view. KpacHBHH bh^ na ropofl.
A beautiful view
of
the city.
<0> HMGTb B BHAy. To bear in mind.
BHJl,^
m. sort, kind, species
Bfl^EH, BHflna, bhaho, bh^hm short
adf. visible
rdpoji BPiflen c Mopfl. The town
can be seen from the sea.
Bfl/^HO Koro? H X 0? predic. im-
pers. (it is) visible
OxcioAa flaJieKO bii;jho! You can see
far
into the distance from here!
Hmero ne bh^ho. Nothing is visible.
Mne xopomd bitaho. / can see
well.
BflmETb, -my, -jiiiuih, -flflx
imp.
Kord? Hxo?//?. yBHl;i;exb, -jKy,
-ji:Hmb, -AHX to see
B oKHo fl BHHty cxapbiH napK. / see
an old park through the window.
IIjioxo Bir;5exb, To have poor eyesight.
Fajj, Bac BM^exb. / am glad to see
you.
<> BHACTb BCe B pOSOBOM CBCTe.
To see through rose-coloured spec-
tacles.
Bil^HMO paren. word apparently
BftflHMO, 3X0 6hji ee snaKOMbiH. It
must have been her acquaintance.
BlI^H|blQ, -afl, -oe, -we eminent
Bh;i;hhh yqenbiH. Afi eminent
scientist.
BflJIlKA
/.,
gen. pi. -ok fork
JI,aHxe, noHtdJiyncxa, BWJiKy. Will
you give me a fork, please? Ecxb
BHJIKOH. To eat with a fork.
BHHA /. fault
^
3x0 MOH BHHa. It is my fault. 3x0
npoH3omji6 no mo6h bhuo. It has
happened through my fault.
BHHO neut., pi. BHHa wine
KpenKoe bhho. Strong wine. Qjiap,.
BHH 17
BHH
Koe BHHo. Sweet wine. Cyxoe bhho.
Dry wine.
BHHOBATIWH, -aH, -oe, -He, short
form BHHOBaT, -a, -o, -bi
1. guilty, fl BHHOBaT nepeA bsmh.
/ am guilty towards you. Oh hg
BHHOBaT. He is not guilty.
2. fig.,
only complete form guilty.
BHHOBaTufi BsrJiHfl. A guilty
look. BuHOBaToe BbipajKenne jih-
na. A guilty expression on one's
face.
BHHOrPA/^ m., no pi. grapes; vine
CJiaAKHH BHHorpaA- Sweet grapes.
BH|CETb, -ray, -ciimb, -cat imp.
rfle?
to hang
IlaJibTo BHCi'iT Ha BeraaJiKe. The
coat is hanging on a hanger. KapTa
BHcr'iT Ha CTCHe. The map is hang-
ing on the wall.
BKJIfOHAITb. -K), -emb,^ -iot i?np.
H t 0^/ p.
BKJiK)H|HTb, -y, -lirab, -ax
to switch on
BKJiiOHHTb CBeT. To switch on the
light.
BKJIIOHfiTb see BKJIIOHATb
BKyC m.
1. taste, y cyna CTpaHHMH BKyc.
The soup tastes queer.
2. fig.
taste. OaeBaTbCH co BKycoM.
To dress with taste. Y Hero
xoporaHH BKyc. He has good
taste.
BKyCHIblfl, -an, -oe. -tie, short form
BKVceH, BKycna, BKycH|o, -li; adv.
BKycHO tasty
BKycHuii saBTpaK. A tasty break-
fast. Qua roTOBHT BKycno. She
cooks tasty meals.
BJlAJ\E\Th, -10, -erab, -iOT imp. HeM?
1. to own. Bjiaj^eTb seMJieii. To
own land.
2.
fig.
to know. BjiafleTb HHocTpan-
HWM H3E>ik6m. To know a foreign
language.
BJlAH{H|blM, -an, -oe, -bie, short form
Bjiawen, BJia>KHa, BJia>KH|o, -w damp
BjiawHbiH KJiHMaT. A damp climate.
Bjiawnan TpauKa. A damp rag.
BJIACTb
/.
power
BwTb (cTOHTb)
y
BJiacTH. To be in
power. BsHTb BJiacTb b cboh pyKH.
To take power into one's hands.
ITpHHTW K BJiacTH. To come to power.
BJIE3A|Tb, -K), -erab, -iot imp. na
HTO? bo HTO?/ /). BJie3|Tb, -y,
24002
-erab, -yT, past BJiea, BjiesJila, -o,
-H to climb
MaJibHHK BJies Ha Kpwray. The boy
climbed onto the roof. Oh BJies b okho.
He climbed in through the window.
BJIF3Tb see BJIE3ATb
BJIHUHHE neut. influence
OnasaTb BJiHHHHe na TOBapnraa. To
exert influence on a friend. BbiTb
Hoa BjTHHHHeM 6paTa. To be under
the influence
of
one's brother.
BJTIOBflTbCH see BJIIOBJIilTbCH
BJlK)BJlH|TbCH, -K)Cb, -eiiibCH, -iotch
imp. B Kord? bo ^to?//?. bjik)-
6l'lTbCH, BJIK)6jIl6cb, BJIK)6HrabCH,
bjti66htch to fall in love
Oh BjTK)6(ijicfl B MOK) cecTpy. He
fell in love with my sister.
BMECTE adv. together
PaOoraTb BMecTe. To work together.
BMECTO prep. -\- gen. instead of
BMecTO ypoKa ceroann 6y;teT aK-
CKypcHH. There will be an excur-
sion instead
of
the lesson today.
BMEinATbCH see BMEUIHBATbCH
BMEUlHBAITbCH, -locb, -erabCH,
-lOTCH imp. BO H T 6?
/ />. BMe-
malTbCH, -locb, -erabCH, -iotch to
interfere
He BMemHBaHTecb ne b cBoe neJio.
Don't interfere in what doesn't con-
cern you.
BHA4AJIE adv. at first, at the begin-
ning
^
BnaqaJie see CJiyraajin BHHMaTejib-
HO. At first everybody listened at-
tentively.
BHE prep. -\- gen. outside
Bne AOMa. Outside the house.
<> Bne 6iepeflH. Out
of
turn.
BHECTfl see BHOCflTb
BHEmHlHW, -flfl, -ee, -ne
1, outer, outward.
2. external, foreign. BneraHHH no-
jiHTHKa. Foreign policy. Bnera-
HHH TOproBJTH. Foreign trade.
BHH3 aofz^. k
y fl a? down(ward)
CnycTHTbCH BHH3. To come {go) down.
BnH3y adv. r
fl
e? below
Bhhsv TeKJia peKa. Down below
flowed a river.
BHHMAHHE neut. attention
BHHMaHHe! Attention! 06pamaTb
BHHMaHHe Ha ht6-jih6o. To pay
attention to something. HpHSJieKaTb
BHHMaHHe. To attract attenUon. He
BHH 18 B03
oCpamaHTe BHHManHH. Don't pay
attention. Bjiaro^apio Bac 3a bhh-
MaHHe. Thank you for your attention.
BHHMATEJIbHiblfl, -an, -oe, -ue,
short form BHiiMaTejien, BHHMaTeJib-
H|a, -0, -u; adv. BHHMaiejibHO atten-
tive. BHHMaTejibHMii yqeHHK. An
attentive pupil. BmiMaTejibHO HiiTaTt
KHiiry. To read a hook attentively.
BHOCflTb, BHomy, BHOcnnib, bhocht
imp. Koro? h t o? KyA^?/
p.
BHeclTif, -y, -eniL, -yx, past bhSc,
BHecji|a, -6, -fi
BHecTii Bemn b KoMHaxy. To carry
the things into the room.
<> BfiecTH npeAJiOHcenne. To table
a motion.
BHYK m. grandson
BHyTPEHHIHfl, -nn, -ee, -ne
1. internal. BHyipeHHiie 6oJie3HH.
Internal diseases.
2. internal. BHyTpeHnee nojio>KeHHe
B CTpane. The internal situation
in a country. BHVTpeHHHH noJiii-
TiiKa. Internal policy.
BHYTPH
1. adv. rji;e? inside. Bojiht BHyx-
pii. It hurts inside.
2. prep,
-f-
gen. inside. Bnyxpii
KOMHaxbi. Inside the room.
BHYTPb inside, into
1. adv. K
y A
a?: IIpHHaxL jiCKapcxBO
BHyxpK. To take a medicine.
2. prep. -\- gen.: SarjiHHj'xT. Bnyxps
aajia. To look into the hall.
BH^HlKA
/.,
gen. pi. -en granddaugh-
ter
BOBPEMH adv. in time
IlpHiixH BoepeMH, To come in time.
BO BPEMfl prep, -j- gen. during
Bo BpeMH BOHHM. During the war.
Bo BpeMH nepepuBa. During the
interval.
BOBCE (He) adv. at all
Oh BoBce He AOKXop, a HHJKenep.
He is not a doctor at all, he is an
engineer.
BO-BTOPb'IX paren. word second(ly)
Bo-nepBbix, h ycxaji, BO-BxopHX,
xony cnaxt. First, I'm tired, sec-
ondly, I'm sleepy.
BO3A
/.,
ace.
BOfly; pi. BOAti water
XojiOAHaH BOAa. Cold water. Fopn-
^an BOAa. Hot water. MnnepaAbHaa
BOAa. Mineral water. OpyKxoBaH
BOAa. Fruit drink. CxanaH boah.
A glass
of
water.
<0' BuuTH cyxHM H3 BOAbi. To come
off
unscathed. KaK abc Kanjin bo-
AW.
As like as two peas. Mnoro
BOAbi yxeKJio. Much water has
flowed under the bridges.
BOJ^flTb, BOJKy, BOAHOib, boaht imp.
1 . K r 6? H X o? K
y A
a? to take.
BoAHXb Aexea na nporyjiKy b
napK. To take the children out for
a walk in the park.
2. Hxo? to drive, BoAUXb ManiH-
HV. To drive a car.
BO|EBATb, -lOK), -loemb, -loiox imp.
c K e M? c H e M? to fight
Boesaxb c BparoM. To fight the
enemy.
BOEHHI biH, -an, -oe, -bie war, military
1. BoeHHoe nojiowenne. The mili-
tary situation. BoeHHaa npo-
MbimjiCHHOCXb. War industry.
BoeHHoe BpeMH. War time.
2. n. Moil 6pax

BoenubiH. My
brother is in the army.
BOaCj^lb m., gen. -h leader
Bo>KAb HapoAa. The leader
of
the
people.
B03BPATflTb see B03BPAmiATb
BOaBPATflTbCfl see B03BPAmATb-
Cfl
B03BPAmA!Tb, -K), -emb, -rox imp.
KOro? HXO? KO My?/ /?. B03Bpa|-
xiixb, -n;y, -xiimb, -xhx to return
BosBpaxHXb AOJir xoBapHm;y. To
return a debt to one's friend.
B03BPAmA|TbCH, -locb, -enibCH,
-loxcH imp. Kyjia?^ oxKyAa?/
p.
B03Bpa|XHXbCfl, -myCb, -XHfflbCH,
-xaxcH to come back
BosBpantaxbCH aomoh h3 noxofla.
To return home from a hike.
B033;yX m. air
HmcxwiS BosAyx. Pure air. CBeCHH
BOBAyx.
Fresh air.
<> Ha CBCHteM eoBAyxe. In the open
air.
B03flTb, Bowy, BoBHmb, bobax imp.
Koro? ^xo? to carry
MaraiiHbi Bosflx khpdhhh. Lorries
carry bricks.
B03JIE
1. adv. near. ManiHHa ocxanoBH-
jiacb BOSJie. The motor-car stop-
ped near by.
2. prep.
+
gen. near. Er6 AOm na-
B03 19 BOP
XOflHTCfl BOSJie yHHBepCHTGTa.
His house is near the University.
BO3M0aCHOCTI>
/.
1. opportunity. IlMeTB bo3m6>k-
HOCTb. To have an opportunity
.
^aXB B03m6hHOCTB K0My-JIH60
c;^eJIaTb ht6-jih6o. To give some-
body an opportunity to do some-
thing.
2. usu. pi. possibilities. Bojitmiie
bo3m6h<hocth. Great possibilities.
BOSMOHCHlblfl, -an, -oe, -tie, short
form BosMoJKeH, BOBMOTKHia, -0, -h;
adv. BOBMOJKHO possible, probable
BoBMOJKHbiH cjiynaH. A possible
case. 3to snojiHe bobmojkho. That
is quite possible.
B03HHKAlTb, 1st & 2nd pers. not
used, 3rd pers. -ex, -k)t imp.
/p.
B03HHKH|yTb, 1st & 2nd pers. not
used, 3rd pers. -ex, -yx, past bob-
HHK, -Jia, -Jio, -JTH to appear
3x0 rocyAapcxBo bobhhkjio b xpexb-
CM Bene. This state appeared in the
third century.
BOaHflKHyXb see BOBHHKATb
BOaPAH^AlTb, -K), -emb, -lox imp.
KOMy? Ha Hx6?/j. BoapalBPixb,
-my, -Bumb, -bhx to reply, to object
BoBpaBHXb fliOKJiaA^HKy. To reply to
the speaker. BoapaBHXb na BaMenaHHe.
To reply to a remark. Ecjih bli ee
BoapajKaexe...
//
you don't mind...
B03PA3flTb see B03PA3KATb
Bd3PACT m. age
/],exH mKoJibHoro BOBpacxa. Children
of
school age. B Boapacxe mecxH^e-
CflXH Jiex. At the age
of
sixty.
BOflHA
/ ,
pi. BOHHM war
O^'bfiBUTh BOHHy. To declare war.
norH6Hyxb na bohhc. To lose one's
life in the war.
BOflTfl see BXOAflTb
B0K3AJI w. station
JleHHHrpaACKHH BOKaaji. Leningrad
Railway Station. Iloexaxb na bok-
BaJi. To go to the station.
BOKP^r
1. adv. round. TiiraHHa uoKpyr.
There is silence all round.
2. prep.
-^
gen. round. BoKpyr
flOMa 6hiji
cafl. The house was
surrounded by a garden.
BOJIEflBOJI m. volley-ball
Mrpaxb B BOJienSoJi. To play volley-
ball.
2*
BOJIK m., gen. pi. -6b wolf
<> BojiKOB 5oflTbCH

B Jiec He
xoAHTfa (proverb). Cf. Nothing ven-
ture, nothing have.
BOJIHA
/., pU
BojiHH wave
BOJIHEHHE neut. excitement, ner-
vousness
Oh noSjieflHeJi ox BOJiHennH. He
turned pale with excitement.
BOJIHlOBATb, -yio, -yemb, -yiox imp.
K r 6? H X 0?
/
/>. BBBOJlH|OBaxb,
-yio, -yemb, -ywx to worry
3xox Bonpoc MGHa onenb BOJinyex.
This question worries me very much.
BOJlHlOBATbCH, -yiocb. -yerabcn,
-yioxcfl imp. to worry, to be ner-
vous, to be excited
BojiHOBaxbca nepeA aKsaMenoM. To
^feel
nervous before an examination.
BOJIOCbl pi., gen. pi. eojioc, bojio-
caM, etc.; sing, bojioc hair
KpacHBbie BOJiocLi. Beautiful hair.
BpJIfl
/.,
no pi. will
CwJibHaa bojih. A strong will. Bojia
K noSefle. The will to win.
BOOBIU,E adv.
1. in general. Boo6me bxo npaB;i;a.
In general it is true.
2. at all. Oh BOo6me ho roBoppix
no-pyccKH. He does not speak
Russian at all.
BOOPyHCEHHE neut.
1. no pi. equipment. BoopyjKeHne
apMHH HOBHM opyjKneM. The
equipment
of
the army with new
weapons.
2. usu. pi. armaments. CoKpameHHO
BOopyjKeHHH. A reduction
of
ar-
maments. FoHKa BOOpyJKeHHH.
The arms race.
BO-nEPBblX paren. word first(ly),
in the first place
Bo-nepBwx, bxo xpyfljHo... In the
first place, it's difficult...
BonpOc m.
1. question. IIpocxoH Bonpoc. A
simple question.
3aflaxb Bonpoc.
To ask a question.
2. question, problem. BamHWH Bon-
poc. Alt important question. Ha-
i^HOH^jibHUH Bonpoc. The national
question.
BOP m., gen. pi. -6b thief
ApecxoBaxb B6pa. To arrest a thief.
BOP
20 Bnp
BOPOTA no sing., gen. pi. BOpoT
1. gate(s). Bopoxa caAa. The gate
of
a garden.
2. goal, riocjiaxb mhi b Bopoia
npoTMBHHKa. To send the ball
into the opponent's goal.
BOPOTHflK m., gen. -a collar
MexoBOH BopoTHHK, A fur colUr.
BOCKJIflKHiyXb see BOCKJIHUiATb
BOCKJIHU;AlTb, -KD, -emb, -iot imp.
I
p.
BOCKjiHKHlyTb, -y, -emb, -yx to
exclaim, to cry out
PaaocxHO BOCKJiHKHyxb. To cry out
joyfully.
BOCKPECfiHbE neut. Sunday
B B0CKpeceHr,e mm esAiiJiH sa ropoA.
We went to the country on Sunday.
BOCIIHTAHHE neut. upbringing,
education
BocnuTaHHe pe6eHKa. The upbring-
ing of
a child. Oh nojiyiHji xopo-
mee BocniiTaHne. He received a
good education.
BOCllHTATb see BOCnflTblBATb
BOCnflTblBAlTb, -K), -euib, -k>x imp./
p. BOcnuralTb, -lo, -emb, -lox to
bring up
1. Koro? to bring up. Bocnuxaxb
CbiHa. To bring up one's son.
2. qxo? B KOM? to cultivate.
Bocnuxaxb b jiernx jiioSoBb k
npHpoAe. To cultivate love for
nature in children.
BOCnOJIb30BATbCH see nOJIbSO-
BATbCfl
BOCnOMHHAHHE neut.
1. recollection. BocnoMnnauHe oex-
cxBa. Recollection
of
one's child-
hood.
2. usu. pi. reminiscences, memoirs.
BocnoMHuaiinH o coBpeMeuHH-
Kax. Reminiscences
of
one's con-
temporaries.
BOCCTAHABJlHBAjTb, -lo, -emb, -lox
imp. qxo?/ p.
BOCCxa|HOBHTb, -hob-
JIK), -HOBUmb, -HOBHT tO TCStorC, tO
rebuild
BoccxanoBHXb paapymeHHun ropoA.
To rebuild a town that had been
destroyed. BoccxauoBuxb xoshhcxbo.

To restore the economy.


BOCCTAHHE neut. uprising, revolt
IloAHflXb Boccxanne. To raise a
revolt.
BOCCTAHOBflTb see BOCCTAHAB-
JIHBATb
BOCTOK m. east
1. east. CoJiHue bocxoahx Ha bocx6-
Ke. The sun rises in the east.
2. East. Bjthjkhhh Bocxok. Near
East. ^ajTbunii Bocxok. Far
East. CpeAHHH Bocxok. Middle
East. Bm 6biJiH Ha Bocxone?
i/a?.'e you been in the East?
BOCTOPr m. delight, enthusiasm
Oh c BOCxoproM paccKaawBaji o cbo-
ea noesAKe. He was telling about
his trip enthusiastically.
BOCTOHHibiB, -aa, -oe, -bie east(ern)
Bocxo^uhiH Bexep. An east wind.
BocxoiHoe uanpaBJieHHe. An easterly
direction.
BOCXHTHTbCH see BOCXHU^ATbCH
BOCXHmAlTbCH, -locb, -ombCH, -lox-
Cn^mp. KeM? HCM?/ p. bocxh|-
xiixbCH, -mycb, -XHmbCfl, -Xflxcn to
admire
Becb MHp BOCxumaexcH noABHroM
repoeB. The whole world admires the
heroes' feat.
BOCXO/^ m. rising
BocxoA c6JiHH,a. The sunrise.
BOX particle
1. here is. Box KHiira. Here is the
book.
2. what (a). Box npacoxal What
beauty! Box axo xopomo! That's
good!
BHEPBb'IE adv. for the first time
H BnepBbie b MocKBe. It is the
first time I have been in Moscow.
BIIEPE/^ adv. KyAa? forward
Maxh BoepeA. To go forward.
BHEPEAfl
1. adv. TAe? in front. BnepeAH
6bijTH ropbi. There were mountains
in front.
2. prep. -\- gen. at the head of, in
front of. BnepeAH kojiohhh
necJiH BHaMeaa. At the head
of
the column they carried banners.
BnEMATJlEHlfE neut. impression
CnJibHoe Bne^axjieHHe. A strong
impression. Mrpa apxHCxa npoHSBe-
jia SoJibmoe BneqaxjieHHe na spw-
Tejieii. The actor's performance made
a great impression on the specta-
tors.
BIIPOHEM conf. though, nevertheless
KapxHHa xoporaaa, Bnp6teM bu
caxfH ee yBHAHTe. The picture i9
good, though you'll see it yourself.
BPA 21
BCT
L
BPAF m., gen. -a enemy
BopoTbCH c BparaMH. To fight the
enemies.
BP|ATb, -y, -enib, -yT, past Bpaji,
BpaJia, BpajiH imp. KOMy? hcmj'^?/
p.
coBpiaib, -y, -eiuh, -yx, past
coBpaji, coBpana, coBpajiH colloq. to
lie. PeGcHOK coBpaJi OTu.y. The child
lied to his father.
BPAH m., gen. -a physician, doctor
BpaH-xepaneBT. A therapeutist. TKeii-
mHHa-Bpan. A lady doctor. Bbixb
y
Bpana. To be at the doctor's. M^th
K Bpa^y. To go to the doctor. Co-
BCTOBaTbCH c Bpa^oM. To consult a
doctor.
BPE^H|blH, -afl, -oe, -Lie, short form
BpeaeH, BpeAHa, BpeAH|o, -w; adv.
Bpeano harmful, bad
BpeAHUH HenoBeK. A bad man.
BpeAHaa Teopna. A harmful theory.
BpeAHoe pacTeHiie. A noxious weed.
BaM BpeAHO MHoro KypnTb. It's
bad for
you to smoke so much. Mop63
BpeACH Anfl K)>KHb]X pacTemiH. Frost
is dangerous for
southern plants.
BPEMfl neut., gen., dat., prepos. Bpe-
mchh; pi. BpcMena, BpeMen, BpeMO-
HaM, etc. time
1. CKO-ibKO BpeMCHH? What time
is it? BpeMH HACT. Time flies.
BpeMH npomjio. The time has
passed. BpeMH He jkact. Time
waits for no man. BpeMH noKa-
meT. Time will show.
2. Be^epiiee BpeMH. Evening. ^o>ka-
jiiiBoe BpeMH. Rainy period.
Cxapbie BpcMena. Old times.
BpeMena roAa-
Seasons.
<^ BceMy CBOe epeMH. There is a
time for
everything. Bee BpeMH. All
the time. Ona Bce BpeMH CMeHJiacb.
She laughed all the time. Bo opeMH
used as prep. ~{-gen. Bo BpeMH Boii-
HH MM ?KHjiH
y
6a6yraKH. During
the war we lived at our granny's.
BCEi pron., see BECb, 2
BCE2 particle still, ever
A OH Bce MOJiHHT H MOJiqiiT. And
he still keeps silent. H Bce name
BcnoMHHdio TBOH cjiOBa. / recollect
your words ever oftener. Oh Bce eme
6ojieeT. He is still ill. Tw Bce me
npHxoflti KO MHe. You come to see
me just the same.
BCEPAA adv. always
Oh BcerAa BecejiWH. He is always gay.
BCEMflPHlblfl, an, -oe, -we world
BceMkipHbin (j[)ecTHBa;ib. World festi-
val.
BCE PABHO
1. all the same. Mne Bce paBHo. It's
all the same to me.
2. just the same. Xoth o^enb xo-
jiOAHO, fl Bce paBHo nofiAV TyAa.
Though it is very cold, I'll go
there just the same.
BCE-TAKI] particle just the same
H Bce-TaKH now
AY
^a Benep. I'll
go to the evening-party just the
same.
BCKOFE adv. soon
BcKope Ha^ajiCH AO^^Afc-
Soon it
began to rain.
BCJIEJI after, following
1, adv. Oh nocMOTpeJi BCJieA...
His
eyes followed...
2. used as prep. -\- dat. or sa -{-instr.
Oh nocMOTpeJi bcjica eMV. He
followed him with his eyes. Mti
Homjiii BCjiGA 3a HHM. We fol-
lowed him.
BCJiyX adv. aloud
MHTaTb BCjiyx. To read aloud.
BCnAXATb see HAXATb
BCllOMMHAlTb, -lo, -emb, -iot imp.
K o r 6? ^ T o? or o neu?
/
p.
bchom-
H|HTb, -K), -Hmb, -HT
1. to recollect, fl BcnoMHH^io
CBoero Apyra. / recollect my
friend. BcnoMHHaTb o AexcTBe.
To recall one's childhood.
2. to remember, fl HHKaK ne Mory
BcnoMHHTb. / just Can't remem-
ber.
BCnOMHHTb see BCnOMHHATb
BCTAIBATb, -K), -emb, -K)t imp.
f
p. BCTa|Tb, -Hy, -Hemb, -nyx to get
up, to rise
Ka?KAblH AGHb H BCTaiO B ceMb Ha-
coB yTpd, HO ceroAHfl h Bcxaji b
BoceMb HacoB. Every day I get up
at seven o'clock in the morning, but
today I got up at eight o'clock.
Cojmae BCTaeT na BocioKe. The sun
rises in the east.
^
Bcxaxb c Jieeofi hofh. To
get out
of
bed on the wrong side.
BCTATb see BCTABATb
BCTPETHTb see BCTPE^ATb
BCTPfiTHTbCfl see
BCTPEHAXbCfl
BCT 22 Bbl
BCTPEHA /.
meeting
Bcxpeia Apyaen. A meeting
of
friends. GepACHHaH Bcxpena. A cor-
dial meeting.
BCTPEHA|Tb, -K), -eiuL, -iot imp.
KOro? H T 0?
/p.
BCTpe|THTb, -Hy,
-THmb, -THT to meet
1. fl BCTpeTHJi ero cjiyn^MHO. /
met him by chance.
2. BCTpeTHTb XJieSOM-COJIbK). To
extend hospitality to somebody.
<> BcTpeqaxb HoBbiu roji. To see
the New Year in.
BCTPEHAITbCH, -rocb, -embca, -k)t-
CH imp. c KCM? c ^eM?/
p. BCXpelTHTbCH, -HyCb, -THmbCH,
-THTCfl to meet
BcTpeTHTbCH c ApysbflMii. To meet
friends. Mw BCTpexHJiHCb Ha yjiH-
Hfi. We met in the street.
fig.
BCTpeXHTbCfl C TpyAHOCTHMH. To
meet with difficulties.
BCTynAlTb, -K), -emb, -k)t imp. bo
mo?
/
p. BCTyoHTb, BCTynjifo, BCxy-
nnmb, Bcxynax to join
Bcxynwxb b cnopxHBHoe oSmecxBO.
To enter a sports society.
BCTynflTb see BCTynAxb
BCXO^flTb, Bcxowy, BCxoAHmb,
BCXOAflX imp.
I
p.
B30H|xii,
-Ay,
-Aerab, -AyT, past B3o|meji, -mjia,
-mjio, -rajiiT
1. to ascend. Bcxoaiixb na Bepraa-
ny ropij. To climb to the top
of
the mountain.
2. to rise. G6-iHi;e bcxoahx. The
sun rises.
BClDj^y adv. everywhere
BcK)Ay 6i>iJio xeMiio. It was dark
everywhere
.
BCHKiHfl, -aw, -oe, -ne pron.
1. any
2. all sorts of. B MarasHne ecxb
BCHKHe npoAyKXLi. There are all
sorts
of foodstuffs in the shop.
3. u.'ied as n. anyone
0- Ha BCflKHH cjiyqau. Just in
case. Be3(o) bchkux xpyAOB. With-
out any
difficulty.
B TEHEHHE prep. -{-gen. during
B xeHenne 3Hmh. During the win-
ter. PaSoxaxb b xeHeiine roAa. To
work during the year.
BTOPHHK m. Tuesday
Co6paHHe cocxohxch bo bxophhk.
The meeting will take place on
Tuesday. Kamjs,uu. BXopHHK. Every
Tuesday.
B-TPETbllX paren. word third(ly)
Knara, BO-nepBwx, o^enb nnxepec-
Haa, BO-BXOpUX, KpaCHBO o$6pM-
jiena, h, B-xpexbHX, ona JierKo hh-
xaexcH. First, the book is very in-
teresting, second, it is beautifully
designed, and, third, it reads well.
BTPOEM adv. three (together)
Mu oSeAaeM BxpoeM, We three dine^
together.
By3 m.
(= Biicmee yn^Snoe saBCA^-
HHe) higher educational establish-
ment
B MocKBe oKOJio 90 ByaoB. In Mos-
cow, there are some 90 higher edu-
cational establishments.
BXO^ m. entrance
BxOR B Mexpo. An entrance to the
underground.
Bxoa b napK. An
entrance to the park. FjiaBHUH
BXOA- The main entrance.
BXOJ^iiTb, BXo>Ky, Bxonvtnih, bxoaht
imp.K
y
na?
/
p.
BOH|xii,
-Ay,
-Aerab,
-Ayx, past Bo|meji, -mjia, -mjio,
-mjiM
1. to enter. Bohx/i b KJiacc. To
enter the classroom. Pasperanxe
BoiixH? May I come in?
2. B cocxas AeJierauHH bxoahx
nflxb HejiOBCK. The delegation
consists
of five members.
<> BoiiTH BO BKvc. To get to like.
BoflxH B MOAy. To become fashion-
able. BoHTH B AOBepue K KOMy-
-jih5o. To win somebody's confi-
dence.
B^EPA adv. yesterday
BHepa 6bijio xojioaho. It was cold
yesterday.
BHEPAniHlHfl, -Hfl, -ee, -ne yester-
day's
BqepamHflfl raaexa. Yesterday's
paper.
BT>E3HCA|Tb, -lo, -emb, -lox imp.
K
y A
a?
/ />
B-bexaxb,
B-bCAly,
-emb,
-yx to drive (into)
BTbexaxb b ropoA- To drive into a
town. B-bexaxb na ropy. To drive
uphill.
B-bfiXATb see B'bESHCAXb
Bbl pron., gen., ace, prepos. Bac,
dat. BaM, instr. saMH
nporay Bac, ji^kme mho KHiiry.
Will you kindly give me the book?
BBIB 23 BblH
BblBHPAlTb, -K), -eniB, -iot imp.
K r 6? H T 0?
/
/>. BtidpaTfc, Bbi6ep|y,
-emb, -yx to choose, to select
BbiSpaxb cnennajibHOCTb. To choose
a speciality. BbiSpaTb 6jik)A0. To
choose a dish. Bbi6paTb jiyimnx
CnopXCMCHOB H3 HHCJia CTyflCHTOB.
To select the best sportsmen among
the students.
BKlBOPbl pi., no sing, elections
BbiSopbi B napjiaMeHT. Elections to
the Parliament. Bce66in,He, paBHbie
H npflMbie BbiSopw. Universal, equal
and direct elections.
BWBPACbIBA|Tb, -lo, -emb, -k)t
imp. Koro? h t o? Ky^a?/
p.
BH5po|cHTb, -my, -cnmb, -cat to
throw out
BbiSpocHTb eeHyHtHbie GyMarn. To
throw out the unnecessary papers.
BfiBPATb see BblBHPATb
Bb'IBPOCHTb see BblBPACblBATb
BblBECTH see BblBOAHTb
BlilBOJ^ m. conclusion
GAeJiaTb npaBHjibHUH blibo^. To
draw the right conclusion.
BblBO/^flTb, BHBOJKy, BblBOAHfflb,
BWBOAHT
imp.
p. BblBClCTH,
-ay,
BLIBCJI, -a, -0, -M
1
Koro?
-flcmb.
H T 0? /
flyx,
past
I
to take out. BbiBecxH Jloma;^eH
Ha nporyjiKy. To take the horses
for a walk.
2. to remove. BbiBecxn ohxho na
KOCXioMe. To remove a stain
from a suit.
<> Oh BMeeji mchh h3 ce6w. He
put me beside myself.
BttrJIHIflETb, ->Ky, -AHmb, -ahx
imp. to look
Ona xoporao BbirjiHAHX. She looks
well.
BttPHATb see BblFOHIlTb
BbirOHUlTb, -K>, -emb, -lox imp.
Koro? oxKy^a? / p.
Bwrnaxb,
Bi>iroH|io, -nmb, -hx to turn out
H ero BhirnajiBOH. / turned him out.
BbIJ^AiBATb, -K), -emb, -lox imp.
q X o? K M y?//>. BHAaxb, BblAaM,
BbiAamb, BbiAacx, Bup^aj^mM, BbiAa-
AHxe, BbiAaAyT
1. to give out. BbiAaxb KBHrn. To
give books out.
2. to give away, to betray. Ero
BbiAaJTH. He was betrayed.
BblfliATb see BblAABATb
BblE3HCA|Tb, -K),^ -emb, -rox imp.
I
p.
Bbiexaxb, BbieAly, -emb, -yx to
leave, to drive out
Mamnna Bbiexajia h3 rapajKa. The
car drove out
of
the garage. Bbiexaxb
H3 ropoAa. To leave town.
Bb'IEXATb see BbIE35KATb
Bi;i3BATb see Bbl3bIBATb
Bbl3A0PABJIHBA|Tb, -lo, -emb, -rox
imp.
I
p. BbiBAopoBcIxb, -K), -emb,
-lox to recover
MoH 6pax BbiBAopoBeJi. My brother
has recovered. BbiBAOpaBJiHBaHxe!
Get well!
Bi;i3A0P0BETb see BbI3A0PABJIH-
BATb
Bbl3bIBAlTb, -K), -emb, -rox imp.
KOTo>
I
p. BbT3Baxb, Bbi30B|y, -emb,
-yx to call out
Bbi3Baxb cxyAeHxa k AOCKe. To
call out a student to the blackboard.
Bb'mrPATb see BblflPPblBATb
BblflrPblBAITb, -10, -emb, -lox imp.
Hxo?
y
koto}
I
p. Bbinrpalxb, -lo,
-emb, -K)x
1. y Koro? lo win. Bbinrpaxb
y
Apyra napxHK) b raaxMaxbi. To
v)in a game
of
chess from a
friend.
2. to win. Bbinrpaxb MamHHy. To
win a motor-car
.
Bb'IHTH see BblXOJ^flTb
BblKJIIOHAlTb, -K), -emb, -lox imp.
q X 0?
I
p. BbiKjiiOH|Hxb, -y, -nmb,
-ax to switch off
BbiKJiiOHHXb CBex. To switch
off
the
light.
Bb'IKJIK)4HTb see BblKJIIOHATb
BKlJTE^HTb see JIE^HTb
BblJlHBAlTb, -K), -emb, -lox imp.
Hxo?oxKyAa? Kyjia.?
/
p.
bw-
jiHXb, BbiJib|io, -emb, -lox; imper.
Bbijieii to pour out
BbijiHXb BO
Ay
H3 cxaKaea. To pour
water out
of
a glass. BbiJiHXb mojio-
k6 b Kacxpiojiio.. To pour milk into
a saucepan.
Bb'IJlHTb see BblJIHBATb
Bb'IMblTb see MblTb
BttMblTbCH see Mb'ITbCfl
BblHHMAlTb, -K), -emb, -lox imp.
Hxo.> oxKy Aa?
/
/>. BbiHlyxb, -y,
-emb, -yx to take out
Bbinyxb njiaxoK h3 KapMana. To take
a handkerchief out
cf
one's pocket.
BblHYTb see BblHHMATb
Bbin 24
BblX
BttnnCATb see BbinnCHBATb
BbinflCblBAlTb, -lo, -erab, -k)t imp.
H T o?
I
p.
Bb'inn|caTB, -my, -menib,
-rayT
1, HTO? oTKyAa? to copy out.
BbiniicaTb miTary H3 KHiirw. To
copy out a quotation from a book.
2. to subscribe. BbiOHcaTb jKypuaJiH
H raaerw. To subscribe to maga-
zines and newspapers. BbinHcaxb
peueuT CojJbHOMy. To write a
pre!>cription for a patient.
Bb'inHTb see HHTb
BbinOJIHKHHE neut. fulfilment
BMHOJiHeHHe njTaua. The fulfilment
of
a plan.
Bb'inOJIHHTb see BbinOJlH)lTb
BbinOJIH>I|Tb, -10, -emb, -iot imp.
H T O? / p. BLinOJlHlHTb, -lO, -Hmb,
-HT to carry out, to fulfil
BbmojiHHTb 6oJibmyK) paSoxy. To
carry out a great work. Bi.'inoJiHHXb
MecHHHbiM njian. To
fulfil a monthly
plan.
BblUyCKAITb, -K), -emb, -iot imp.
K o r 6? H T o?
/
/). BbinylcTHTb,
-my,
-CTHmb, -CTflT
1. to let out. BbinycTiiTb nxiiuy 113
KJieTKii. To let the bird out
of
the cage.
2. to turn out. BbinycxHTb cnenna-
jiiicxoB. To turn out specialists.
3. to turn out. Bbinycnaxb npo-
flVKiuiK) BbicoKoro Kaqecxea. To
turn out high-quality products.
Bb'inyCTHTb see BblliyCKATb
BblPAH^EHHE neut. expression
1. MnxepecHoe BbipaweHne. An in-
terestin
g
expression
.
2. Bbipa>KeHHe Jiuna. Expression.
Bb'IPACTH see PACTfl
BblCOKlHfl, -aH, -oe, -iie, short form
BbicoK, BbicoK|a, -6, -h; adv. bmco-
k6; comp. Bbime
1. tall. BbicoKHH flOM.
A tall house.
BbicoKHH ^eJTOBeK. A tall man.
2.
fig.
high. BbKOKHH ypoBenb
H^HBHH. A high living standard.
BbicoKaH xeMuepaxypa. A high
temperature. BbicoKoe jijABZieumQ.
High pressure. Bmcokhh roJioc.
A high voice.
BblCOTA /. height
BoJibmaa Bbicoxa. A great height.
IIphDKKn B Bucoxy. High jumping.
3AaHHe cto MexpoB b Bucoxy. A
building a hundred metres high.
JI|epeBo BMCoxoii b
jtecHxb MexpoB.
A tree ten metres high.
Bb'ICTABlKA
/.,
gen. pi. -ok exhibi-
tion
BbicxaBKa flocxHweniiH HapoflHoro
xosHHCXBa. The Exhibition
of
Eco-
nomic Achievement.
Bb'ICTPEJliHTb, -K), -limb, -hx p. to fire
BbicxpeJiHTb 113 niicxoJiexa. To fire
a pistol.
BblCXynAlTb, -K), -emb, -lox imp./
p. Bbicxylnnxb, -njiio, -nwmb, -nar
1. to speak. Bbicxynnxb na co6paHMH.
To speak at a meeting. Bbicxy-
nnxb c peHbK). To make a speech.
2. to appear. Bbicxynuxb b rjiaBHOH
poJiH. To appear in the principal
role.
Bb'ICTVnHTb see BblCTyHATb
Bbl( XynJIEHHE neut.
1. speech. Bbicxynjieiine flejieraxa.
The delegate's speech. Bbicxynji^-
HUe MHHHCXpa UHOCXpaUHblX flCJI
no xeJieBMAenHK). The foreign mi-
nister's appearance on television.
2. performance. BbicxynJieuHe ap-
TiicxoB. The actors' performance.
Bb'ICIDIMfl, -aH, -ee, -ne
1. higher, superior
2. highest, supreme
""0* Bbicmee o(ipa30BaHiie. Higher
education. Bucmiiii opraii BJiacTn.
The supreme organ of
power.
Bb'ITAIU,HTb see TAIUftTb, 2
BblTElETb see BblTHPATb
BblTHPAlTb, -K), -emb, -lox imp.
q X o?
/
p.
Bbixepexb, Bbixply, -erab,
-yx, past Bbixep, -Jia, -Jio, -jih to wipe
Bhixepexb pyKU h jihuo hojiox^h-
ueM. To wipe one's hands and
face with a towel.
Bb'iyHHTb see yqflTb, 1
Bb'IXOA m. exit
Bbixofl H3 Mexpo. The exit from ths
underground station. Bb'ixoA H3
napna. The exit from a park.
BblXOAflTb, BMxowy, Bbixo^Hinb,
BbixoAHX imp. o X K
y fl a?
/
/>.
bbih-
XH, BbiHfliy, -erab, -yx, past bu-
raeji, Bbirajila, -o, -h to go out
BbixoAifxb H3 KOMHaxM. To go out
of
the room. Bwhxh h3 KJiacca. To
go out
of
the classroom.
< BbiuTH H3
TepneHHfl. To lost
patience. Bmuth cyxHM h3 BOflw.
BBIX
25 rjiA
To come
off
unscathed. Buuth H3
ce6H. To lose one's temper.
BblXOAHIOfl, -afl, -6e, -we free
Bbixo;iH6u AGHb. A day
off.
H ce-
roAHfl
BbixoAHOH. / am free today.
r, r
rA3 m. gas
BoAopoa

JierKHH raa. Hydrogen


is a light ga^. Y Hac npoBejiii ra3.
They laid on gas in our house.
rA3ETA
/.
newspaper
HuxaTb raaexy. To read a newspa-
per. CeroAHflfflHHH raseia. Today's
newspaper.
rAJICTYK m. (neck)tie
BaBH.iaTb raJicTyK. To tie one's tie.
riHOHepCKHH raJiCTyK. A Young
Pioneer's scarf.
TACflTb, ramy, racnnib, racHT imp.
H T o?
/
/?. noraciTTb, noraray, nora-
CHmb, noracHT to switch off, to
put out
TacHTb CBeT. To switch
off
the
light. noracHTb Kociep. To put out
a fire.
rACTI'OHOM tn. provision shop
KyuMTb npoAVKTbi b racTponoMe,
To buy foodstuffs at a provision shop.
TRE
1. adv. where. T^e Bbi paGoTaeie?
Where do you v^ork? Ffle bm >kh-
Beie? Where do you live?
2. asconj. where. X1,om, r^e h jkhbv,
nocTpoen b 3T0M ro^y. The house
in which I live was built this year.
rflE-HHBy/tb
adv. somewhere
fl Syay rAe-HH6yAi> sflecb. / shall
be 'omewhere here.
TA^-TO ado. somewhere
Mbi c BaMH rae-To BCxpenaJiHCB.
We have met somewhere.
rEHHAJIbHIblfl, -an, -oe, -me of
genius
nieKcnnp

renwaJTbHbiH aHFJiim-
CKHH ApaMaxypr. Shakespeare is a
great English dramatist. TeHHaJibHoe
npoH3BejieHHe. A work
of
genius.
rEOrPAOnHECKIHfl, -an, -oe, -ne
geographic(al)
Feorpacj^rtHecKHH axjiac. A geograph-
ical atlas. BeJiMKHB reorpa4)HHe-
CKHB OTKpMTHH. The great geograph-
ical discoveries. y^HTbCH na reo-
rpa(|)iiHecKOM ^aKyjibTeie. To study
in the geography department.
rEOrPAa)Hfl
/.,
no pi. geography
(Pnsw^ecKaa reorpa(|)Hfl. Physical
geography. 3K0H0MHHerKaa reorpa-
(|)Hfl. Economic geography.
TEOJIOr m. geologist
BuTb reojioroM. To be a geologist.
rEPOflHECK|HH, an, -oe, -ne heroic
repoHHecKHH xpyA. Heroic labour.
TepoHHecKaH 6opb6a. //eroic struggle.
TEPOfl m.
1. hero. Fepoii bohhm. A war hero.
2. hero. FjiaBBbm repdii poMana.
The hero
of
the novel.
3. hero. Fepdn Tpy^a. Heroes
of
labour.
FflBHiyXb, -y, -emb, -yx, past rnS,
-jia, -Jio, -JTU imp. ox Hero?/
p. nortiSHlyxb, -y, -emb, -yx
Bo BpeMH BXOpOH MHpOBOH BOHHM
norwdjiH MHJiJiMOHbi JiK);ieH. Mil-
lions
of
people died in the Second
World War. J^^epenbfl rriSnyx ox
MopoBa. Trees perish with cold.
FHMHACTHKA /.,
no pi. gymnastics
yxpetmaa rnMHacxHKa. Morning
p. t. exercises. CnopxHBHaa rHMna-
cxHKa. Sports gymnastics. J^eJiaxb
FJTMHacxHKy. To do p. t. exercises.
3aHMMaxbCH niMHacxHKOH. To prac-
tise gymnastics.
FJIABAi
/.,
pl.TjiaBhi head
Fjiaea flejierarmn.
The head
of
the
delegation. FjiaBa npaonxejibcxBa.
The head
of
the government.
<> CxoflTb BO rjiaBG qer6-JiH5o.
To be at the head
of
something.
FJIABA^
/.,
pi. rjiaem chapter
riepBan rjiasa. The first chapter.
FJIABHlblfl, -aa, -oe, -bie principal,
chief, main
FjiaBHLiH Bonpoc. The principal
question. FjiaBHUH pe^anxop. Edi-
tor-in-Chief. FjiaBHbiH Bpa^. Head
physician.
rJIAIAHTb, -my, -ffHmb, -flax
imp./
p.
norjialAHXb, -JKy, -^nmb, -flax
1. Hxo? HGM? to iron, to press.
FjiaAHXb pySaraKy yxioroM. To
iron a shirt.
2. Koro? Hxo? no q e m
y? to
stroke. Fjia^nxL pe6eHKa no ro-
jione. To stroke the child's head.
^JIA;^K|Hfl, -aa, -oe, -ne smooth
rjiA 26 roji
FjiaflKan noBepxHocxb. A smooth
surface.
rJIA3 m., prepos. o rjiase & b rjiaay;
pi. rjiaaa, rjiaa eye
BojibniHe rjiaaa. Big eyes.
*> 3to cjiyHHJiocb II a Hamex rjia-
3ax. // happened before our eyes.
IlycTHTb DbiJib B rjiaaa. To cut a
dash. ToBopHTb npaB^y b rjiasa.
To speak the truth to one's face.
FoBopHTb c rjiaay na rjiaa. To
talk confidentially. Hath Kyfla rjia-
3a rjiflflflT. To follow one's nose.
CAejiaxb 6ojibinHe rjiaaa. To make
big eyes.
rJiyBHHA /. depth
Ha rjiy6HHe cxa MexpoB. At a depth
of
one hundred metres. DlaxTa rjiy-
6hh6h b TpMCTa MexpoB. A pit
three hundred metres deep.
<> B rjiySHHe ca^a. In the heart
of
the garden.
rJIYBOK Hfl, -an, -oe, -iie, short form
rjiySoK, rjiy6oK|a, -6, -n; adv. rjiy-
6ok6; comp. rjiydjKe
1. deep. TjiySoKafl pOKa. A deep
river.
2. fig. profound. rjiy66KHri yM.
Profound intellect. FjiydoKoe nyB-
CTBO. Deep feeling,
rjiyniblfl, -an, -oe, -ue, short form
rjiyn, rjiyiia, rjiyn|o, -w; adv. rjiy-
no stupid, foolish
FjiynwH nejiOBeK. A stupid man.
Fjiynafl Mbicjib. A foolish idea. Oh
nocTy.niiji rjiyno. He acted foolishly.
rJiyX|Ofl, -aH, -oe, -iie, short form
rjiyx, rjiyxa, rjiyx|o, -n; adv. rjiyxo
1. deaf. FjiyxoH nejioBeK. A deaf
person
.
2. fig. out-of-the-way. Fjiyxon
Kpaii, An out-of-the-way region.
FJIHI^ETB, -my, -A"mb, -aht imp.
Ha Koro? Ha ^to? bo ht 6?/
p. norjiHlAexb, -jKy, -Aiinib, -^ht
to look
IIorjiHAM Ha Hero! Look at him!
FjiflAeiL B OKHo. To look out
of
the
window.
FHET m., no pi. yoke, oppression
HaxoAHTbCH HOA rnexoM sanoeBaxe-
JieH. To be under the yoke
of
the
conquerers
.
FOBOliflTb, -K), -HHib, -Hx imp.
H X 0? O K 6 M? O H e M? K M
y?
C KCM?
1.
p.
CKaaaxb, cKaHcy, CKaacemb,
CKa?Kyx K M
y? to speak, to tell,
to say. fl CKaaaJi oxny npaBAy. /
told the truth to my father. H
roBopHji oxny 06 axoM. / told
Father about it. FoBoptixe rpoM-
^e. Speak louder. CKaJKHxe He-
CKOJibKO cjioB MockBe. Say a
few words about Moscow.
2. p. noroBopMXb or has no p. as-
pect c K e M? to speak, to talk
(1)
H roBopio c ApyroM o er6
cecxpe. / am speaking with
my friend about his sister.
H noroBopHJi c oxhom na
3xy xeMy. / had a talk with
Father on that subject.
(2)
H roBopio no-pyccKH. / speak
Russian. Oh He roBopHx no-
^anrJiMHCKH. He doesn't speak
English.
FO3 m., prepos. b roAy & roA;
pi. roAM & roAa
1. year. yqeSnuH roA. School
year, academic year, fl poAHJiCfl
B 1941 roAy. I was born in 1941.
2. gen. pi. jiex year. Ckojibko BaM
Jiex? How old are you? Mne 20
Jiex. / am 20 years old. Mue 23
roAa. / am 23 years old. Ilpo-
niJio 4 roAa (5
Jiex). 4
(5)
years
passed.
<> C HoBbiM roAOAiI A Happy New
Year!
FOJIOBA
/.,
ace. roJiOBy; pi. roJiOBU,
rojiOB, roJiOBaM, etc. head
y MGHH 60JIHX roJiOBa. / have a
headache.
<> CseTjiafl rojiOBa. A bright head.
nycxaa rojiOBa. An empty head.
noBecHTb rojiOBy. To hang one's
head. noxepflTb rojioBV. To lose
one's head. Mne npnmjia b roJiOBy
MbicJib. An idea occurred to me.
Mne npHinjio b rojiOBy. It occurred
to me.
rOJIOJi; m., no pi. hunger
IIoHyBCXBOBaxb roJioA- To feel hun-
gry. YMepexb c roJioAy. To die
of
hunger.
rOJl03H|blfl, -an, -oe,^ -tie, short
form roJioAen, roJiOAHa, r6JiOAH|o,
-u
1. hungry. Fojioahmm
neJioBeK. A
hungry person, fl roJiOAen. / am
hungry.
roji 27 rop
2. only complete form starving.
roJioflHafl CMepxL. Starvation.
rOJIOC m., pL -a
1. voice, Hm3khh rojioc. A low
voice. Bhcokhh roJioc. A high
voice. JlnniHTLCfl roJioca. To lose
one's voice.
2. vote. ToJioc naSupaTejiH. The
vote
of
an elector.
rOJIOCIOBATb, -yio, -yemt, -yrox
imp. 3a Koro? 3a hto? npo-
THB Kord? npoTHB Hero?/
p. nporojioc|oBaTi>, -yio, -yemb, -yioT
to vote
roJiocoBaxb 3a KaHAHJ^aTa b
fleny-
TaThi. To vote for a candidate.
FoJiocoBaxB npoxHB pesoJiroi^HH. To
vote against a resolution.
rOJiyB|Ofl, -an, -6e, -Lie light-blue
ToJiySoe He6o. A light-blue sky.
ToJiy6ue rjiaaa. Blue eyes.
rOJiyB|B m., gen. pi. -en dove, pigeon
JlexHX roJiySn. The doves are
fly-
ing.
rOJIILIfl, -an, -oe, -ue naked, bare
FoJiaa cniina. A naked back. FoJiBie
;i;epeBbH. Bare trees.
rOPA
/.,
ace. ropy; pi. ropti, rop,
ropaw, etc. mountain, hill
BbicoKaH ropa. A high mountain.
JKhxb b ropax. To live in the moun-
tains. Ha ropax JieJKHx cuer. There
is snow on the mountains. Typncxu
BsoniJiH na ropy. The tourists
climbed the mountain.
<0* He 3a ropaMH. Close at hand,
not far away.
rOPA3^0 adv. much, far
Fopaaflo Jiynrae. Far better. Fopaa-
AO Sucxpee. Much faster. Fopa.iflo
yMHee. Much cleverer. FopasAO mchb-
me. Much smaller
/
less
^OPI/^flTbCH, -mych, -AHmtCH, -ahx-
CH imp.
KCM? ieM? to be proud
FopAHXBCfl ycnexaMH. To be proud
of
one's success. FopziHXbCH poAH-
HOH. To be proud
of
one's coun-
try.
rOP^IBlB, -an, -oe, -Lie, short form
ropA, ropAa, ropAO, rop
ah;
adv.
ropAO proud
FopAUH HeJioBeK. A proud person.
FopAan ASBymKa. A proud girl.
FopAMH BHA. A proud air.
rOPE neut., no pi. misfortune
y Hero 6oJibm6e rope. A great mis-
fortune befell him.
rOP|ETB, -K), -limb, -hx imp.
1. p. croplexb, -10, -nrab, -hx to
burn. FopHX cBe^a. A candle
burns. FopHX ApoBa. Firewood
burns. Fopnx aom. The house is
on fire.
2. no p. to burn. B KOMuaxe ropnx
CBex. There is a light in the room.
3. fig. to shine, to sparkle. Fjiaea
y
Hero ropax ox paAOCXH. His
eyes are shining with joy.
rOPJIO neut. throat
y MeHfl 60JIHX ropJio. / have a sore
throat.
rOPHIBlH, -an, -oe, -He
1. mountain. FopuHe BepmiiHti.
Mountain tops.
2. mining. Fopnan npoMbimjien-
Hocxb. The mining industry.
FopHbiH HHCXHxyx. A mining
institute.
rOPOJi; m., pi. -a city, town
KpyuHbiH npoMbimJioHHbiH ropoA-
A large industrial city. B ropoAe
MHoro caAOB. There are many gar-
dens in the city.
<> noexaxb 3a ropoA. To go to the
country.
rOPOACK|On, -an, -oe, -lie city, town
FopOACKOH xpaHcnopx. City trans-
port. FopoACKoH caA-
A city park.
rOPbK|Hfl, -an, -oe,^ -ne, short form
ropeK, ropbKa, ropbKlo, -n; adv.
ropbKO
1. bitter. FopbKoe JioKapcxBo. A
bitter medicine.
2. fig.
bitter. FopbKan npaBAa.
The bitter truth. FopbKHe CJieau.
Bitter tears. FopbKO nJiaKaxb.
To weep bitterly.
rOPJlHlHfl, -an, -ee, -ne, short form
ropHH, -a, -6, -k; adv. ropnio
1. hot. FopaHHH cyn. Hot soup.
2. fig.
ardent. Fopanafl JiioGoBb.
Ardent love. Fopri^HH npHBex.
Warm greetings. FopHHo cno-
pHXb. To have a heated argu-
ment.
3. fig.
hot. FopHHHH xapaKxep. A
hot temper.
4.
fig.:
Fopa^ee BpoMH. A busy
time.
roc 28
rPA
rOCnOJ^fln m., pi. rocnoAa, rocno^,
rocnoAHM, etc. gentleman; used in
addressing people Mr. rocnoflHH
yoTcon! Mr. Watson!
rOCTEnPHnMHIbin, -an, -oe, -bib
hospitable
rocTenpiiHMHbiH X03HHH. A hospi-
table host. FocTenpHPiMHafl cipana.
A hospitable country.
rOCTflHHqA /.
hotel
Mbl OCTaHOBHJIHCb B TOCTITHHae.
We put up at an hotel, HonaH ro-
CTiiHiina. A new hotel.
rOCT|b m., gen. pi. -6h guest,
visitor
JKeJiaHHMH rocTb. A welcome guest.
MHocTpaHHbie focth. Foreign visitors.
<^ Hmii B rocTH. To go on a
visit. EbiTb B rocTflx. To be on a
visit.
rOCyAAPCTREHHIMfl, -afl, -oe, -He
state
FocyflapcTBeHHWH cxpon. A state
system. rccyflapcTBeHHbie rpanui^bi.
State frontiers. FocyAapcTBeHHaa
ncjiHTHKa. A state policy. Moc-
KOBCKHH rocyaapCTBeHHbiH yHHBep-
CHieT. Moscow State Univer-
sity.
rOCy^,^VCTBO neut. state; country
B 3T0M rocyAapcTBe jkhbct 15 mmji-
jiHOHOB HCJioeeK. The population
of
this country is 15 million.
rOTOlBHTb, -BJiK), -BHrab, -bht imp.
K o r 6? H T 0?
1. p. npHrOTOlBHTb, -BJIK), -BHUlb,
-BHT to prepare. FoTOBHTb
ypoK. To do a lesson. Fotobhtb
o6eA-
To cook dinner.
2. p. nOAPOTOlBHTb, -BJIK), -BHIEb,
-BHT to prepare. FoxosHTb cne-
miaJiHCTOB. To train specialists.
FoTOBHTb ynenHKOB k OKaaMeny.
To prepare pupils for an exami-
nation.
rOTOlBHTbCH, -BJirocb, -BiinibCH,
-BATCH imp. K HeMy? &
+ inf.
/
p. OpHFOTOlBHTbCH, -BJIWCb, -BHUIb-
CH, -BATCH lo prepare, to get ready
CTyACHT rOTOBHTCA K 9K3^MeHy.
The student is preparing
for
an
examination. CnopTCMGH npnroTO-
BHJICA npbjrHyTb b BOAy. The
sportsman got ready to jump into
the water.
rOTOBjblfl, -aA, -08, -He, short form
roTOB, -a, -o, -u K HCMy? Ha
HTo? & -\-inf.
1. ready. yqeHHK totob k skb^mc-
Hy. The pupil is ready
for his
examination.
2. ready. Oh Bcer^a totob noMd^t
TOBapnmy. He is always ready to
help a friend. FoTOBbiH na
nofl-
BHF. Ready to perform a feat.
3. ready.
06eA totob. Dinner is
ready.
<> roTOBoe njiaTbe. A ready-made
dress.
rPA^yC m.
1. degree. TepMOMeTp noKasHBaex
HHTb rpaAycoB HH>Ke Hyjifi (bh-
me nyJiH). The thermometer
shows five degrees below zero
(flbove zero).
2. degree. Yroji b 45 rpaAycoB.
An angle
of
45 degrees.
rPA5KAAHflH m., pi. rpmAane,
rpajKAan
1. citizen. FpaWAaHiiH GoBCTCKoro
CoK)3a. A citizen
of
the Soviet
Union.
2. used in addressing people Sir.
FpaJKAaHHH, CKa>KnTe, nojKaJiyn-
CTa, FAe HaxoAHTCH TeaTp? Sir,
will you kindly tell me where the
theatre is?
rPA5KAAHCKlHfl, -an, -oe, -ne civil,
civic
rpaJKA^HCKHH ji,0Jir. One's civic
duty.
^
FpaHCAaHCKaH soHHa. A civil
war.
rPAMM m. gramme
CeMbcoT rpaMMOB c^xapa. Seven
hundred grammes
of
sugar.
rPAMMATMKA
/. grammar
FpaMMaTHKa pyccKoro ASHKa. A
Russian grammar.
rPAMOTHIbin, -aA, -oe, -ne, short
form rpaMOTen, rpaM0TH|a, -o, -h;
adv. rpaMOTHO literate
FpaMOTHHH HCJioBeK. A literate
person. IlHcaTb rpaMOTHO. To write
literately.
rPAHflIi;A /.
frontier; boundary
FocyAapcTBeHHaA rpaHHi?a. A state
frontier.
<> HCaxb 3a rpaHBHeii. To live
abroad. Yexaxb 3a rpannqy
rPE
29 rPH
I
To go abroad, npnexaxb B3-3a rpa-
HBUbi. To come from abroad.
rPElMtelb, -MjiK), -Miimb, -MHT imp. to
thunder
FpeMHT rpoM. It thunders.
rPElTb,
-K), -erab, -k)t imp. qxo?
/
p.
corpelxb, -K), -emb, -k)t
1. to give out warmth. Ocenbio
cojiHne CBeTHT, ho mejio rpeex.
In autumn the sun is bright but
not very warm.
2. to be warm. ITajibTo xopomo
rpeex. The overcoat is very
warm.
3. to warm. Tpexb pyKH na^ or-
HCM. To warm one's hands over
the fire.
4. p.
iiarpelTb, -lo, -emb, -iot to
warm. Harpeib bo
Ay
Ao 40 rpa-
AycoB.
To warm the water to
40 degrees.
rPHB
m., gen. -a mushroom
Ha6paTb mboto rpaGoB. To gather
a lot of
mushrooms. BeJibiH rpnG.
An edible boletus.
rPHim m, influenza
Bojiexb rpHonoM. To be ill with
the 'flu.
y Hero xaJKejiaa $6pMa
rpHHoa. He has a bad attack
of
the 'flu.
OcjiojKHeHHH nocjie rpHH-
na. Complications after the 'flu.
rP03A /.,
pi. rpoBM thunderstorm
HaqaJiacb rpoaa. A thunderstorm
broke out. JlexoM ^acxo SuBaiox
rp63bi. Thunderstorms often occur
in summer.
rPOM m.
1. thunder. 3arpeMeJi rpoM. It
started thundering.
2. fig.
storm. TpoM anjioAiicMen-
xoB. A storm
of
applause.
^POMAJ^H|bln, -an, -oe, -we, short
form rpoMaAen, rpoMaAHla, -o, -w
huge, enormous
PpoMaAHbiH AOM.
A huge house. Fpo-
MaAHUH ycnex. An enormous suc-
cess.
rPOMKlHfl, -aH, -oe. -ne, short form
rpOMOK, rpoMKa, rpoMKlo, -h; adv.
rpOMKo; comp. rpoMHe loud
FpoMKHH 3ByK. A loud sound.
FpoMKHH rojioc. A loud voice. FpoM-
KHH CMex. A loud laughter. Pasro-
BapHBaxb rpOMKO. To speak loudly.
XP^''B|blfl, -an, -oe, -we, short form
rpy6, rpy6a, rpy6|o, -w; adv. rpy6o
1. coarse. Fpy6afl mepcxb. Coarse
wool.
2. rude. FpySwfi qojiOBeK. A rude
person. FpySoe oxHomeHHe. A
rude attitude. FpyCo oxBexHXb.
To reply rudely. Oh o^eHb rpy6
c TOBapHmaMii. He is very rude
to his friends.
3. gross. FpySaa omiiSKa. A gross
mistake.
FPy/^b
/.,
prepos. na rpyAH chest;
breast
C>
KopMHTb peSeiiKa rpyAbio. To
nurse (suckle) a child.
FPySOBHK m., gen. -a lorry
K AOMy noA^exaJi rpysoBMK. A lor-
ry drove up to the house.
FpynnA /. group
B nameH xypiicxcKOH rpynne ceMb
HeJiOBeK. There are seven people in
our tourist group. Fpynna
Aeey-
meK. A group
of
girls.
FPyiCTHTb,
-my,
-cxiimb, -cxhx imp.-
o K 6 M? o H e M? no k o m
y?
no H e M y? to miss, to be sad
FpycxHXb o xoeapnme. To miss a
friend. Fpycxiixb o ceMbe. To miss
one's family.
FPyCTHIblfl, -an, -oe, -we, short form
rpycxen, rpycxna, rpycxH|o, -w;
adv. rpycxHO sad
FpycxHwii qeJiOhCK. A melancholy
man. FpycxHoe jihho. A sad
face.
FpycxHan necHH. A sad song. Mne
rpycxHO. / feel sad.
FP^^rilA /.
1. pear. Kynwxb HecKOJibKO rpym.
To buy some pears.
2. pear-tree. B HameM caAy pacxyx
rpymii. There are pear-trees in
our orchard.
rP)l3H|blfl, -an, -oe, -we, short form
rpH3eH, rpHBHa, rpH3H|o, -w; adv.
rpfl3H0
1. muddy. FpHsnaa yjinna. A mud-
dy street.
2. lit. &
fig. dirty. FpH3HaH py-
6araKa. A dirty shirt. FpasHafl
pa66xa. Dirty work. Fpa3HWH
nocxynoK. A dirty deed. Oh na-
nncaji rpriano. He wrote care-
lessly.
FPHSb
/.,
prepos. b rpH3H & 6 rpn-
3H, no pi.
rvB 30
ABH
1. mud. Ha yjinixe rpH3B. It's
muddy in the street.
2. dirt. rpH3b Ha BopoTHHKe. Dirt
on a collar.
ryBA
/.,
pi. ry6hi, ry6, rySaM, etc.
KpacHTb ry6fci. To make up one's
lips.
ryJl^lTh, -K), -erab, -lOT imp.
/p. no-
ryjifllTb, -K), -enib, -k)t to walk
FyjiflTb c peSeHKOM. To go for a
walk with a child. FyjiflTb b Jiecy.
To walk in the forest.
ryCT|On, -aa, -6e, -ue, short form
rycT, rycia, rycxjo, -h; adv. rycio;
comp. ryme
1. thick, dense. FycTwe bojiocbi.
Thick hair. FyCTOil Jiec. A thick
forest. J]|epeBbH pacxyx rycxo.
The trees grow thick.
2. thick. FycxoH Me^. Thick hon-
ey. Fycxaa CMexana. Thick sour
cream.
3. dense. Fycxoii xyMan. A dense
f^S'
FycxoH AWM. Thick
smoke.
ryC|b m., gen. pi. -en goose
HiapeHHH rycb. A roast goose.
Snecb MHoro rycefl. There are many
geese here.
A, fl
J^A
particle
1. yes. 3x0 xbi?

J^tx, axo a. "/s


that you?" "Fes, it's me."
2. translated by the Im.peratiue.
]J,a 3ApaBcxByex Mnp na seMjie!
Long live peace on Earth/
J^A|BATb, -K), -enib, -lox imp. Koro?
H T o? K M y? ^ e M y?
/
/?. Aaxb,
AaM, Aanib, ^acx, ahahm, A^Awxe,
AaAyT, past Aaji, -a, -o, -h to give
^axb KHwry xoBapnmy. To give a
book to a friend.
<> Jl&Tb corjiacHe Ha ^to-jihSo.
To give one's consent to something.
J^aXb B03MOH<HOCTb KOMy-JIH6o
CAejiaxb qTO-JiHSo. To enable some-
body to do something.
AABJIEHHE neut.
1. pressure, AxMOc$epHoe a^bji^-
HHe. Atmospheric pressure. Y
Herd BucoKoe AaBJienne KpoBH.
He has a high blood pressure.
2. fig. pressure. OKaaaxb AaBJieHne
Ha HCJioBeKa. To exert pressure
on a person.
AABHO adv.
1. long ago. 3x0 6hjio AaBHO. It
was a long time ago.
2. for a long time, fl AaBHo ne bh-
ACJi CBoero
APyra. / haven't seen
my friend for a long time.
J^A.5KE particle even
Oh Aa>Ke He saxoxeJi o6eAaxb. He
would not even have dinner.
;^AJIEE adv. further
II xaK AaJiee (h x.
a).
And so on
(etc.).
^AJIEKlHfl, -aa, -oe, -ne, short form
AaJieK, AaJieK|a, -6, -h; adv. AaJieK6;
comp. AaJibme distant
Jl^aJieKaa cxpana. A distant country.
Exaxif AaJieKO. To go far. Buxb
AaJieKO ox AOMa. To be far from
home.
J^AJIbHlHfl, -fin, -ee, -ne
1. distant, remote. /l,ajibHHe pan-
OHLi. Bemote regions.
2. long. ^ajibHee nyxemecxBHe. A
long journey.
3. distant. J\ajihBRe poACXBeHHHKH.
Distant relatives.
J^AJIbmE adv. further, on
Hnxaiixe, nojKajiyiicxa, AaJibme,
Will you read on, please? IIoHAeM
AaJibme. Let's go on.
J^APflTb, Aapro, Aapnmb, Aapax imp.
K o r 6? H X o? K o M y?
j e m
y?/
p. noAapiixb, noAapK), noAapnmb,
noAapax to give (a present)
HoAapiixb xoBapnmy KHiiry. To
give a friend a book (as a present).
J^ATA /.
date
BnaivieHaxejibHaa AaTa. A memorable
date.
JlATh
see flABATb
;^BEP|b
/.,
gen. pi. -m door
GxeKJiflHHaa ABepb. A glass door.
OxKpuxb ABepb. To open the door.
BaKpbixb ABepb. To close the door.
BoHXH B ABepb. To come (go)
through a doorway.
;^Bfl^A|TbCH, -locb, -erabca, -iotch
or ABHHtembca, ABDJKyxca imp./
p. ABiiHlyxbca, -ycb, -embca, -yxcfl
to move
ndesA ABUHtexca co cKopocxbio 50
KHJiOMexpoB B qac. The train is
moving at a speed
of
50 kilometres
ffBH
31 AEJI
an hour. J^BnTaThcB Bnepe/i;. To
move ahead. He ABHranxecbJ Don't
move!
J^BrnK^miE
neut.
1. movemeDt. J]^BmKeHHe njianeT
BOKpyr CoJiHEta. The movement
of
planets round the Sun.
2. traffic. JXEummne Tpancnopxa.
Traffic. PacnHcanne ziBHjKeHHH
noe3;i;6B. A railway time-table.
3. movement. Hai\HOHajibHO-ocBo-
SoflHTejiBHoe ABHJKeHHe. The na-
tional liberation movement. Pa66-
nee jiBiimeniie. The working-class
movement. ^BHHteHHe cxopoHHii-
KOB MHpa. The peace movement.
ABflHyXbCH see ABflFATbCH
^BOE num. two
^Boe Mymnuu. Two men. JJ^Jide cy-
TOK. Two days.
J^BOP m., gen. -a
1. courtyard. MamMHa BT,exaJia bo
fl;B6p.
The motor-car drove into
the yard.
2. outside. Ha ABope xojioaho. //
is cold outside.
/^BOP|E^ m., gen. -i^a palace
KopoJieBCKHH ABopei;. King's
palace.
<> J^Bopea KyjibTypw. A palace
of
culture. J^BOpe^ cnopxa. A sports
palace.
J^BOHIKA /.,
gen. pi. -ck (little)
girl
MajieHbKan AGBOHKa. A small girl.
aEBYiniKA
/.,
gen. pi. -ck girl
KpacMBan AesyiUKa. A beautiful
girl.
JlflJ5,ym\KA
m., gen. pi. -ck grand-
father
MoH ABAyniKa JKHBex b AcpeBne.
My grandfather lives in the country.
Jl,E7KSVH\blVL, -afl, -oe, -we
1. duty. fle>KypHHB[ Bpan. Duty
doctor. J^emypuafi anxeKa. Duty
chemist's. ^eHtypntiH Marasiin.
A duty shop.
2. n. a person on duty. Kxo ce-
roAHH AeJKypHMH? Who is on
duty today? JJ^eTKyi^uuu no o6-
mieJKHXHK). The man on duty at
the hostel.
flEflCTBHE neut.
1. action. fl,eHcxBHe
khcjioxm na
XKaHb. The action
of
an acid on
material.
2. action. 3xh flencxBHH npHBCJiH
K xoMy, Hxo... These actions led
to...
3. action. ^encxBne npoHCxoAHX b
ropoAe H. b XIX Bene. The
action takes place in the town
of
N. in the 19th century.
4. act. B Dbece 4 AeucxBaa. There
are 4 acts in the play.
AEflCTBHTEJIbHO
1. adv. really. Oh AeHcxBHxejibno
3X0 BHaex. He really knows that.
2. paren. word indeed, ^a, ach-
cxBnxeJibHo, axo HyjKHo. Yes,
that's necessary indeed.
AEflCTBflTEJIBHOCTb /., no pi.
reality
OGXjeKXHBHafl AeHCXBMXeJIbHOCXb.
Objective reality. jI,eHCXBHxejibHOCXb
Hamiix AHCH. The reality
of
our
time.
<> B AeHCTBHTeJibHOCTH. In reality.
^.EflCTBlOBATb, -yro, -yemb, -yiox
imp.
1. to act. Tenepb naAO aghcxbo-
Baxb. Now we must act.
2. to affect. 3xo na mchh ne ach-
cxByex, It doesn't affect me.
J^EKABI |b m., gen. -h December
B AGKaSpe HaHnnaexcH 3HMa. Win-
ter begins in December. CeroAHH
xpexbe AGKaSpn. Today is the third
of
December. Oh npncAex BocbMoro
ACKaSpa. He will arrive on the
eighth
of
December.
JIEKAH
m. dean
JI,eKaH
^HJioJioFMHecKoro $aKyjib-
xexa yHHBepcHxexa. The Dean of
the Philological Department
of
the
University.
/^EKJIAPA^HH /. declaration
/^eKJiapaHHH cxopohhhkob Mirpa.
A declaration
of
the peace-support-
ers.
^EJIAlTb, -K), -erab, -lox imp. h x o?
/
p.
CAeJia|xb, -K), -emb, -lox
1. to do, Hxo BH AGJiaexe ceroAHH
BenepoM? What are you doing
this evening? Mne H6Hero Ae-
jiaxb. I've nothing to do. H hh-
^ero ho Ae-'iaiO- ^ ^"^ doing
nothing.
2. K r 6? H X o? K e M? k a k h m?
to make. ^eJiaxb Aexajin. To make
parts. 3x0 CASJiaJio ero cnacx-
JIHBHM. That made him happy.
AE.11
32
AEP
3. to do. Marawna fleJiaex 80 km
B qac. The motor-car does 80 km
an hour.
<0* J^ejiaxb flOKJiajt. To make a re-
port. J^ejiaxb oiuhGkh. To make
mistakes. J^ejiaxb na Myxn cjiona.
Cf. To make a mountain out
of
a
molehill.
J^EJIEFAT m. delegate
^eJierax KOH(J)epeHi;HH. A delegate
to a conference.
J^EJIE^A^HH /. delegation
^
npaBi'iTejibCTBeHHafl /^ejierauHH, A
government delegation. CnopTiTBuafl
fleJierauHfl. A sports delegation.
^EJIflTb, AGJiK), AeJiiimb, jxeJim imp.
Koro? HT 0?
/
p. paalAeJiHTb,
-jifiJiK), -fleJiHinb, -AeJiHT to divide
PasflejiiiTb crpaHHuy na ^,Be nacxH.
To divide a page into two parts.
Paa^eJifixb 10 na 2. To divide 10
by 2.
J^fiJIO neut., pi. flejia,
^eji, ^eJiaM,
etc, business
y Mena k BaM fleJio. I've got busi-
ness to discuss with you.
<0' BaHCHoe AeJio. An important
business. KaK jie.ia? How are you
getting along? On noineji no Ae-
jiaM. He went out on business. 3xo
He Kaiue ^ejio. It's not your busi-
ness. B qcM AGJio? What's the mat-
ter? C^ejiaxb qx6-HH6ynb Men^^y
AejioM. To do something at odd
moments.
^EMOKPATflqECKlHfl, -an, -oe, -ne
democratic
^ewoKpaxriqecKHH cxpoii. A demo-
cratic system. /^eMOKpaxH^ecKaH
pecnySjiHKa. A democratic repub-
lic.
J^EMOKPATHH /.democracy
IlojiHaH AeMOKpaxHH. Complete de-
mocracy.
;^EMOHCTPA^Ha
/.
1. demonstration. JI^eMoecxpanHH
cocxoiixcfl na oJioniaAH. The dem-
onstration will take place in
the square.
2. showing, presentation, ^gmoh-
cxpauHH HOBoro ^'AJihMR. The
showing of a new film.
J^EHb
m., gen. ahh day
B nanajie ahh. In the morning. B
cepeAwne ^hh. At midday. Bo bxo-
poH noJioBHHe
AHH. In the after-
noon. B xBMeHHe
AHH. During the
day.^ Hepea 2 ahh. In 2 days. 2 ahh
HaaaA. 2 days ago. Ha CJieAyiomnH
AeHb. Next day.
^
Bbixojiiiou ACHb. A day
off.
4eHb iiesaBHCHMOcTii.
Independence
Day.
J\QH\i poHCAeniiH. Birthday.
Oh npneAex na auhx. He will come
one
of these days.
XoAHXb KVAa-
-jih6o qepea Aenb. To go somewhere
every other day.
^EHbFH
pL, no sing., gen.
A^ner
money
JloJiy^axb AeHbrH. To receive mon-
ey.
JliEnyTAT m. deputy
^enyxax napjiaMenxa. A member
of
parliament. Hajiara AenyxaxoB. Tlie
Chaifiber
of
Deputies.
J^EPEBHfl
/.,
gen. pi. AepeBGHb
1. village. ^epeBHH cxo/ijia na 6e-
pery peKti. The village was on
the bank
of the river.
2. country(side). H^iixb b AepeBne.
To live in the country.
J^EPEBO neut., pi. AepeebH. A^peBbeB
1. tree. BticoKoe A^peBO. A tall
tree.
2. only sing. wood. HmHK H3
a-
peea. A wooden box.
AEPEBHUHlbin, -aH, oe, -ue
wooden
J]^epeBHHHHH AOM. A wooden house.
J^EP>KATb, Aepwy, Aep>KHfflb, Aep-
>Kax imp. Koro? q x o? to hold
/IjepjKaxb nopT(|)eJib. To hold a bag.
Jl^epwaxb pe6eHKa na pyKax. To
hold a child in one's arms.
J^ep-
>Kaxb pe5eHKa aa pyKy. To hold
a child by the hand.
<0> J^epjKaxb ce6n b pynax. To
control oneself
.
p.
cAep>Kaxb, CAep>Ky, CAepjKHmb,
CAep?Kax. CAepwaxb cjiobo. To keep
one's word.
J[^EP5KATbCfl, Aepwycb, Aep>KHrabCH,
Aep>KaxcH imp. a a h x 6?
1. to hold on. JljepjKaxbCH a^ py-
Ky. To clutch at somebody's
hand. /^epmaxbCH aa nepnjia. To
hold on to the handrail.
2. to behave. /l|ep>KaxbCH xpa6po.
To behave in a courageous man-
ner.
JXET
33
AO
J^ETAJIb /.
part
/^exajib MamHHH. A part
of a ma-
chine.
^ETH pi., gen. flexeH,
dat. abthm,
instr. ji^eThUH, prepos. o asthx;
sing. pe6eH0K children
KHHrH AJi flexen. Books for chil-
dren, y Hero ABoe Aexen. i/e has
two children. Omti h flexH.
Fathers
and sons.
;I^TCK|HB[, -aa, -oe, -ne child's,
children's
^excKoe JiHii;6. A child's face.
^excKHH xeaxp, A children's the-
atre.
0 J^eTCKHit caa. A kindergarten.
JtETCTBO
neut., no pi. childhood
B Aexcxse oh >khji b ^epeBHe. He
lived in the country in his child-
hood.
^EHIEBIHfl, -aH, -oe, -Lie, short form
AemeB, Aemesa, A6nieB|o, -li; adv.
^emeBo; comp. ^emeBJie cheap
^emeBHe BeniiH. Cheap things. Ky-
ni'ixb oBoniiH AenieBO, To buy vege-
tables cheap.
aEHTEJIbHOCTb /.
activity
OCmecxBeHHaa fleaxeJibHocxB. So-
cial activity.
AHAMETP m. diameter
/]|HaMexp Kpyra. The diameter
of
a circle.
3HBAH m. divan
GnflexB Ha AHBane. To sit on a di-
van. MarKHH AHBaH. A soft divan.
JleHb Ha AHBaH. To lie down on a
divan.
^flKlHH, -an, -oe, -ne
1. wild. Jl^UKTlQ JKHBOXHHe. Wild
animals. JXiiKiiQ pacxeHHH. Wild
plants.
2. fig.
wild. JJ^HKHH KpnK. A wild
cry.
3iHKTAT5^PA /. dictatorship
jyHUMM m. diploma
HoJiy^HTb AHHJIOM HHHteHGpa. To
receive an engineer's diploma.
JpinJIOMATfl^ECKlHfl, -an, oe, -ne
diplomatic
ycxaHOBHXb AHHJioMaxiiHecKHe oxho-
raeHHH. To establish diplomatic re-
lations. ^HHJiOMaxpiiecKHe oxHorae-
HHfl ueTKjiy cxpanaMH. Diplomatic
relations between countries.
JUHPEKTOP m., pi. -a director
/^HpeKXop BaBOAa. The director
of
34002
a plant. J3;HpeKxop okojih. The
director
of
a school, head-master.
J\l[?limEP m. conductor (of an or-
chestra)
OTCIl.HnJIflHA /.,
no pi. discipline
Co6JiK)Aaxb AHcn.HnJiHHy. To observe
discipline. J]|Hcn;HnjiHHa na ypoKe.
The discipline at the lesson.
3JIHHA
/.,
no pi. length
Mepa AJiHHBi. A measure
of
length.
HSMepHXb A-ntHHy KOMHaXH. To
measure the length
of
a room. Vjih-
Ha AJiHHOK) B 3 KHJiOMexpa. A street
3 kilometres long. IIpbiJKKii b aJIH-
ny. Long jumping.
J^JlflHHjblfl, -an, -oe, -we, short form
AJiHHeH, A-JiHHHa, A-'iHHHO, jimmnhi
1. long. ^JiMiHHoe naJibxo. A long
overcoat.
2. long. JlJinuRum nyxb. A long
way.
3. only short form AJTiTHeH, ji,JiiiBii\a,
-6, -bi too long. Ilajibxo aJihhho.
The overcoat is too long.
JlJlfl
prep. -\- gen.
1. for. y^e6HHKH A-JiH cxyAenxoB.
Textbooks for students. Kyniixb
HrpymKH jx,:iii A^xefi. To buy
toys for children.
2. to. ^JiH Hero axo xHHteJibm
yAap.
It's a heavy blow to him.
J^HEBHHK
m., gen. -a diary
BecxH AHCBHHK. To keep a diary,
^HEBHIOH, -an, -oe, -we
1. daytime. J^HCBHtie saHHXHH. Day-
time lessons.

2. day, ^hcbhoh cbcx. Daylight.


^HEM adv. in the daytime
^hcm HtapKO. It's hot in the day-
time.
J^HO
neut., no pi. bottom
JJ^RO
pcKH. The bottom
of
a river.
MopcKoe AHO.
Sea bottom. Hatii ko
Any.
To sink to the bottom.
JIO
prep. -{-gen.
1. to. Ox MocKBbi AO
KneBa. From
Moscow to Kiev. Jl^oexaxb ao
nenxpa.
To go to the centre, ^oh-
XH AO ABepH. To reach the door.
2. till. Ox 2 AO
5. From 2 till 5.
C yxpa AO
Be^epa. From morn-
ing till evening.
3. to. Bopb6a AO
noGeAM.
A fight
to the victorious end. ^OHHxaTB
KHHry AO
KOHua.
To read the
hook to the end.
aoB
34 Aor
<> HCnsHb
flo
BOUHfaJ. Life before
the war.
J^OBABHTb see ^OBABJlHXb
^^OBABJlHlTb, -10, -emb, -iot imp.
qxo? Hero?//?. Ao6a|BHTb, -bjik),
-BHinb, -BHT
1. to add. ^oGaBHTb cojih b cyn.
To add salt to the soup.
2, to add. ^l|o6aBHTb iiecKOJibKo
cjiob. To add a few words.
Jl,OBHBA|TbCH, -locb, -eiubCH, -iotch,
imp. i e r 6?
/
/?. AoSiixbCH, j\o6h\ibch,
-embcH, -i6tch to strive
^oSiiBaTbcn ycnexa. To strive for
success.
J^OBHTbCH see ^OBHBATbCH
^OBP|blH, -an, -oe, -we, short form
Ao6p, Ao6pa, fl66po,
Ao6pLi kind
^65pbin HeJioBeK. A kind person.
<>
/^oGpbiii J^eIIb! Good afternoon!
466poe yxpo! Good morning! Jliomi
AoSpoii BOJiii. People
of
good will.
By^bxe jtoSpw. Be so kind. C;;e-
jiaTb mt6-jih6o no ji,66pon bojig.
To do something out
of
good will.
^OBblBAlTb, -K), -enib, -iot imp.
mo?/p. AoSbiTb, ;;o6y;i|y, -eiub,
-yT to extract
4o6LiBaTb yroJib. To mine coal.
^OBb'ITb see AOBblBATb
^OBEPHE neut., no pi. confidence, trust
OnpaB;i;aTb ^OBepne, To justify
somebody's confidence. 3acJiyjKHTb
aoBepiie. To prove to be worthy
of
one's trust.
^OBEPHTb see /^OBEPHXb
^OBEPHlTb, -K), -emb, -iot imp. h to?
K M y?
/
p. AOBeplHTb, -K), -HHlb, -HT
1. no
p. to trust. ^oBcpaxb /i;py-
ry. To trust a friend.
2. to entrust. ^oBepHTb apyry
TaHHy. To take a friend into
one's confidence.
aOBECTfl see J^OBOAflTb
J^OBOJ^flTb, AOBOJKy, AOBOAHuib, ^o-
BO^HT imp. K o r 6? q t o? /j; o
Hero?
fp.
AOBecTiT, jxoBejxIy,
-emb,
-yT, past AOBeji, AOBeJija, -6, -h to
lead to (as far as), up to
^OBecTH KOT6-Bu6yji.h AO
KaKoro-
HH6yAi> MecTa. To lead somebody
as far as some place. J^obocth
MajibHHKa
flo
cTaHn;HH. To take the
boy to the station.
<0 AoBecTH AeJio
a
KOHua. To
complete an undertaking.
J^oeecTH
Kor6-JiM6o AO c.iea. To make one cry.
^OBOJIbHO
1. adv. rather. Yme AOBOJibno ndaA-
Ho. It's rather late already.
2. predic. impers. (it is) enough.
Yme nosAHo: AOBoJibHo BaM 3a-
HHMaxbCH. It's already late:
you've studied long enough.
^OBOJIbHIblH, -an, -oe, -bie, short
form AOBOJien, AOBoJibHla, -o, -u
KeM? q CM? contented, pleased
^OBOJibHbiii BiiA. A contented look.
H jxoBOJiou TBoeii pa66TOH. / am
pleased with your work.
T^OrA^ATbCH see ^OPA ablBATbCH
SOPA/jblBAlTbCH. -locb, -embCH,
-K)TCH imp. o HCM?//?. AoraAaJTb-
CH,^-iocb, -embCH, -iotch to guess
Oh AoraAaJicH, o hcm omi roBo-
pi'iJiH, xoTfi OHii roBopiiJiii Tiixo.
He guessed what they were talking
about, though they were talking in
low voices.
,HOrHATb see ^OFOHflTb
J^OrOBAPHBAlTbCfl, -K)Cb, -embCH,
-IOTCH imp. H e M? c KeM?
/
p. AOrOBOpllITbCH, -lOCb, -limbCH,
-HTCH to agree, to fix
J],oroBopiiTbCH BCTpene c Tosapn-
meM. To fix a meeting with a
friend. GTpaHbi AoroBopiiJiiicb o
KyjibTypiioM o6MeHO na c.ieAyio-
miiii roA. The countries agreed about
the next year's cultural exchange.
J^OrOBOP m. treaty, agreement
^oroBop Apy>K6e ii BsaiiMHOH no-
Momii. A treaty
of
friendship and
mutual aid. MnpHbiii AoroBop. A
peace treaty. ToproBuii AoroBop.
A trade agreement. 3aKJiK)HiiTb
MiipHbiH AoroBop. To conclude a
peace treaty. IloAnHcaTb AoroBop
o MPipe. To sign a peace treaty.
AOFOBOPflTbCH see ^OFOBAPH-
BATbCH
J^OrOHUlTb, -K), -emb, -iot imp. ko-
to? HTO?
/p.
AornaTb, AoroHK),
AoroHHmb, aofohht,
past AoruaJi,
-rnajia, -raaJilo, -h to overtake^
J^oroHHTb y6eraK)mero neJiOBeKa.
To overtake a fugitive.
\\
fig.
Oh
AOJiro 6oJieJi, ho oh AoroHHT cboio
rpynny. He was ill for
a long time
but he will catch up with the group.
AOE
35
Aoivjr
^0E3H{A|TL, -K), -emb, -iot imp.
;; o
Hero?
J
p. AoexaTb, AoeAly,
-emb,
-5^T to reach
^oexaxb 30
MocKBU. To reach Mos-
cow. H AoexaJi ot Mockbm
ao
Jle-
HHHrpaAa sa 8 nacoB. It took me
8 hours to get to Leningrad from
Moscow. 06hhho oh AoeawaJi ao
n,eHTpa Ha aBToCyce, a hotom meji
nemKOM. He usually went to the
centre by bus, and then walked.
AOEXATb see A0E3HCATb
;^05KJi;JIHB|blfl, -an, -oe, bie rainy
J\omji,JiuBaifi noroAa. Rainy weath-
er. ^OJKAJIHBMH A^Hb. A rainy
day. J\omjimiBoe JieTO. A rainy
summer.
^OHC^jb m., gen. -fi rain
Hagt jsflyKjih. It rains. IIpoJiHBHoH
A0>KAb.
Pouring rain. J^omj^b Jiber
KaK H3 BeApa. It is raining cats and
dogs. MeJiKHH oceHHHii aojka^.
An
autumn drizzle. IIoa ao^kagm- i^ the
rain.
J^OflTfl see /^OXOAHTb
;i;0KA3ATEJlbCTB0 neut. proof, evi-
dence
CyAbH TpeSoBaJi AOKaaaTejibcxB. The
judge demanded proof(s).
30KA3ATb see Jl,0KA3blBATb
Jl,0KA3bIBAlTb, -K), -enib, -k)t imp.
HTO? KOMy?//?. AOKasaib, AOKa-
mf,
AOKa>Kenib, AOKa^Kyx to prove
A KaK Bbi AOKajKexe, hto bm npa-
Bbi? And how are you going to prove
that you are right? ^OKaaaxb axo
xpyAHO. It's difficult to prove that.
JS,OKJlAjS, m. report
HavHHbiH AOKJiaA- ^ scientific re-
port. HHxepecHHH aokjisIa. An in-
teresting report. CAGJiaxb AOKJiaA-
To make a report. FoxoBHXb AO-
KJiaA. To prepare a report. Toxo-
BHXbCH K AOKJiaAy- To prepare for
a report.
J^OKTOP m., pi. -a
1. doctor. OnbixHbiH AOKXop. An
experienced doctor. HaAO nosBaxb
AOKXopa. A doctor must be
called. rioHXH K AOKXopy. To go
to a doctor. Bmxb
y
AOKXopa.
To be at the doctor's.
2. doctor. ^OKXop nayK. A doctor
(of
science).
AOKyMEHT m.
1. usu. pi. document. IIoJiyHHTb
AOKyMeHxm. To get the docu-
ments.
2. document. 3xo oneHb BaJKHHH
AOKyMOHx. It is a very impor-
tant document.
HcxopHHCCKHH
ao-
KyMenx. An historical document.
JlOJir m.
1. no pi. duty. 3xo moh aojif. It's
my duty. BbinoJiHHXb cboh aojif.
To do one's duty.
2. pi. jioJiTH debt. BsHXb A^HbrH
B AOJir. To borrow money. Ot-
Aaxb AOJir. To pay one's debt.
HMexb AOJiFH. To be in debt.
y Hero MHoro AOJiroB. He has a
lot
of
debts.
<> R 5biJi B AOJiry oepeA hhm. /
was indebted to him.
J^OJirO adv. for a long time
^oJiro JKAaxb. To wait
for a long
time.
AOJIJKEH, AOJiJKHia, -6, -u
1. must. Mbi AOJi?KHBi MHoro pa66-
xaxb. We must work a lot. BoJib-
HaH A0Ji>KHa JiejKaxb b nocxeJin.
The sick woman has to keep to
her bed. H aoJUKCH nomri b Ma-
rasiiH. / must go shopping. Mh
saBxpa AOJi>KHLi SyAGM Bcxpe-
XHXbCH. We shall hare to meet
tomorrow. Oh AOJiJKen 6bixb 3Aecb
B 2 Haca. He is to be here at
2 o'clock.
2. to owe. Tw MHe aoji^kgh 10 py6-
Jieii. You owe me 10 roubles.
JlfiM
m., pi. -a house
IIocxpoHXb AOM.
To build a house.
<> JJ^OM KyjibTypw. A house
of
cul-
ture.
JJ^oM OTAbixa. A rest-home.
JI^OMA adv.
FAG? at home
PaSoxaxb AOMa. To work at home.
R
6yAy
AOMa b 6 nacoB Beqepa.
I'll be home at 6 o'clock in the eve-
ning.
AOMAfflHIHfl, -na, -ee, -He
1. home. ^OMamuHH pa66xa. Home-
work. ^oMamnee aaAauHe. A
home-task. Jl^OMamuHH xejie^OH.
A private telephone.
2. domestic. J^OMamuHe jKHBOxHbie.
Domestic animals.
J^OMOEt adv. KyAa? home
Haxh aomoh. To walk home. Exaxb
AOMOH. To go home. EocJie pa6dxu
fl o6biHHO HAy AOMOH. After work I
usually go home.
J^OP
36
Apy
aopOrA /.
1. road. ninpoKaH ^opora. A wide
road.
2. way. IIoKaaaTb Aopory. To show
the way.
3. journey. B ^opdre 6mjio seceJio.
It was a merry journey. YcTaTb
c floporn.
To be tired after one's
journey.
<> HCeJiesHEfl Aopora. A railway.
Hath CBoefi Aoporon. To go one's
way. Ho Aopore. On the way. Ho
ffopore flOMOH oh Kynaji raaexy. On
^
the way home he bought a newspa-
per.
J^OPOriOfl, -an, -6e,^ -me, short form
Aopor, Aopora, floporjo, -h; adv.
Aoporo;
comp. AopoHte
1. expensive, dear. ^oporoH ko-
CTiOM. An expensive suit, /^opo-
ran Me6ejib. Expensive furniture.
2. dear. J^oporon flpyr.
Dear friend.
3. cherished, dear. JJ^oipoTiie Bocno-
MHHaHHH. Cherished recollections.
JJ,0
CBHAAHHH see CBHAAHHE
J^OCKA /.,
ace. AOCKy; pi. aockh, ao-
coK, AOCKaM, etc.
1. board,
^y
66Baa AOCKa. An oak
board.
2. blackboard, nncaxb na AOCKe. To
write on the blackboard. GTepexb
c AOCKH. To clean the blackboard.
<0> KjiaccHafl AOCKa. Blackboard.
lIIaxMaTHafl AOCKa.
Chessboard.
JlocKA
noqexa. Roll of
honour.
^OCTAjBATb, -K), -emb, -k)t imp.
HTO?
/
/?. Aocralxb, -ny, -nerab, -nyx
1. Ao
Her6? to reach. ^ocxaBaxb
AO
noxojiKa. To reach the
ceiling.
2. to get, to take, ^ocxasaxb khh-
ry c n6jiKH. To get a book from
the shelf. Jl^ocxaBaxb nJiaxbe h3
niKa^a. To take a dress out
of
the wardrobe.
3. to get. ^ocxasaxb 6hji6xm b kh-
HO. To get tickets for the cinema.
^OCTATOHHO
1. adv. enough. PaSoxaxb Aocxa-
TO'THO AOJiro.
To work long
enough.
2. predic. impers. (it is) enough,
that will do. Mee HHxaxb AaJib-
nie?

Hex, Aocxaxoino. ''Shall I


go on reading?-' ''No, that'll do."
;^OCTATb see AOCTABATb
AOCTHPAlTb, -H), -enib, -iot imp.
q e r 6?
/
/>. AOCTHrnjyxb, -y, -enib,
-yx & AocxM^b, AOCXHrnly, -emb,
-yx, past Aocxar, -Jia, -Jio, -jih
1. to reach. AjibHHHHCXbi aocxhfjih
BepmHHbi ropbi. The mountain
climbers reached the top
of
the
mountain.
2. to achieve, ^ocxnraxb 6ojibniHX
ycnexoB. To achieve great success.
JI[ocTumo npeKpacHux peayjibxa-
xoB. To achieve splendid results.
AOCTflrHYTb see ^OCTHPATb
^OCTHiixEHHE neut. achievement
^ocxHJKeHHH mhpob6h HayKH. The
achievements
of
world science.
JJ,OXOJlfiTh, AOXo>Ky, AOxoAHmb, ao-
x6ahx imp.
AO Koro? ao
ne-
t6?./ p. AOHlxM,
-Ay,
-Aemb, -AyT,
/?as^Aonieji, AoniJi|a, -6, -h to reach,
to go as far as
^OHxri
AO
yHHBepcHxexa. To reach
the University. Ox yHHBepcHxexa
ao
o6in;e}KHXHH h Aomeji neniK6M. /
walked all the way from the Uni-
versity to the hostel.
^O^b
/.,
gen., dat., prepos. AO^epn,
ace. AOHb, instr. AO^epbio; pi. p,6-
HepH, Ao^epeH, AO'iepaM, AOHepen,
AOHepbMH (AO^epaMH), o AOiepax
daughter
MJiaAinaH AOHb. The youngest daugh-
ter. CpeAHHfl AO^b. The middle
daughter. Gxapman AOHb. The eld-
est daughter.
^PEBHIHtt, -an, -ee, -ne ancient
jQ^peBHHe Hap6Abi. Ancient peoples.
^peBHHH HcxopHfl. Ancient history.
^peBHHC naMHXHHKH apxHTeKxypu.
Ancient monuments
of
architecture.
J^P05K|ATb, -y, -limb, -ax imp.
1. to quiver. JiHCXbH ApoJKax na
;^epeBe. The leaves are quivering
on the tree.
2. to tremble, to shiver, ^poj^axb
ox xoJioAa. To shiver with cold.
J^pojKaxb ox cxpaxa. To tremble
with
J
ear.
/^py^
m., pi. Apy3b3, Apyaea friend
GxapwH APyr.
An old friend.
J\o-
poroH Apyr.
A dear friend. JIio-
611MUH Apyr.
A very dear friend.
Bepeue Apysbs.
Faithful friends.
^
CxapbiM Apyr
Jiy^rae hobux
AByx
(proverb).
An old friend is
flpy
37 EAH
better than two new ones, /^py3bfl
nosHaiOTCH b 6efle
(proverb). Cf.
A friend in need is a friend indeed.
;^py^|Ofl, -an, -de, -Me
1. different. Tu cxaji ;^py^I^M.
yow'i;e become different.
2. other. yBHAHMCH b ^pyroH pas.
We'll meet some other time.
3. used as n. other. Oahh nomjiii
B KHHO, 3pyrHe

b xeaxp. Some
went to the cinema, others to the
theatre.
<> Ha flpyroH ^OHb. The next day.
Jl^vfWBX /.,
no pi. friendship
BojiLmaH 7i;pyH{6a. A great friend-
ship. ^p3'}K6a HapoAOB (or: MejKfly
Hap6j];aMH). Friendship between
peoples.
3Py5KflTB, ApyJKy, flpyJKHmi,,
flpy-
H{aT zm/?. c K e M? c h e m? to be
friends
flpyjKHTB c T0BapHn;aMH no hhcth-
Tyxy. To be friends with one's
fellow-students.
^Py^KHIblfl, -an, -oe, -He; adv.
AP5^5KHO
1. friendly, united. /J^pyjKHafl ceMLH.
-4 united family. JKhtb ji;pyH{HO.
To live in friendship.
2. concerted. ^pymnaH pa66Ta.
Team work. PaSdiaTb
aPY^kho.
To work as a team.
J^^MAITb, -K), -emt, -lox imp. hto?
o K6M?oHeM?&-|- inf./p. no^y-
MajTB, -K), -eraB, -k)t to think
HeM TBI ;;yMaemB? What are you
thinking about? Hto tbi ayMaeniB o6
BTOM? What do you think
of
thai?
^yMaio, HTO OH roBopHT npaB^y.
/ think he is speaking the truth.
H AyMaio saHHTBCfl cnoproM. / am
thinking
of
taking up sport.
3;yPAK m., gen. -a fool
/^yiTB, -K), -emB, -iot imp.
1. to blow. G MopH Ayer Berep.
A wind is blowing from the sea.
2. impers.: S^ecB ^y^T. There is a
draught here.
fly
in m. shower
IIpHHflTB j\ym. To take a shower.
fly
inA
/.,
ace.
Aj'my; pi. jiymu soul
<> Xopomo Ha Ayrae. At ease.
flejiaxb c flymoH. To put one's
heart into something. IIoroBopHTb no
AymaM. To have a heart-to-heart
talk. no^Jiaro^apiiTb ot nymH. To
thank from the bottom
of
one's
heart,
fly
ma 65mecTBa. The life
of
the party.
fl'yiUHIblfl, -an, -oe, -we; adv. jxyrnno
1. sultry. flymuBiH se^ep. A sultry
evening.
2. adv., predic. impers. (to be) suf-
focating. Mne AyniHO. / am suf-
focating.
flbIM
m., no pi. smoke
FycTOH AWM. Dense smoke.
<C>
Her flhJMa 6e3 ornH (proverb).
There's no smoke without a fire.
flblXAHHE neut., no pi. breathing
FjiydoKoe ^fcixaHHe. Deep breathing.
flbllUATb, Awniy, jj^umiiuih, Abimax
imp.
1. to breathe. TjiyCoKO AwinaxB.
To breathe deep. flBimaxB noJi-
HOH rpy^tK). To breathe deep.
THmeJio ABimaTB. To breathe
with difficulty.
2.: BaM Ha^o AbimaxB cBeJKUM bos-
AyxoM. You must get fresh air.
flUflH
m. uncle
E, e
EFO poss. pron., indecl. his
9x0 ero nopx(|)eJib. This is his
brief-case. 3xa KHiTxa ero. This book
is his.
EflA
f.,
no pi. food
BKycHaa e^a. Tasty food.
EflBA
1. adv. nearly. Oh e^Ba ycneJi na
ypoK. He was nearly late for his
lesson. Ona e^Ba ne ycnyjia. She
nearly fell asleep.
2. conj. hardly. EflBa
oh BbimeJi Ha
yjiHuy, KaK nanajicH aojkab.
Hardly had he gone cut into the
street when it began to rain.
EflflHCTBEHHIblfl, -an, -oe, -Bie only
EAHHCXBeHHUH CHH. An only son.
EAHHCXBeHHBiH KocxioM. The only
suit.
EflflHCTBO neut. unity
Eahhcxbo BsrJiHAOB. Unity
of
views.
Eahhcxbo xedpHH h npaKXHKH. The
unity
of
theory and practice.
EAM 38 5KAJI
E/^flH|bl(i, -an, -oe, -ue united, single
EAHHaH BOJIH. A single will. Eah-
HbiH HJiaH. A single plan.
EE po<s. pron., indecl. her, hers
3to ee naJibxo. This is her coat.
3th KHHrH ee. These books are
hers.
EH{EAHEBH|blfl, -an, -oe, -tie; adu.
e>KeAHeBHo daily
EweAHeBHaH raaeia. A daily paper.
EjKeAHeBHo AGJiaxb VTpeHHioK) 3a-
pfl^Ky. To do p.t. exercises daily.
E3mHTb, ->Ky, -;i;Hinb, -jj^ht imp.
1. to go. Ka>K;tuH aenb h e3>Ky
B HHCTHiyT Ha xpaMBae. Every
day I go to the Institute by tram.
B npomjiOM roAy h esAHJi na
KaBKas. Last year I went to the
Caucasus.
2. to ride. H yMeio eaAHXb na bg-
JiocHHeA^. / can ride a bicycle.
EJI|KA
/.,
gen. pi. -ok fir-tree
B Jiecy MHoro ejioK. There are many
fir-trees in the forest.
<> HoBoroAHflH ejiKa. New Year
tree.
ECJIH conj.
J. if. EcJiH fl He Sy^y Sojien, to
oGflaaxejibHo npHAy b xeaTp.
//
/ am not ill, I'll certainly come
to the theatre. EcJiH xothtg, h
paccKa>Ky Baivi.
//
you want, I'll
tell you. EcjiH 6u h sHaji o6
3T0M paHbme, h 6bi He npHuieji.
If I had known this earlier I
should not have come.
2. whereas. Ecjih na ceBepe CTpanu
o^eHb xoJiOAHo, to Ha lore >KapK0.
Whereas it is very cold in the
north
of
the country, it is very
hot in the south.
ECTf:CTBEHH|Mfl, -an, -oe, -ue, short
form ecTecTBGH, ecTecTBeHH|a, -o,
-bi; adv. ecTecTBeHHO
1. only complete form natural.
EcTecTBGHHbie HayKH. Natural
sciences. EcTecxBeHHUH (|)aKyjib-
TCT. Natural science faculty.
2. natural. EcTecTBeHHoe JKeJiaHHe.
A natural desire.
ECTb^, CM, emb, ecT, e^viM, cahtc, caht;
imper. emb, embxe, past eji, ejia
imp.
I
p.
cbecTb, cteM, cbemb, cbeCT,
cbeAHM, CLBAHxe, cLeAHT to eat
EcTL cyn. To eat soup. Xonerab
ecTb?

/l,a, H oneub xony ecTb.


""Are you hungry?" ''Yes, I am
very hungry."
ECTb2 see BblTb
EXATb,
eAly,
-euib, -yx; imper. noea-
>KaH, HOCAeM, HoeaHtaHTe imp. k y-
A
a? H a q e M? to go
ExaTb Ha napoxoAe. To go by ship.
ExaTb Ha TpaMBae. To go by tram.
ExaTb na noeaAe. To go by train.
ExaTb Ha aBx66yce. To go by bus.
IloeAeM Ha Mexpo! Let's go by the
underground! ABToSyc SiJCTpo ejier.
The bus is going fast. IlHOHepbi
CAyT B Jiarepb. The Young Pioneers
are going to camp.
EmE
adv.
1. more. JXame Mue emji xJie6a.
Give me some more bread, fl xo-
qy Kyniixb kocxfom h eme oahh
raJicxyK. / want to buy a suit
and one more tie.
2. still. Oh eme oqenb mojioa. He
is still very young.
3. as much as. Oh yexaji en^e roA
HaaaA. He left as much as one
year ago.
4. still, y Hac erne mhofo speMeHH.
We still have plenty
of
time.
5. still. Oh cTaA eu^e Ao6pee h
Jiyqme. He became still kinder
and better.
H{AJl,H|blfl, -aH, -oe, -ue, short form
waAen, HtaAHa, >KaAH|o, -m; adv.
jKaAHO stingy
JKaAHwii ^leJioBeK. A stingy person.
HCAJl|Tb, -K), -emb, -iot imp.
/
p.
no>KaJie|Tb, -lo, -emb, -k)t
1. Koro? HTo? to pity. JKaJiexb
peSeHKa. To pity a child.
2. o KOM? o HCM? or followed
by conj. mo to be sorry. >Ka-
jiexb noxepHHHOM BpeMeHH. To
be sorry for the time lost, fl ma.-
jieio, Hxo He noexaJi na aKCKyp-
CHK). / am sorry I did not go on
the excursion.
3. H e r 6? to grudge. H{aJierb Aener.
To grudge the money.
HCAJIKO (HCAJIb) adv., predic. im-
pers. KOMy? Koro? h x o? or
H e r 6?
HCAJI
39 HEH
1. K r d? ^ T 0? (to be) sorry. Mhg
JKaJiKO tgSh. / am sorry for you.
Mne jKaJiKO cecipy. / am sorry
for my sister. HaM JKaJiKO nam
CTapwii ji;OM. We feel sorry for
our old home. Mne jKaJiKO noxe-
pHHHoro BpeMGHH, I'm sorry
for
the time lost.
2. followed by conf . hto. JKaJiKO,
HTO Tw He npHineji. It's a pity
that you didn't come.
3. Hero? to grudge. Emj jKajiKo
Aener. He grudges the money.
JKAJIjOBATbCa, -yiocb, -yerabCH,
-yiOTCfl jm/). H a Koro? na qxo?
K M
y?
Ip.
no>Kaji|oBaTbcH, -yiocB,
-yembCH, -yioiCH to complain
JKajiOBaTbCfl na Cbma. To complain
of
one's son.
H{AJIb see 5KAJIK0
5KAPEHlblfl, -an, -oe, -we fried,
roast
JKapenan KapioniKa. Fried pota-
toes. }KapeHoe mhco. Roast meat.
JKAPIHTB, -K), -limb, -ht imp. hto?/
p. nofliJKaplHTb, -K), -nmb, -ht to
fry, to roast
noA>KapHTb KapidmKy. To fry po-
tatoes. JKapHTb Mflco. To roast
meat.
5KAPK|HH, -aa, -oe, -ho; adv. >KapKo;
com
p. /Kapqe
1. hot. JKapKHH AeHb. A hot day.
HfapKaH noroAa. Hot weather.
HiapKoe Jiexo. A hot summer.
2. adv., predic. impers. (is) hot.
Mne JKapKO. / am hot. Cero^HH
oneHb jKapKO. It's very hot to-
day. GxaJio eme JKapqe. It be-
came still hotter.
HCATb,
JKMiy, -emb, -yx imp. h x o?/
p. no>Kaxb, no}KM|3% -emb, -yx to
press, to squeeze
IIo>Kaxb K0My-HH6y/i;i> pyny. To
shake hands with somebody.
HCmATb, -y, -emb, -yx, past jK^aJi,
H^AaJia, m^,aJI\o, -h imp. k o r d?
H X o? or Herd?
1. Kord? Hxo? to wait. /Kflaxb
flpyra. To wait
for a friend.
>KAaxb cecxpy. To wait for one's
sister. JK^axb xpaMBaH. To wait
for a tram.
2. nerd? to expect. H^^axb nncb-
Ma. To expect a letter. JK^axb
ndMom;H. To expect help.
>KE (5K) particle
1. emphatic particle: Hxd me xu
MOJiHHmb? Why on earth are you
silent? Hxd JKe mhb ^eJiaxb? What
shall I do? Kxd me anaji, hxo no-
rd^a H3MeHHXCH? Who could know
that the weather would change?
2. exactly, very, just, etc. Y MeuH
ecxb xaKaa me KHHra, KaK
y
xedfi. I've got an exactly the same
book as you. Ko MHe npHXOAim
xdx >Ke Bpan, Koxopwii npnxo-
;i;iiji K xe6e. / was attended by
the same doctor as you. B xy we
MHHyxy pasflajicH sBondK. At
that very moment the bell rang.
5KEJIAHHE neut. wish
y MeuH 6oJibmde TKeJianne yqiixb-
CH. / am. eager to learn.
5KEJIA|Tb, -lo, -emb, -lox imp. ko-
M y?
i e M y?
nerd? or followed
by inf./p. no>Kejia|xb, -lo, -emb, -lox
to wish
JKejiaio BaM cnacxbH, 3j],opdBbH h
doJibmnx ycnexoB. / wish you liap-
pifiess, good health and great suc-
cess. Htejiaio BaM Bcerd Hanjiyq-
mero, / wish you all the best. >Ke-
Jiaio BaM xopomd ox^oxnyxb. /
wish you a good rest, fl He JKCJiaio
HHHerd cJiymaxb. / don't want to
hear anything.
5KEJIE3H|blfl, -an, -oe, -bie
1. iron. }KeJie3HaH Kpwma. A met-
al roof. >KeJie3HaH py^a. Iron ore.
2. fig.
iron. /KeJiesHoe 3;^opdBbe.
Strong health. >Kejie3HaH Bdjia.
An iron will.
<> >Ke.ie3Hafl aopora. Railway.
JKEJIE30 n., no pl.^ iron
B 3T0H
pyAe
MHoro JKCJiesa. There
is much iron in this ore. G^eJiaTb
Hxd-HH5yAi> H3 JKeJie3a. To make
something out
of
iron.
HEJITlbin, -an, -oe, -He yellow
>KejixaH KpacKa. Yellow paint. >Keji-
Xbiii HBex. Yellow colour. JKeJixoe
nJiaxbe. A yellow dress.
HCEHA
/.,
pi. TKeubi wife
Mori H^ena

Bpan. My wife is a
doctor.
HCEHATIblH, -bie; short form JKenax,
-H (of
men or
of
a married couple)
married
JKenaxMH hcjiobck. A married man.
H He JKenax. I'm not married.
;keh 40 Hcyp
HCEHflTbCH, jKeHiocB, weHHmLCH, me-
HHTCH imp. & p. Ha K 6 M? to
marry
MoH Apyr
JKeHHTCfl, My friend Is
getting married. Oh HteHjiJiCH na
KpacHBOH flGByniKe. He married a
beautiful girl.
p.
also HOJKeHHTBCfl, sing, not used,
pi. nojKeHHMCH, noHteHHxecb, uome-
HHTCH to get married
Ohh HOHteHPiJiHCb y>Ke ^aBHo. They
married quite a long time ago.
HCEHCKIHfl, -an, -oe, -ne woman's,
women's
JKeHCKan 66yBL. Women's footwear.
MejKAyHapoAHfciH jKencKHH j^euh.
International Women's Day.
HCEHmHHA /. woman
KpacHBaH HteHmnna. A beautiful
woman.
HCEPTBA
/.
1. sacrifice. Blitb totoehm na jiio-
6ue JKepTBu. To be ready to
make any sacrifices. npuHOCHTfc
jKepiBLi. To make sacrifices.
2. victim. Butb (cxaTL) HiepxBOH.
To be (become) a victim.
JKECTKlHfl, -an, -oe, -ne wiry, hard
}KecTKHe BoJiocBi. Wiry hair. >KecT-
KHH ^HBan. A hard divan.
<> 5KecTKiiH Baroii. Hard-seated
railway carriage.
HCECTOKIHH, -an, -oe, -ne
1. cruel. TKecTOKHH neJioBeK. A
cruel person.
2. bitter, severe. H^ecxoKan 6opb6a.
A bitter struggle. H^cctokhh 3a-
KOH. A cruel law.
H{EHb, JKry, jKJKemb, jKryx, past
mer, >KrJi|a, -o, -h imp. Koro?
H T 0?
/
jo. cjKe^b, cojKry, cojKJKemb,
cowrvT, past cmer, coHtrJija, -6, -n
1. to burn. CJKe^b nncbMO. To burn
a letter. TKe^h 6eH3HH, Kepocnn,
yroJib, ApoBa. To burn petrol,
paraffin, coal, firewood.
2. fig. to burn. Gojinne h^jkct. The
sun is scorching. Mopoa mmeT
JiHqo H pyKH. The frost bites
the face and the hands.
M11B\0VL, -an, -oe, -tie, short form
HHB, HfHBa, HtliB|0, -W, adv. WHBO
1. alive.
2. living. TKHBaH npHpoAa. Living
nature.
3. fig.
lively. JKhboh peSenoK. A
lively child. JKhboh yM. Live-
ly wit.
4. living. H\hb6h hbuk. A living
language.
<> ^HBbie n;BeTW. Natural flowers.
HHBOT m., gen. -a stomach
y MeHH 6oJiriT mwROT. I have a
stomach-ache
.
H{HBOTH|OE neut., gen. -oro animal
^HKHe jKHBOTHue. Wild animals.
JIjOMamHHe H^HBOTHbie. Domestic
animals.
HCflAKlHfl, -aa, -oe, -ne
1. liquid. JKiiAKoe tgjio. A liquid
substance.
2. thin. }KiiAKHH cyn. Thin soup.
JKn^KaH CMexana. Thin sour
cream.
HClSAKOCTB /.
liquid
Han(f^HHTb cocy;^ h^ijakoctbio. To
fill a vessel with a liquid.
H^nSHEHHIblfl, -an, -oe, -me life
}Kpi3HeHHbiH OHHT. Life
experience.
5KH3Hb /.
life
/Knaub qeJioBena. Man's life. }KH3Hb
pacTeHHH. The life of
plants. KaK
BOBHHKJia >KH3Hb Ha ScMJIG? HoW
did life appear on Earth? Thjkc-
JiaH JKHBHb. A hard life. 06mecT-
BeHHan mnsuh. Public life.
<> ^eJiOBeK, nojiHbiu tkushu. A man
full of
vitality. Bonpoe hh3hh h
CMepxii. A matter
of life
and death.
BbiTb MejKfly
H{H3Hbio n cMepxbio.
To be between life and death.
^flPHlblH, -an, -oe, -ue fat, rich
^
JKiipHoe Mflco. Fat meat. JKnpHHH
cyn. Rich soup.
HCliTEJIb m. inhabitant
CeJibCKHH JKHxejib. A countryman.
FopoACKOH jKHxeJib. A townsman.
Ckojibko JKHxejieH b ropoAe?
How
manyXinhabitants are there in the
town?
HCHTb, >KHBly, -emb, -yx,
past jkhji,
jKHJia, >KHJi|o, -H imp. to live
TKuTh AOJiro. To live long. JKnxb
APyJKHo.
To live peacefully.
/Khxb
xopomo. To live well, fl JKHBy b
MocKBe. / live in Moscow. HiHXB
cBoriM yMOM. To live by one's wits.
JKnxb noA oahoh KpiimeH. To live
under the same roof.
HCyPHAJI m. magazine
I
3A 41 3AB
3, 3
3A prep.
I. -j- instr.
1. behind, beyond. IIIyM 3a CTenofi.
A noise behind the wall. 3a pe-
KOH Jiec. There is a forest beyond
the river.
2. at. CHflexb aa ctojiom. To sit at
the table.
3. after. HflTii Apyr 3a ;i;pyroM. To
go one after another. H 3a BaMH.
/ am after you.
4. at, 3a o6eAOM. At dinner. 3a
saBxpaKOM. At breakfast.
5. for. IIocjiaTfc aa epaHOM. To send
for the doctor. Vlj^Ta 3a xjie6oM.
To go to buy some bread.
6. after. GMOTpexb sa peSenKOM.
To look after a child.
7. out of, beyond. JKhxl 3a ropo-
AOM. To live in the country (out
of
town).
II. -\-acc.
1. behind, out of. IIocxaBHXB Kap-
xHHy 3a mKa(|). To put a pic-
ture behind the wardrobe. Bpo-
CHXb hx6-jih6o 3a OKHo. To throw
something out
of
the window.
2. at. Cecxb 3a cxoji. To sit down
at the table.
3. by. B3Hxb Kor6-HH6yAb 3a pyKy.
To take somebody by the hand.
4. before. 3a necKOJibKO jiue^ jio
npnesAa xoBapHni;a. Some days
before the friend's arrival.
5. in. BbinoJiHHXb pa66xy sa nefle-
JiK). To do the work in a week.
6. for. BopoxbCH 3a Mnp, sa cbo66-
ay.
To fight for peace,
for free-
dom.
7. for. 3anJiaxiixb aa kocxiom. To
pay
for a suit. Kynnxb 3a 5 py6-
Jien. To buy for 5 roubles.
8. to. noe3fl;Ka 3a ropoA. ^
t^^P
io
the country.
3ABACT0B1KA
/.,
gen. pi. -ok
strike
06'bflBHXb 3a6acx6BKy. To declare a
strike.
3AB0JIEITL1, -K), -emb, -lox
p. hcm?
to fall ill
3a6ojiexb rpnnnoM. To fall ill with
the
'flu. 3a6ojiexb anrHHOH. To
fall ill with tonsillitis.
3ABOJIETb2, 1st & 2nd pers. not
used, 3rd pers. saSoJiiix, 3a6oJiHx
p.
to begin to ache
y MeHH 3a6ojieJia rojiOBa. My head
began to ache.
3AB0TA
/.
care
3a66xa o flpyre.
Care for a friend.
3AB0|THTbCH, -qycb, -xHmbca, -xax-
CH imp. o K 6 M? o ^eM?
/j9. no-
3a66|THXbCH, -HyCb, -XHmbCH, -XHX-
cfl to take care
Maxb 3a66xHxcH o peSenKe. The
mother takes care
of
her child.
3AB0TJlHBlblE[, -an, -oe, -me thought-
ful, careful
SadoxJiHBUH
flpyr.
A thoughtful
friend. 3a66xJiHBoe oxnomeHne. A
careful attitude.
3ABbIBA|Tb, -K), -emb, -rox imp./
p.
aaSbixb, 3a63^A|y. -emb, -yx
1. KOro? HXO? o KOMPoqeM?
or followed by conj. -^t o or by an
inf. to forget. 3a6HBaxb Apyra.
To forget one's friend. 3a6biBaxb
o X0BapHni;e. To forget about
one's friend. 3a6bixb npaBHJio.
To forget a rule. H 3a6HJi, qxo
ceroAHH coSpauHe. / forget there
is a meeting today. He 3a6yAbxe
KyuHXb SuJiexH. Don't forget to
buy tickets.
2. H X ? to leave. 3a6wxb sohthk b
Mexpo. To leave one' s umbrella in
the underground.
SABb'ITb see SABblBATb
3ABEPH5^Tb see 3ABEPTbIBATb
3ABEPTbIBAiTb, lo, -emb, -lox imp.
Koro? Hxo?
/
JO.
3aBepH|yxb, -y,
-emb, -yx to wrap
3aBepHyxb MacJio b 6yMary. To wrap
the butter in paper. SaBepniixe, no-
JKaJiyiicxa. Wrap it up, please.
3ABECTH see 3AB0AiITb
3ABfl3|0BATb, -yio, -yemb, -yioT
imp. K M y? H e M y?
/
p.
noaaBii-
AloBaxb, -yio, -yemb, -yiox to envy
Oh saBiiAyex Mne. He envies me. Oh
saBpiAyex moitm ycnexaM. He envies
me my success.
3ABfl|CETb, -my, -cnmb, -chx imp.
ox Koro? ox Hero? to depend
3x0 saBHCHX ox Bac. It depends on you.
3ABflCHM0CTb /.,
no pi. depen-
dence
3AB0j^ m. works, plant
ABXOMoSflJIbHMH SaBOA- ^'^ ^"^^
3AB 42
3AA
works. nocxynpiTb iia aaBo^. To
begin working at a plant. PaSoxaTb
Ha 3aB6fl,e. To work at a plant. M^-
Tii Ha saBOA To go to the plant.
yHTii c saBOAa, To leave a plant.
3AB0J^lITb, saBOHcy, aaeoAHmb, aaBo-
AHT imp. H T 0?
/
p.
saBecTii, aaBe-
Al3%
-emb, -yx, past aaBeji, 3aBeJi|a,
-6, -li to wind up
3aBecTii HacLi. To wind up a watch
(
clock)
.^
3AB0lEBATb, -k)K), -loemb, -k)K)t
p.
H TO?
1. to conquer. BaBoeBaxb MHorne
cipaHbi, To conquer many coun-
tries.
2. fig.
to win. BaBoeBaib ^oBepne.
To win confidence. BaBoeBaxb
yBameHHe ii JiioSoBb. To win
respect and love.
3ABTPA adv. tomorrow
3aBTpa Sy^ex xopoman noro^^a. To-
morrow the weather will be fine.
O
]\o saeTpa! Till tomorrow!
3ABTPAK m. breakfast
ITpiiroToBHTb saBxpaK. To prepare
breakfast. 3a saBxpanoM. At break-
fast.
3ABTPAKA|Tb, -lo, -emb, -lox imp.
/
p.
no3aBxpaKa|xb, -lo, -emb, -lox to
have breakfast
Mm saBxpaKaeM b BoceMb nacoB yx-
pa. We have breakfast at eight
o'clock in the morning.
3ABTPAmH|Hn, -hh, -ee, -ne tomor-
row's
BaBxpamHHH 9KCKypcHH. Tomor-
row's excursion.
3ABfl3ATb see 3ABH3bIBATb
3AB>l3bIBA|Tb, -lo, -emb, -lox imp.
H X o?//>. 3aBH3axb, 3aBH}Ky, saBfi-
H<emb, 3aBH}Kyx
1. to tie. 3aBfl3axb y3eji. To tie a
knot. 3aBH3axb ropjio. To tie
something round one's neck.
2. fig. to start. 3aBfl3axb
APy>K-
6y. To start a friendship.
3ArAJ^|KA
/.,
gen. pi. -ok riddle
Baragaxb 3araAKy. To ask a riddle.
3ara;i;KH npiipoAM. The riddles
of
nature. 3xox neJiOBeK ^jih Mena 3a-
ra^Ka. This man is a riddle to me.
3ArOBOP m. conspiracy, plot
OpraHHSOBaxb saroBop. To hatch a
plot. PacKpuTb saroBop. To discov-
er a pldt.
3ArOPA|Tb, -K). -emb, -lox imp.
I
p. 3aroplexb, -k), -Hrab, -At to sun-
bathe
3aropaxb na nJiajKe. To sun-
bathe on a beach. Xopomo aaro-
pexb. To get well sun-tanned.
3ArOPAlTbCfl, -K)cb, -erabcfl, -ioxch
imp.
/p. aaroplexbCH, -locb, -rimbcH,
-HXCH
1. to catch fire. 3aropeJiCH
fl;oM.
A house was on fire.
2. fig.
to burn. 3aropexbCH HteJia-
HHeM. To burn with desire. Ero
rjia3a 3aropeJincb pajiocxbio. His
eyes began to sparkle with joy.
3ArOPETb see 3ArOPATb
3ArOPETbCH see SArOPATbCfl
3AJi;AlBATb, -K), -emb, -lox imp. hto?
K o M y?
/
/>. 3a;taxb, 3aAaM, 3aAamb,
3a,a^cx, 3aaaAHM, saAa^Hxe, aa^a-
jiyT,past 3aAaji, 3a;i;aJia, 3a;];aJi|o, -ii
1. to give. 3aAaBaxb ypoK. To give
some material to learn. 3afl;axb
Ha AOM. To give a home-task.
2. to ask. Ba^axb Bonpoc. To ask
a question.
3AAAHHE neut. task
^OMamnee 3a;^aHHe. A home-task.
3AJIATb see 3AAABATb
3AAAqA /.
1. task. O^epeAHbie sajiAmi. The
immediate tasks. Sa^ana rocy-
;i;apcxBeHHOH BajKHOcxH. A task
of
state importance.
2. sum, problem. PemHXb 3aAa^y.
To do a sum. To solve a problem.
Banana c AByMfi HeH3BecxHbiMH.
A problem with two unknowns.
3AJ^:^MATbCH see 3A3yMbIBATb-
Cfl
3AAyMHHBlblfl, -aH, -oe, -me, short
form 3aAyMHHB, -a, -o, -u; adv.
sajiyumiBo pensive, thoughtful
3aityMHHBMH BH/^. A pensive look.
3aAyMHHBaH ;^eByraKa. A thoughtful
girl. Oh 3aAyMHHB0 nocMOxpeJi na
Hee. He looked at her thoughtfully.
3AJ^^MbIBAlTbCH, -locb, -erabCfl,
-IOXCH imp. o^CM? na^^eM?/
p. saayMalxbCH, -locb, -embcH, -ioxch
to think, to ponder
3aAyMaxbCH Ha^ cJiomnbiM Bonpo-
COM. To ponder over a complex
problem. 3aAyMaxbCH o cbocm
Ap}'-
re. To think about one's friend.
3AE 43 SAM
3AE35KAlTb, -lo, -erab, -iot imp.
K KOMy? Kyfld? 3a kgm? aa
HeM?//?. aaexaxb, saeAly, -emb, -yx
to call (on, at)
Saexaxb k xoBapnmy. To call on
one's friend. 3aexaxb na no^xy. To
call at the post-office. 3aexaxb b Ma-
raai'iH sa KHHraMH. To call at the
shop to get books.
3AEXATb see 3AE3HCATb
SAHCEHb see SAHCHFATb
3AEMbCa see 3AH{HrATbCH
3AH(HrA|Tb, -lO, -enib,^ -k)X imp.
H X 0?
/
/?. sajKe^b, 3a>Kry, sammeuih,
aajKryx, past 3a>Ker, 3a>Krjila, -6,
-u to light
3a>Keqb cnMHKy. To light a match.
3a>KeHb cBex. To switch on the light.
3AM{HrAiTbCH, 1st & 2nd pers. not
used, 3rd pers. -excH, -ioxch imp.
/ p.
sajKe^bCfl, 1st & 2nd pers. not used,
3rd pers. sammejca, 3a>KryxcH,
past 3a>KerCfl, 3a>KrJilacb, -ocb, -ijcb
to light
CnMHKH He 3a>KHraioxcH. The
matches won't light. Ha He5e 3a-
HtrJiHCb 3Be3Abi, Stars appeared in the
sky.
SAflfll see 3AX0AflTb
3AKA3ATb see 3AKA3bIBATb
3AKA3bIBAiTb, -lo, -einb, -lox imp.
H X 0?
/
p. 3aKa3axb, 3aKa}Ky, 3aKa-
>Kemb, 3aKa>Kyx to book, to order
Sanasaxb 6HJiexbi b xeaxp. To book
tickets
for the theatre. 3aKa3biBaxb
o6e;5. To order dinner.
3AKAHHHBA|Tb, -lo, -erab, -rox imp.
Hxo?
/
/). saKOH^lHXb, -y, -Hmb, -ax
to finish
SaKonqnxb pa66xy. To finish work.
3AKAHHHBA|TbCH, 1st & 2nd pers.
not used, 3rd pers. -excH, -ioxch
imp.
I p. 3aK6HH|HxbCH, 1st & 2nd
pers. not used, 3rd pers. -hxch, -axcH
to end
CoGpanne 3aK6HqHJiocb OHenb
n63A-
HO. The meeting ended very late.
3AKAT m. sunset
HpKHH 3aKax. A bright sunset. 3a-
Kax coJiHua. Sunset.
3AKJIH)HA|Tb, -K), -erab, -lox imp.
H X o?/p. 3aKJiK)HlHXb, -y, -nrab, -ax
to conclude
3aKJiK)HHXb MHp. To make peace.
3aKJiK)qHXb
^oroBop. To conclude
a treaty.
3AKJIK)HHTb see 3AKJIH)HATb
3AK0H m. law
SaKOH npHpoAM. A law
of
nature.
3aK6Hbr pasBHXHH 65ra;ecxBa. The
laws
of
development
of
society. IIpH-
HflXb 3aK6H. To adopt a law.
3AK0HHHTb see 3AKAHHHBATb
3AK0HHHTbCH see SAKAHHH-
BATbCH
3AKPHH|ATb, -y, -iirab, -ax
p. to
shout
rpoMKO 3aKpHHaxb. To shout loudly.
3AKPbIBAlTb, -K), -erab, -lox imp.
Hxo?
J
p.
3aKpbixb, 3aKp6|io, -emb,
-lOX
1. to close. 3aKpwBaxb okho. To
close a window. 3aKpHXb ^Bepb
Ha KJiK)H. To lock the door. 3a-
KpiJBaxb xexpa^b, Kunry, aJib66M.
To close the copy-book, the book,
the album. 3aKpbixb rJiasa. To
close one's eyes.
2. fig.
to close. SaKpbixb co6paHHe.
To close the meeting.
3AKPb'ITb see 3AKPbIBATb
3AKyPflTb, sanypK), 3aKypHrab, 3a-
Kypnx p.
^ X 0? to light
3aKypHXb nannpocy. To light a
cigarette.
3AJI m. hall
3prixejibHbm 3aJi. An auditorium.
GnopxHBHbiH 3aJi. A sports hall.
AKxoBbiH 3aJi. An assembly hall.
HnxaJibHWH 3aJi. A reading hall.
3aJi saceAaHHH.
Convention hall.
SAMEHHTb see 3AMEHHTb
3AMEHH|Tb, -K), -erab, -lox imp.
H X 0? q e M?
/
JO.
3aMeraixb, 3aMeHK),
3aMeHHrab, 3aMeHHX to replace
SaMCHiixb cxapyio Aexajib hoboh.
To replace an old part by a new^ one.
3aMeHHXb ypoKH xhmhh
ypoKaMii
pyccKoro H3biKa. To
substitute
Russian lessons for
chemistry lessons.
3AMEP3AlTb, -k), -erab, -lox imp.
I
p.
3aMep3H|yxb, -y, -erab, -yx,
past
3aMep3, 3aMep3Jila, -o, -h to freeze
H 3aMep3aio ox xoJiOAa. / am freez-
ing from
the cold. PeKa
3aMep3Jia.
The river has frozen.
3AMEP3HyTb see
3AMEP3ATb &
MEPSHYTb
3AMETHTb see
3AMEHATb
3AME^IAHHE neut.
remark
CnpaBeAJiHBoe
saMe^aHHe.
A fust
remark. CfleJiaxb
saMe^aHHe
KOMy-
3AM
44
3An
-jih6o hjih no noBOAy Her6-JiH6o.
To make a remark to somebody or
on something.
3AMEHATEJIbHlblH, -an, -oe, tie
wonderful
3aMeiaTeJibHEJH noax namero spe-
MeHH. A wonderful poet
of
our time.
SaMe^axeJibHEiu ropo^;. A wonder-
ful city.
3AMEHA|TI>, -lo, -enib, -k)t imp. ko-
to? H T o?/p. 3aMe|TiiTb, -Hy, -THnib,
-TAX
1. to notice. Ha yjiHi^e h aaMexHJi
xoBapiima. In the street, I noticed a
friend. H saMexHJi, hxo oh ycxaji.
/ noticed that he was tired.
2. to remark. 3xo HenpaBAa,

aaMexHJi oh. ''That's not true,"


he remarked.
3AM|0K m., gen. -Ka lock
3anepexb na aaivioK. To lock.
3AM0JI4|ATb, -y, -itmb, -ax p. to
become silent
yneHHK aaMOJiHaJi. The pupil be-
came silent.
SAMYHC adv.
Bhhxh 3aMy>K. To marry
(of
women
only). Ona Bwmjia aa Hero aaMyjK.
She married him.
3AMy5KEM adu.
BuTh aaMymeM. To be married
(of
women only). Bbi aaMyjKeivi?

Hex,
H He 3aMy>KeM. ,,Are you married?"
''No, I am not." Ona SbiJia aa-
MyweM. She was married.
3AHHMA|Tb, -lo, -emb, -k)x imp.
Hxo?//?. aaHHxb, 3aHM|y, -emb, -yx
1. to occupy. Gxaj^HOH sannMaex
100 reKxapoB. The stadium oc-
cupies 100 hectares.
2. to take. GnopxcMeH saHHJi nep-
Boe Mecxo. The sportsman took
the first place.
3. to take. BaKHMaiixe Mecxa. Take
your seats.
4. to take. PemeHHe sa^a^H sann-
Jio 4 Haca. The solution
of
the
problem took 4 hours.
5. to occupy. BoHCKa aannjin ropo;^.
The troops occupied the town.
3AHHMA|TbCH, -locb, -embcH, -loxca
imp. r
A
e? ^ e m?
1. to study. BaHHMaxbCfl b 6h6jiho-
xeKe. To study at a library.
Mndro saHHMaxbCfl. To study a lot.
2. to go in for. SauHMaxbCH cndp-
xoM. To go in
for sport.
3aHHM4xbCH
MyauKOH, jiHxepa-
xypoH. To go in
for music,
literature.
3AHHTHE neut.
1. occupation. EoJieaHoe aanaxHe.
A useful occupation.
2. only pi. lessons. Bbixb na aaHH-
XHflX. To be at the lessons.
3AHflT|blB[, -an, -oe, -ue, short form
saHHx, aaHHxa, aannxlo, -h
1. taken. 3xo Mecxo aannxo? Is this
seat taken?
2. busy. H cer6;^HH aauHX. / am
busy today.
3AHIlTb see 3AHHMATb
3A0HH|blH, -an, -oe, -me; adv. aaoH-
HO by correspondence
BaoHHoe oSyneuHe. Teaching by
corr^pondence.
BaoHHMii HHCxnxyx,
A correspondence institute. Vqiixb-
CH aaoHHO. To study by correspond-
ence.
3AnA/( m.
1. west. G BocxoKa na aana^. From
east to west.
2. west. Ha aana^e cxpaHbi. In the
west
of
the country.
3AnAJ^H|blfl, -aa, -oe, -ho west(ern)
Bana^HbiH Bexep. A west wind. 3a-
naAHoe nojiymapne. The western
hemisphere.
BAHAX m. smell
npmixHbiH aanax. A pleasant smell.
Banax i;Bex6B. The smell
of flow-
ers.
3AnHCATb see BAnflCblBATb
3AnnC|KA
/.,
gen. pi. -ok
1, note. Hanncaxb sanncKy. To
write a note.
2. only pi. transactions. yneHwe
aanticKH ynnBepcHxexa. The
transactions
of
the University.
3AnflCbIBA|Tb, -K), -emb, -lox imp.
Hx 0?
/
p. aanncaxb, aannmy, aanii-
memb, aannmyx
1. to write down. BaniicmBaxb JieK-
n;HK). To take down notes
of
a
lecture.
2. to record. BanwcHBaxb roJioc na
njiCHKy. To record somebody's
voice.
3AnJIAKATb see nJlAKATb
BAHJIATfiTb see njIATflTb
3An 45 3AH
3AnOMHHA|Tb, -lo, -emb, -iot imp.
Koro? qTo?
/
jD. sanoMHlHTb, -lo,
-Hmb, -HT to remember
SanoMHHTb HOMep flOMa.
To remem-
ber the number
of a house. SanoM-
HHxe 3T0 CJIOBO, Remember this word.
SAllOMHHTb see 3AnOMHHATb
3AnPETHTb see 3AnPEIU;ATb
3AnPEmAlTb, -K), -emb, -k)t imp.
q T 0? K o M
y?
-|-
inf.
I
p. aanpelxHTb,
-my,
-Tiimb, -THT to forbid, to pro-
hibit
BpaH sanpeTHJi eM}^ KypHTb. The
doctor forbade him to smoke.
3AnPEmEHHE neut. prohibition
3APABATbIBA|Tb, -lo, -emb, -iot
imp. H T 0?
I
p. 3apa66Ta|Tb, -lo,
-emb, -IOT to earn
3apa6dTaTb mhofo Aener. To earn
a lot of
money.
3APAB0TATbi see 3APABATblBATb
3APAB0TATb2 to begin working
Mamnna 3apa6dTa.Tia. The machine
began working.
3APnJIATA /. (
= sapaSoTHaa njiara)
salary, wages
BucoKafl sapnjiaTa. A high salary
(high wages). HnsKan sapnjiara. A
low salary (low wages). IIoJiyHHTb
sapHjiary. To get one's salary
(wages).
3ACJiy3KHBAITb, -lo, -emb, -k>t
imp. HTO?//?. aacjiyjKHTb, aacjiy-
>Ky, sacjiyn^nmb, 3acjiyHaT
1. to deserve. BacjiyjKtTTb narpa^y.
To deserve a reward.
2. to win. YHHTejib sacjiyjKHji jiio-
SoBb y^eHHKOB. The teacher won
the love
of
his pupils.
3ACJiy5KllTb see 3ACJiyaCHBATb
3ACME|flTbCH, -locb, -embcn, -iotch
p. to begin to laugh
rpoMKO 3acMeHTbCH. To begin to
laugh loudly.
3ACH^Tb see 3ACbmATb
3ACTABHTb see 3ACTABJI}lTb
3ACTABJI>!|Tb, -lo, -emb, -k)t imp.
K r 6? q t o?
-f-
inf.
/ p. sacTalBMTb,
-BjiK), -BHmb, -BHT to make
3acTaBHTb paSoxaTb. To make (some-
body) work.
3ACbinAITb, -K), -emb, -iot imp./
p.
3acH|yTb, -y, -emb, -yT
Oh sacbinaeT 6MCTpo. He falls asleep
quickly. KoFAa th BHepa sacnyji?
When did you fall asleep yesterday?
3ATEM adv.
1. then. GnaHaJia a noujjj b 6h6-
JiHOTCKy, a 3aTeM b khho. /
shall first go to the library and
then to the cinema.
2. for (or translated by
inf.). Oh
no3BOHMji 3aTeM, HTOObi ysHaxb,
KaK H ce6a nyBCTByio. He
called up to learn how I felt.
3AT0 con
J.
but
3to HeBKycHO, aaxo nojie3Ho. It's
not tasty, but it's good (for you).
3AXBATHTb see 3AXBATbIBATb
3AXBATblBAlTb, -lo, -emb, -iot
imp. H t 0?
/
/?. saxBaTPiTb, 3axBa-
Hy, saxBariimb, saxBarar to seize
3axBaTHTb nyjKue 3eMJiH. To seize
somebody else's land.
3AX03flTb, saxoHty, aaxo^Hmb, sa-
xojxaT imp. k KOMy? KyAa? 3 a
K e M? 3 a H e M?
/p.
3aHTiJ, aaiiAly,
-emb, -yr, past aameji, 3amji|a, -6, -n
1. to call. SaiiTii b focth k
^py-
ry. To call on a friend. Saiixii b
MaraaHH 3a KHiiraMH. To call at
a shop to buy books.
2. to set. CoJiHue 3ax6AHT. The
sun is setting.
3AX0TETb see XOTETb
3AHEM adv. what for, why
3aHeM BM npnexajiH b Mockbv?
What did you come to Moscow for?
H He 3Haio, 3aHeM oh npnxoAHJi. /
don't know why he called.
3AmflTA /.,
no pl.^
1. defence. SamiiTa ropoAa, npaB.
The defence of
a city, rights.
2. defence. SamnTa AHCcepTaumi.
The defence of
a thesis.
3AIIi;HTflTb see 3AIH.HmATb
3AmHin;AITb, -K>, -emb, -iot imp.
Kor6?HTo?OT Koro? ot He-
ro?
/
p. 3am;HlTHTb,
-my,
-Tiimb,
-THT
1. to defend. 3amHmaTb ropoA ot
Bpara. To defend the city from
the enemy. Samnmarb CBOii npa-
Ba. To defend one's rights. 3a-
mnmaTb CBOK) TOHKy spenHa.
To defend one's point
of
view.
2. to defend. 3amHmaTb AHCcepTa-
HHK). To defend one's thesis.
3AHBflTb see 3AHBJI}lTb
3AaBJIEHHE neut.
1. declaration. 3aaBJieHHe npaBii-
TBJIbCTBa nOJIOJKCHHH B CTpaHC.
3Afl 46 3EJI
A government declaration on the
situation in the country.
2. application. HaniicaTt saHBJie-
HHe Ha iiMH AHpeKTopa. To write
an application to the director.
3AHBJlH|Tb, -K), -enih, -iot imp.
H T 0? K o M
y? o H e M?
/
p. 3a-
flBiiTb, 3aHB-iK), aaHBHrab, aaflBHT
to announce
IIpaBiiTejibCTBo BaHBiijio o6 ycxa-
HOBJieHHH ^HnJlOMaTPWeCKHX OTHO-
meHHH c 3T0H CTpanoH. The goi^ern-
ment announced the establishment
of
diplomatic relations with this
country.
3BATb, bobI}', -enib, -yx, past bbrji,
-a,
-0, -H imp.
I
p. noBBaxL, noao-
B|y, -emb, -yx, past nosBaJi, no-
3Bajia, noBBajiIo, -h
1. Koro? H X 0? to call. Maxb
noBBajia peSenKa oGe^axb. The
mother called the child to dinner.
HoBOBiixe cecxpy k tquq^ouw.
Call your sister to the telephone.
2. no
p.
to be called. Kan Bac bo-
Byx?

MeHJi BOByx Bopric (Bo-


piicoM). ''What is your name?"
"My name is Boris."
3BE'SJ\\ /.,
pi. BBeaAbi
1. star. HpKaR aBe3;;a. A bright
star. Ha He6e oAHa BBCBAa.
There is one star in the sky.
3a>Krjiiicb BBeB^bi. Stars began
to show.
2. fig. star. BseBAa BKpana (khho-
BBeBAa). A film star.
3BEH|ETb, 1st & 2nd pers. not used,
3rd pers. -vix, -flx imp. to ring
Bbghiix bbohok. The bell is ring-
ing, rdjioc ee BBeneJi KaK kojio-
KOJibHHK. Her voice rang like a
bell.
3BEP|b m., gen. pi. -eii beast
Xhiahmh BBcpb. A beast
of
prey.
JJ^uKne BBepii. Wild beasts.
3B0H|flTb, -K), -Hiub, -ax imp. k o-
My?
/
/?. nOBBOHJllXb, -K), -HUIb, -HX
1. no
p.
to ring. 3bohhx xejie^OH.
The telephone is ringing.
2. K M
y? to ring up. fl hobbo-
HHn BMy no xejie^ony. / rang
him up.
3B0HK|nn, -an, -oe, -ne ringing
3b6hkhh roJioc, A ringing voice.
BBOHKafl necHH. A ringing song.
3BOH|0K m., gen. -Ka
1. bell. H najKaJi na KHOUKy bboh-
Ka. / pressed the button
of
the
bell.
2. bell. Pa3;tajicfl xpexnii bbohok.
The third bell rang.
3ByK m,
1. sound. CxpaHHUH BsyK. A strange
sound. 3ByK rdjioca. The sound
of
a voice.
2. sound. CorjiacHMH (r.iacHbiH)
BByK. A consonant (vowel) sound.
3;^AHHE neut. building
Bojibmoe aAanne. A large building.
Cxapoe BAanne. An old building.
3AaHHe xeaxpa. The theatre building.
3^ECb adv.
1. r^e? here. Mm dy^eM >khxi>
3/i,ecb. We shall live here. 3fl,ecb
Bce CBOii. There are no strang-
ers here.
2.
fig. 3Aecb Hex Hnnero njioxoro.
There is nothing bad in this.
3^OP0BAlTbCH, -locb, -embcn, -ioxch
imp. c KGM?
/p. noBAopoBalxbCfl,
-locb, -embCfl, -loxcH to greet
Oh He noBAopoBa.iCH c HaMii. He
didn't greet us.
3JliOPOB|bTH, -an, -oe, -bie, short
form BAopoB, -a, -0, -u.
1. healthy. 3Aop6BLm peoenoK. A
healthy child. Oh coBceM BAopoB.
He is quite healthy.
2. only complete form healthy.
SAopoBbiH bha. a healthy look.
3Aop6BbiH oxAHX. Healthy rest.
<> ByAb(Te) 3Aop6B(fai)! Good-bye
f
3Ji;0P0BbE n. health
Xoponiee BAopoBbe. Good health.
KpenKoe BAopoBbe.
Strong health.
y Hero cjia6oe BAopoBbe. His
health is weak. KaK Bame BAopoBbe?
How are you? Bepe^b BAopoBbe.
To take care
of
one's health.
<> 3a same aAoposbe! To your
health! Ha SAopOBbe! To your pleas-
ure!
3;i;PABCTByfl(TE) [BApacxByiiTe]
How do you do. Good morning.
Good afternoon. Good evening.
Hello!
3EJlEH|blfl[, -an, -oe, -He
1. green. 3eJieHafl xpasa. Green
grass. 3eJieHUH i;Bex. Green col-
3EM 47 3HA
2. green. SeJienwe 6boiu;h. Green
vegetables. 3eJieHHe hSjiokh.
Green apples.
3EMJIH /.,
ace. 3eMJiK); pi. seuJiu,
seMeJib, seMJiHM, etc.
1. no pi. Earth. GeMJia BpamaexcH
BOKpyr CBOeH och. The Earth
revolves on its axis.
2. land. IIJiOAopojiHaH seMJiH. Fer-
tile land. SeMJiH

c66cTBeH-
HOCTb Hapo^a. The land belongs
to the people.
3. ground. VnacTt na seMJiio. To
fall
to the ground.
4. land. 3eMJifll

sanpHqaji Mar-
poc. ''Land!" the sailor shouted.
3EPKAJI0 neut., pi. aepnajia, aepKaji,
sepnajiaM, etc. looking-glass
CMOTpeTB(cH) B sepKaJio. To look
(at oneself) in a looking-glass.
3EPH0 neut., pi. aepna, sepen, sep-
HaM, etc. grain
IlnieHMHHoe aepno. A grain
of
wheat
.
3HMA /.,
ace. 3imy, pLsuMU. winter
CypoBan, xojioAHaH 3HMa. A hard,
cold winter. BcK) ariMy ctohjih mo-
posH. The frosts lasted the whole
winter.
3flMH|Hfl[, -HH, -ee, -ne winter
Shmhhh ASHb, A winter day. 3nM-
Hee najibTO. A winter coat. 3hm-
HHH cnopT. Winter sports.
3HM0H adv. in winter
3hm6h b MocKBe xoJioflHo. It is
very cold in Moscow in winter.
3Jl\0V[, -as, -6e, -tie, short form 30JI,
BJia, 3JI0, 3JIW
1. wicked, malicious, vicious.
3jioh HeJiOBeK. A wicked man.
3Ji6e JiHii;6. A wicked face.
2. hard. 3jioh Mopoa. A hard frost.
3. angry. KaK h 30J1I How angry 1
ami
3MEII
/.,
pi. 3MeH, 3MeH snake
HflOBHTaH 3MeH. A venomous snake.
3HAK0|MHTbCfl, -MJiiocb, -MHuibCH,
-MHTCfl imp. c KeM?c HeM?/
p.
n03HaK6|MHTbCH, -MJIIOCb, -MHIDb-
CH, -MATCH
1. to make acquaintance. 3HaK6-
MHTbCH C HOBMMH JIIOAbMH. To
meet new people.
2. to get to know. 3HaK6MHTLCH c
r6po;;oM. To get to know a
city.
3HAK0M|blfl, -an, -oe, -we, short
form BHaKOM, -a, -0, -m
1. familiar. 3HaK6MaH KHPira. A
familiar book, fl BHanoM c hhm.
He is an acquaintance
of
mine.
2. used as n. acquaintance. Oh moh
BHaKOMLiH. He is an acquaintance
of
mine. Ona moh BHanoMan.
She is an acquaintance
of
mine.
Oahh moh BHaKOMHH CKasaji
MHe, HTO... An acquaintance
of
mine told me that...
3HAMEHHT|bm, -an, -oe, -He, short
form BHaMeHHT, -a, -o, -li famous,
celebrated
3HaMeHiiTHH KOMnosHTop. A fa-
mous composer. SHaMeHMTBiii xy-
goJKHHK. A celebrated artist.
3HAMH neut., gen., dat., prepos. BHa-
MeHH, ace. BHaMH, instr. 3HaMeHeM;
pi. BHaMena, BHaMCH banner
SnaMH CBoGoAbi. The banner
of
freedom.
3HAHHE neut. knowledge
3HaHHe

ciiJia. Knowledge is pow-


er. FjiySoKHe SHauHH. Profound
knowledge. Hpo^Hbie BHaHHH. Solid
knowledge. OBJia^eBaxb SHannHMH.
To gain knowledge.
3HA|Tb, -10, -emb, -iot imp. k r 6?
H T O? K 6 M? H e M?
1. to know. H BHaio btofo nejioBe-
Ka. / know that man. Xopomo
BHaxb cTpany. To have a good
knowledge
of
a country.
2. to know. 3HaTb pyccKnii hbwk.
To know Russian.
3. to know. 3HaTb 06 OT-BeBAC
To
know about one's departure. H
BHaio, HTO OH 66jieH. / know that
he is ill. H BHaio, r^e oh >kh-
BCT. / know where he lives. H
BHaio, Ky^a oh nomeji. / know
where he went. H ne BHaio, Kor-
jxk
OH BepneTCH, / don't know
when he will come back, fl ne
BHaio, HOieMy ero Hex. / don't
know why he is not here.
3HAHfiHHE neut.
1. meaning. 3to cjiobo HMeex mho-
ro 3HaHeHHH. This word has
many meanings.
2. importance. Cnopx
HMeex or-
poMHoe SHaneHHe flJIH
BAOpoBbH.
Sport is
of
great
importance for
health.
3HA
48
HAT
3HAHlHTb, 1st & 2nd pers. rarely
used, 3rd pers. -ht, -ax imp. h t o?
to mean
Hto 3HaqHT 9T0 CJIOBO? What does
this word mean? 3x0 HH^ero He
3HaHHT. It means nothing.
3HAH|0K m., gen. -Ka badge
yHHBepcHTeTCKHH 3HaH0K. A uni-
versity badge. Sna^oK Typiicxa
CCCP. The badge
of
tourist
of
the
USSR. 06MeHHBaxbCH BHaHKawH.
To exchange badges.
30JI0T0 neut., no pi. gold
Hhcxob sojioxo. Pure gold.
J[o6u-
Baxb SOJIOXO. To mine gold. 3anjia-
xiixb aoJioxoM. To pay in gold.
<0> He Bce to sojioxo, hto Sjibc-
THT (proverb). All that glitters
isn't 0old.
30JI0T|0fl, -an, -6e, -ue gold
1. gold. BoJioxaH MOHexa, A gold
coin. SoJioxbie nacu. A gold
watch.
2. fig.:
3oJiox6fi ^eJioBeK. A won-
derful man.
O
Sojioxafl cepBAHna. The golden
mean.
30HTHK m. umbrella
PacKpiixb BOHXHK. To open an um-
brella.
3PEHHE neut. eyesight
Xoporaee apeHne. Good eyesight.
<> To^Ka speHHfl. A point
of
view.
C TO^iKii apennfl Kor6-JiH5o. From
somebody's point
of
view.
3PflTEJIb m. spectator
TeaxpaJibHWH spiixejib. A theatre-
goer. B aaJie mhofo apHxejieii.
There are many spectators in the hall.
3PH adv. for nothing
3pH xpaxHXb BpeMH. To waste time.
3pH roBopiiXb. To speak to no
purpose. 3pH ne CecnoKOHxecbl
Don't worry unnecessarily/
3yB m., pi. 3j'6bi, 3y66B tooth
y Meiia SoJiHx 3y6Li. Fve got a
toothache.
<> FoBopHTb (cKaaaTb) ckbosb
aySbi. To speak through clenched
teeth.
n, H
H conf. and
Maxb H oxen,. Mother and Father.
Mu roBopiiM no-pyccKH h no-anr-
JiHHCKH. We speak Russian and
English. EomeJi ji,omjxh, h mh ne
noexajiH 3a ropo^. It began to rain
and we didn't go to the country.
HPOJIIKA
/.,
gen. pi. -ok needle
JX&u
MHe nrojiKy c htixkoh. Give me
a needle and some thread. FpaMMO-
^OHHaa nroJiKa. A gramophone
needle. HroJiKH na ejiKe. Fir needles,
HFPA
/.,
pi. nrpbi game; playing
1. HnxepecHan nrpa. An interest-
ing game. HacxojibHafl nrpa. A
table game.
2. Mrpa na CKpHnKe. Playing the
violin.
3. Hrpa b $yx66ji. Playing foot-
ball.
nrpAlTB, -10, -emb, -kdx imp./
p. cut-
pajxb, -K), -emb, -lox
1. to play. ^exH nrpaiox b napKO.
Tl^e
children are playing in the
park. R nrpaio c 6paxoM. I play
with my brother.
2. b H X 6? to play. Hrpaxb b
6acKex66ji, b (|)yx66Ji, b BOJien-
66Jr, B maxMaxH. To play bas-
ket-ball, football, volley-ball,
chess.
3. Ha HeM? to play. Hrpaxb na
OHaHHHO, Ha CKpiIHKe, Ha TH-
xape. To play the piano, the
violin, the guitar.
4. H X 0? to play. Hrpaxb Bajibc.
To play a waltz, k o r 6? Hr-
paxb Bopiica FoAyHOBa. To play
Boris Godunov.
<> 3to iirpaex Gojibinyio pojib.
It's
of
great importance . 3x0 lie
nrpaex pojiii. It's
of
no importance.
HFPyjUlKA f.,gen. pi. -en toy
J],excKHe nrpymKH. Children's toys.
HAEH /.
1. idea. EepeAOBwe hack namero
BpeMeHH. Advanced ideas
of
our
time.
2. idea. Hach npoH3BeAeHHH. The
idea
of
a literary work.
HJ^iTfl, -y, -emb, -yx, past meji, mji|a,
-0, -H imp.
1. Ky^a? oxKy^a? to go. H^xh
B pecxopaH. To go to a restau-
rant. Haxh Ha HOHxy. To go to
the post-office. Hath h3 xeaxpa
AOMOH. To go home from the
theatre. Hath k 6paxy. To go
to one's brother. Haxh Sticxpo.
H3 49 H3M
To go quickly. \\ji,TU neniKoM.
To walk.
2. to go. Hath ryjiHTB. To go for
a walk, fl
HAY
b khho. / am
going to the cinema.
3. to go. IIoeaA H^ex GwcTpo.
The train is going fast.
4. to go. ^opora hagt jigcom. The
road goes through a forest.
5.: ^acLi H^yT xopomo. The watch
(clock) keeps good time.
6.: H^eT aojkab. It is raining. VLj^ot
CHer. It is snowing. Hjjjqt rpa^.
It is hailing.
7.:KaK H^yT j^ejia? How are things?
>KH3Hb HABT. Life goes on. Bpe-
Mfl HAGT. Time is passing. Pa-
66Ta H^eT. Work is in progress.
8. to be on. CeroAHfl b Teaxpe
h^St HOBaff nbeca. There is a
new play on at the theatre, today.
9. to become. 3to njiaxbe BaM
HAex. This dress becomes you.
IO.iIIaxh k n;eJiH. To try to achieve
one's goal.
<> Hath Ha bcc. To go to any
length. He hact h3 yMa (it6-:ih6o).
Not to be able to get (something)
out
of
one's head. rojiOBa iiagt
KpvroM. My head is in a whirl.
H3 (H30) prep.
-^
gen.
1. out of. BbmxH H3 KOMHaxH. To go
(come) out
of
the room. Bbiexaxb
H3 ropoAa. To drive out
of
the
town.
2. from. lOnoma na A$phkh. A
youth from Africa.
3. of. HeKOXopwe hb Hac. Some
of
us. Oahh H3 cxyAGHXOB. One
of
the students.
4. (made) of. Kocxiom h3 mepcxn. A
woollen costume.
H3BECTHE neut.
1. news. IIpnHXHoe n3BecxHe.
Pleasant news.
2. news. IIocjieAHHe HSBecxna. The
latest news.
H3BCTH|blH, -an, -oe, -bie, short
form H3BecxeH, H3BecxH|a, -o, -bi;
adv. H3BecxH0 well-known
H3BecxHBiH yneHWH. A well-known
scientist. 3x0 Bceivi nsBecxno. Every-
body knows that.
H3BHHflTB see H3BHHIlTb
H3BHHHTbCH see H3BHHHTbCH
44002
H3BHHIl|Tb, -K), -emb, -lox imp. ko-
to?
/ />. H3BHH|lixb, -K), -limb, -HX
to excuse
H3BHHMxe MeHH, HOJKajiyficxa. Ex-
cuse me, please.
H3BHH}JlTbCH, -locb, -embcn, -loxca
imp.
I p.
H3BHH|HXbCH, -lOCb, -Hmb-
CH, -axcfl to apologise
Oh H3BHHHjicfl nepeAO mhoh aa
AOJiroe MOJinaHHe. He apologised
to me for his long silence.
H3J1|AJIEKA adv. from far away
npnexaxb nsAajieKa. To come from
far away.
H3-3A prep, -j- gen.
1. from behind. H3-3a .neca rioKa-
aajiacb Jiyna. The m^on came
out from behind the forest.
2. from. Bcxaxb H3-3a cxojia. To
get up from the table.
3- because of. H3-3a
ao?ka mli ne
noexaJiH na nporyjiKy. Because
of
the rain we didn't go for a drive.
H3MEHEHHE neut. change
H3MeHeHHH B >KH3HH. Changes in
life. HaMGHeHHe b pacnncaHnH. A
change in the time-table. B cxpaiie
npoH3omjiH Sojibmiie ii3MeHeHiiH.
Great changes have taken place in
the country.
H3MEHflTb see H3MEHHTb
H3MEHIiTbCfl see H3MEHHTbCH &
MEHHTbCH
H3MEH>l|Tb, -10, -emb, -lox imp.
/
p.
H3MeHHXb, H3MeHl6, II3MeHHmb,
iiaMeHHX
1. H T 0? to alter. HaMeHwxb njian.
To alter a plan.
2. K o M
y?
H e M y? to betray, to be
unfaithful. HaivieHMTb cxpane.
To betray one's country. HaMennxb
TKene. To be unfaithful to one's
wife.
H3MEHHlTbCH, -locb, -embca, -lox-
CH imp./p. HaMennxbCfl, H3MeHi6cb,
H3MeHHmbCH, HaMeHHXCH to change
HaMeuHJiCfl bha ropoAa. The ap-
pearance
of
the city has changed.
Bbi oneHb H3MeHiiJiHCb. You've
changed a lot.
(cf. MEHHXbCH)
H3MEPHTb see H3MEPHTb
H3MEPHlTb, -lo, -emb, -lox imp.
H X 0?
/p.
H3Mep|HXb, -K), -Hmb, -HT
to measure
HaMepnxb JiJiauy KoMHaxH. To
measure the length
of
a room.
H30 50 HHT
HsMepHTb TeMnepaxj^py. To take
one's temperature.
H30BPA5KAlTb, -w, -emb, -k)t imp.
HTO?//?. H306pa|3HTb, -Hty, -3Hmb,
-3HT to represent
^t6 bh H3c6pa3'/uiH Ha axoH Kap-
THHe? What did you represent in
that picture?
H30BPA3flTI> see H30BPAHCATb
H30BPECTfl see HSOBPETATb
H30BPETAITb, -ro, -erab, -k)t imp.
^ T 0?
/p.
H3o6pecTH, H3o6peT|y,
-enib, -yT, past H3o6peJi, H3o6peji|a,
-6, -H to invent
HsoSpecTii HOByio Mamimy. To in-
vent a new machine.
H3-nOA
prep.
-\-
gen.
1. from under. KoniKa BumJia h3-
nojs, CTOJia. The cat came from
under the table.
2. from a place near some other
place, npnexaxb H3-noA JlenaH-
rpaaa. To come from near Lenin-
grad.
H3yHA|Tb, -K), -erab, -lox imp.^jo?
K o r 6?
/ p. H3yqiixb, H3yiy, nay-
HHrab, H33^iax to study
Hsyqaxb pyccKHii H3wk. To study
Russian. Ilsy^axb npo6JieMy. To
study a problem.
H3yHnTb see H3yqATb
flJIH con
J.
or
BamixHH naqnyxcH saBxpa ijjih
nocjie3aBTpa. The lessons start to-
morrow or the day after. Oh ^oMa
iiJiH Hex? Is he at home or not?
J\r
iiJiH Hex? Yes or no?
flMEHHO particle precisely, just
MMeHHO Bbi MHe Hy>KHM. You are
just the one I need.
^
Box HMeHHO. Exactly.
HMElTb, -K>, -erab, -lox imp. Koro?
H X o? to have
HMexb MHoro BpeMenn ^jih aaHH-
XHH. To have a lot of
time for
one's studies. HMexb B03M6JKHOcxb
nocexHXb BMCxaBKy, To be able to
visit the exhibition. HMexb 3Ha^e-
HHe. To be
of
importance.
HMnEPHAJIIlCTHqECKlHfl, -an, -oe,
-He imperialist
flMfl neut., gen., dat., prepos. hmchh,
ace. HMH, instr. HMeHGM; pi. HMe-
Ha, hmbh, HMenaM, etc. name
Moe HMH

BjiaAHMHp, My name is
Vladimir. KaK Barae iimh? WhaVs
your name?
<> BMCTynaxb ot hmchh kopo-jih-
5o. To speak on somebody's behalf.
Bii6jinoTeKa HMeHH JlenHna. The
Lenin library.
HHAHE
1. adv. in a different way. 3xoHa-
AO cji;ejiaxb HHane. This should
be done in a different way.
2. conj. (or) else.
Hau 6bicxpee,
HHaqe xh ono3Aaemb. Go faster,
or else you'll be late.
HHJKEHEP m. engineer
FopHWH HHJKeHep. A mining engi-
neer. MoH oxeu

HHJKeHep. My
father is an engineer. Pa66xaxb hh-
HtenejOM. To work as an engineer.
IIHO^J^A adv. sometimes
HnorAa oh npnxoAHJi aomoh n63A-
HO. Sometimes he came home late.
HHOCTPAH|EI^ m., ^e/z.
-ua foreigner
B rocxHHHue HtHBex MHoro nno-
cxpaHn;eB. Many foreigners live in
the hotel.
HHOCTPAHHlblK, -an, -oe, -Lie
foreign
HHOcxpaHHLie H3Ukh. Foreign lan-
guages. MHHHcxepcxBo HHOcxpan-
HMX AGJi. The Ministry
of
Foreign
Affairs.
HHCTHTS^T m. institute
GxpOHxeJibHWH HHCXHxyx. A build-
ing institute. YHHXbCH b HHCXHxy-
xe. To study at an institute. Tlo-
cxyHHXb B HHCXHxyx. To enter an
institute. HayHHO-HCCJieAOBaxeJib-
CKHH HHCXHxyx. A research insti-
tute.
HHCTPyMEHT m. instrument
XHpyprHiecKHe HHCxpj'Menxbi. Sur-
gical Instruments. My3biKaJibHbiH
HHCxpyMeHX. A musical instrument.
HHTEJIJIHrHU[Ha
/.,
no pi. in-
telligentsia
MnxeJiJiHreHitHfl cxpaHbi. The coun-
try's intelligentsia.
HHTEPfX m.
1. interest. BoJibmoH HHxepec, A
great interest. GJiyraaxb c hh-
xepecoM. To listen with interest.
2. usu. pi. interests. KjiaccoBue
HHxepecH. Class interests. 3a-
mnnjaxb cbou HHxepecH. To
defend one's own interests.
HHT 51 Hcn
HHTEPECHlblfl, -aa, -oe, -ue, short
form HHTepeceH, HHTepecHja, -o,
-h; adv. HHTepecHo
1. interesting. HHTepecHtiH ^hjibm.
An interesting film. HHiepeCHafl
KHHra. An interesting hook. Mh
HHTepecHo npoBejiPi BpeMH.
We've had an interesting time.
3to oqenb HHxepecHO. IVs very
interesting.
2. adv., predic. impers. often trans-
lated by to wonder. MuTepecHo,
npHe^eT jih oh? / wonder wheth-
er he will come.
HHTEPECjOBATb, -yio, -yemb, -yioT
imp. K o r 6? ^ t o? to interest
Ero HHTepecyeT HtHBonncL. He is
interested in painting. Mena HHTe-
pecyeT TexHHKa. / am interested in
technology.
HHTEPEClOBATBCH, -yiocb, -yemb-
ca, -yioTca imp. KeM? qeM? to
be interested
HHTepecoBaTbca JiHTepaTypoH h hc-
KyccTBOM. To be interested in litera-
ture and art.
HCKATb, nmy,
nn^enib, iimyT imp.
/
p. HanlTH,
-Ay,
-Aenib, -^yT
1. Koro? ^To? to look for. Hc-
KETb cBoero Apyra. To be look-
ing for one's friend. HcKaTb
HJiaTOK. To look for one's hand-
kerchief. Kto HmeT, TOT Bcerfl;a
HaH;i;eT, Seek and you shall
find.
2. fig. ^ T 0? or Hero? to look
for, to seek. HcKaTb paSoxy. To
look for a Job. HcKaxb npaBAH.
To seek the truth. McKaTb
CHacTba. To seek happiness.
HCKJIfOHAlTb, -K), -enib, -iot imp.
KOrc? HTO?//?. HCKJIK)q|HTb, -y,
-Hmb, -aT to expel
HCKJIIOHUTb CTy^eHTa H3 HHCTHTy-
Ta. To expel a student from the in-
stitute.
HCKJIIOHEHHE neut. exception
3to HCKJiiOHeHHe H3 npaBHJia. This
is an exception to the rule. HeT
npaBHJi 6e3 HCKJno^eHHa. There are
no rules without exceptions.
<> 3a HCKJiioqeHHeM Mena, Bce
6biJiH HE CTaAHone. Everybody was
at the stadium, except me.
HCKJIIOHfiTb see HCKJIIOHATb
KCKPEHHlHB, -mi, -ee, -ne, short
form HCKpenen, HCKpeHH|a, -o, -h;
adv. HCKpenne sincere, frank
HcKpeHHHH HeJiOBCK. A sincere per-
son. HcKpeHHHH oTBer. A frank
answer. CKaJKHTe HCKpenne. Tell
me frankly.
HCKyCCTBEHHlbin, -aa. -oe, -Lie
artificial
HcKyccTBeHHoe bojiokho. Artifi-
cial fibre. HcKyccTBeHHUH raeJiK.
Artificial silk.
HCKKCTBO neut.
1. art. HaoSpaaiiTeJibHbie hckvc-
CTsa. Imitative arts. HcKyccTBO
HapoAHwx MacTepoB. The art
of
folk masters.
2. art. HcKyccTBo nrpw na rHTape.
The art
of
playing the guitar.
HcKyccTBo mHTba. The art
of
sewing.
HCnOJIHHTb see HCHOJIHilTb
HCnOJIHUlTb, -K), -enib, -k)t imp.
H T O ?
/
/?. HCnOJIHlHTb, -K), -HHIb, -HT
1. to perform, to play. HcnoJinaTb
MyaHKaJibHyio nbecy. To play a
musical piece. HcnoJiHaTb poJib.
To play a part.
2. to fulfil. Bh He MOFJiH 6li hc-
HOJIHHTb MOIO Up6cb6y? Could
you comply with my request?
HCnOJIb3|OBATb, -yio, -yemb, -yiOT
imp. & /?. K r 6? ^ t o? to make
use of
HcHOJibsoBaTb cneuHaJiHCTOB. To
make use
of
specialists . McnoJibao-
BaTb BpeMH. To make use
of
one's
time.
HCnPABHTb see HCDPABJIilTb
HCnPABJlHlTb, -K), -emb, -iot imp.
nTO?
/
p. HCnpa|BHTb, -BJIK), -BHHIb,
-BHT to correct
HcnpaBHTb omH6Ky. To correct a
mistake.
HCnyrAlTbCH, -rocb, -embca, -iotch
jo. K r 6? H e r 6? to be frightened
MajibHHK HcnyraJica. The boy got
frightened. Oh HCnyraJica, hto He
XBaTHT BpeMCHH. He was afraid
that he would not have enough time.
Oh HcnyraJica rpoMa. He was
afraid of
the thunder.
HCnblTAHIlE neut. testing
HcnHTaane MamHHH. l^he testing
of
a machine. HcnwraHHa aTOMHO-
ro opyjKHa. The testing
of
an atom-
ic weapon.
HCT m KAK
HCT0Pfl4ECK|Hfl, -aH, -oe, -He
1. history. llcTopuqecKHH ^aKyjib-
Tex. The history department.
2. historical. HcTopHHecKiie naMHx-
HHKH. Historical monuments.
3. historic. HcTopri^ecKafl aaxa.
An
historic date.
HCTOPHH
/.
1. no pi. history. HcxopiiH pasBH-
BaexCH no cbohm saKonaM. History
develops according to its own laws.
HcxopiiH j^peBHero Mwpa. The
history of
antiquity. McxopHH
H3HKa. The history of
a lan-
guage.
2. story. Oh yMeex paccKaausaxb
HHxepecHwe ncxopHn. He can
tell interesting stories.
HCTPATHTb see TPATHTb
HdE3A|Tb, -K), -emb, -lox imp./
p.
HC^esHlyxb, -y, -emb, -yx, past
HCHea, -Jia, -jio, -jih
1. to disappear. GaMOJiex ncMes b
oSJianax. The plane disappeared
in the clouds.
2. to cease. BoJib nc^eajia. The
pain has gone.
HCH3H|yTb see HCHESATb
HTAK conj. so
HxaK, pemenne npimaxo. So the
decision has been taken.
HX poss. prnn. their, theirs
Hx npcAJiojKeHHe 6lijio npaBHJib-
hmm. Their proposal was right. dra
KOMHaxa HX. This room is theirs.
IIlDJIb m., no pi. July
B Hiojie
y
cxy/i,eHX0B KaHiiKyjiH.
The students have their holidays in
July. Cer6;;Hfl 25 hiojih. Today is
the 25th
of
July. On npne;Aex 28-ro
HioJifl. He will come on July 28.
IIlDHb m., no pi. June
B HEone cxy;i,eHXbi CAawxaKaaMenbi.
Students take their exams in June.
K, K
K (KO)
prep.+dat.
1. to, up to. EoAOHXif K AOMy.
To
approach the house. On no;];omeJi
K xoBapnnzy. He went up to his
friend. HAHxe k aocKe. Come
(go) to the blackboard.
2. to. Oh npnexaJi k
flpyry.
He
came to see his friend. HpHeawaH
K HaMi Come and see us!
3. by. Hajio npniixH k ceMii HacaM
Benepa. You must come by sev-
en o'clock in the evening.
4. to. BnepeA, k no6eAe! Forward,
to victory!
KABHHET m.
1. study. PaGo^HH KaGnnex. A
study.
2.:Ka6HHex Bpana. A doctor's con-
sulting-room, a surgery.
KAj^Pbl no sing, cadres
TexHitqecKHC KaApw. Technical
cadres.
KAHmblfl, -an, -oe, -we
1. every. KajK^biii jieuh. Everyday.
Kamjxyio ueAeJiio mh xo^hm b
xeaxp. We go to the theatre every
week. J]|oBOAHXb KajK^oe ;i,ejio
Ao
KOHU,a. To see every fob through.
2. J0ed as n. everyone. 3xo KaJK-
jiuik 3Haex. Everyone knows that.
KAHCETCH paren. word it seems
Oh, Ka>KexcH, npaB. He seems to
be right. KawexcH, oh 6hji aobo-
Jien. He seemed to be pleased.
KASyVTbCH, Ka>Kycb, KaJKenibCH, Ka-
myTCH. imp.
/
p. noKaaaxbcn, noKa-
>Kycb, noKawenibCH, noKajKyxcfl
1
.
K e M? u e M? K a K H M? to seem
.
TopoA MHe noKaaaJiCH o^eub
KpacPiBHM. The town seemed very
beautiful to me.
2. impers. to seem. Mne KawexcH,
fl ycneio BLinojiHHXb pa66xy. It
seems to me that I shall manage
to do the work. Mne noKaaaJiocb,
Hxo OH ycxaJi. He looked very
tired to me.
KA3H|flTb, -10, -Hmb, -nx imp. &
p.
K o r 6? to execute
KasHHXb npecxynHHKa. To execute
a criminal.
KAK
1. adv. how. KaK WHBexe? How
are you getting on? KaK H^yx
ACJia? How are things going? R
3Haio, KaK npoexaxb b uenxp. /
know how to get to the centre.
KaK BH CKaaaJiH? What did you
say?
2. conf . like. Ee rJiaaa 6lijih KaK
Mope. Her eyes were like the
sea.
^ KaK 3T0 HH cxpaHHO... However
KAK 53 KAP
strange it may seem... 51 qyBCT-
Bvio ce5fl 3Aecb, KaK ^OMa. /
feel
at home here.
KAK-HHBS^AL
adv. somehow
Haflo KaK-HH6yflB noMOHb eMy. We
must help him somehow.
KAK|Ofl, -an, -6e, -ne
1. what, KanaH cer6ji;HH noro^a?
What is the weather like today?
KaKyio MysHKy bh JiroSHxe?
What sort
of
music do you like?
KaKoe ceroAHH hhcjio? What is
the date today? KaKoii ceroAHfl
fl;eHb HeaeJiH? What day
of
the
week is today? KaKwe UBexbi bli
xoTHTe KynHTb? What flowers do
you want to buy?
2. what (a). KaKofixopomnH ^eHbl
What a fine day! KaKan Kpaco-
xa! What beauty!
KAKlOfl (-an, -6e, -ike) -HHB^Ab any
^anxe mhc KaKyio-HH6yAb KHiiry.
Give me any book.
KAKlOfl (-an, -de. -He)-TO some
Bac cnparaHBaex KaKoft-xo Mywqii-
Ha. A man is asking for you.
KAK-TO adv. somehow, somewhat
To, Hxo XH cKaaaji, naK-xo hchcho.
What you said is somehow not
clear.
KAJIEH/^AP|B m,, gen. -A calendar
HacxoJibHHH KaJieHAapb. A desk
calendar. OxpHBHoii KajieHAapb. A
tear-off calendar.
KAMEHHlblfl, -an, -oe, -He stone
1. KaMeHHMH AOM. A stone house.
2. fig.
KaMeHHoe cep^i^e. A heart
of
stone.
<0> KaMCHHWH yrojib. Coal.
KAMIEHB m., gen. -hh stone
BojibmoH KaMeHb. A large stone.
BpocHXb KaMeHb, To throw a stone.
flparoiieHHbie KaMHH. Precious
stones.
<> HaniJia Koca na KaMeHb (prov-
erb). Cf, Diamond cut diamond.
KAHAJI m. canal
OpocHTeJibHMH Kanaji. An irrigation
canal. Exaxb no KanaJiy. To sail
along a canal.
KAH^^HAAT m.
1. candidate. KaHAHaax b ^enyxaxH
BepxoBHoro CoBexa. A candidate
to the Supreme Soviet.
2. candidate. Kan^HAax nayK. Mas-
ter
of
science.
KAHflKYJIbl no sing, holidays
3HMHHe KaHHKyjiw. Winter holidays.
JlexHHe KaHHKyJiM. Summer hol-
idays. Bo BpeMH KaHHKyji. Dur-
ing the holidays. B KaHHKyJiH oh
ox^bixaex. He has a rest during his
holidays.
KAnHTAJlfl3M m. capitalism
KAnHTAJIHCTflHECKIHfl, -an, -oe,
-He capitalist
KanHxaJiHcxHHecKHii cxpoii. The
capitalist system.
KAHHTAH m. captain
KannxaH AaJibHero njiaBaHHH. A
sea-going captain. Kannxan $yx-
66JibHOH KOMaHflbi. The captain
of
a football team.
KAII|JIH
/.,
gen. pi. -ejib
1. drop. Kanjifl jkiiakocxh. A drop
of
a liquid. KanJiH ji<dmj\A. A
raindrop.
2, no sing, drops. Kynnxb nanjin
B anxeKe. To buy some drops at
a chemist's.
KAnyCTA /.,
no pi. cabbage
KnJiorpaMM Kanycxw. A kilogramme
of
cabbage.
<> KHCJiafl Kanycxa. Sauerkraut.
li[BeTHafl Kanycxa. Cauliflower.
KAPAHAAin m., gen.-i pencil
IJ,BexHbie KapaHflamH.
Coloured pen-
cils. PncoBaxbKapaHAamoM. To draw
with a pencil.
KAPMAH m. pocket
Bbmyxb nJiaxoK H3 KapMana. To
take one's handkerchief out of
one's pocket. noJioHiHXb ^eHbrn b
KapMaH. To put money in one's
pocket.
<> Oh aa cjiobom b KapMan ne no-
jieacT. He has a ready tongue.
KAPTA /.
1. map. IIoJiHxii^ecKaH Kapxa mh-
pa. A political map
of
the world.
2. card. Hrpaxb b KapxH. To play
cards.
KAPTflHA
/.
1. picture. npeKpacHan KapxHHa.
A beautiful picture. XyAOJKHHK
nnmex Kapxiiny. The artist is
painting a picture.
2. fig.
scene. KapxHna npHpoAW.
A scene
of
nature.
KAPTOOEJIB m., no pi. {colloq. Kap-
xomKa) potatoes
KAC 54 KJIA
KACA|TbCH, -locb, -emBCH, -iotch
imp. Koro? Her6?//>. KOCHlyxb-
CH, -ycb, -embCH, -yTca
1. to touch. KocHyTbcH seMJiH
py-
KOH. To touch the ground with
the hand.
2. fig. to touch upon, to concern.
/l,0KJiaA^HK KocnyjicH Bonpoca o
noJiOJKGHHH B CTpBHe. The speak-
er touched upon the situation in
the country. 3to mghh ne Kaca-
excH. That doesnt concern me.
KACCA /. cash-desk
IIJiaTHTb ;;eHbrH b Kaccy. To pay the
money at the cash-desk.
<> CSeperaxejibHaH Ksicca. Savings
hank.
KACTPlOJIfl
/. saucepan
KATAlTbCH, -K)Cb, -embCH, -iotch
imp. Ha q e M?: KaxaTbCH ua ji6;i;-
Ke. To go boating. KaxaxbCH na
JiuH^ax. To go skiing. KaxaxbCfl na
KOHbKax. To go skating.
<> JIi65iimb Kaxaxbcfl

jiio5h h
caHoqKii BOSHTb (proverb). Cf. No
sweet without some sweat.
KA^ECTBO neut. quality
KaqecTBO pa66xbi. The quality
of
work. EpoAyKUHH BucoKoro Ka^ecx-
Ba. High-quality output.
KAniA /. porridge
ManuaH Kama. Semolina pudding.
FpeHHeBan Kama. Buckwheat por-
ridge.
KADIIEJIIj m., gen. -jih cough
y MCHH ciijibHMii KameJib. / have
a bad cough.
KAinJIHITb, -K), -enib, -iot to cough
BojibHoH ciiJibHo Kamjinex. The
sick man coughs badly.
KBA/^PATH IblH, -afl, -oe, -ue square
KBaflpaxnafl KOMnaxa. A square
room.
KBAPTAJI m.
1. block, district. Hobmu ropo^CKon
KBapxaJi. A new city district.
2. quarter. B xpexbeM KBapxaJie
3xoro rd^a Spurafla paCoxaJia
0XJiHH0. In the third quarter
of
this year the brigade worked very
well.
KBAPTKPA
/. flat
TpexKOMuaxHafl KBapxiipa. A three-
room flat.
KHJIOPPAMM m. kilogramme
Ilflxb KHJiorpaMMOB caxapa. Five
kilogrammes
of
sugar. KaJiorpaMM
Mflca. A kilogramme
of meat.
KHJIOMETP m. kilometre
CKOJIbKO KHJIOMexpOB
flO TOpOfla?
How many kilometres is it to the
town?
KHHO neut., indecl.
1. cinema. Ycnexn khho. The suc-
cess
of the cinema.
2. colloq. film. GMOxpexb khho.
To see a film. Tw CMoxpeJi
3X0 KHHO? Have you seen this
film?
3. colloq. cinema. H^xh b khho. To
go to the cinema.
KHHOTEATP m. picture palace, cin-
ema
B MocKBe MHoro KHHoxeaxpoB? Are
there many cinemas in Moscow?
KHHOOflJIbM m. see OHJIbM
KHOCK m. kiosk, news-stand
Fa^XHUH KHOCK. A news-stand.
Kyniixb jKypnaji b khocko. To buy
a magazine at a news-stand.
KHniETb, 1st & 2nd pers. not used,
3rd pers. -iix, -hx imp. to boil
Bo^a khhhx. The water is boiling.
Mojioko khhiix. The milk is boiling.
KHPnflH w., gen. -a brick
KflCJIIblS, -an, -oe, -He, short form
KHceji, KHCJia, khcji|o, -h; adv.
KiicJio sour
Kncjioe hCjioko. A sour apple.
<> Kncjiafl Kanycxa. Sauerkraut.
KJIACCi m. class
PadoHHii KJiacc. The working class.
KJIACC2 m.
1. grade. VHiixbCH b nepBOM KJiac-
ce. To be in (to be a pupil in)
the first grade.
2. classroom. B uameM KJiacce
OHenb Hiicxo. Our classroom is
very clean.
3. class. Ham KJiacc oqenb
flpy)K-
HbiH. We are all friends in our
class.
KJlACCOBIblfi, -an, -oe, -ue class
KJiaccoBan 6opb6^. The class strug-
gle. KjiaccoBMe npOXHBOp^HHH.
Class contradictions.
KJIACTb, KJiaAly,
-emb, -yx, past
KJiaji, KJiaJi|a, -o, -h imp. Kor6?
^ X 0? Ha H X
6?/
p. noJioJKiixb, no-
jiowy, HOJiojKHrab, HOJioJKax to
place, to put
Kjiacxb KHHry na cx6ji. To put the
KJIE 55 KOJI
book on the table. IIoJiojKHTb caxap
B nan. To put sugar in the tea.
< nOJIOHCHTb HanaJIO BOBOMy
36-
jiy. To lay the foundation for some-
thing new.
KJIETIKA
/.,
gen. pi. -ok
1. cage. KynHTb KJieiKy ajih hthi^.
To buy a bird cage.
2. squared, check. TeTpaj;b b kjict-
Ky. A squared copy-book. Maxe-
piiaJi B KJiexKy. Check material.
3. cell.
<> FpyAHaH KJieTKa. The thorax.
KJIflMAT m. climate
MopcKOH KJiHMaT. A maritime cli-
mate. MHrKHii KJiiiMaT. A mild
climate.
KJiyB m. club
PaSoHHH KJiy6. A workers' club. B
KJiySe cer6fl;HH TaHD;bi. There is a
dance at the club today.
KJIK)^ m., gen. -a
1. key. Oh noxepHJi kjiioh ot KBap-
THpM. He has lost the key to his
flat. SanepeTb ji;Bepb na kjiioh.
To lock the door.
2.
fig. clue
KHflrA
/. book
^Hxaxb KHtiry. To read a book.
KHflHClKA
/.,
gen. pi. -eK dim.
of
KHHra book.
J]|excKafl KHHJKKa. A children's
book.
<> SanncHafl KHHHfKa. Note-book.
KHflmniblfl, -an, -oe, Lie book
KHiijKHafl nojiKa. A bookshelf.
Khiijkhhh mKa(|). A bookcase. Khhjk-
Hbiii MaraaiiH. A bookshop.
KOB|EP m,, gen. -pa carpet
MarKHH KOBep, A soft carpet.
KOr^A adv.
1. when. Kor^a xh npHAerab jio-
Moii? When will you come home?
2. when. H sHaio, kofa^ oh npn-
e^ex. / know when he comes. Kor-
jxa KOHHHfflb pa66xy, npHxoAii
KO MHe. Come and see me when
you have finished your work.
KOrAA-HHBS'J^b adv. some day
KoTjia.-Hii6yji,h xh BcnoMHHmb 06
.^XHX cJioBax. Some day you will
remember these words.
KOrj^A-TO adv. some time ago
H 6hji xaM Kor^a-xo. / was there
some time ago.
KoacA
/.
1. skin. KojKa JiHua. The skin
of
the
face. I^Bex k6>kh. Complexion.
2. leather. HeMo^aH h3 k6?kh. A
leather suitcase.
KOHCAHIblfl, -an, -oe, -He leather
Komauum neuojxau. A leather suit-
case. Komanoe Kpecjio. A leather
arm-chair. KojKaHHe xy(|)JiH. Leath-
er shoes.
KOJIBACA
/. (luncheon) sausage
Kon^enaH KOJiSaca. Smoked sausage.
Bapenan K0Ji6aca. Boiled sau-
sage.
Byxep6p6A c KOJi6ac6H. A
sausage sandwich.
KOJIEBATbCH, KOJie6ji|iocb, -embca,
-lOxcH imp.
1. 1st & 2nd pers. not used, to
tremble. JliicxbH ^epeBbeB K0Jie6-
jiioxcH ox Bexpa. The leaves
of
the trees are trembling in the
wind.
2. 1st & 2nd pers. not used, to
fluctuate. U^euu na ptiHKe KOJieS-
JIIOXCH. The prices on the market
fluctuate.
3. to hesitate. Kojie6axbCH b onen-
Ke HejioBeKa. To hesitate in as-
sessing a person.
KOJIEH|0 neut., pi. -n knees
noca^HTb peGeHKa na kojichh. To
put a child on one's lap. MajibHHK
CH^eJi Ha KOJieHHX
y
Maxepn, The
boy was on his mother's lap. Cxoaxb
Ha KOJieHHX, To be kneeling
KOJIECO neut., pi. KOJieca wheel
KoJieco MamiiHH. A wheel
of
a
machine.
KOJIflHECTBO neut. quantity
KojiMHecxBo BOAM
B SacceHHc. The
quantity
of
water in a swimming-
pool.
KOJIJIEKTflB m. collective body
^pyjKHWH KOJiJieKXHB. A united
collective. Kojijickxhb ^a6pHKH.
The collective
of
a factory.
KOJIJIEKTflBHIblfl, -an, -oe, -He
collective
KoJiJieKXHBHHH AoroBop. A collec-
tive agreement. KojiJieKXiiBHoe xo-
SHHCXBO. A collective farm.
KOJIOHHAJIbHiblH, -an, -oe, -He
colonial
KoJiOHHajiLHHii pejKHM. A colonial
regime. KoJionnaJibHaH noJiHXHKa.
A colonial policy.
KOJI
56 KOH
KOJIOHHH
/. colony
HapoAM KOJIOHHH. The peoples
of
the colonies.
KOJIOHHA
/.
1. column. 3aji c Cgjimmh kojioh-
HBMH. A hall with white columns.
2. column. KoJioHHa cnopTCMeHon.
A column
uf sportsmen.
KOJIX03 m. collective farm
IlepeAOBOH kojixos. A foremost
collective farm. Pa66TaTb b koji-
xoae. To work on a collective farm.
K0JIX03HHK m. collective farmer
KojixosHHKH ySnpaioT ypo>KaH.
The collective farmers are gather-
ing in the harvest.
KOJIX03HlHfl, -an, -oe, -ue of a
collective farm
KoJixosHan c66cTBeHHOCTb. Collec-
tive-farm property.
KOJIbl^O neut., pi. K6JIb^a, KOJiei^,
KOJibqaM, etc.
1. ring. BojiOToe KOJibu;. A gold
ring.
2. circle. Exaxb no KOJibny. To go
on a train servicing the Circle
Line (in the Moscow underground
railway).
KOMAHAA
/. team
OyiSoJibHaH KOMaH^a. A football
team.
KOMAHJ^flP m. commander
KoMaHfl;i4p noJiKa. A regiment com-
mander.
KoMaHAiip napiHsaHCKoro
OTpHfla. The commander
of a guer-
rilla detachment.
KOMAH/^IOBATb, -yio, -yemb, -yiOT
imp.^ K e M? q e M? to command
KoMaHjtoBaxb apMneii. To command
an army.
KOMBAflH m. combine
VrojibHbiii K0M6aHH. A coal mining
combine.
KOMBHHAT m. mill, plant
Oh paSoxaex na 6yMa>KH0M kom6h-
Haie. He works at a paper mill.
<> KoMGnnaT SwTOBoro o5cJiyacH-
BaHHH. A personal service establish-
ment.
KOMflCCHH
/. commission
IIpHeMHaH KOMPiccHH, A selection
commission.
HaGHpaxejibHaH ko-
MHCCHH. An election commission.
KOMHTET m. committee
I^eHxpaJibHHH KoMHxex KoMMynnc-
xHHecKOH
napxHH CoBexcKoro Coio-
3a. The Central Committee
of the
Communist Party
of the Soviet
Union. HcnojiHUxeJibHHH
KOMnxex.
An executive committee.
K0MMyHfl3M m., no pi. commu-
nism
CxpoHXb KOMMyHPiSM. To buHd com-
munism.
KOMMyHflCT m. Communist
CoK)3 KOMMyHHCXOB. The Union
of
Communists. IlapxHH KOMMyHwcxoB.
A Communist Party.
KOMMyHHCTflqECKIHfl, -an, -oe,
-ne
1. communist. KoMMyHHCxiWecKaH
napxHH CoBexcKoro Coroaa. The
Communist Party
of
the Soviet
Union.
2. communist. Bpnraaa KOMMyHHC-
xiiHecKoro xpy^a. A brigade
of
Communist Labour.
KOMHATA
/. room
HoBan KOMHaxa. A new room. Gsex-
JiaH KOMHaxa. A bright room. B
KOMHaxe xenjio. It is warm in the
room
.
K0Mn03flT0P m. composer
HaBecxHHH KOMnoaiixop. A well-
known composer.
KOMCOMOJI m. the Young Com-
munist League
KOMCOMOIJIEI^ m., gen. -JIb^a Young
Communist Leaguer
Akxiibhwh KOMCOMOJieu;. An active
Young Communist Leaguer. Ha
cxpoHKax paSoxaex mhofo komco-
M6Jibn;eB. Many Young Communist
Leaguers work at the construction
KOMCOMOJIbCKlHn, -an, -oe, -ne
Young Communist League
KoMCOMOJibCKHH 6HJiex. A Ycung
Communist League (membership)
card. KoMCOMOJibCKoe co6paHHe. A
Y.C.L. meeting.
KOHBEPT m. envelope
KyHHXb KOHBepx. To buy an enve-
lope. 3aKJieHXb KOHBepx. To seal an
envelope.
KOH|E^ m., gen. -ni end
KoHen; KHnrn. The end
of
the book.
<> B KOHi;e KOHi^OB. At last, at
the end. IIojiowHTb KOHeii, qeiwy-
JII160. To put an end to something.
CBO^HTb KOHUU C KOHI^aMH. To
make both ends meet.
KOH
57
KOC
KOHEHHO [niH]
1.
paren. word certainly. Tbi, ko-
HeHHO, snaemb 06 3T0M. You cer-
tainly know that.
2.
particle of course. Tu noHflemt
B KHHO? KoHCHHo! ''Will you
go to the cinema?"
''Of
course!"
KOHCEPBIM pi., no sing., gen. -ob
food preserves
OBomHLie KOHCepBti. Canned vege-
tables. MflCHHe KOHCepBH. Canned
meat. Fhi6uue KOHcepBH. Canned
fish.
KOHCTHTyU;HH /. constitution
KOHTPOJIbHIMH, -aH, -oe, -ue con-
trol, test
IlHcaTb KOHxpoJibHyio pa66Ty. To
write a test-paper.
KOHOETA /.
sweet
nioKOJiaAHaa Kon^exa. A chocolate.
IlHTbCOT rpaMMOB KOH^eT. Five
hundred grammes
of
sweets.
KOHIliEPT m.
1. concert. Konuepi necHH h njific-
KH. A concert
of
songs and
dances. KoHn;epT xyjiomecT-
BCHHOH CaMOfleHXeJIBHOCTH. An
amateur performers' concert.
2. concerto. KoHi^epx ji^Jifi CKpiinKii
c opKecxpoM. A concerto for
violin and orchestra.
KOHHAlTb, -10, -emt, -lox imp.
qxo? &-\-inf.
I
p. KonqliixL, -y,
-Hint, -ax
1. to finish. Konquxb 6ecefly. To
finish a conversation. neBHii;a
KOHHHJia nexb. The singer
fin-
ished singing.
2. to finish, to graduate. Konnnxb
niKOJiy. To finish school. Koh-
HHXb yHHBepcHxex. To graduate
from the University.
KOHH'AlTtCa, 1st & 2nd pers. not
used, 3rd pers. -excfl, -ioxch imp.
/
p. KOHqJHXbCH, 1st & 2nd pers. not
used, 3rd pers. -hxch, -axcfl to
end
KoHDjepx KOHqaexcfl b 10 ^acoB Be-
nepa. The concert ends at 10
o'clock in the evening.
KOHHHTb see KOHHATb
KOH^HTBCH see KOH^ATbCfl
KOHb m., gen. kohh; pi. kohh, ko-
HeH, KOHHM, etc. horse
Exaxb Ha Kone. To ride on horse-
back.
KOHbKfl pi., sing, kohck m., gen.
KOHbKa skates
BeroBBie KOHbK[i. Racing skates.
KaxaxbCH na KOiibKax. To skate.
KOnE|flKA
/.,
gen. pi. -en copeck
(the smallest Russian coin, 1/100
of
a rouble).
OAHa KoneHKa. One copeck.
J^Be
KoneHKH. Two copecks. ITflXb ko-
neeK. Five copecks.
KOPABJIIb m., gen. -a ship
BoeHHHH KopaSJib. A warship.
KOPIEHb m., gen. -hh
1. root. KopeHb pacxeHHH. The
root
of
a plant.
2. root. KopeHb cJioBa. The root
of
a word.
3. root. HsBJieHb KBa^paxHMH k6-
peHb H3 HHCJia. To extract the
square root
of
a number.
O
CMOTpexb B KopeHb. To get at
the root
(of
something).
KOPHJ^OP m. corridor, passage
KOPflHHEBIblfl, -an, -oe, -He brown
KOPMflTb, KOpMJIiO, KOpMHfflb, KOp-
MHx imp. Koro? h e m? /p. na-
KOpMHXb, HaKOpMJIK), HaKOpMHUIb,
HaKopMHX to feed
Maxb KopMHX peGeHKa cynoM. The
mother gives soup to her child.
KOPOBIKA
/.,
gen. pi. -ok box
Kop65Ka cniweK. A box
of
matches.
KopoSKa KOH(|)ex. A box
of
sweets.
KOPOBA
/. COW
B KOJixoae mhofo KopoB. The col-
lective farm has many cows.
KOPOJI|b m., gen. -a king
KOPOTKIHW, -aH, -oe, -ne, short form
KopoxoK, KopoxKa, KopoxKlo, -h;
adv. KopoxKo; comp. Kopo^e short
1. short. KopoxRHH nHA>KaK. A
short coat. KopoxKaH KypxKa. A
short jacket.
2. short. KopoxKHii cpoK. A short
time. KopoxKHH paaroBop. A
short conversation. KopoxKO ox-
BexHXb. To answer briefly.
3. only short form too short. I06Ka
eii KopoxKa. The skirt is too short
for her.
KOCMflHECKlHtt, -an, -oe, -ne cos-
mic, space
KocMHHecKoe npocxpancxBo. Space.
KocMHqecKHH KopaSjib. A space-
ship. KocMHHecKHe Jiy^H. Cosmic
rays.
KOC 58 KPE
KOCMOHABT
m. cosmonaut
KOCMOC m. cosmos, space
HayHeHHe KocMOca. Studying
space. noJiexH b kocmoc. Space
flights.
KOCHS^TbCH see KACATbCH
KOCTIb /.,
gen. pi. -en bone
IlepejioM KocTH. A fracture.
KOCTIOM m. suit, costume
GnopTHBHtiH KOCTIOM. A sports cos-
tume. KynuTb KOCTIOM. To buy a
suit.
KOTJIETA /.
cutlet, rissole
MHCHwe KOTJieTH. Meat cutlets (ris-
soles). JKapHTb KOTJieTH. To
fry
cutlets.
KOTOPIblfl, -an, -oe, -He
1. who, which, fl snaio TOBapnma,
KOTopHH npnexaji h3 JlenHH-
rpafla.
/ know the comrade who
came from
Leningrad.
2. what, which. KoTopHH nac?
What time is it? Tjie Kmira, ko-
Topyio TH o6emaJi? Where is the
book which you promised?
KOOE m., indecl., no pi.
1. coffee. nJiaHTai;HH K6(|)e. A cof-
fee
plantation.
2. coffee. IIhtl nepHHH K6$e. To
drink black coffee. K6$e c mo-
JiOKOM. White coffee.
KOmiKA /.,
gen. pi. -eK cat
Hepnan KomKa. A black cat.
KPAH m., prepos. o Kpae & b Kpaio,
Ha Kpaio; pi. Kpan
1. edge. Ha Kpaio cxojia. On the
edge
of
the table.
2. land. Poj^hoh Kpaa. The native
land. TenJine Kpan. Warm lands.
3. territory. CTaBponoJibCKHH Kpan.
Stavropol territory.
KPAH m.
1. tap. Bo^onpoBoflHHH npan. A
water tap. OxKpoH Kpan. Turn
the tap on.
2. crane. noffijeMHHH Kpan. A crane.
KPACflBlblfl, -aa, -oe, -He, short
form KpacHB, -a, -o, -h; adu. Kpa-
cHBo beautiful; handsome
KpacHBan fleBymKa.
A beautiful
girl. KpacHBaH mccthoctij. Beauti-
ful
country. BoKpyr oienb KpacH-
BO. Everything around is very beau-
tiful.
KPAlCHTb, -my, -cnmb, -cht imp.
hto?
/
p. noKpalcHTb, -uiy, -cnmb,
-cat to paint
KpacHTb noJi. To paint the floor.
KPAC|KA
/.,
gen. pi. -ok paint
ToJiySaH KpacKa. Blue paint.
KPACHElTb, -K), -emb, -iot imp.
/
p. noKpacHe|Tb, -lo, -emb, -iot to
turn red; to blush, to flush
H6JI0KH noKpacHeJiH. The apples
turned red. KpacHCTb ot CTHAa. To
blush with shame.
KPACHIblfl, -an, -oe, -ne, short form
Kpacen, Kpacna, Kpacnlo, -h red
KpacHHH KapaHflam. A red pencil.
<> Kpacnafl njiomaflb. Red Square.
KPAICTb,
-Ay,
-Aemb, -^yT, past npaJi,
-a, -o, -H imp. mo?
y
Koro?/
p.
yKpa|CTb,
-Ay,
-Aemb, -a^t,
past
yKpaji, -a, -o, -H to steal
Oh yKpaJi
y
hhx Aenbrn. He stole
mifhey from them.
KPATKIHH, -an, -oe, -He, short form
KpaTOK, KpaTKa, KpaTKlo, -h; adv.
KpaTKO short, brief, concise
KpaTKHH AOKJiaA.
A brief report.
KpaTKHii cjioBapb. A concise dic-
tionary. H
6yAy
KpaTOK.
/'// be
brief.
KPEMJIlb m., gen. -a the citadel of
an old Russian town
MocKOBCKHH KpeMJib. The Moscow
Kremlin.
KPEHKIHR, -an, -oe, -ue, short form
KpenoK, KpeuKa, KpenK|o, -h;
adv. KpeuKo; comp. Kpen^e
1. hard. KpeuKHH opex. Hard nut.
2. strong. KpeuKHH opraHH3M. A
strong organism.
3. strong. KpenKoe bhho. Strong
wine. KpeHKHH ^aa. Strong tea.
<>
KpenKHM COH. A sound sleep.
KpenKo enaxb. To sleep soundly.
KPEnHlYTb, -y, -emb, -yT,
past
Kpen, -Jia, -jio, -jih imp.
I
p.
OKpen-
H|yTb, -y, -emb, -yT, past 0Kp6n,
-jia. -JIO, -JIH to grow stronger
Pe6eH0K OKpen. The child grew
stronger. Kp^nneT APyJK^a MeJKAy
CTpanaMH. The friendship between
countries grows stronger.
KPEC|JIO neut., gen. pi. -eJi armchair
MflFKoe Kpecjio. A soft
armchair.
CHA^Tb B Kp6cJie. To sit in an arm-
chair.
I
KPE
59 KTO
KPECTbUHHH
m., pi. KpecTbane,
KpecTBHH peasant
KPECTbHHCKlHfl, -an, -oe, -iie peas-
ant
KpecTbflHCKafl ceMtfi. A peasant
family.
KPHBlOH, -an, -oe, -He crooked
KpHsaa JiHHHH. A crooked line.
KpHBafl yjiHiia. A crooked street.
KPflKHyTb see KPH'^ATb
KPHH|ATb, -y, -Hmb, -ax imp.
I
p.
Kpi'iKHlyxb, -y, -emb, -yx to cry,
to shout
KpHHaxb OT 66jih. To cry with
pain. He KpHHiixe na mchh! Don't
shout at me!
KPOBATb /. bed
Jl|epeBflHHaH KpoBaxb. A wooden
bed. JlejKaxb Ha KponaxH. To lie
on a bed.
KPOBb
/.,
no pi., prepos. b KpoBii
blood
Oh nopeaaJi naJiei^, nonaaajiacb
KpoBb, He cut his finger and blood
appeared.
<> BopoTbCfl o nocjieAHefi KanjiH
KpoBH. To fight to one's last drop
of
blood,
KPOME prep. -\-
gen.
1. except. npHOiJiH Bce, KpoMe
o^Horo cxy^eHxa. Everybody
came, except one student.
2. besides. KpoMe MenH, npHmjio
ein.e necKOJibKO ^ejioBeK. A
few
people came besides myself.
<> Oh xopomo nrpaex b BOJieHSoji,
a KpoMe Toro oh Henjioxofi
maxMaTHCT. He plays volley-ball
well, besides he is not a bad chess-
player.
Kpyr m., pi. -H
1. circle. IIJiomaAb Kpyra, The
area
of
a circle.
2. circle. Tani^yiontHe oSpaaosajiH
mnpoKHH Kpyr. The dancers
formed a large circle.
<> B Kpyry apyaefi. Among
iriends. B xecHOM Kpyry. Among
friends.
KPyrJIIblfl, -an, -oe, -He, short form
Kpyrji, Kpyrjia, Kpyrji|o, -h round
KpyrJiHH cxoJi. A round table.
Kpyrjioe JIH^6. A round face.
<> Kpyrjibifi roff.
The whole year
round. Kpyrjibie cvtkh meji
AOH<Ab. It rained round the clock.
KpyrjiWH CHpoxa. A complete or-
phan. Kpyrjibiii otjih^hmk. A pu-
pil with only excellent marks. Kpyr-
jiwS aypaK. An utter fool.
KPyH{|OK m., gen. -Ka circle, society
JlnxepaxypHHH KpyHtoK. A litera-
ry society. KpyJKoK neHHH. A sing-
ing group.
KPyriHIblfl, -an, -oe, -ne large
Kpynnoe npej^npnaxHe. A large
enterprise. KpynnaH npoMHraJien-
HOCXb. Large-scale industry.
<> PasMBHaTb KpynHbie Aenbrn.
To change large bank-notes. Kpyn-
HbiS paarOBop. A serious conver-
sation.
KPyT|(3B[, -an, -oe, -He, short form
Kpyx, Kpyxa, Kpyx|o, -h; adv. Kpy-
xo
1. steep. Kpyxafl ropa. A steep
hill.
2. sharp. KpyxoH noBopox noporn.
A sharp turn
of
the road.
3. fig.
sharp. KpyxoH xapanxep.
A sharp temper.
KPblJIO neut., pi. KpHJibH wing
KpHJio nxpji^H. The wing
of
a bird.
KpHJid caMOJiexa. The wing
of
a
plane.
KPb'IfflA /. roof
}KeJie3HaH KpHraa. A metal roof.
Kptima flOMa.
The roof of
a house.
KPKimiKA /.,
gen. pi. -eK lid
KpHfflKa HaHHHKa. The teapot (tea-
kettle) lid.
KCTATH adv. & paren. word by the
way, on the way
Kor^a noHflenib b Maraaiin, KCxaxH
3aHji;H Ha no^xy. When you go to
the shop, call at the post-office on
the way. KcxaxH, oh y>Ke npnexaji?
By the way, has he already come?
KTO pron., gen., ace. Koro [KaBo],
dat. KOMy, instr. kbm, prepos. o kom
who
Kxo npHmeJi? Who has come? Koro
Hex B KJiacce? Who is absent from
the class? KoMy ji;axb KHiiry? Whom
shall I give the book to? Koro xh
xaM BHAHHib? Whom do you see
there? KeM xH HCAOBOJieH? Whom
are you displeased with? O kom xh
^yMaenib? Whom are you thinking
about? H 3Haio, kxo bshji moh cjio-
Bapb. / know who has taken my
dictionary.
KTO 60
JUA
KTO-HUByAb pron., gen., ace. Koro^
HHSyAb [KaBO-], dat. KOMy-nnSyAt,
instr. KeM-HH5y;i;b, prepos. o kom-
HH6yAfc somebody, anybody
KT6-HH6yfl;i> npnineji? Has anybody
come? GKaH^H K0My-HH6yAi 06 3Tom.
Tell somebody about that.
KTO-TO pron., gen., ace. Koro-To [Ka-
b6-], dat. KOMy-TO, instr. kgm-to,
prepos. k6m-to somebody
Kt6-to Bomeji b KOMHaxy, ho oh
He BHAeJi, KTO. Somebody entered
. the room but he could not see who
it was.
KVJlA
adv. where
KyAa
TLi HAemb? Where are you
going? HaAO pemHTb, KyAa mh
noeAGM JiexoM. We must decide where
we shall go in the summer.
KVJlA-tmhyJlh
adv. somewhere
IIoJio>KH KHHrH KyAa-HH6yAt H
noHAeM. Put the books somewhere
and let's go.
KYAA-TO adv. somewhere
H KyAa-To noJiojKHJi cboh KHiirn.
/ put my books somewhere. Oh Ky-
Aa-TO ymeJi. He has gone some-
where.
KYJIAK m., gen. -a fist
^
VAapHTb KyjiaKoM no cxojiy. To
strike the table with one's fist.
KyJIbTYPA
/.
1. culture. IIcTopHH KyJibTypu.
The history of
culture, ^enxejib
Kyjibxypm. A cultural worker.
2. crop. 3epH0Bwe Kyjibxypu. Ce-
real crops. TexHiinecKHe Kyjib-
xypti. Technical crops.
3. culture. HeJioBCK SoJibmoii Kyjib-
xypu. A man
of
great culture.
4.: KyJibxypa nponsBOACXBa. Stan-
dard
of
production.
KyJIbXyPHlblfl, -aH, -oe, -bie, short
form Kyjibxypen, KyJibxypH|a, -0, -w
1. cultured. KyJibxypnbiH MeJiOBCK.
A cultured man. Ohh neAOCxa-
xoHHO KyjibxypHH. They are not
cultured enough.
2. only complete form cultural.
KyJibxypnue cbh3H. Cultural re-
lations.
KVnAlTbCH, -locb, -efflbCH, -ioxch
imp. to bathe
KynaxbCfl b Mope. To bathe in the
sea.
KynflTb see nOKyflATb
KyPfiTb, Kypio, Kj'pHfflb, Kypnx imp.
qxo?//). noKypnxb, noKypio, no-
Kypnmb, noKypflx to smoke
Kypiixb nannpocu. To smoke ciga-
rettes. Bh Kypnxe? Do you smoke?
Kypnxe, noHcajiyncxa. Have a
cigarette, please.
KyPHI^A
/.. pi. KypH
1. hen. BeJiaa Kypnua. A white
hen.
2. chicken. JKapenaH KypnHa.
Roast chicken. Cyn c KypanieH.
Chicken soup.
KyPC m.
1. course, series. KpaxKHH Kypc
HCxdpHH. A short history course.
Ilpocjiymaxb Kypc JieKUHH no
JiHxepaxype. To listen to a se-
ries
of
lectures on literature.
2. year of study. GxyAenx Bxoporo
Kypca. A second-year student. Oh
fHHXCH Ha xpexbeM Kypce. He is
in his third year. BxopoH Kypc
aaHHMaexcH b ayAHxopnii HOMep
5. The second year students are in
room No. 5.
<> BbiTb B Kypce. To be in the
know.
KyC|OK m., gen. -Ka piece
BoJibfflou KycoK cbipa. A large
piece
of
cheese. KycoK xjieSa. Apiece
of
bread. KycoK caxapa. A lump
of
sugar.
KyCT m., gen. -a bush
npHxaxbCH B Kycxax. To hide in
the bushes.
KyXIHfl
/.,
gen. pi. -OHb kitchen
roxoBHXb o6eA Ha Kyxne. To cook
dinner in the kitchen.
KymAITb, -K) (1st pers. rarely used),
-erab, -lox imp, hxo?
/
/>. noKy-
ma|xb, -10, -emb, -lox to eat
Kymanxe, nojKajiyiicxa. Help your-
self.
JI, Ji
JiArEPIb m., pi. -H camp
IlHOHepcKHH jiarepb. A Young Pio-
neers' camp. TypHCTH^ecKHH Jia-
repb. A tourist camp.
JlA^HO particle colloq. all right
Mh ceroAHH noHACM b khho?

JIaAHO. "" Shall we go to the pictures


today?" ''All right.''
JIAM
61 JIEC
JIAMOA /.
lamp; light
SjieKTpiiHecKaH
JiaMoa. An electric
lamp.
HacTOJibHafl JiaMna. A desk
lamp. JiaMna b 40 BaxT. A 40-watt
lamp. JiaMna Ha 127 bojilt. A
127-volt bulb.
JIACKOBlblfl, -aH, -oe, -we, short
form
JiacKOB, -a, -o, -u; adv. jiac-
kobo
1.
affectionate, kind. JlacKOBan
MaTB. An affectionate mother.
JIacKOBHH B3rJifl;i;. A kind look.
JIacKOBoe JiHUo. A kind face.
JIacKOBO yjiH6aTbCH. To smile
affectionately.
2. fig.
gentle. JlacKOBtin Bexep.
A gentle wind. JlacKOBoe cojih-
ne.
A caressing sun.
<> JIaCKOBOe CJIOBO, ito BeceHHHH
ACHb (proverb). An endearing word
is like a spring day.
JIEBlblfiL, -an, -oe, -He left
JleBaH pyKa, The left hand (arm).
JleBan nora. The left foot (leg).
MoH fl;oM
Ha jieBOH CTopone yjiHn,Li.
My house is on the left side
of
the
street.
^
JlErKlHH, -an, -oe, -ne [-xk-], short
form jieroK, Jiernla, -6, -ti; adv,
JierKo; comp. Jierne
1. light. JlerKan cyMKa. A light bag.
2. easy. JlerKaH paSoxa. Easy
work. JlerKaH saAa^a. An easy
task. 3xy Baflany h JierKo pe-
niHJi. / solved that task easily.
3. slight. JlerKHH Mopos. A slight
frost.
4. easy. JlerKHii xapanxep. An easy
temper.
<> JlerKdH npoMbimjieHHOCTb. Light
industry. JlerKaH MysbiKa. Light
music, y Hero JierKo na nyme
(predic. impers.). He feels light-
hearted.
JIErKOMb'ICJIEHHIblH, -an, -oe, -bie
1. light-headed. JlerKOMLicjieHHbm
HeJioBeK. A light-headed person.
2. light-headed. JlerKOMbicjieHHWH
nocxynoK. A light-headed action.
JIEJ^ m., gen. jib^a ice
XopomHH Jie^; Ha KaxKe. Good ice
on the skating-rink. BaJiex na Jihjxy.
Ice-ballet.
JIEJ|HH|Ofl, -an, -oe, -tie
1. iee. Jle^HHaH j^opomKa. An ice
track.
2. fig. icy. JleAHHOH b3tjihjj,. An
icy look. Oh CKaaaJi axo Jie^H-
HMM xohom. He said that icily.
JIEHCjAXb, -y, -Mfflb, -ax imp. r^e?
1. to lie, to be. Jlewaxb na ^HBane.
To lie on a divan. KHHrn JiejKax
Ha cxojie. The books are on the
table.
2. to lie, to be ill, Jlemaxb b no-
cxeJiH. To lie in bed. Moik xoBa-
pnm y>Ke 2 Mecnita jieHtnx b 6oJib-
HHi;e. My friend has already
been in hospital for two months.
<> y Hero cepj;uie ne jicjkht k
axoH paSoxe. He has a distaste for
this work.
JIE3|Tb, -y, -emb, -yx, past Jies, -Jia,
-Jio, -JiH imp. Ky;i;a?
1. to climb. Jleaxb na AepeBo. To
climb a tree. Jlesxb na ropy. To
climb a mountain.
2. to get. Jleaxb b BOAy.
To get
into the water.
3.: Jleaxb b KapMan. To put one's
hand into one's pocket.
<> Jleaxb He b cboc acjio (collog.).
Gf. To poke one's nose into other
people's affairs. He Jieaxb sa cjio-
BOM B KapMRH. To havc a ready
tongue.
JIEKAPCTBO neut. medicine
FopbKoe JiCKapcxBo. A bitter medi-
cine. IlpHHHMaxb JienapcxBO. To
take medicine. JIcKapcxBO ox Ka-
mJifl. Cough medicine.
JIEK^HH /.
lecture
HnxepeCHan JieKHHH. An interesting
lecture. JleKHHfl no MaxcMaxHKe.
A lecture on mathematics, ^nxaxb
(cJiyraaxb) jickuhh.
To deliver (to
listen to) lectures. Ha JieKBtHH 6biJio
MHoro Hapofla.
There were many
people at the lecture.
JIEHHBlblK, -an, -oe, -we, short form
jieHHB, -a, -0, -h; adv. jichmbo lazy
JleHPiBHH cxyAeHX.
A lazy student.
JleHHBo
pa66xaxb. To work lazily.
JIEHTA /.
ribbon
ToJiySan Jienxa. A pale blue ribbon.
JIEC m., prepos. o Jiece & b Jiecy; pi.
jieca wood, forest
TycxoH Jiec. A dense forest. Mm
AOJiro
ryjiHJiH no oceHHCMy Jiecy.
We walked in the autumn forest
for
a long time. Ha xeppHXopHH
CCCP ecxb H jiHcxBeHHwe h xBOHHwe
JlEC
62 JiHq
jieca. There are deciduous and
coniferous forests on the territory
of
the USSR.
JIECTUHI^A /. staircase
niHpoKaH JiecTHHi^a. A broad stair-
case. IIoAHHTbCfl no JiecTHHi5e. To
go up the stairs. 3x3 JIeCTHH^a
Be;i;eT na BTopoH axam. This stair-
case leads to the first floor.
JIETA|Tb, -K), -emb, -k)t imp. to fly
IItijiiu JiexaioT. Birds
fly.
GaMOJie-
TH H3 MOCKBM jieiaioT B JleHHHrpflifl
KajK/tMH neuh. Planes
fly from Mos-
cow to Leningrad every day.
JIE|TTb, -Hy, -Tiifflb, -THT imp. to
Hy
1. to fly. 3tot caMOJiex jiexiiT b
MocKBy. That plane is flying to
Moscow. nxHi];w Jiexax na ror.
The birds are flying to the south.
2. fig.
to fly. Bwcxpo JiexHX Bpe-
MH. Time flies.
JIETHlHfl, -HH, -ee, -ne
1. summer. JlexnnH jieuh. A sum-
mer day.
2. summer. JTexnee njiaxbe, najib-
x6. A summer dress, overcoat.
3. summer. JlexHne KanHKyjiLi.
Summer holidays.
JIETO neut., no pi. summer
>KapKoe cyxoe Jiexo. A dry hot
summer. HpoBecxH jiexo ua Mope,
Ha ji,a.ne. To spend the summer at
the seaside, in the country.
JIETOM adv. in summer
JlexoM fl oxfl.Mxaio na Mope. In
summer I rest at the seaside.
JIETHHK m. flyer
O noABHre JiexHHKa MapecbeBa
3Haex Becb Mnp. The whole world
knows about the flyer Maresyev's
feat.
JIE^flTb, Jie^y, jiennmb, Jieiax imp.
Kor6? Hxo? ox Hero? He
M?/
p.
BMJienjHXb, -y, nmb, -ax to
treat
Bpan JieHHx SoJibuoro ox rpnnna.
The doctor is treating the patient for
the
'flu.
JIEHb see JIOHCflTbCH
JIH particle whether
He xoxHxe jih bh nonxn b xeaxp?
Don't you want to go to the theatre?
Ecxb JIH
y
Bac axa KHnra? Have
you got that book? Oh cnpocnji, (ne)
noHfly JIH fl ceroAHfl b SnGjiHoxcKy.
He asked whether I should go to
the library today.
JIHHfilflKA
/.,
gen. pi. -CK
1. ruler.
2. line. TexpaAt b jiHHCHKy. A
ruled copy-book.
JlfiHHH
/.
1. line. IIpHMafl jihhhh. A straight
line. KpHBafl jihhhh. A curved
line. IlapaJiJiejibHHe jiiiHHn.
Parallel lines.
2. fig.
policy. JIhhhh napxHH. The
policy
of
a party.
JIHCT^ m., pi. jiHcxbH, JiifcxbCB leaf
OceHHHe JEHCXbfl. Autumn leaves.
JlHCXbH B ca^y no>KejixeJ[H. The
leaves in the garden have turned
yellow.
JIHCT^ m., pi. JiHcxw, JiHCxoB sheet
JIhcx 6yMarH. A sheet
of
paper.
JIhcx wejiesa. A sheet
of
iron.
JIHTE^ATyPA /.
1. literature. CoBexcKan Jinxepaxy-
pa. Soviet literature. Apa6cKaH
jiHxepaxypa. Arabic literature.
HsyH^xb JiHxepaxypy. To study
literature.
2. literature. Jlnxepaxypa no axoMy
Bonpocy. The literature on this
subject.
JlHTEPAXyPHlblfl, -an, -oe, -we liter-
ary
JlHxepaxypHHH hsmk. The literary
language'. Jlnxepax^pnoe npoHSBe-
ABHHe. A work of
literature. Jlnie-
paxypuHH KpyHtoK. A literary so-
ciety.
JIHTb, Jib|io, -emb, -lox; imper. Jienl
jieHxel imp. h x o? to pour
JiHXb BoAy
B cxaKan. To pour water
into the glass.
<> AoJKAb JibCT KaK n3 BeApa. It
is raining cats and dogs.
JIHU;0 neut., pi. Jiiina face
1. face. BjieAHoe jihho. A pale
face. PyMHHoe jihho.^ A rosy
face, no ee Jinny xeKyx cJieau.
Tears are streaming down her
cheeks
.
^
m
2. face. Oh cxohji JinnoM k oKHy.
fl
He stood with his face
turned to
the window.
<> FoBopHTb B Jieuo
hto-jihSg ko-
My-JiH6o. To say something to
somebody's face.
BwcTynaxb or
jiaua Kor6-JiH6o.
To speak on
JIHH 63 jiyi
I
h
somebody's behalf. Ha hcm jih-
iia Hex! He looks awful!
JIflHII|bIfl, -aH, -oe, -He personal,
private
JlHHHaH c66cTBeHH0CTb. Personal
property. JIPiHHoe ^eJio. One's pri-
vate business.
JIflfflfllHfl, -HH, -ee, -He
1. extra, spare. Hex jih
y
Bac
jiHfflHero 6iiJieTa? Have you got
a spare ticket?
2. unnecessary. 3th Benin JiiiniHHe,
fl He B03bMy HX c co66h. These
things are unnecessary; I won't
take them with me.
JIOB m., gen. Ji6a forehead
BticoKHH Jio6. A high forehead.
HIT3KHH Jio6. A low forehead.
JIOBflTb, JIOBJIK), JIOBHmb, JIOBHT
imp. K r 6? H T 0? hcm?//). hoh-
MalTb, -10, -enib, -iot
1. to catch, IIoHMaTb mah. To catch
the ball.
2. to catch. JIoBHTb pH6y cexbio,
y^OHKOH. To catch fish with a
net, fishing-rod. JIobhtb nxnn;.
To catch birds.
3. fig. to catch, to devour. JIobiitb
B3rJifl;i;. To catch somebody's eye.
JIoBHTb CJiOBa. To devour every
word.
<> JIoBHTb Ha cJiOBe. To take some-
body at his word. Oh noiiMaji ceSn
Ha MucjiH, ^TO ayMaex o neii. He
caught himself thinking about
her.
JI0BK|HB[, -aH, -oe, -ne, short form
JiOBOK, JioBKa, jiobkIo, -h; adv. jiob-
KO
1. agile. JIoBKHH cnopxcMeH. An
agile sportsman.
2. adroit. JIobkhh npHjKOK. An
adroit jump. MaJibHHK jiobko
BJiea Ha Aepeno. The boy climbed
the tree adroitly.
JIOAlKA
/.,
gen. pi. -ok boat
B Jioj^HQ Shjio xpn ^eJiOBena. There
were three people in the boat. Ka-
xaxbCH Ha JioAKe. To go boating.
JIOHClflTbCH, -ycb, -nnibCH, -axcn
imp. Ky^a?
/
p. Jie^b, Jifllry,
->Kenib, -ryx, past Jier, Jierji|a, -6,
-h; imper. jiar! JiHrxe! to lie
fl Jier Ha ^HBan. / lay down on the
divan, fl pano Jiowycb cnaxb. / go
to bed early.
JI05K|KA
/.,
gen. pi. -en spoon
GxoJioBbie H ^aHHwe ji6>kkh. Ta-
blespoons and teaspoons. IIpHHHMaTb
jieKapcxBo no ctojioboh JioJKKe xpn
paaa b Aeub. To take a tablespoon
of
medicine three times a day.
JIOMA|Tb, -K), -emb, -lox imp. h x o?
/
p.
cji0Ma|xb, -K), -enib, -lox
1. to break. CjioMaxb najiny. To
break a stick. PeSenoK JioMaex
HrpymKH. The child breaks its
toys
.
2. fig.: Oh floJiro JiOMaJi rojiosy
uaA xpy/i,HOH saAaneH. He cudg-
elled his brains over the diffi-
cult problem
for a long time.
JIOMAlTbCfl, 1st & 2nd pers. not
used, 3rd pers. -excH, -ioxch imp.
/
p.
cjiOMa|xbCH, 1st & 2nd pers. not
used, 3rd pers. -exCH, -lOXCH to
break
MeJi JiOMaexcH. The chalk crum-
bles. Eepo CJioMaJiocb. The nib has
broken.
JIOniA/tb
/.,
gen. pi. Jiomaj^eu, instr.
JiomaAbMH horse
PaSonan JidmaAi>. A draught horse.
EsAHXb na JioraaAH. To ride a
horse
.
JiyK m., no pi. onion(s)
SeJieHHH JiyK. Spring onions. Mh-
co c JiYKOM. Meat with onions.
JIYHA
/.*
moon
Ha He6e no^uHJiacb MOJio^an Jiyna.
A new moon rose in the sky. Co-
BexcKHe yqeuHe c$OTorpa{|)MpoBaJiH
o6paxHyio cxopony Jlynu. Soviet
scientists photographed the reverse
side
of
the Moon.
JIYH m., gen. -a ray, beam
JTyHH coJiHua. Sunbeams.
JlSHWLE
1. comp. of
adj. xopomnu better.
Tboh pncynoK jiyqme, ^eM moh.
Your drawing is better than mine
.
2. comp.
of
adv. xopomo better,
nnmnxe jiyqme! Write more
carefully!
predic. impers. BoJibHOMy cxaJio
Jiynme. The sick man felt better.
3. particle rather. Mne He xo^excH
njijii B xeaxp, hohagm Jiynme
B KHHO. / don't want to go to
the theatre, let's rather go to the
cinema.
jiyn 64
MAJI
<> CTapbiil Apyr jiyqme hoblix
flBVX (proverb). An old friend
is better than two new ones.
Jlyqme nosAHO, hgm HHKorAa.
Better late than never. Jlyime
Bcero. Best
of
all. KaK m6h{ho
Jiyqme. As best as one can.
JI^HiniHfl, -an, -ee, -ne superl.
of
xopomnii the best
9to Jiyninee 3AaHHe b ropofle.
This
is the best building in the city.
3x0 Jiy^fflHii cxyAeHx naineH rpyn-
ntr. He is the best student in our
group. 9xa KHtira

Jiyqmee npoH3-
BCAeHHe axoro nncaxejiH. This book
is the best work
of
this writer.
JII>I>KIT pi., sing. JibiHta skis
CJiOMaxL JiHJKH. To break one's skis.
Ouii JiiooHx X0ATb Ha JiH>Kax.
They like to go skiing. Ka?KAoe
BocKpeceHbe mw KaxaeMca Ha jim-
>Kax. Every Sunday we go skiing.
.lK)BHM|blH, -aH, -oe, ue
1. beloved, favourite. JIio6riMafl
fle-
ByniKa. One's beloved girl. JIio-
oHMtiH cwH. One's favourite son.
2. beloved, favourite. JIio6hmhii
ropoA. One's beloved city. JlioSii-
MLiri HHcaxeJib. One's favourite
writer. JIio6HMaH KHiira. One's
favourite book. JIio6HMoe 6jik)ao.
One's favourite dish.
JIIOBHTb, jiio6jii6, JnoSunib, jik)6hx
imp. K r 6? q X 0? or ~\- inf.
/
p. nojiK)6HXb, nojiio6jii6, noJuoSnmb,
nOJHOOHT
1. to love. JlK)5HXb poAHHy. To
love one's country. JIiodnTb Maxb.
To love one's mother. IlojiioSiixb
AeBymKy. To fall in love with a
girl. JlioSrixb jiHxepaxypy, pa66-
xy. To love literature, work.
2. to like. H jiioSjipo nrpaxb na
poHJie. / like to play the piano.
JIK)B|OBATLCH, -yiocb, yembCH,
-yioxcH imp. k e m? h e m?
/
/>. no-
Jiio6|oBaxbcH, -yiocb, -yeiubCH,
-yioxcH to admire
JlloGOBaXbGH BOCXOAOM COJIHLta. To
admire the sunrise. JlK)6oBaxbCH
peSeHKOM. To admire a child.
JIIOBOBb
/.,
gen. jiioSbh, instr. Jiio-
SoBbK) K KOMy? K HCMy? love
ITepBafl JiioSoBb. One's first love.
CqacxJiHBafl JiioSoBb. A happy love.
Heciacxnafl JiroSoBb, An unhappy
love. JIioSoBb K poAHHe, k jiioahm,
K AGTHM, K pa56xe, K HayKe. Love
of
one's country,
of
people,
of
children,
of
work,
of
science. Oh c JiioCoBbK)
CACJiaJi 3xy Ben;b. He made this
thing with enthusiasm.
JIK)B|Ofl, -aH, -6e, -tie
1. any. IIpHxoAHTe ko mhc b jiio-
66e BpeMH. Come to see me at
any time. Oh 6liji roxoB bmooji-
HflXb jiK)5yio pa66xy. He was
ready to do any work.
2. used as n. anyone. JlioSoii saw
CKaJKex, TAe naxoAHxcH Mexpo.
Anyone will tell you where the
underground station is.
JIK)BOnb'ITH|bin, -aa, -oe, -Me
1. curious, JIioGonbixHLiM neJioBeK.
A curious person.
2.
fig. inquisitive. JIioSonwxHLiH
BsrJiHA. An inquisitive eye.
JlK)Jl,H pi., gen., ace. jik)a6h, dat.
JiiS^flM, instr. jiiOAbMH, prepos. o
jiiOAHx; sing. nejioBeK m. people
M, M
MArA3HH m. shop
IIpOAOBOJIbCXBeHHHH MarasHH. A
food shop. KoHAHxepcKHH Maraaiin.
A confectionery. yHHBepcaJibHHii
MaraauH. A department store. Ky-
ni'ixb npoAynxLi b MarasHHe. To
buy foodstuffs at a shop.
MAfl ni. May
Tenjibiii Man. A warm May. H po-
AHJiCH B Mae. / was born in May.
MAJI, -a, -6, -hi short adj.
(cf.
MAJIEHbKHfl) too small
3xH 5oximKH cxaJiH Majibi Majib^H-
Ky. These boots have become too
small for the boy.
MAJIEHbKlHfl, -an, -oe, -ne, short
form Maji, MaJia, MaJio, Majibi; comp.
MeHbme
(q.
v.)
1. small. MajieHbKaH KOMHaxa. A
small room. HeJioBCK MajieHLKo-
ro pocxa. A short man.
2. little. MaJieHbKHe acth.
Little
children. Tm eme Maji. You are
too young yet.
MAJIO adv., comp. MeHbme (q.
v.) little
Oh MaJio roBopnx, ho mhofo Ae-
Jiaex. He says little, but he does a
lot. Oh eJi Majio Maca. He ate little
MAJI 65 MEJJ,
meat. Ha CTenax BHceno Majio
KapiHH. There were few
pictures on
the walls.
MAJIBHHK m. boy
BocnHTaHHHH MajibHHK. A well-
bred boy. MaJibHHK cbmh Jiex. A
seven-year-old boy.
MAMA /.
mummy
MAPIKA /.,
gen. pi. -oK postage
stamp
HoHToBaH MapKa. A postage stamp.
KoJiJiGKitHfl MapoK. A collection
of
stamps. HaKJieHTb MapKy. To stick
a stamp.
MAPT m. March
B Mapxe HaHHHaeT TaaTL cner. In
March the snow begins to thaw.
MACJIO neut., no pi.
1. butter. CJiHBo^Hoe MacJio. But-
ter. XJieS c MacjioM. Bread and
butter.
2. oil. IIoAcoJiHe^Hoe MacJio. Sun-
flower-seed oil.
MACTEP m., pi. -a
1.: HacoBOH Macxep. A watchmaker.
2.: TypreneB

saMeHaxeJibUHn
MacTep nenaajKa. Turgenev is
extremely skilful in portraying
nature.
3. foreman. Macxep b nexe. The
foreman in a shop.
4. master. Macxep cnopxa. A rnas-
ter
of
sport.
<> Macxep na Bce pyKH. Jack-of-
all-trades.
MACTEPCK|AH
/.,
gen. oh
1. repair shop. MacxepcKan no pe-
MOHxy nacoB. A watch repair
shop. PaSoxaxb b MexannHecKOH
MacxepcKOH. To work at a ma-
chine shop.
2. studio. MacxepcKafl xyAOJKHHKa.
An artist's studio.
MATEMATHKA /.,
no pi. mathemat-
ics
BticmaH MaxeiviaxHKa. Higher mathe-
matics. 3K3aMeH no MaxeMaxHKe.
An examination in mathematics.
Hayqaxb MaxeMaxHKy. To study
mathematics.
MATEPHAJI m.
1. material. Maxepnaji j^jia ^Hccep-
xan;HH. Material for one's thesis.
GoSnpaxb MaxepnajiM o jkh3hh
HseecxHoro nncaxeJifl. To col-
54002
lect material on the life of
a
well-known writer.
2. material. Maxepnaji na kocxiom.
Material for a suit. lUeJiKOBHiH
Maxepnaji, Silk material.
MATPOC m. deckhand, sailor, seaman
GMeJiHH Maxpoc. A brave seaman.
GjiyjKHXb MaxpocoM na KopaSjie.
To serve as a deckhand on a ship.
MATb
/.,
gen., dat., prepos. Maxepn,
instr. Maxepbio; pi. Maxepn, Maxe-
pen, etc. mother
JlK)6HMaH Maxb. One's beloved moth-
er, y Maxepn ^Boe ^exen. The
mother has two children.
<> Po^HHa-Maxb. Mother country.
MAXATb, Mamy, Mamemb, Marayx or
colloq. Maxalio, -emb, -lox imp. k o-
M y?
H e M?/p. MaxHJyxb, -y, -emb,
-yx to Wave, to flap
Maxaxb njiaxKoM na npomaHbe.
To wave good-bye with one's handker-
chief. Maxaxb pyKon xoBapnmy.
To wave one's hand to a friend.
nxHn;a Mamex KpwJibHMH, The bird
is flapping its wings.
MAXHYTb see MAXATb
MAmflHA
/.
1. machine, engine. IlapoBaH Ma-
mnna. A steam engine. CejibCKO-
X03flHcxBeHHafl Maraima. An
agricultural machine. ElBenHafl
Mamnna. A sewing machine.
2. motor-car. JlerKOBan Mamiina.
A passenger-car. FpysoBafl Ma-
mnna. A lorry. Exaxb na Mamri-
ne. To ride in a car.
MEBEJIb
/.,
no pi. furniture
MarKan MeSeJib. Upholstered furni-
ture. Kymixb noByio MeSeJib. To
buy new furniture.
MEJi;AJIb /. medal
HarpaHtASTb Me^aJibio. To award a
medal. OKomnxb mKOJiy c sojio-
xoH Me;;aJibio. To get a gold medal
on leaving school. GnopxcMen
aasoeBaJi Me^ajib. The sportsman
won a medal.
MEfl;BE/Jb
m. bear
BeJiHH MCABeAb. A polar bear.
MEJ^Waj&UA /.,
no pi. medicine
(science)
MEAHqflHCKlHfl, -an, -oe, -ne med-
ical
Meflnn;HHCKHH HHCxnxyx, A medi-
cal institute.
MEA
66 MEP
MEAJIEHHIblfl, -an, -oe, -we; adv.
MGAJieHHO slow
MeAJicHHHH Bajibc. A slow waltz.
FoBopHTb MGA'fieHHO. To Speak slow-
ly. Pa6oTaTi> MGAJieHHO. To work
slowly.
MEJKAy prep.
+
instr. between
Me>KAy mKa(|)OM h nMCbMeHHWM
CTOJioM CTOHJio KpccJio. There was
an armchair between the bookcase
and the desk. 3to npoH3oniJi6
MCJKAY 1942 H 1945 roAOM. That
happened between 1942 and 1945.
J^a
sApaBCTByex Mnp ii APy?K6a
MejKAY HapoAaMHl Long live peace
and friendship between peoples!
<> MewAy npoiHM. By the way.
MeacAy HaMH. Between ourselves.
Me>KAy HaMH roBopa. Strictly be-
tween you and me.
MESKAyHAPOAHlblH, an, -oe, -ue
international
MeH^AynapoAHLie OTHoraenHH. Inter-
national relations. MejKAyHapoAHaH
oSciaHOBKa. The international situ-
ation.
MEJIKlHfl, -an, -oe, -ne; adv. MeJiKo;
comp. MeJiL^e
1. small. MeJiKan pw6a. Small
fish.
2. small. MeJiKan Moneia. Small
change.
3. flat. MeJiKaa lapeJiKa. A flat
plate.
4. petty. MeJiKaa 6ypjKya3HH. Petty
bourgeoisie.
5. narrow. MeJiime HHxepecti. Nar-
row interests.
6. shallow. 3Aecb mcjiko. IVs
shallow here.
MEJIOH|b
/.,
gen. pi. -m
1. no pi. change. B MarasMne Mne
AaJiH CAa^iy MeJio^bio. They gave
me the change in small coins in the
shop.
2. trifle. Oh aaHnMaeiCH KaKWMH-
TO MeJio^aMH. He is busy with
some trifles. MeJiOHH >kh3Hh.
The trifles
of life. 3x0 mcjiohh.
These are trifles.
MEHEE adv. less
KaxaxbCH na Jitiwax ne Meeee hh-
xepecHo, qeM KaxaxbCH na KonbKax.
Skiing is no less interesting than
skating.
<> TeM He Menee. Nevertheless.
MEHbinE
1. comp.
of
adj. MajieHbKHii small-
er. Tboh KOMHaxa Meebme mo^h.
Your room is smaller than
mine.
2. comp.
of
adv. Majio less. Tu 3a-
HHMaembCH M^Hbme, neM naAO.
You spend less time on your
studies than you ought to.
MEHbmHHCTBO neut. minority
BojibmHHcxBo Ha coSpaHHH roJio-
coBajio 3a, MeHbmHHCXBo
np6-
xnB. The majority at the meeting
voted for, and the minority voted
against.
MEHfllTbCH, -K)Cb, -embCH, -ioxch
imp.
1. qCM? C K e M? p. 05MeHflIXbCH,
-HDCb, -embCH, -IOXCH to exchange.
MeHHXbCH MapKaMH c xoBa-
pHmeM. To exchange postage
stamps with a friend. 05MeHflXb-
^H MneHHHMH. To exchange opin-
ions.
2. p.
H3MeHHXbCH, H3MeHK)Cb, HSMe-
mirabCH, H3MeHflxcH to change.
rioroAa mchhcxch. The weather
is changing. Hacxpoenne mc-
HHexcH, The mood is changing.
IIoroAa pesKO nsMennjiacb. The
weather has changed sharply.
MEPA
/.
1. measure. Mepbi a-JIHhli. Measures
of
length. MepH Beca. Measures
of
weight.
2. usu. pi. measures. PemnxeJibHHe
Mepu. Decisive measures. Jlpn-
HHXb MepLi. To take measures. 3xa
Mepa ne noMorJia. This measure
didn't help.
<> 3to HeHHTepecHO, ho no Kpaii-
Hcii Mepe nojieano. This is not
interesting but at least it is
useful.
MEP3H|yTb, -y, -emb, -yx, past Mepa,
-Jia, -Jio, -JiH imp./p. 3aMep3Hlyxb,
-y, -emb, -yx, past 3aMep3, -Jia,
-jio, -JIH to freeze
y MenH 3aMep3JiH pymi. My hands
are frozen. 3hm6h h BcerAa Mepa-
Hy. / always feel
cold in winter.
MEPjHTb, -K, -nmb, -hx imp. q x o?/
p. noMepInxb, -lo, -nmb, -hx {or
npHMepnxb) to try on
Mepnxb KOCXiOM. To try on a suit.
IIoMepHxb xy(J)JiH.
To try on shoes.
MEP 67 MEin
MPTB|bIII, -an, -oe, -He dead
MepxBoe tcjio. A dead body.
<>
MepxBafl TnmHHa. Dead silence.
Cnaxb MepxBbiM chom. To sleep
like a log.
MECTHIWfl, -an, -oe, -He local
MecTHHe o6HHaH. Local customs.
MecTHHe minejin noKasajin xypnc-
TaM j^opory. The local inhabitants
showed the tourists the way.
MECT|0 neut., pi. -a, mcct, -aM, etc.
1. seat. 3to mccto cbo66;iho?
Is this seat vacant? 3x0 Mecxo
saHflxo. This seat is taken. Vcxy-
DHXB Mecxo weHiDiHHe. To offer
one's seat to a woman. Bcxaxb c
Mecxa. To stand up.
2. place, spot. JKHBonHCHoe Mecxo,
A picturesque spot.
<> 3to ero 6ojibn6e Mecxo. This
is his sore spot.
MECflli; m. month
SHMHHe MecHDiH. Winter months.
5 Mecflii;eB uadaji. 6 months ago.
B KaKOM Mecfli];e bbi poAHJiiicb? In
which month were you born?
METAJIJI m. metal
^epHHe MexajiJiH. Ferrous metals.
I^BexHHe MexaJiJiH. Non-ferrous
metals.
METAJlJIflHECKIHIl, -aH, -oe, -ne
metal
METAJIJiyprflHECKlHH, -aH,-oe,-He
metallurgical
MexaJiJiyprH^ecKHH saBOA. A metal-
lurgical plant. MexaJiJiyprwHecKan
npoMbimjieHHOcxb. The metallurgi-
cal industry.
WEsTOJl m. method
j3,HaJieKXHHecKHH MexoA. The dia-
lectical method. HpaBHJibHHH Mexo^.
The correct method. IIpHMeHHXb h6-
BHe Mexo^H, To use new methods.
IIoJibBOBaxbCH Mexo^OM. To employ
a method.
METP m. metre
KBaj^paxHHH MCxp. A square metre.
KySHHecKHH Mexp. A cubic metre.
5 MexpoB Maxepnajia. 5 metres
of
material.
METPO neut., indecl. underground rail-
way
GxIhi^hh Mexpo. An underground
station. Exaxb na Mexpo. To go by
the underground. KaK npoHxii k
5*
Mexpo? What's the way to the
underground station?
MEX m., prepos. o Mexe & na Mexy;
pi. -a fur
JIhchh Mex. Fox fur. IlymHCXHH
Mex. Soft fur.
MEXAHH3AI^HH
/.,
no pi. mechani-
sation
Mexamisai^Hfl xpy^a. The mechani-
sation
of
labour. MexaHHsai^HH npo-
n;eccoB nponsBoflCXBa. The mechani-
sation
of
the production processes
MEXAHH3flP|0BATb, -yro, -yemb,
-yiox imp. &
p. hxo? to mechanise
MexaHH3HpoBaxb xpy^. To mecha-
nise labour. MexanHanpoBaxb ceJib-
CKoe X03HHCXB0. To mechanise ag-
riculture.
MEXAHHK m. mechanic
B i^exe paSoxaJi cxapHH MexannK.
An old mechanic worked in the shop.
JleXHHK OHCHb JtpyjKHJI CO CBOHM
MexaHHKOM. The flyer was on very
friendly terms with his mechanic.
MEXAHfl^ECKinn, -an, -oe, -ne
1. of mechanics. MexaniiHecKHe 3a-
KOHbi. Laws
of
mechanics.
2. mechanics. MexauMqecKHH ^a-
Kyjibxex. The mechanics depart-
ment.
3. mechanical. MexannqecKaH ciiJia.
Mechanical strength.
MEXOBlOfl, -an, -de, -Lie fur
MexoBoe naJibxo. A fur coat. Mexo-
Ban mauKa. A fur cap.
MEMTA
/.,
gen. pi. not used dream
Me^xLi 6yAyn];eM. Dreams
of
the
future. Menxbi o cnacxbe. Dreams
of
happiness. MeHxa Been >kh3hh.
The dream
of
one's whole life.
OcymecxBHXb cbok) Me^xy. To ac-
complish one's dream. Me^XH c6h-
Jir'fCb. One's dreams have come true.
MEHTA|Tb, -K), -emb, -lox imp. o
K 6 M? H e M? to dream
Me^xaxb o CHacxbe. To dream
of
happiness. Menxaxb o nyxemecx-
BHHX. To dream about travelling.
MEIHAlTb, -K), -emb, -lox imp. k o-
M
y?
H e M y? + i^f-
I P-
noMema|xb,
-10, -erab, -lox to prevent, to hinder
Pa^Ho Memajio cxy^enxy sauHMaxb-
CH. The radio prevented the student
from studying.
MEIIIIOK m., gen. -Ka sack
MemoK MyKH. A sack
of flour.
MHJI 68
MHO
^
KynHTfa Koxa b MemKe (prov-
erb). Cf. To buy a pig in a poke.
MHJIMUHOHfiP
m. militiaman
06paTi'iTbCH K MHJiHi;HOHepy. To
ask a militiaman.
MflJI|blQ, -an, -oe, -we, short form
MHJI, MHJia, MHJi|o, -u iiice
MiiJiafl AesyfflKa. A nice girl. Mii-
Jioe JiHqo. A nice face.
<> C MHjiLiM pau u B majiame
(proverb), Cf. Love in a cottage.
MflMO
1. adv. by. IIpoHTH mhmo. To pass by.
2. prep.
+
gen. past. Uoesji npoexaJi
MIIMO CTaHn,HH H HC OCTaHOBIIJICH,
The train went past the station
without stopping.
MHHHCTEPCTBO neut. ministry
MHHHCiepcTBo 4>HHaHC0B. The Min-
istry
of
Finance. MnniicTepcTBO
HHOCxpaHHtix j^eji. The Ministry
of
Foreign Affairs.
MHHflCTP m. minister
BoeHHtiH MnHHCxp. The War Min-
ister. Mhhhctp (|)HHaHCOB. The
Minister
for
Finance. Mhhhctp
Bucmero o6pa30BaHHH. The Minis-
ter
of
Higher Education. IlpeMbep-
MHHHCip. The Prime Minister. Co-
Bex MHHHCxpoB. The Council of
Ministers. npeAccAaxejib coBexa mh-
HHCxpoB. The Chairman of
the Coun-
cil of Ministers.
MHHytA /.
minute
niecTbjiecHX MHHVX. Sixty minutes.
GeH^ac HexHpe MHHyxH Bxopoio.
It is four minutes past one. Genqac
6e3 j^ecHXii Mnnyx ;i;Ba. It is ten
minutes to two.
<> IIpuxoAHTe K HaM B CBo66aHyio
MoeyTy. Come and see us any time
you can. Cmo MHHyTy. Just a
minute.
MHPi m.
1. no pi. universe. TeopHH o npo-
HCXojKAeHHH MPipa. /4 theory on
the origin
of
the universe.
2. world, ^pyrae Mnpw. Other
worlds.
3. no pi. world. Oh o6'i>e3AHJi Becb
MHp. He travelled all over the
world. riepBHH B MHpe. The first
in the world. Becb MHp. The
whole world.
MHP2 m., no pi. peace
BoHHa H MHp. War and peace.
AxoM AJIH MHpa. Atom
for peace.
Mnpy MHpl Peace to the world!
3aKJiK)HHXb MHp. To concludc peace.
noAUHcaxb
MHP
To sign a peace
treaty.
MflPHblft, an, oe, -ue adj.
of
MHpa
1. peace. Mnpnue oxHomeHHH. Peace-
ful relations.
2. peace, peaceful. Mnpnoe BpeMH.
Peace time. Mhphhh xpy^. Peace-
ful labour. Mupnoe cxpoH-
xejibcxBO. Peaceful construction.
3.: Mhphlih ^oroBop. A peace
treaty. MnpHHe neperoBopu.
Peace talks.
MHPOB|0fl, -an, -6e, -tie adj.
of
MHPi
MHpoBafl BOHHa. World War. Mh-
poBoH pwHOK. World market. Mh-
poBSH cJiaBa. World fame. IlHca-
xejib c MHpoBMM HMCHeM. A world-
famous writer.
MHPOJIIOBflBILlH, -an, -oe, -we peace-
ful'
MnpojiiooiiBafl nojiHXHKa. Peaceful
policy. MnpojnoGiiBHe napoAM- Peace-
loving nations.
MtlTHHr m. meeting, rally
MwTHHr npoxecxa. A meeting
of
protest. MtixHHr b noAAepJKKy... A
rally in support
of...
Mhxhhf b aa-
miixy Koro/^iero-JiHSo. A meeting
in defence of
somebody
I
something.
BbicxyHHXb Ha MnxHHre c pe^bio.
To make a speech at a meeting.
MJIAflmiHn, -an, ee, -ne younger
MJiaATUHH 6paT. A younger (the
youngest) brother. MJiaamafl cecxpa.
A younger sister.
MHEHHE neut. opinion
CaMOcxoffxeJibHoe Mnenue. An inde-
pendent opinion. Flo .MOCMy wne
HHK). In my opinion. BbiCKasaxb
MHeHHe. To give an opinion Paa-
Aejifixb qbe-JiH6o MHenne. To share
somebody's opinion. 06MeHflXbCH
MHeHHHMH. To exchange
opinions.
Bbixb BbicoKoro (neBHCOKoro, xo-
pomero, nJioxoro) MHennn o hcjio-
B^Ke (o KHHre). To think highly
{not much, much, bad)
of
a man
(of
a book).
MHOrnE
1. followed by n. in pi. many. MHorHO
cxpaHH. Many countries.
2. used as n. many. MHorne
aaHHMa-
MHO MOP
K)TCH cnopTOM. Many people go in
for
sport.
MHOrO adv., comp. 66jibine
(q.
v.)
1. a lot. Mnoro pa66TaTb. To work
a lot.
2. many, much, a lot. Mnoro Jiio-
flefi.
Many people. Mnoro neHer.
Much money. Mnoro fleJia A lot
of
things to do. Mnoro napoAa.
A lot
of
people.
MHOrOE a lot
Mne em;e Mnoroe na^o czt^Jiaxb.
I've still got a lot
of
things to do.
MOrflJIA /. grave
MOryH|Hfl, -an, -ee, -ne mighty,
powerful
Moryqan crpana. A mighty country,
Moryqan pena. A mighty river.
Moryqan apMHH. A mighty army.
MoryHHH roJioc. A powerful voice.
M05KET BblTb maybe, perhaps
MoJKeT 6litb, h npncAy ceroAna.
/ may come today. MomeT 6LiTb, sto
H laK. Perhaps, that is so.
M05KH0 K M y? + inf.
1. it is possible, can. 3to m6>kho
caeJiaTb 3a xpn ahh. This can be
done in three days.
2. may. MoJKno bshtb Kniiry? May
I take the book? Moh^ho bohth?
May I come in? BojibnoMy mojk-
no ryjiHTb TOJibKO
fl,Ba
qaca. The
sick man is allowed to walk only
two hours.
M03r m., no pi.
FojiOBHoH M03r. The brain. Cnnn-
HOH M03r, The spinal cord.
MOfl, MOH, Moe, MOH pron. my mine
Moh flOM. My house. Moh ccMbfi.
My family. Moe naJibxo. My coat.
Mon ApysbH. My friends. 3x0 Moe.
It's mine.
MOKPIMA, -an, -oe, He, short form
MOKp, MOKpa, MOKpIo, -w; adv.
MOKpo wet
MoKpan ojiemjia. Wet clothes. Mok-
pHe KpwmH. Wet roofs. Bijxepexb
MOKpbie pyKH. To dry one's wet
hands.
/
predic. impers. Ha yjiHue
MOKpo. It is wet outside.
MOJIHHH
/. lightning
HpKan MOJIHHH. A bright lightning.
CsepKHyjia m6jihhh. Lightning
flashed. Mojihhh y^apajia b ^om.
The house was struck by lightning.
MOJIO^EHCHIblfl, -an, -oe, -He youth
MoJiOAejKHHH Benep An evening-
party for young people. MoJiOAeH-
nan dpHra^a. Youth team.
MOJlOJ^mh /., no pi. youth

MOJIO^IED;, pi. -HM used as pred.
fine boy/girl
Ona
y
nac MOJiOAenI She is a fine
girl.'
MOJlOmOH, -an, -oe, -tie, short form
MOJiOA, MOJiOfl;a, m6jioa|o, -h
1. young. Mojio^oH qejioBeK. A
young man. On oienb mojio^.
He is very young.
2. young, new. xMojio^oe ^epcBO. A
young tree. Mojioaoh Kapxo^eJib.
New potatoes.
MOJIO^OCTb
/.,
no pi. youth
GHacxjiiiBafl MoJio^ocxb. A happy
youth. B MOJiOAOCxn on xopomo
neJi. He sang well in his youth.
MOJTOKO neut., no pi. milk
CBmee mojioko. Fresh milk. Khuh-
Henoe mojioko. Boiled milk. Cry-
mennoe mojioko. Condensed milk.
K6(|)e c MOJiOKOM. Coffee and milk.
Kama na mojioko. Milk cereal pudd-
ing. GxaKan MOJiOKa. A glass
of
milk.
MOJIOHHIblH [-mn-l, -an, -oe, -ne
milk
PvloJio^uHH cyn. Milk soup. Mojioh-
nan Kama. Milk cereal pudding.
MojioHHBie upojiyKThi. Dairy produce.
MOJIHA adv. in silence
Oh AOJiro MoJina cMoxpeJi na nero.
He looked at him for a long time
in silence.
MOJIH|ATb, -y, -limb, -ax imp. to
keep silent
Oh MOJiHaji BCK) ^opory. He kept
silent all the way.
MOMEHT m. moment
yfloSnHH MOMenx. A convenient
moment. B 3X0X MOMenx. At that
moment.
MOHETA /.
coin
Bojioxan Monexa. A gold coin. Gxa-
pijnnaH Monexa. An old coin.
<>MejiKafl MOHexa. Small change.
MOPjE neut., pi. -n sea
Exaxb MopeM. To go by sea. Ox^h-
xaxb na Mope. To rest at the sea-
side. Hepnoe Mope. The Black Sea.
CpejiHseMHoe Mope. The Mediter-
ranean Sea.
/fig. Mope rojioe. A sea
of
heads.
MOP 70 MBIJI
MOP05KEHOE neut., no pi. ice-cream
CJiHBOHHoe, moKOJiaAHoe, opexoBoe,
^pyKTOBoe MopoJKeHoe. Cream,
chocolate, nut, fruit ice-cream.
MOP03 m. frost
BCK) 3HMy CTOHJIH CHJIbHiie MOpO-
3U. There were severe frosts the
whole winter. CeroAHH 10 rp^AycoB
Mopoaa. It is 10 degrees below zero
today.
MOPCK|Ofl, -an, -6e, -lie
1. sea. MopcKaH Bo^a. Sea water.
MopcKOH 6eper. Seashore. Mop-
CKOH BosAyx. Sea air. MopcKoii
Bexep. Sea breeze.
2. sea, marine, MopcKofi (|)Jiot. The
Marine. MopcKoe nyxemecTBiie.
A voyage.
<> MopcKaH 6ojie3Hb. Sea-sickness.
MOPHK m., gen. -a sailor
MojiofloH MopflK. A young sailor.
MOCT m., prepos. o Mocxe & Ha moc-
xy; pi. MOCXH bridge
Mocx Hepea peKy. A bridge across
a river. }Kejie3HOAop6>KHLiH mocx.
A railway bridge. Gxohxl Ha mocxv.
To stand on the bridge.
MOTOP m. engine
Moxop pa66xaex xopomo. The engine
works well.
MOTOI^flKJl m. motor-cycle
Exaxb Ha Moxoi^iiKJie. To ride on
a motor-cycle.
MOHb, Mory, MOH^emb, Moryx, past
Mor, -Jia, -Jio, -JiiT, no imper.; imp.
+ inf.
I
p. CMO'ib, CMory, cMOJKemb,
CMoryx, past cMor, -Jia, -Jio, -jih
1. to be able, can. Tw cMomerab
npHHXH ceroflHfl ko mhc? Can
you come and see me today?
2. to be allowed, may. BojibHoii
yjKe Mowex xoAHXb. The patient
is already allowed to walk.
MOmHIHfl, -an, -oe, -He powerful
MomHMH MOXop. A powerful engine.
Momnafl AeMOHCxpan;Hfl. A power-
ful demonstration.
MPAHH|bIfl, -aa, -oe, -He gloomy
MpaqHHH HeJioBGK. A gloomy man.
MpaqHoe JiHn;6. A gloomy face.
MpaHHoe Hacxpoenne. A dismal
mood. MpaHHHe mhcjih. Sombre
thoughts.
M^/^PIblfl, -an, -oe, -ne, short form
MyAp, MyApa, My^plo, -h; adv.
MyAPo
wise
MyAPHH HOJiOB^K. A wise man.
MyAPoe pem^HHO. A wise decision.
Oh nocxynHJi
MyAPO.
He acted
wisely.
MYHC m., pi. uymhn, My>KeH, MywbHM
husband
BHHMaxejibHHH My?K. An attentive
husband. 3a66xJiHBHH MyjK. A solici-
tous husband. JlK)6Hm;HH MyjK. A
loving husband.
MS^HCECTBEHHIMfl, -an, oe, -He,
short form My?KecxBeH, My>KecxBeH-
Hja, -0, -bi; adv. MyHtecxBCHHO cou-
rageous
MyjKecxBeHHHH neJiOBeK. A cou-
rageous man. MyHtecxBeHHHH nocx}'-
noK. A courageous action.
MySKECTBO neut., no pi. courage
npoHBHXb My;KecxBo. To show cour-
age. IlMexb MyjKecxBO roBopiixb
np^BAy. To have the courage to
speak the truth.
MyaCCKlOfl, -an, -oe, -iie men's
My>KCKafl OACJKAa. Men's clothes.
MyjKCKan 66yBb. Men's footwear.
MYSKHflHA m. man
IlqjKHJioii My?KHHHa. An elderly man.
JViySEfl m. museum
OcMaxpnBaxb Myaen. To see a mu-
seum.
M^SblKA /.,
no pi. music
GHM(|)OHHHecKaH MyaHKa. Symphon-
ic music. JlerKan MysHKa. Light
music. MyaHKa k KHHO(|)HJibMy.
Music to a film. Go^HHHXb (hh-
caxb) MyaHKy. To compose (write)
music.
MySblKAJIBHlblfl, -an, -oe, -hb,
short form MyaHKaJien, My3HKajib-
H|a, -0, -H
1. music(al). MyaHKaJibHaa mKOJia.
A music school. MyaHKajibHHG
HHCxpyMCHXH. Musical instru-
ments. MyabiKaJibHHH Beiep. A
musical evening.
2. musical. MyaHKaJibHHH peCenoK.
A musical child.
MS^XA /. fly
MH|ATbCH, -ycb, -nmbCH, -axcH imp.
to rush, to dash
JIomaAb MHiixcH. The horse is rush-
i^S-
If^S-
BpeMfl MHHXCH. Time
flies.
Mbl pron., gen., ace. Hac, dat. HaM,
instr. HaMH, prepos. o Hac we
MlilJIO neut., no pi. soap
MbIC 71 HAB
MbICJib /. thought, idea
HHTepecHan mhcjii>. An interesting
idea. FjiySoKaH mhcjib. A profound
thought. OparnHajibHaH meicjib. An
original idea. Mne b roJiOBy npn-
mJia MHCJiB. An idea occurred to
me. y Hero MejibKHyjia mhcjib. An
idea flashed across his mind.
MblTb, m6|k), -emb, -iot; imper. moh!
imp. K r 6? h t o? h e m?
/
p. bm-
MHTb, BWMO|K), -emb, -IOT to wash
MbiTb pyKH. To wash one's hands.
Mhtb noji. To wash the floor. MHTb
peSeHKa TenjiOH bo/i;6h. To wash a
child with warm water. MbiTb nocy-
ay
mexKOH. To wash the dishes
with a brush.
MI>ITbCH, Moliocb, -embCH, -iotch
imp.
I
p. BHMHTbCH, BHMO|lOCb, -emb-
CH, -lOTCfl to wash
MbiTbCfl B Banne. To have a hath.
MbiTbCH noA ^ymeM. To take a
shower. MMTbCH mhjiom. To wash
with soap.
MilrKlHfl, -an, -oe, -ne [-xk-], short
form MaroK, MarKa, mhfkIo, -h;
adv. MflrKO; comp. MHrne
1. soft. MftrKaH no^ymKa. A soft
pillow. MnrKHe bojiocw. Soft hair.
MarKHH xjie6. Soft bread.
|
predic. impers. Ha AHBane 6biJio
MHFKO cnaTb. The divan was soft
to sleep on.
2.
fig. mild. MarKHH KJiMMax. A mild
climate. MarKHH xapaKxep. A
mild temper.
<> MflrKdH Me5ejib. Soft (uphol-
stered)
furniture. MarKHH saroH.
A soft-seated railway carriage.
MHCHlOfl, -aa, -6e, -bie meat
MacHue npofl;yKTH. Meat products.
MacHOH cyn. Meat soup.
MflCO neut., no pi. meat
IlHpojKKH c MHCOM. Meat pies.
MRH m., gen. -a ball
OyxSdjibHHH Maq. A football. Bo-
JieH66JibHbiH Maq. A volleyball.
H, H
HA prep.
I.
+
prepos.
1. Qn
JiOKaxb Ha cxojie to lie {to be) on
the table; BHcexb na cxeae to hang
on the wall; nncaxb na 6yMare
to write on paper;
2. in, at
Ha saBOAe at the works; na pa-
66x6 at work; na ypoKe at the
lesson; na KaBKaae in the Cau-
casus; na CeBepe in the North;
Ha coSpaHHH at a meeting;
3. by
exaxb Ha aBx66yce, na napoxo^e
to go by bus, by ship;
4.: na npomJiOH He^eJie, na axoH
He^eJie last week, this week
<> KHHra Ha (|)paHHy3CK0M aabine.
A book in French.
II. -|- ace.
1. on
noJiOHtnxb Ha ctoji to put on
the table; noBecHXb na cxeny to
hang on the wall;
2.to
Ha aaBoA to the works; na pa56-
xy to work; na ypoK to the les-
son; Ha KaBKas to the Caucasus;
Ha Cesep to the North; na co-
6paHHe to a meeting;
3. on
caAHXbca Ha anxoSyc, na napo-
XOA to get on a bus, to board a
ship;
4.: Ha xpexHH j^eRh on the third day.
Ha ;i;pyr6H ^enb the next day.
Ha HoBMH TOjx on the New
Year's Day;
5. for
Oh yexaji na neAeJiio. He
left
for a week.
6. not translated. Oh cxapme Mena
Ha 5 Jiex. He is 5 years older
than I. 3xox kocxiom js^opome
Ha 10 pySjieH. This suit is 10
roubles dearer.
<> nepeeecTH na 4>P^Hi^y3CKHH
HSbTK. To translate into French.
HABJIH)AA|Tb, -10, -emb, -lox imp.
H T 0? 3 a H e M? to observe, to
watch
Ha6Jii0AaTb sa ABHjKeHHCM njianex.
To observe the movement
of
planets.
Mh Ha6jiK)AaJiH, nan 3axofl;iijio
cojiHHie. We watched the sun set-
ting.
HABEPHO(E) paren. word probably
HaBepHoe, oh ceroAHH ne npH^ex.
He will probably not come today.
Tu noHAemb b Myaen?

H ne
3HaK) TO^HO, HO, HaBCpHO, HOH^y.
''Will you go to the museum?"
HAB
72
HA3
Kysa? upward, up-
"/
don^t know for sure, but probably
I shall."
HABEPX adv.
stairs
Mh noAHHJiHCB HaBepx, Ha dhthh
axaw. We went up to the fourth
floor.
HABEPXS" adv. r
fl
e? above, upstairs
Mh cjiumaJiH, KaK b KOMHaie na-
Bepxy rpoMKO neJiH, a dotom na-
qaJiH xaHUGBaTB. We heard people
in the room upstairs sing loudly
and then begin dancing.
HABECTfiTb see HABEin[ATb
HABEmA|Tb, -K), -emb, -iot imp.
K o r 6? q T 0?
/
p. naBelcTHTB,
-my,
-CT^mb, -CTHT to visit
HaBeCTHTb GoJibHoro TOBapnma. To
visit a sick friend.
HABCErj^A adv. for ever
H ye3>Kaio h3 3Toro
r6pofl;a uaBcer-
;^a. / am leaving this city
for good.
HABCTPE^y adv. & prep.
+
dat. to
meet one, in the opposite direction
Bexep j^yji naBCTpeiy. The wind
blew in our faces. HaBCTpeqy saM
meji HeJiOBGK. A man was ap-
proaching us.
HAFPA^A
/. award
BiicoKaa Harpa^a. A high award.
IIoJiyqwTb uarpaAy. To receive an
award.
HAPPAAflTb see HArPAmflATb
HAPPAHCJIAlTb, -K), -emb. -k)t imp.
K o r 6? q T 0? q e M? a a h t
6?/p.
Harpal^wTb, -jKy, -fl;Hmb, -^ht to
award
HarpaAHTb opAenoM aa noABHr. To
award an order
for a feat.
HAPPETb see FPETb, 4
HAA (HAAO) prep.
+
instr.
1. over. Ha
A
ctojiom bhcht JiaMna.
A light hangs over the table.
IlTHi^bi jieiaiOT HaA MopeM. The
birds are
flying over the sea.
2. above, over. HaAO mhoh myMtiT
AepeBO. A tree is rustling above
me. Mh ctohjih na bhcokom 6e-
pery, uaA peKoa. We were stand-
ing on the high bank, over the river.
3. at. PaCoxaTb
naA AOKJiaAOM. To
work at a report.
HAJ^EBAITb, -K), -emb, -h)t imp.
HTO? Ha K r 6? h a ^t6?/
p. HaAelxb, -Hy, -nemb, -Hyx
1. to put on. HaAesaxb najibxo,
fflJiany, nepnaxKH, map$. To
put on an overcoat, a hat, gloves,
a scarf. HaAexb naJibxo na pe-
6eHKa. To put a coat on a child.
2. to put on. HaAexb ohkii. To put
on one's spectacles.
HAA^HCAA /. hope
Bojibmne
naAewAM. Great expecta-
tions.
HAA^Tb see HA^EBATb
HA^ElflTbCH, -K)Cb, -embCH, -ioxch
imp.
1. Ha 4x6? or -{-
inf. to hope.
HaAenxbcH na ycnex, na no6eAy.
To hope for success,
for vic-
tory. H. HaAeiocb yBiiAexb xe6H
aaBxpa. / hope to see you tomor-
row.
2. to hope, fl HaAeiocb na xo, hxo
^aBxpa noroAa 6yAex Jiynme.
/ hope the weather will be better
tomorrow.
Sua K r 6? h a h x 6? to rely.
HaAeflXbCH na
APyra.
To rely
on one's friend. HaAeaxbCfl na
KOJiJieKXHB. To rely,on the collec-
tive.
HAJIO KOMy? qeMy?
+
m/. it is
necessary, must
Te6e uaAO Muoro aaHHMaxbCH. You
must study a lot. Mne HaAO 6hjio
Bqepa BCxaxb b 7 nacoB. / had to
get up at 7 o'clock yesterday.
HAJ^OEJ^AlTb, -K), -emb, -rox imp.
KOMy? HGMy? & -j- inf.
I
p. Ha-
Aoecxb, HaAoeM, naAoemb, HaAoecx,
HaAoeAHM, HaAoeAHTe, naAoeAflx,
past HaAoeJi, -a, -o, -h to be bored,
to be tired (of)
3x0 MHe HaAoeJio. / am tired
of
this. HaM HaAoeJia njioxan noroAa-
We are tired
of
the bad weather.
Mne naAoejio roBopnxb o6 9tom. /
am tired
of
speaking about that. Mhg
HaAoeJio HHHero He AeJiaxb. / am
bored with doing nothing.
HAAOECTb see HAAOE^AXb
HA3AA adv.
1.
KyA^? back. Hahxg HasaA- Go
back. H HOCMOxp^Ji HaaaA- /
looked back.
2. a^o. Mh npnexajin 3 MecHua Ha-
SEA- We arrived 3 months ago.
HA3
73 HAJI
\
9to 6hjio MHoro jigt TOMy Ha-
3aA.
That was many years ago.
HA3BAHHE neut. name, title
HasBaHHe poMana, KHiirn, khho-
^HJibMa. The name
of
a novel, book,
film.
HA3BATb see HA3HBATb
HA3HAHA|Tb, -lo, -emb,^ -iot imp.
q T o? K M
y?
q e M y?
II
K o r 6?
q T 0? K e M? q e M?
/
jD. HaaHaqJHTb,
-y,
-Hfflfa, -ax
1. to fix. HaanaqaTb CBHAaHHe. To
make an appointment. HasHaqnxb
co6paHHe na 6 qacoB. To fix
the meeting for 6 o'clock.
2. to appoint. HaanaqHTb kofo-jih-
6o fl;HpeKTopoM. To appoint some-
body director.
3. to prescribe. HasnaqHTb 6ojib-
HOMy JieKapcTBO. To prescribe
medicine for a patient.
HA3HAHHTb see HA3HAqATb
HA3bIBA|Tb, -K), -emb, -k)t imp.
K r 6? q T 0?
/
jo. HasBaxb, HasoBJy
,
-emb, -yx
1. to name. HaaoBHxe pyccKHX nn-
caxeJien, KoxopHx bh anaexe.
Name the Russian writers you
know. HaaoBHxe 6oJibmHe ropo;i,a
Bamen cxpaHH. Name the large
cities
of
your country.
2. to name. Ee nasBajiH KaxH (Ka-
xew). She was named Katya.
HA3bIBA|TbCH, 1st & 2nd pers. rare-
ly used, 3rd pers. -excfl, -loxcfl
to be called
KaK Ha3HBaexcfl Sxa yjiHn;a? What
is the name
of
this street? KaK na-
BHBaexcfl 3X0X KHHOxeaxp? What
is the name
of
this cinema?
HAH3^CTb adv. by heart
Bnaxb nanaycxb. To know by heart.
yqnxb HanaycxB. To learn by heart.
HAflTfl see HAXOAflTb & HCKATb
HAKA3ATb see HAKA3bIBATb
HAKA3bIBA|Tb, -k), -emb, -lox imp.
K r 6? q X o? a a q x o?//*. naKa-
aaxb, HaKajKy, naKaJKemb, iiaKajKyx
to punish
HaKaaaxb peSenKa aa hjioxoh no-
cxynoK. To punish a child for mis-
behaviour. HaKaaaxb qeJiOBeKa aa
npecxynjienne. To punish a person
for committing a crime.
HAKAHYHE
1. adv. the day before. HaKaHyne
MH 6mjih b khho. We were at
the cinema the day before.
2. prep,
-f-
gen. on the eve. HaKa-
nyne HoBOro roAa. On New
Year's eve. HaKanyne npaa^HH-
Ka, flHH pojKAeHHH. On the eve
of
the holiday, on the eve
of
one's birthday.
HAKJIOHflTbCH see HAKJIOHilTb-
CH
HAKJIOHillTbCH, -locb, -embra,
-MXCH imp.
I
p. HaKJIOHMXbCH, ua-
KJIOHIOCb, HaKJiOHHmbCH, HaKJIQ-
Hflxcfl to bend
Maxb HaKJioHHJiacb Ha^ peSeuKOM.
The mother bent over her child.
HAKOHEp; adv. at last
HaKonen; oh npnmeji. At last he
has come.
HAKOPMflTb see KOPMflTb
HAKPbIBA|Tb, -K), -emb, -lox imp.
q X 0? q e M?
/
/?. HaKpwxb, HaKpolK),
-emb, -lox to cover
HaKpHXb cxoJi CKaxepxbio. To cover
the table with a table-cloth.
HAKPblBAjTbCH, -locb, -embCH,
-lOxcH imp. ^eu?
/
p.
naKptixbcH,
HaKp6|K)Cb, -embCH, -ioxch to cover
oneself
HaKpHBaxbCH OAenJiOM. To cover
oneself with a blanket. HaKpuBaxbCH
nJian^oM. To cover oneself with a
raincoat.
HAKPb'ITb see HAKPblBATb
HAKPb'ITbCH see HAKPblBATbCH
HAJIEBO adv.
1. Ky^a? to the left. IIohxh, no-
exaxb, noBepnyxb naJieBO. To go,
to drive, to turn to the left.
2. r^e? on, at, to the left {cf.
CJIEBA). HaJieBO ox namero flOMa
naxoAHXCH MaraanH. To the left
of
our house is a shop.
HAJIHBAjTb, -TO, -emb, -lox q x o?
(q e r 6?) k o m
y? k
y a
a? imp./
p. HaJiHXb, naJib|i6, -emb, -lox; imper.
HaJieH, past najiHJi, naJiHJia, najin-
Ji|o, -H to pour out
HaJiHBaxb rocxK) qaio. To pour out
tea for the guest. HaJiiixb boabi b
rpa|)HH. To fill a carafe with water.
HAJIflTb see HAJlHBATb
HAJlOr m. tax
Bhcokhb naJioFH. High taxes.
HAO 74 HAP
IIOAOXOAHHH HaJior. Income tax.
IIJiaTHTB naJior. To pay a tax.
HAOBOPOT adv.
1. the other way round. Oh Bcerj3;a
Bce ;^eJIaJI naoSopox. He always
did everything the other way round.
2. on the contrary. Ona ne 3a-
CMeflJiacb, a, naoGopoT, aanjia-
KaJia. She did not laugh, on the
contrary, she began crying.
HAIIAJ^A|Tb, -K), -euib, -iot imp. iia
K r 6? Ha
11 T 0?//). nanacxB, na-
naAly,
-enib, -yx, past nanaji, -a, -o,
-H to attack
Tiirpu HanaAaiox na qeJiOBena. Ti-
gers attack people.
HAHACTb see HAHAAATb
HAnEHATATb see nEHATATb
HAnilCATb see HHCATb
HAnOMHHAITb, -lo, -emb, -lox imp.
K o M y? u X 0? or o k 6 m? o
4 e M?
/
p. nanoMHliixb, -lo, -irnib, -hx
1. to remind. Oh HanoMHHJi MHe
o HaniHX npeHCHHx Bcxpe^ax.
He reminded me
of
our past
meetings.
2. K r 6? to remind. Oh nanoM-
HHJi MHe o;];Hor6 MejioBena. He
reminded me
of
a certain person.
HAnOMHHTb see HAllOMHHATb
HAHPABHTb see HAHPABJlHTb
HAHPABHTbCH see HAHPABJIilTb-
CH
IIAnPABJIEHHE neut.
1. direction. HanpaBJiemie ;];BHjKe-
HHH. The direction
of
a move-
ment. rioesAa HAyx b pasHMX
HanpaBJieHHHX. The trains are go-
ing in different directions.
2. school. JiHxepaxypHoe nanpaBJie-
HHe. A literary school. HanpaB-
JieHHe B MysLiKe, b jkhbohhch.
A school
of
music, painting.
<> no HanpaBJieHiiH) k... In the
direction
of...
IIAnPABJlH|Tb, -10, -emb,^ -lox imp.
Koro? Hxo? K KOMy?Kyji;a?/
p. Hanpa|BHXb, -BJIIO, -BHfflb, -BflX
to send
/lloKxop HanpaBHJi mchh b canaxo-
pHH. The doctor sent me to a sana-
torium. MeHH HanpaBHJiH k Bpany.
/ was sent to a doctor. HanpaBHXb
na pa66xy. To send to work.
HAHPABJlHlTbCH, -locb, -embCH,
-lOXCH imp. K KOMV?
Kyfl;a?/
p. HanpalBHXbCH, -BJIIOCb, -BHmbCH,
-BHXCH to go
HanpaBJifixbCfl na lor. To go to the
south. HanpaBHXbCH k ApysbHM,
snaKOMLiM. To go to see one's friends,
acquaintances. Oh nanpaBHJica k
ABepH. He made for the door.
HAHPABO adv.
1. Ky^a? to the right. ABxoSyc
HOBepnyji nanpa bo. The bus
turned to the right.
2. r^eP^on, at, to the right
{of.
CnPABA). HanpaBo

mocx,
HaJieBO

ca^. On the right there
is a bridge, on the left, a garden.
HanpaBO ox BOKsaJia

SoJibmaa
rocxHHHita. There is a large ho-
tel to the right
of
the railway
station.
HAIIPi^tHO adv. wrongly, in vain
Tm HanpacHO xaK nocxynaemb. You
are wrong in doing that. Oh na-
npacHo oS-LHCHflji en oScxanoBKy:
OHa HHHero ne xoxeJia noHHMaxb,
He tried in vain to explain the sit-
uation to her: she would not listen
to anything.
HAIIPHMEP paren. word for example
GJioBa cpeAHero po^a b pyccKOM
HSMKe HMeiOX OKOHHaHHH -0 H -e.
HanpHMep, okho h Mope. Russian
words
of
the neuter gender have the
ending -o or -e. For example:
OKHO and Mope.
HAnPOTHB
1. adv. opposite. MarasMH Hax6;i;HX-
Cfl nanpoxHB. The shop is op-
posite.
2. prep, -\-gen. opposite. HanpoxHB
o5me>KHXHfl Hax6j];HXCfl SojibmoH
MarasHH. Opposite the hostel is a
large shop.
HAOPHHCEHHE neut., no pi.
1. straining. HanpHH^eHne Bcex chji.
A straining of all one's efforts.
2. tension. Tok BMcoKoro nanpn-
HteHHH. High tension current,
fig. MemAynapoAHoe HanpHwe-
HHe. International tension.
HAPHCOBATb see PHCOBAXb
HAPOA m.
1. people, nation. PyccKHH HapoA.
The Russian people. HapoAU
MHpa. The peoples
of
the world.
HAP 75 HAy
2. only sing, people. Mnoro napoAa
(napoAy). ^
^
lot
of people.
MnxepecH napoAa. The interests
of
the people. HpocTOH napoA-
Ordinary people.
HAPO^HIblfl, -an, oe, -me
1. folk. HapoAHoe hckvcctbo. Folk
art. HapoflHbie necHH. Folk songs.
2. national. HapoAHoe xo3hhctbo.
National economy. Hapo^Hoe o5-
pasoBaHHe. Public education.
3. people's. HapoAHbiii apincT
CCCP. A People's Artist
of
the
USSR. HapoAHMH xyA6}KHHK
CCCP. A People's Artist
of the
USSR (graphic art). HapoAHbifi
cyA.
People's court.
HAPOHHO adv. on purpose
Tm cfleJiaJi 3T0 napoHHo hjih cjiy-
HaHHO? Did you do it on purpose
or by accident?
HAPyinAlTb, -10, -emb, -kdt imp.
q T o?/p. HapymJHTb, -y, -ninb, -ax
1. to break, to violate. Hapymnxb
noKOH. To break the peace. Ha-
pyniHXb xHniHHy, To break the
silence. Hapymnxb nopH^OK. To
break the peace. Hapymnxb rpa-
Hiiny. To violate the border. Ha-
pymnxb AoroBop. To violate a
treaty.
2. to break. Hapymnxb cjiobo. To
break one's word.
HAPyniHTb see HAPyniATB
HAPU^HlblH, -an, -oe, -we
1. well-dressed. HapH^HaH aeBym-
Ka. A well-dressed girl.
2. smart. HapH^Hoe njiaxbe. A
smart dress.
HACEJIEHHE neut., no pi. population
HaceJienne cxpaHbi. The population
of a country. Hacejienne ropo^a.
The population
of a city. Mitpnoe
Hacejiemie. Civilian population.
HACKBOSb adi;. through
HpoMOKHyxb HacKBOsb. To get wet
through.
HACKOJIbKO adv. how much
HacKoJibKo 9X0 pemenne Jiyqme
npeJKHeroI How much better this
decision is than the old one!
HACMOPK m., no pi. a cold in the
head
CnJibHMH HacMopK. A bad cold in
the head. JlerKHH HacMopK. A
slight cold in the head. Y mchh
nacMopK. / have a cold in the head.
JleKapcxBo ox naCMopKa. A medi-
cine for a cold in the head.
HACTOnHHBIblfl, -an, -oe, -bie, short
form HacxoHHHB, -a, -o, -h; adv.
HacxoHHHBo persistent
HacxoHinBLiH neJiOBeK. A persis-
tent person. HacxoHHnBUH xapaK-
xep. A persistent character. Hacxdn-
^iHBaH np6cb6a. A pressing request.
CxyAenx HacxonnnBo sannMajicH.
The student studied persistently
HACTOJIbKO adv. so
Oh HacxoJibKO rJiyn, hxo nnnero
He MOJKex noHflxb. He is so stupid
that he doesn't understand anything.
HACTOJIbHlblH, -an, -oe, -He
1. table, desk. HacxoJibHan JiaMna.
A desk lamp. HacxoJibHmn Ka-
Jien^apb. A desk calendar. Ha-
cxoJibHbie rirpw. Table games.
2. fig.: HacxoJibHaH Kmira. A hand-
book.
HACTOilimHH, -an, -ee, -ne real
HacxoHm;ee soJioxo. Real gold. Ha-
cxoHmaH JiioSoBb. True love.
<> B nacTOflmee epeMH. At pres-
ent.
HACTPOEHHE neut.
1. mood, y MeHH ceroAHH njioxoe
Hacxpoenne. / am in a bad mood
today.
2. -(-
inf ., usu. in negative sentences.
y MeH^ Hex HacxpoeHHH pac-
CKasbiBaxb. / am not in a
talking mood.
HACXynAlTbi, 1st & 2nd pers. not
used, 3rd pers. -ex, -lox imp./
p.
Hacxynnxb, 1st & 2nd pers. not
used, 3rd pers. Hacxynnx, iiacx}'^-
HHx to come
HacxyuHJio yxpo. Morning came.
HACTyilAlTb2, -K), -emb, -lox imp.
Ha Koro? Ha qxo?//?. nacxy-
HMXb, nacxynJiK), nacxynnmb, Ha-
cxynnx
1. to tread. Hacxynnxb qejioBeKy
Ha Hory. To tread on a person's
foot.
2. imp. only to be on the offensive.
ApMUfl Hacxynaex. The army is
on the offensive.
HACXynflTb see HACTyHATbi &
HACXynATb^, 1.
HA^KA /. science
3aHHMaxbCfl nayKon. To be a
HAy
76
HEA
scientist. EcTecTBeHHtie nayKH.
Natural sciences. ryMaHHxapHLie
HayKH. Humanities.
HAYHflTb see yHflTb, 2
HAYHflTbCfl see yHflTbCH
HA'^HHlLlfl, -aH, -oe, -ue scientific
HayiHaH pa66Ta. Scientific work.
HayHHuii pa66THHK. A research
worker. HayHHwe xpyAH. Scientific
works. HayqHan CnCJiHOTeKa. A
scientific library. HayHHoe CTy^eH-
HecKoe 66mecTBo. A students'
scientific society.
HAXOJl,flTb, HaxoHty, HaxoAumb, na-
xoflHT
imp. K r 6? h t o?/jo. nan-
TH, HaHflly,
-einb, -yr, past nameji,
Hamji|a, -6, -h to find
HaiiTH HyjKHyK) Bemb. To find the
thing needed. HaHTW hobmh Mexoji
paSoTbi. To find a new method
of
work. HaxoflHTb pa^ocTb b MysbiKe.
To find pleasure in music.
<> MecTa ce6e ne Haxo^HTb. To
fret. He HaxOAHTb cjiob. Words
fail one.
HAXO^flTbCH, naxojKycb, naxoAHrab-
CH, naxoAHTCH imp. to be (situated)
BoJibraoH Teaip naxoAHTCH b n;eHT-
pe MocKBbi. The Bolshoi Theatre
is in the centre
of
Moscow.
HAUiHOHAJIbHOCTb
/.
nationality
Kto bli no HamionajibHocTH? What
is your nationality? B CoBexcKOM
Coio.ie MHoro HaixHonajibHocTen.
There are many nationalities in
the Soviet Union.
HAI^HOnAjIbHlblfl, -an, -oe, -we
1. national. HannonajibHaH Kyjibxy-
pa. National culture.
2. national. HanHonaJibHWH koc-
TioM. National dress.
HAHAJIO neut.
1. beginning.
JJ^ou naxoflHTcn b na-
najie yjiHn;H. The house is at the
beginning
of
the street.
2. beginning. Haqajio yHe6Horo ro-
fla.
The beginning
of
the school
year. HaqaJio sanHTHH b 10 la-
c6b. Lessons start at 10 o'clock.
HAHAJIbHHK m. chief
flAHATb see HAHHHATb
HAHATbCfl see HA^HHATbCH
HA^HHAlTb, -K), -emb,^ -k)t imp.
H T 0? &
+
inf'
I P'
naqaib, naiHly,
-emb, -yx, past Hanair, nanajia, na-
najilo, -H
Hannnaxb ypoK. To begin a lesson.
Ha^axb peHb. To begin a speech.
Haqaxb pa66xaxb. To begin work-
ing. HaHHHaxb yqnxbCH. To begin
going to school, to begin studying.
|
HAMHHA|TbCH, 1st & 2nd pers. not 1
used, 3rd pers. -excfl, -ioxch imp./
p. HanaxbCfl, 1st & 2nd pers. not
used, 3rd pers. na^Hexcfl, Haqnyx-
CH, past HanaJicH, Hanajilacb, -ocb,
-picb to begin
3aBxpa Ha^HHaexcH hobwh yqe6HbiH
roA. The new school (academic) year
begins tomorrow.
*
HAin, -a, -e, -h pron. our, ours
HE particle not
Oh He yMeex roBopnxb no-pyccKH.
He cannot speak Russian. 3xo He
cxoJi. This is not a table. 3x0 He
o^etfh HHxepecHbiii (|)KJibM. This is
not a very interesting
film. 3x0 He
njioxo, a xopomo. This is not bad,
it is good. Ero He 6biJio
AOMa. He
was not at home.
HEBO neut., pi. HeSeca, He5ec. He6e-
caM, etc. sky
FoJiySoe He6o. A blue sky. Becen-
Hee He6o. A spring sky.
<0> HonacTb naJibu,eM b iie6o Cf.
To find a mare's nest.
HEBECTA /. fiancee
HE^J^E adv. nowhere
Bee Mecxa aanflXH, nerAe cecxb.
All the seats are taken, there is
nowhere to sit.
HE^ABHO adv. recently
Mbi npnexajiH b Mockby HCAaBHo.
We hove come to Moscow recently
HE^AJIEKO adv. r a e? not far
ToBapHHi WHBex HeAajiGKo ox mc-
Hfl. My friend lives not far from
me.
HEAEJIH /. week
JIhh HCAeJiH. The days
of
the week.
Ha 3X0H HeAeJie. This week. Hepea
HeAeJiK). In a week. Tpn paaa b ne-
AeJiK). Three times a week. Mm
CAeJiacM 3xy paSoxy aa neAeJiio.
We shall do this work in a week.
<> y Hero ceMb nHTHUH he He^e-
Jie. He does not know his own mind.
HE^OCTATIOK m., gen. -Ka draw-
back, shortcoming, defect
HeAOCxaxKH b paooxe. Shortcomings
HE5K
77 HEC
in work. V Hero MHoro ne^ocTaT-
KOB. He has many defects.
HE^H|klQ, -an, -oe, -He, short form
HeJKeH, HejKHa, nemnlo, -h; adu.
HeJKHO
1. tender, affectionate. He>KHoe
HyBCTBo. A tender feeling. Uem-
HUH BsrJiHA. An affectionate look.
2. tender. HeMcnaH KOJKa. Tender
skin.
3. tender. HeJKHtiH i^Bex. A tender
colour.
HE3ABHCHM0CTb /.,
no pi. indepen-
dence
CBOooaa H HeaaBiTCHMOCTb CTpanu.
The freedom and independence of
a
country.
HE3ABflCHMlMlJ, -an, -oe, -me, short
form neaaBiicHM, -a, -o, -h; adv.
HesaBHCHMO independent
HeaaBHCHMMH xapaKxep. An inde-
pendent character. HesaBHCHMoe ro-
cy^apcTBO. An independent state.
HEKOrjIjA adv. no time
Oh oHeHb MHoro paSoxaex, eMy ne-
Kor^a ryjiHTb. He works a lot, he
has no time to go for
walks. Mne
ceroflHH HeKor;;a. Fve no time to-
day.
HEKOTOPIblH, -an, -oe, -He pron.
some
1. B HeKOTopHX paHOHax cxpanH
npomJiH AOHt^n. It rained in
some parts
of
the country.
2. only pi. Bee cjiymaJiH c HHxe-
pecoM, HeKoxopne CMeHJiHCb.
Everybody listened with interest,
some people laughed.
HEKyj^A adv. nowhere
y MeHH Hex agecb anaKOMHx, Mne
HeKyAa haxh. I've no friends here,
I've nowhere to go to.
UEJlhSU -\-inf , KOMy?
1. it is impossible. 3xy sa^aqy pe-
miixb HeJib3H. This problem can-
not be solved.
2. one must not. HeJibsa myMexb
B KOMHaxe SoJibHoro. You must
not make a noise in the sickroom.
3Aecb KypHXb UQJihsA. Smoking
is prohibited here. Mne neJibSH
MHoro 6eraxb. / am not allowed
to run for a long time.
HEMHOrO adv. (a) little
H saHHMaJica ceroflHH
neMHoro, /
studied for a short time today.
HeMHoro noryjinn h npHXOHii flOMOH.
Go for a short walk and then come
home, y Hac HeMHoro BpeMenn. We
have little time left.
HEHABfllAETb, ->Ky, -Anmb, .J^flx
imp. Koro? q x o? to hate
H HenaBHwy axoro qejiOBCKa. /
hate that man.
HEHABHCTb /., no pi. k KOMy?
K H e M y? hatred
HEOBXOJ^flM|Hfl, -an, -oe, -ne, short
form HeoSxoAHM, Heo6xoAHM|a, -o,
-h; adv. neoSxoAWMO necessary
HeoSxo^HMHe Bemn. Necessary
things. HeoSxoAHMbie KHiirH. The
books one needs. Heo6xoAHMo crje-
Jiaxb onepan;Hio. An operation is
necessary.
HEOBblKHOBEHHIblfl, -an, -oe, -He;
adv. HeoSHKHOBeHHO unusual
HeoSHKHOBeHHoe nyxemecxBHe. An
unusual journey.
HEOHCflaAHHIblfl, -aa, -oe, ne; adv.
HeojKHAaHHO unexpected
HeoHtH^aHHoe coSbixne. An unex-
pected event. HeoHtWAauHHii npnesji;.
An unexpected arrival Oxen Bep-
HyjiCH Heo>Kii;;aHHO. The father re-
turned unexpectedly.
HEPBHIbin, an, -oe, -ne
1. nervous. HepBuaa cncxesvia The
nervous system.
2. nervous. HepBHHii ^leJiOBeK. A
nervous person.
3. nervous. HepBune SoJieann. Ner-
vous diseases.
HECKOJIbKlO num., gen. -hx several
Ha coSpaHHH BbicxynuJio necKOJibKO
qejioBeK. Several people spoke al
the meeting. Ha 3KCKypcHH ne 5hjio
HecKOJibKHX cxyAenxoB. Several stu-
dents were absent from the excur-
sion.
HECMOTP}! HA prep. +acc. in spite of
HecMOxpn na njioxyio noroAy,
MH xofl;uJiH ryjiflxb In spite
of
the bad weather we went out for a
walk.
^
HecMOTpfl HH Ha qxo. In spite
of
everything.
HEC|Tfl, -y, -emb, -yx, past nee, nec-
|Jia, -Jio, -JiH, imp. Hxo? Kya?
1. to carry. Hecxw qeMoaan. To
carry a suit-case. HecxH pe6eH-
Ka na pynax. To carry a child
in one's arms. Hecxii KHiirn b
HEC 78 HHH
6H6JiHOTeKy. To carry the books
to the library.
2. fig. to bear. HecxH oTBexcTBeH-
HOCTb. To bear the responsibili-
ty. HecTH HaKaaaHHe. To bear
the punishment. HecTH noxepH.
To suffer losses.
HECHACTHIbin, -an, -oe, -ue un-
lucky, unfortunate
HecnacTHBiH neJioBCK. An unlucky
person.
<> Hec^acTHWH cjiy^afi. An acci-
dent.
HECHACTBE neut. misfortune
CjiyHHJiocb HecnacTbe. A misfor-
tune has happened.
HEX particle
1
.
no. Bh HAeie b khho?

Hex.
''Are you going to the cinema?"
''No, I am not.**
2. not, no. Y mghh hot axon khh-
FH. / haven't got that book. Ha
3X0H yjiHEi;e Hex MarasHHOB. There
are no shops in this street. Ero
Hex flOMa. He is not at home.
HEy^EJlH emphatic particle really
HeyjKeJiH bh ne nnxajin axoro po-
Mana? Haven't you read this novel?
HEa)Tb
/.,
no pi. oil
MecxopojKAeHne ne^xn. An oil de-
posit. ^o6HBaxb ne^xb. To extract
oil.
HEHAHHHO adv. by accident
H HenaHEHo pa36HJi cxaKan. / broke
the glass by accident.
HEHEFO pron., dat. ue^eMy, instr.
HeneM, prepos. He o HeM -j- inf. no-
thing
Mne Henero fl,eJiaxb. I've got no-
thing to do. TaK AyniHO, mo HeneM
flbimaxb. It's so stuffy:
one can
hardly breathe. Mne ne o hcm 66Jib-
me roBopnxb. I've nothing else to
say. HeHeMy paAOsaxbCH. There's
nothing to be happy about.
HH particle not a
Ha neSe hh oSJiaqna. There is not
a single cloud in the sky.
HH ... HH conj. neither... nor
Hh ;^HeM, hh Ho^bio ne npeKpama-
Jiacb pa66xa. Work went on day
and night without stopping. Hh h,
HH MOH 6paX HHKOFAa HC 6bIJIH B
MocKBe. Neither my brother nor
myself has ever been to Moscow.
HHr^E ac^y. nowhere
Bwjio yjKe hosaho, HHr^e He 6ujio
BH^HO JHOAeii. It was already late^
no people could be seen anywhere.
Hnrfle ne Mory Kyniixb axoro yHe6-
HHKa. / can't buy this text-book
anywhere. HHr^e Hex cbo66ahhx
Mecx. There are no vacant seats
anywhere.
HflHCHIHlt, -RH, ee, -ne
1. lower. lluTKEHH noHKa. The lower
berth.
2.: HnjKHee 6eJibe. Underwear.
Hfl3K|HB[, -an, -oe, -ne, short form
HH30K, HH3Ka, HHBKIo, -H; adv. HH3K0;
comp. HHJKe
1. low. Hh3KHH jj^om. a low house.
2. low. Hh3khh ypoBeHb >kh3hh.
A low living standard. HH3KaH
xeMnepaxypa. A low temperature.
TeMHepaxypa Hume nyjiH. A
temperature below zero. HH3KHe
n;eHbi. Low prices. HiisKoe ffan-
Jienne. Low pressure.
3. low. Hhskhh roJioc. A low voice,
HHKOr^A adv. never
Oh HHKOFAa He ona3AbiBaji. He
never came late.
HHKTO pron., gen., ace. hhkofo [-bo],
dat. HHKOMy, instr. HHKeM, prepos,
HH o KOM nobody
Hhkxo He 3Haex, Kan pemnxb 6xy
sa^a^y. Nobody knows how to solve
this problem. H AaBHo yJKe hhkofo
He BHAeji. / haven't seen anybody
for a long time. HHKOMy ne fobo-
pH o6 3X0M. Don't tell anyone about
it. Oh HH KOM He xo^ex AyMaxb.
He doesn't want to think about
anyone.
HHKy/^A adv. nowhere
y MCHH Hjioxoe Hacxpoenne, h a
HHKyAa He xojKy. I am in a bad
mood and I don't go anywhere.
HflTlKA
/.,
gen. pi. -ok thread
KaxymKa hhxok. A reel of
thread.
BAexb HiixKy b HFOJiKy. To thread
a needle.
HHHErO [BO]
1. adv. not bad. KaK h Hanncaji
KOHxpoJibHyio
pa66xy?
Hnne-
f6. ''How did I write my test-
paper?" "Not bad."
2.
particle that's all right. H3bh.
HHxe,
nojKajiyHcxa.
HnHero.
"Excuse me." "That's all right.**
HH^I 79 HOC
HHHTO [-mxo] pron., gen. HHHer6[-Bo],
dat. HHHGMy, instr. HnqcM, prepos.
HH o n'eu nothing
Oh HHHero ne 3HaeT. He does not
know anything. Oh HHqeMy ne Ha-
y^MJiCH. He didn't learn anything.
Oh HH^eM He HHTepecj^eiCH. He is
not interested in anything. H He
Mor HH HCM ;i;yMaTb. / couldn't
think
of
anything.
HO conj. but
C6JiHii;e cseTHT, ho ne rpeeT. The
sun is shining, but it is not giving
any warmth, fl BHepa bbohhji Te6e,
HO Te6H He 6hjio jioua. I rang
you up yesterday, but you were
not at home.
HOBO^OJ^H|Hfl, -HH, -ee, -ne New-
Year
HoBoroAHHH HOHB. New-Year night.
HoBoroAHHe nosApaBJienHH. New-
Year messages. HoBoroAHHe nojKe-
JiaHHH. New-Year wishes. HoBoro^-
HHH 6aJi. A New-Year ball.
H0BOCT|b
/ ,
gen. pi. -en
1. news. Goo6n5aTb hoboctb. To
tell the news. Xoporane hobocth.
Good news.
2. only pL: Hobocth ^hh. Newsreel.
Hobocth nayKH h TexHHKH. The
latest developments in science and
technology.
HOBIBIH, -an, -oe, -tie, short form
hob, HOBa, h6b|o, -h
1. new. HoBtiH ;i;om. A new house.
HoBoe HJiaTte. A new dress.
2. new. HoBan KHiira. A new book.
HoBHH HeJiOBBK. A new man.
3. modern. HoBafl hctophh. Modern
history.
4. new. HoBMH ro^;. New Year.
HOrA
/., ace. Hory; pi. Horn, nor,
HoraM, etc. foot, leg
Bmmmtb Horn. To wash one's
feet.
BwTHpaHTe Horn. Wipe your feet.
<> Hath b Hory c BeKOM. To keep
abreast
of
time.
HOriOTB m., gen. -th; gen. pi. -tch
(finger) nail
KycaTB HorTH. To bite one's nails.
UOliK m., gen. -a knife
OcTpwH HO?K. A sharp knife. Tynon
HOJK. A blunt knife. PesaTb xjie6
HOJKOM. To cut bread with a knife.
nepoqHHHHH HOW. A pen-knife.
H03KIKA
/.,
gen. pi. -bk leg
HoJKKa cTOJia, CTyjia. The leg
of
a
table, chair.
HOHCHHIUbl no sing., gen. mmuRU,
scissors
OcTpHe HOJKHHniLi. Sharp scissors.
HOJI|b m., gen. -h zero
<> Hoesfl npnmeji b ABeHafliiaxb
HOJib-HOJib. The train arrived at
twelve sharp.
HOMEP m., pi. -a
1. number. HoMep ji^oMa. The num-
ber
of
a house. HoMep TpaMBaa.
The number
of
a tram. HoMep
TeJie(|)6Ha. A telephone number.
2. issue. AnpeJiBCKHH HOMep JKyp-
najia. The April issue
of
the
magazine.
3. room. HoMep b rocTHHHii;e. A
hotel room.
4. size. HoMep 6othhok, nepqaTOK.
The size
of
shoes, gloves.
5. item. HoMep b Konr^epTHOH npo-
rpaMMe. An item on the concert
programme. UjupKOBOH HOMep.
A turn in the circus. HcnoJiHHTb
HOMep. To perform an item.
HOPMA /. norm, standard, quota
HopMa BLipaSoTKH. An output
standard. BHnoJiHHTb HopMy. To
carry out the quota. IlepeBLinoJi-
HHTb HopMy. To exceed the
quota.
HOPMAJIbHIblH, -an, -oe, -He, short
form HopMaJieH, HopMaJibuja, -o,
-Li; adv. HopMajiLHO normal
HopMaJibHan TeMnepaTypa. Normal
temperature. HopMaJiBHoe ^aBJieHHe.
Normal pressure. HopMajibHBie yc-
JiOBHfl Tpy^a. Normal conditions
for work.
HOC m., prepos. o Hoce & na (b) ho-
cy; pi. -LI
1. nose. IIpHMOH HOC. A straight
nose.
2. bow. Mw cH/^eJIH na nocy jioa-
KH. We were sitting in the bow
of
the boat.
<0' HoBCCHTb HOC. To be crestfallen.
BoAHTb Kor6-HH6yAb aa hoc. To
lead somebody by the nose. He bh-
AGTb Aajibine c66cTBeHHoro Hoca.
Not to see further than one's
nose.
HOC 80 OBE
HOCflTb, Homy, Hocnmb, hocht imp.
Koro? HTO? KyAa?
1. to carry. KawAWH achl noq-
TaJiLOH iiocHT naM noHTy. Every
day the postman brings us our
post. Oh hcScht KHwrii b nopx-
(|)ejie. He carries his books in
his bag.
2. to wear. Hochtb MHrKyio nuia-
ny. To wear a ioft hat. Hochtb
6ycBi, cepbrii. To wear beads,
ear-rings.
HOCKfl pi., gen. hockob, sing, hocok,
m., gen. HOCKa socks
niepcTHHije HOCKH. Woollen socks.
ITapa nocKOB. A pair
of
socks.
IIOTAI
/.
1. note. BsHTb BHCoKyio (HiisKyio)
HOTy. To sing a high (low) note.
2. no sing, music. HrpaTb no HoxaM.
To play from music. Hrpaib
6e3 HOT. To play without music.
HOTAa
f
note
Hoia npoTecxa. A note
of
protest.
Hoxa coBexcKoro npaBHxeJibcxBa.
A note
of
the Soviet Government.
HOHHlOfl, -afl, -6e, -tie night
Ho^iHaH xnmiiHa. The silence
of
the
night. HoHHaH CMena. The night
shift. HoHHaH py6amKa. A night-
gown, a night-shirt.
HOH|b
/.,
gen. pi. -eii night
THxaH HOib. A quiet night. Jlyn-
HaH Hoqb. A moonlit night. Sbgsa-
Han HOHb. A starlit night. B no'ib noji;
HoBbiH rofl. On New-Year's night.
<> CnoKouHoii (a65poh) eoqu.
Good-night/
HOHbK) adv. at night
HoHbK) OH cnaJi necnoKoHHO. He
spent a restless night. BMspa HOHbio
kt6-xo nocxyqaji k naM b okho.
Last night somebody was knocking
at our window.
HOflBP|b m., gen. -h, no pi. Novem-
ber
HPA|BHTbCH, -BJiiocb, -BnmbCH, -bat-
ch imp. KOMy? ^eMy?
&-f- ^^f/
p.
nOHpalBHXbCH, -BJIIOCb, -BHmbCH,
-BHXCH to like
Mne o^eHb npaBHTCfl 3Ta ^eBymKa.
/ like that girl very much. Khho-
$lfJIbM HaM He HOHpaBHJICH. We
didn't like the film. BaM npaBHTCH
ryjiHTb .3Aecb? Do you like taking
walks here?
HyJKAAlTbCH, -K)Cb, -embCH, -k)tch
imp. B K o M? B H e M? to need
BoJibHOH HyjKAaeTCfl b CBe>KeM Boa-
ayxe. The patient needs fresh air.
H^^aCHO KOMy? ^ieMy?
+
m/. &
+
conj. q T 6 6 u it is necessary, must
HaM HVJKHO MHoro aauHMaxbCH. We
must study a lot. HyjKHO, ht66h
B KOMHaTe .6mjio HiicTO. The room
must be clean.
H^iKHlblfl, -afl, -oe, -He, short form
nymeu, Hy>KHa, HyjKHO, uywHw
K o M y? H e M y?
necessary, that is
needed
HyjKHHH qejiOBeK. A man who is
needed. Hwkhhh yq66HHK. A ne-
cessary text-book. 3Ta KHiira nyw-
Ha MHC ceroAHfl. / need this book
today. Mne nyjKHbi lyi^Jin. I need
shoes. 3tot yqeSHHK mhc ne HyjKen.
/ don't need this text-book.
O, o
(OB, OBO) prep,
-f
prepos. &. ace.
1.
-\- prepos. about, of. 3a56THTbCfl
SAOpoBbe. To take care
of
one's
health. JlyMaTh
o poAHue. To think
about one's country. Me^TaTb
6yAyn;eM.
To dream
of
the future.
Hnxaxb KHwry o mmun cobot-
CKOH MOJiOAeJKH. To read a book
about the life of
Soviet youth.
BocnoMHHaHHfl o6 OTn;e. Reminis-
cences (memories)
of
one's father.
2. -{-ace. on. Bojihm SiiJincb o 6e-
per. The waves beat on the shore.
OBA m. & neut., gen. o66hx; 66e
/.,
gen. oSenx num. both
06a APyra
yqaTCfl b HHCTHTyTe.
Both friends study at the institute.
06e A6BymKH xopomo xaHn;eBajiH.
Both the girls danced well.
OBE^ m. dinner
BKycHUH o6eA.
A tasty dinner.
06eA
H3 xpex 6jik)a. A three-course
dinner.
<> 3a o6eAOM. At dinner. IIpHrjia-
CHTb HE o6eA. To invite to dinner.
OBE^AjTb, -K), -emb, -lox imp./
p. noo6eAa|Tb, -lo, -emb, -iot to have
dinner
OSeAaTb b ctojioboh. To have dinner
at a dining-hall. BbiCTpo nood^Aaxb.
To have a quick dinner.
0B&
81
OBP
OBECIlHHBA|Tb, -ro, -emb, -rox
imp. Kor6? HGM? or KOMy?
H T o?//7. o6ecne'9|HTb, -y, -nmb, -ax
to provide
OSecneqHTb cxpoHTejibCTBO Mama-
HaMH. To provide machinery
for a
construction project.
OBECneqHTB see OBECnEHHBATb
OBEmAlTb, -H), -emb, -rox imp. &
p.
K M y?
H X 0?
-f-
inf.
/
p. also no-
o6ema|xb, -lo, -emb, -lox to promise
fl o6emaK) BHHOJiHHXb Bamy npocb-
6y. / promise to fulfil your re-
quest. H oSemaio, qxo npn^y k BaM
ceroAHfl BCHepoM. / promise to come
and see you this evening. Oh (no)-
o6emaji yanaxb o BpeMenn co6pa-
HHH. He promised to find out the
time
of
the meeting.
OBJiAETb see OBHaCATb
OBflAETbCH see OBHaCATbCfl
OBflJ^HO predic. impers. (to be)
sorry; (to be) offended
Mne o6Hfl;HO, hxo h ne nonaji b
xeaxp. / am sorry I didn't get to
the theatre.
OBHJKAjTb, -JO, -emb, -lox imp. k o-
t6?
/
p. o6H|flexb, ->Ky, -;^Hmb, -;^hx
to offend, to ill-treat
06iTAeTb
APyra.
To offend a friend.
Hejib3H oSnwaxb MajienbKHx. You
mustn't ill-treat the little ones.
OBHaCAlTbCH, -rocb, -embCH, -k)xch
imp. Ha Koro? na qx 6?/
p. oGiilaexbCH, -Hcycb, -^nmbCH, -aax-
CH to take offence, to be offended
06AexbCH Ha 6paxa. To take offence
at one's brother. He o5HH;aHCH na
MOii CJiOBa! Don't be offended at my
words!
CBJIAKIO neut., pi. -a
1. cloud.
flojKAeBoe 65jiaK0. A
raincloud.
TpoaoBbie oSjiana.
Thunderclouds.
2. fig. cloud. OSjiaKO hujih. A dust
cloud.
(3BJIACT|b
/.,
gen. pi. -en
1. region. 06jiacxb JiecoB. The
for-
est region.
2. region. ApxanreJibCKaH 66jiacxb.
The Arkhangelsk region.
3. field. HoBan 66jiacxb nayKH. A
new
field of
science.
4. region. 06jiacxb cep^iia. The re-
gion
of the heart.
64002
OBMAHyXb see OBMAHblBATb
OBMAHblBAITb, -10, -emb, -rox imp.
K o r 6?/p. oSManyxb, oSinany, o6Ma-
Hemb, oSManyx to deceive
ToBapnn; roBopiiJi, qxo npH^ex, ho
oSManyji: ne npHmeji. The friend
said he would come, but he didn't
keep his word.
<^ OSMaeyxb
HaAecflbi. To dis-
appoint somebody's hopes.
OGManyTfa
AOBepne. To betray somebody's
trust.
OBMEHHTbCH see
MEHilTbCH, 1
OBHHMAlTb, -H), -emb, -rox imp.
K o r 6?//). o6Hflxb, o6HHMy, o6hh-
Memb, oSHHMyx, past oOhhji, -a,
66hhjih to embrace
06HHXb
Apyra. To embrace one's
friend. 06HHXb cxapyio Maxb. To
embrace one's old mother.
OBHHMAlTbCH, -rocb, -embCH, -ioxch
imp. c K e M?/p. oSHHXbCH, o6hh-
Mycb, oSHHMembCH,
o6HHMyxcH,
past o6Hfl|jicH, -jiacb, -jincb to
embrace
KpeuKO o6HflXbCfl c xoBapnmeM. To
embrace one*s friend heartily,
OBHUTb see OBHHMATb
OBHUTbCH see OBHHMATbCH
OBOflTfl see
OBXOJ^flTb
OBOPOHA
/.,
no pi. defence
OBOPy;i;OBAHHE neut., no pi. equip-
ment
HoBeamee o6opy;50BaHHe. The most
up-to-date equipment.
OBPA^OBATb see
PAJ^OBATb
OBPAAOBATbCfl see PA^OBATbCH
0BPA3 m.
1. character. JlHxepaxj'pHUH:
oSpas.
A literary character.
2. way. 06pa3 >kh3hh, mwcjih. A
way
of life, of thinking.
<> TaKHM 65pa30M. So; thus. TjiaB-
HMM 65pa30M. Mainly.
0BPA30BAHHE neut., no pl._ educa-
tion
IIpaBO Ha o6pa30BaHHe. The right
to education. Bucmee o6pa30BaHHe.
Higher education. IIoJiyqHXb o6pa-
30BaHHe. To be educated. KaKoe
y
Bac oSpaaoBStHHe? What education
have you?
0BPA3|0BATb, -^10, -yemb, -yiox
imp. &
p. qxo?
1. to set up. 06pa30Baxb komhc-
CHK). To set up a commission.
OBP 82 OBT>
2. to form, to make up. ^Ba aiOMa
BOflopoAa
H aioM KHCJiopoAa 06-
paayiOT MOJieKyay boaw.
Two
atoms
of
hydrogen and one atom
of
oxygen make up a molecule
of
water.
0BPA3|0BATLCH, 1st & 2nd pers.
not used, 3rd pers. yexcfl, -yioTCH
imp. & p. to be formed
06pa30BaJiocb HOBoe rocyaapcTBO.
A new state was formed. B peayJib-
TaTe xHMHqeCKOH peaKAHH o6pa-
ayeicfl HOBoe BemeciBo. As a re-
sult
of
a chemical reaction a new
substance is formed.
OBPATflTb see OBPAmAXb
OBPATflTbCH see OBPAmAXbCH
OBPATHIbia, -an, -oe, -He; adv. 06-
paTHo return
OCpaTHUH 6HJieT. A return ticket.
Ha oSpaxHOM nyxit. On one's return
journey. TyAa oh exaJi Ha noeafle,
a oSpaTHO Jiexea caMOJieroM. He
went there by train and came back
by plane.
OBPAmAlTb, -10, -emb, -k)t imp.
q T 0?//). o6pa|THTi>,
-my,
-THmb,
-Tax
06paxHXb BHHMaHHe. To pay atten-
tion. 05paxnxe BHHMaHHe na axoro
HCJiOBeKa! Look at that man!
OBPAmAjTbCH, -K)Cb, -embCH, -ioxch
imp. K KOMy? K HCM
y?/p. o6pa|-
xrixbCfl, -myCb, -XHmbCU, -XflXCH to
turn (to), to address, to apply
06paxHXbCH K co5paBmHMCfl. To
address a meeting. 06paxHXbCH c
np6cb6oH K AHpeKxopy. To address
a request to the director. OSpaxHXb-
CH K Bpa^y 3a coeexoM. To turn to
a doctor for advice.
OBCTAHOBKA
/.,
no pi.
1. furniture. OScxanoBKa KoMHaxH.
The furniture of
the room.
2. situation, atmosphere. Mew^y-
HapoAHaH oScxaHOBKa. The inter-
national situation BeceAa
nporajia b Apy>KecxBeHHOH o6cxa-
HOBKe. The conversation took
place in a friendly atmosphere.
OBCyAflTb see OBCyHCJ^ATb
OBCyjKJliAlTb, -K), -emb, -lox imp.
H X oilp. o6cyAnxb, oScywy, o6cy-
AHmb, oGcyAflx to discuss
06cyAHXb BajKHHH Bonpoc. To
discuss an important question. 06cy-
Jimh HOBHH KHH04>HJIbM,
AOKJiaA-
To discuss a new film, a report.
OBYBb f., no pi. footwear
OBXOJ^B[Tb, o6xoH{y, odxoAHmb, 06-
XOAHX imp. Koro? HXO?/p. o6oh|-
TH,
-Ay.
-Aemb, -Ayx,
past o6omeJi,
o6omJi|a, -6, -h
1. to go round. 06ohxh BOKpyr
a6-
Ma. To go round the house.
2. to go round. 06ohxh JiyjKy. To
go round a puddle. O60HXH ropy.
To go round a hill.
3. to visit. O60HXH Bce MaraanHu.
To visit all the shops.
OBmEHCflTHE neut. hostel
GxyAenqecKoe o6me>KHXHe. A stu-
dents' hostel. H{HXb B o6me}KHXHH.
To live at a hostel.
OBlHECTBEHHIblfl, -aa, oe, -He
1. social. 06ntecxBeHHHH expoH.
Social system.
2. social, public. 06mecxBeHHaa pa^
466xa. Social work. 06^^ecxBeHHtIe
opraHH3ai;HH. Public organisa-
tions.
<> 06mecTBeHHbiH AeaTCJib. A
public figure.
OBmECTBO neut.
1. society. KoMMyHHCxiWecKoe 66-
mecxBO. Communist society. Byp-
wyasHoe 66mecxBO. Bourgeois
society.
2. society. Haynnoe oSmecxBO. A
scientific society. CnopxrisHoe
66mecxBO. A sports society. 06-
mecxBO APy>K6bi c 3apy6e5KHHMH
cxpanaMH. A society
of friend-
ship with foreign countries.
OBmnfl, -aa, -ee, -ne
1. common. OSmne HHxepecH. Com-
mon interests. 06ni;ee HMymecx-
BO. Common property. Y hhx bco
66mee. They have everything in
common.
2. general. 06niiHe BonpocH. Gen-
eral questions.
<0> Hex (or ne iiMexb) HB^ero 66-
mero c KeM-/qeM-jiH6o. To have
nothing to do with somebody/some-
thing. B 66w,eM. In general.
OBl>EAHH0Tb see OBT>EAHHHTb
OBT>EAHHflTbCH see OBTbE^H-
HUTbCH
0BT>E3HHH|Tb, -10, -emb, -rox imp.
K o r 6? H X o?/p. o6'beAHH|iixb, -k)
-Hfflb, -ax to unite
OBT> 83 oro
06T>eflHHHTB cHJiH 6opi;6B 3a MHp.
To unite the efforts of
the cham-
pions
of
peace.
OBTjEAHHHlTbCH, -rocb, -emLCH,
-K)TCH imp. C KGM? C H 6 M?/
p. 06'BeAHH|HTLCH, -K)Cb, -HHIBCfl, -HT-
cfl to unite
Ohh o&teAHHnjiHCB c ji;pyrHM koji-
xoaoM fl;jiH
nocTpoHKH 66m;eH aJieK-
TpocTaHn;HH. They pooled together
resources with another collective
farm to build a common electric pow-
er station.
OB'LEM m. volume
06T>eM Tejia. The volume
of
a body.
OBT>flBflTB see OBTbHBJiHTb
OBT>HBJIEHHE neut.
1. announcement. 06'bflBJieHHe o
co6paHHH. Announcement
of
a
meeting.
2. advertisement, notice. ^ocKa
oS-BflBJieKHH. A notice board.
Jl^ATh
oStflBJieHHe B rasexy. To
put an advertisement in a news-
paper.
OBT>HBJlHlTB, -lo, -emt, -k)t imp.
q T 0? He M?/p. oS'LHBHTb, oStHB-
jiK), o5'LflBHfflb, oStHBHT to an-
nounce, to declare
OCtHBHTb pemeHHH. To announce
a decision. OSTbflBHTb Bonny. To
declare war.
<> OS-bflBHTb 6JIa^0J^apH0CTb. To
express one's gratitude.
OBT>flCHflTB see 0BT>HCHHTB
OBT>HCHH|Tb, -K), -emb, -iot imp.
q T 0? K M y?
/
p. oG-LHCHlHTb, -K),
-nmb, -HT to explain
. OSiiflCHriTb ypoK. To explain a les-
son. 06i>HCHHTb
aaflaqy.
To explain
a task. 05'bHCHHTb cboio MMCJib. To
explain one's idea. npeno;i;aBaTeJib
oG'bflCHflJi ciyfleHTaM Tpy^Hoe npa-
BHJio. The teacher was explaining a
difficult rule to the students.
OBblKHOBEHHIblfl, an, -oe, -He
ordinary
OSHKHOBeHHHH HeJioBeK. An ordi-
nary man. 06biKH0BeHHaH paSoxa.
Ordinary work.
OBb'IHAfl m. custom
HauHOHaJibHHe oCtiqaH. National
customs.
OBttMHO adv. usually
06tiqH0 fl BciaK) B 7 HacoB yxpa.
6*
/ usually get up at 7 o'clock in the
morning.
OBKlHHIblH, -an, -oe, -He ordinary
06biHHHH ;i;eHb. An ordinary day.
0BH3AHH0CTb /. duty, obligation
npaea h o6H3aHHOCXH. Rights and
obligations.
OBHSATEJlbHO adv. by all means,
certainly, without fail
3xy pa66xy bsljio o6H3axejibHO c^e-
Jiaxb ceroAHfl. This work must be
done today without fail. OGns^xeJib-
HO nOCMOXplixe 9Ty KHHOKapXH-
Hy, Make sure you see this film.
fl npn^y k saM o6H3axejibHo. I'll
certainly come to see you.
OBJIA^EBAlTb, -ro, -emb, -lox imp.
K e M? q e M?
/p. OBJiaAelxb, -lo,
-emb, -K)x to seize, to master
OBJia^exb KpenocxbK). To seize a
fortress. ObJiaAexb h3hk6m. To mas-
ter a language. OBJia^eBaxb snanHH-
MH. To get knowledge. OBJiaflexb no-
BOH cnennaJibHOCTbio. To master a
new speciality.
OBJIAAETb see OB.JTAJIiEBATb
OBOni,|H pi., gen. pi. -en vegetables
CBejKHe 6Bom;ij. Fresh vegetables.
PaHHMe 6Boni,H. Early vegetables.
OrjlHjI,bIBA|TbCfl, -locb, -embCH,
-K)TCH imp.
I
p. OFJIHHyXbCfl, OrJIH-
nycb, orjiflHcmbCH, orJiflnyxcn to
glance back
OrJiHHyxbCfl nasafl;. To glance back.
fl 6biCTpo orJifluyjicH. / glanced
back quickly.
OrjlflHYTbCH see OrjlHj],bIBATb-
Cfl
OrOHb m., gen. orne; pi. ornH
1. no pi. fire. flpKHH oroHb b nenn.
A bright fire in the stove.
2. light. SajKeHb oroHb. To switch on
the light. IIoracHXb oroHb. To
switch
off
the light. Ornii ropo^a.
The lights
of
the city.
<> BoflTbCH KaK orHfl. Gf. To fear
like death. Hath b oroHb h b6-
AY
3a kcm-jihSo, sa Koro-JinSo.
Cf. To go through thick and thin
after, for
somebody. Hex A^Ma
6e3 orHH (proverb). There is no
smoke without a fire.
OrOPOA m. kitchen-garden
BoJibmoH oropoA- ^ large kitchen-
garden. PaSoxaxb na oropoAe.
To
work in the kitchen-garden. B oropOAe
orp
84
OKA
pacxeT KapT6|)eJib. Potatoes grow
in the kitchen-garden.
OrPOMH|bIfl, -an, -oe, -He, short
form orpoMGH, orpoMHia, -o, -li
huge, great
OrpoMHUH ropoA-
A huge city. Or-
poMHbie BoaMOHtHOCTH. Great possi-
bilities. OrpoMHHH ycnex. Great
success.
0^yP|E^ m., gen.
-m
cucumber
PaHHHG orypi;w. Early cucumbers.
GoJienue orypj^H. Salted cucumbers.
OAEBAiTb,
-K), -emb, -jot imp. ko-
to? BO ^t6?/p. OAelxfa, -Hy,
-Herat, -Hyx to dress
OzteBaTb
peSeuKa. To dress the
child. OAexb
pe6eHKa b hobog
DJiaibe. To dress the child in a
new dress.
O^EBAITbCH,
-locb, -erabCH, -h)tch
imp. BO qxo?//?. OAelxbCH, -Hycb,
-HerabCH, -HyxcH to dress
3hm6h HaAO xenjio OAeBaxbCH. You
must dress in warm clothes in win-
ter. Xoporao OAesaxbCfl. To dress
well. OAexbCfl bo Bce HoBoe. To be
dressed in new clothes. OAesaxbc
CO BK.ycoM. To dress tastefully.
0]\tMJ],X /.,
no pi. clothes
PaSoHaH OAe>KAa.
Working clothes.
BepxHHH OAeacAa.
Outdoor clothes.
OHETb see OAEBATb
OAETbCH
see OAEBATbCH
0;^EHJIO neut. blanket; quilt
BaxHoe OAeaJio. A quilt. HanpH-
BaxbCfl OAeaJioM. To cover oneself
with a blanket.^
OJlfiUy
OAHa, OAHo, OAHH pron.
1. alone, fl muBy oamh. / live alone.
fl He JitoSjiK) ryJiHXb oAna. /
don't like walking alone.
2. alone, only, fl oahh Mory axo
CAGJiaxb. / alone can do this.
3. one Oahh moh
APyr
(oahh H3
MOMX APyseH)
paccKaaaji Mne
HHxepecuyio Hcxopnio. A friend
of
mine told me an interesting
story.
4. the same. Mu yqnMCfl na oahom
Kypce. We are in the same
course.
5. used as n. one. Oahh noraeji na-
jieBO, ApyroH

HanpaBo. One
went to the left; the other, to
the right.
OAHHAKOBIblH, -an, -oe, -ue, short
form OAHHaKOB, -a, -o, -h; adv.
OAHHaKOBO same, identical
3XH HJiaXbH COBCeM OAHHaKOBtie.
These dresses are quite identical.
y HHX OAHHaKOBHe BSFJIHAH Ha
JiHxepaxypy. They have the same
ideas on literature.
OAHHOKIHfl, -an, -oe, -ne, short
form OAHHOK, -a, -0, -h; adv.
oah-
HOKO
1. lonely. Oahhokhh lejiOBeK. A
lonely man.
2. solitaiy.
Oahhokog ApeBo. A
solitary tree.
3. lonely. OAHHOKaH HCHSHb. A lone-
ly life.
0]\B.kyKJXh\ adv. once, one day
0/^HAKO conf, however
J^OJKAb JIHJI KaK H3
BeAPa, OAHaKO
pa66xa ne npeKpanjajiacb. The rain
fell in torrents, but the work never
stopped.
OAHOBPEMEHHIblfl, -an, -oe, -He;
adv. oAHOBpeMOHHO simultaneous
Mh OAHOBpeMeHHo npnexajiH na
BOKsaJi. We arrived at the station
at the same time.
(33EPO neut., pi. oaepa lake
Oaepo BaHKaJi. Lake Baikal.
}Ke-
HeBCKoe oaepo. The Lake
of Geneva.
0KA3ATb see 0KA3bIBATb
0KA3ATbCH see 0KA3bIBATbCH
0KA3blBA|Tb, -K), -erab, -lox imp.
H X o? K o M y?
Ha K o r 6?//). ona-
3axb, oKajKy, OKamerab, OKajKyx
to render, to offer, to exert
OnasHBaxb noMomb. To render as-
sistance. OKasHBaxb conpoxHBjie-
HHe. To
offer
resistance. OnaaHBaxb
BJiHHHHe (na Koro, hxo). To influ-
ence {somebody).
0KA3bIBA|TbCH, -locb, -erabcH, -lox-
ca imp.
I p.
OKaaaxbCfl, oKajKycb,
oKajKerabCH, 0Ka>KyxcH
1. K e M? K a K ti M? to turn out to
be. Oh OKaaaJicfl onenb nnxe-
pecHMM HejioBeKOM. He turned
out to be a very interesting man.
2. to find oneself. HeowHAanno mh
OKaaaJiHCb na HeanaKOMOH yjiH-
n;e. Suddenly we found ourselves
in an unfamiliar street. OKa-
aaxbcfl B xpyAHOM nojio>KeHHH.
To find oneself in a difficult
situation.
OKA 85 OHA
3. paren. word OKaauBaercH, Be-
qep 6yfleT ne b cy666Ty, a b
BOCKpecGHbe. The evening-party
is in fact to take place on Sun-
day and not on Saturday.
OKAHHHBAITb, -H), -emb, -iot imp.
HTOp/p. OKOHHiHTb, -y, -HHIb, -aX
to finish
OKOHHHTb paSoTy. To finish work.
OKOHHHTb niKOJiy. To finish school.
OKOHHHTb HHCTHTyi. To graduate
from the institute.
OKAHHHBAITfcCH, 1st & 2nd pers.
not used, 3rd pers. -ercH, -iotch,
imp. HGM?
/p. OKOHqiHTbCH, Ist &
2nd pers. not used, 3rd pers. -htch,
-axcfl to end
CneKTaKJib okoh^hjich uobjibo. The
performance ended late.
OKEAH m. ocean
Thxhh OKean. The Pacific Ocean.
ATJiaHTH^ecKHH oKean. Atlantic
Ocean. IlapoxoA naxoAHTCH cen^ac
B OKeane. The ship is now at sea.
OKHO neut., pi. oKHa, okoh, oKHaM,
etc. window
OKHa BLixoAHT Ha yJIH^y. The win-
dows overlook the street. CMOxpexb
B OKHO. To look through the win-
dow. CMOxpexb H3 OKHa. To look
out
of
the window.
OKOJIO prep.
+
gen.
1. near. Okojio MarasHna cxohjio
MHoro HapoAa. There were many
people near the shop. Oh ceJi oko-
jio MeHH. He sat down beside me.
2. about. Mh ryjifljiH okojio ^Byx
HacoB. We walked for about two
hours.
OKOHqAHHE neut. completion,
end(in^)
OKOH^anne cxpoRxejibcxBa. The
completion
of the construction.
OKOHqaHHe ceanca. The end
of
a
performance.
<> OKOHqaHHe CJieAyeT. To be con-
tinued.
OKOHHHTb see OKAH^HBATB
OKOHHHTbCH see OKAHHHBATtCH
OKPEnHYTb see KPEnHYTb
OKPyacAiTb,
-K), -emb, -lox imp.
KOro? HX 0? H e M?//>. OKpyjKlMXb,
-y, -Hmb, -ax
1. to surround.
JJ^qtr oKpymiiJiH
Maxb. The children surrounded
their mother.
2. usu. no
p.
to surround.
J^ep^B-
HK) CO BCeX CXOpOH OKpyWBJIH
Jieca. The village was completely
surrounded by woods.
3. fig. to surround. OKpyHtaxb 3a-
66xOH. To surround with solici-
tude.
OKPySKflTb see OKPYHCAXb
OKTHBPib m., gen. -A October
OH pron., m., gen., ace. ero [-bo], dat.
eMy, instr. hm, prepos. o hcm he, it
Oh npnexaji h3 OpaHi;HH. He came
from France. GxoJiHua Opan-
hhh

IlapHH?. Oh cxohx na CeHe.


The capital
of
France is Paris. It
is situated on the Seine.
OHA pron.,
/.,
gen., ace. ee, dat. en,
instr. eio, prepos. o nea she, it
Ona oxAHxajia iia HepnoM Mope.
She spent her holidays at the Black
Sea. OxKy/ia y
mc axa KHHra?

H KyniiJi ee b khhjkhom MarasMue.
"Where did you get that book?" "I
bought it at a bookshop."
OHfl pron., pi., gen., ace. hx, dat.
HM, instr. iJMii, prepos. o hhx they
Ohii MHoro cnopHJiH o JiHxepaxy-
pe. They argued a lot about litera-
ture. B HaraeM ca^y pacxyx HBexLi.
Ohh oHGHb KpacHBH. There are
flowers in our garden. They are
very beautiful.
OHO pron., neut., gen., ace. ero [-bo],
dat. euj, instr. hm, prepos. o hcm it
H6JI0K0 ynajio. Oho jich^hx na sgm-
Jie. The apple has dropped. It is
on the ground.
OnA3J];bIBA|Tb, -K), -emb, -lox imp.
Ky^a? Ha ckojibko? &-|-
inf.
I
p. ono3Aa|xb, -lo, -emb, -lox
to be late
Gxy^eHX onosAaJi na ypoK. The
student was late for his lesson. Bh
ono3AaJiH na 15 MHuyx. You are
15 minutes late. Mw onosAaJiH K
na^aJiy cneKxaKJia. We were too
late for the beginning
of
the per-
formance. H 0H03Aaji nocMOxpexb
3xy KapxHHy. / missed that film.
OnACHOCTb /. danger
IIoABepraxbcfl onacnocxn. To be
exposed to danger. Bbixb b onacHOC-
XH. To be in danger. HaM rpo3HT
onacHOCxb. We are in danger.
HsSejKaxb onacHOCxn. To escape
danger.
OHA opr
OnACHlUQ, -afl, -oe, -He; adv. onac-
Ho dangerous
OnacHWH cJiyHaii. A dangerous
case. OnacHaH paSoxa. Dangerous
work. Ho 3T0H flopore hatw onac-
HO. It's dangerous to go along that
road.
OnEPA
/.
1. opera. CJiymaTb onepy. To listen
to an opera. KynHTb Shjibth na
onepy. To buy tickets for the
opera.
2. opera. Teaxp onepH h 6ajieTa.
A theatre
of
opera and ballet.
OnEPAU;HH /.
operation
Xnpypr CACJiaJi cjiownyio onepa-
i^HK). The surgeon performed a dif-
ficult operation. Onepai;Hfl na cepA-
ij,e. A heart operation.
On03AATb see OnASnWBATb
OnPAB^ATb see OnPABAblBATb
OnPAB^blBAITb, -JO, -enib, -k)T
imp. K o r 6? H T o? ^ e M?/p. on-
paB^alTL, -K), -eniB, -k)t
1. to acquit. Cy^ ero onpaB^aji.
He was acquitted by the court.
2. to justify. Oh onpaB^biBa.! CBoe
OTcyxcTBHe na BanaxuHX oojiea-
HbK). He tried to justify his
absence from the lessons by his
illness.
<> OnpaBAbieaxb aoBepue (Koro-
jih6o). To justify (somebody'
s)
con-
fidence.
OnPE/^EJIEHHE neut. definition
To^Hoe onpe^eJieHHe. An exact defi-
nition. MexKoe onpeAeJieuHe. A
precise definition. J^axb onpe^eJie-
HHe. To give a definition.
OnPEAEJiEHHIblH, -an, -oe, -tie
1. definite. Onpe/teJienHLiH oxnex.
A definite answer.
2. certain. OnpeACJienHMH nopn^OK.
A certain order.
OnPE^EJlflTb see OHPEAEJlUXb
OnPEJIEJiHiTb, -K), -erab, -lox imp.
nxo?
I
p.
onpeAeJi|HXb, -k), -nmb,
-ax
1. to define. Onpe^eJinxb cBoe ot-
Homenne k co6mxhhm. To define
one's attitude towards events.
2. to determine. OnpeAeJiwxb eeJiH-
HHHy. To determine a quantity.
OnpeAeJinxb yroji. To determine
an angle.
OnyCKAjTb, -K), -emb, -rox imp. k o-
r 6? H X o?/p. onycxHXb,
onymy,
onycxHmb, onycxHX
1. to lower. Onycxuxb pe6eHKa na
noJi. To put the child on the
floor. Onycxuxb roJioey. To hang
ones head. Onycxiixb rjiaaa. To
lower one's eyes. Onycxiixb bo-
poxHHK. To lower the collar.
2. to drop. Onycxifxb nncbMo b
amHK. To drop a letter into a
post-box.
OnyCTflTb see onycKATb
OnbIT m.
1. no pi. experience. JKiianeHHUH
OHMX. Life's experience. Onux
paSoxM. Experience
of
work.
HMexb 6ojibni6H onux. To have
great experience. HcnoJibsOBaxb
CBOH ontix. To utilise one's ex-
perience.
2. experiment. XHMHiecKneonuxH.
Vhemical experiments. TIpOBO-
AHXb ontiXH. To make experi-
ments. B jiaoopaxopHH H^ex
ontiT. An experiment is in pro-
gress in the laboratory.
OnblTHIblH, -an, -oe, -He, short form
onHxen, 6nHXH|a, -o, -h
1. experienced. Onbixnhin paGoiHH.
An experienced worker. OnHX-
HHH pyKOBOAHxeJib. An experi-
enced leader. OnHXHHU npeno^a-
Baxejib. An experienced teacher.
2. only complete form experimental.
OnHxnaH pa66xa. Experimental
work. OnHxnaH ceJibCKOxoaaHcx-
Bennafl cxannnn. An experimen-
tal agricultural station.
OnUTb adv. again
CeroAHfl onnxb njioxan noroAa.
We are having bad weather again
today.
OPPAH m.
1. organ. Oprann peiH. The organs
of
speech. Opran CJiyxa. The or-
gan
of
hearing. OpraHH AHxa-
HHH. Respiratory organs.
2. organ. FocyAapcxBeHEHft opran.
An organ
of
government. HapxHa-
HHe opraHH. Party organs. Op-
raHH MHJiHi^HH. Militia organs.
3. organ. Faaexa H3BecxHH

op-
ran HpeaHAHyMa BepxoBHoro
GoB^xa GGGP. The newspaper
Izvestia is the organ
of
the
opr 87 OCE
Presidium
of
the Supreme Soviet
of
the USSR.
0P^AHH3A^HH
/.
1. no pi. organisation.OpraHH3aD;HH
Benepa. Organisation
of an
enening-party. OpraHH3an;Hfl pa-
66th. Organisation
of
work. Op-
raHHsaniHfl 3KcneAHn;HH. Organi-
sation of
an expedition.
2. organisation. IlapTHHHaH opra-
HHsai^HH. A party organisation.
npo$coK)3HaH opraHH3an.HH. A
trade-union organisation.
0PrAHH3|0BATfc, -yio, -yemb, -yioT
imp. & p. K o r 6? ^ T 0?
1. to organise. OpraHH30BaTb 3K-
CKypcHK). To organise an excur-
sion. OpraHHSOBaTb Benep cawo-
AeHTeJiBHOCTH. To organise an
amateur concert.
2. to plan. OpraHH30BaTb pa66-
Ty. To plan work. OpraHH30BaTb
CBoe BpeMH. To plan one's time.
OPAPH
m., pL -a order
HarpaAHTb opAenoM. To award an
order. IIoJiyHiiTb opAGH. To receive
an order.
OPEJI m., gen, opjia eagle
OPEX m. nut
KpynHHe opexn. Large nuts. MeJi-
KHe opexH. Small nuts. JTecHLie ope-
XH. Hazel nuts. KoKocoBtie opexii.
Coco-nuts. rpen;KHe opexn. Walnuts.
KojioTb opexH. To crack nuts.
OPKECTP m. orchestra
^
GHM(J)OHnHecKnH opKecxp. A sym-
phony orchestra. Opnecxp no^ ynpaB-
jienneM AHpn^Kepa MpasHHCKoro.
An orchestra conducted by Mravin
sky. OpKecTp HcnojinneT 5-yio chm-
$6hhio HaHKOBCKoro. The orchestra
is playing Tchaikovsky's 5th sym-
phony. Konn,epT fl;jiH ^opxennaHO c
opKecxpoM. A concerto for piano and
orchestra.
OPOCflTb see OPOfflATb
OPOfflA|Tb, -K), -emb, -iot imp.
H T o?/p. opoIcHTb, -my, -cnmb,
-CHT to irrigate
Opomaxb cxenn. To irrigate the
steppes.
OP^AHE neut.
1. implement. OpyAHH nponsBOA-
cxBa. Implements
of
production.
CeJIbCK0X03HHCXBeHHHe opyAHH.
Agricultural implements.
2. gun. ApxHJiJiepnHCKoe opyAne.
Piece
of
ordnance.
OP^JKHE neut., no pi.
1. weapon. GoBpeMeHHoe opyHine.
A modern weapon.
2. fig.
weapon. He^axb

Morynee
opyHcne. The press is a mighty
weapon.
OCBAHBAlTb, -lo, -emb, -rox imp.
H T 0?//?. OCBOlHXb, -K), -Hmb, -HX tO
master
OcBOHXb HoBHe MexoAH pa56xBi.
To master new methods
of
work.
OcBaHBaxb HoBwe somjih. To bring
new land under cultivation. Ocbo-
HXb HOBfciH cxanoK. To learn to use
a new machine-tool.
OCBETflTb see OCBEmATb
OCBEmA|Tb, -K), -emb, -lox imp.
K o r 6? q X 0?
/
p. ocBelxMXb, -m;y,
-xamb, -THx to light
HacxoJibHaH jiaMua xopomo ocBe-
niaex cxoji. A desk-lamp lights the
desk well.
OCBOBOAflTb see OCBOBOJKJliATb
OCBOBOAflTbCH see 0CB0B05K-
JUATbCH
OCBOBO^AA|Tb, -K), -emb, -lox imp.
Koro? "3X0? ox Koro? ox He-
ro?//?. ocBo6o|AHTb, -my, -jxiimh,
-AHT
1. to free. OcBoSoAHXb napoAH ox
paScxBa H yrnexeHHH. To free the
peoples from slavery and oppres-
sion.
2. to vacate. OcBoGoAHXb Mecxo.
To vacate a place.
OCBOBOJKAAlTbCH, -rocb, -embCH,
-lOXCH imp. ox Koro? ox He-
ro? & without an object
/
p.
ocbo-
6olAHTbC3, -JKyCb, -AHnitCH, -AflTCH
1. to free oneself. OcboSoahtbch ox
rnexa, ox pa6cxBa. To free one-
self from oppression, from slavery.
2. to get free, fl ocbo6oahjich ce-
roAHfl b 6 nacoB. / was free at 6
o'clock today.
3. to become vacant. Mecxo 3a cxo-
JiOM ocBoSoAHJiocb. The seat at
the table became vacant.
OCBOHTb see OCBAHBATB
OCEHHIHB, -hh, -ee, -ne autumn
OceHHHH AGHb. An autumn day.
OceHHee naJibxo. An autumn coat.
OCB
OCT
OCEHb /.,
no pi. autumn
SoJioxaH oceHb, A golden autumn.
IloaaHHfl oceHb. Late autumn.
OCEHblO adv. k o r
a
a? in autumn
OceubK) a^ecb qacxo havt aohah.
It often rains here in autumn.
OCKOPBflTb see OCKOPBJlHTb
OCKOPBJlUlTb, -K), -emb, -iot imp.
KOrO? HTOp^e M?//>. 0CK0p|6HTb,
-6jik), -6wrab, -6flT to insult
OcKop6HTb HejiOBGKa. To insult a
person. BaraH cjiosa Menri rJiy6oK6
0CK0p6HJiH. Your words were a grave
insult to me.
OCJIABHTb see OCJTABJiHTb
OCJIABJlH|Tb, -K), -emb, -iot imp.
K o r 6? H T o?lp.
ocjia|6HTb, -6jiio,
-Cnmb, -6ht
1. to weaken. BoJiesHb ocjia6HJia
ero opraHHSM. The illness had
weakened his organism.
2. fig.
to relax. Ocjia6HTb BEHMauHe.
To relax attention.
OCMATPHBAlTb, -lo, -emb, -iot imp.
K o r 6? H T o?/p, ocMOTpexb, ocmot-
piO, OCMOXpumb, OCMOTpflT
1. to see. OcMaTpHBaxb Mysea,
BbiCTaBKH, KapxiTHhi. To See mu-
seums, exhibitions, pictures.
2. to examine. Bpai ocMOTpeJi 6ojib-
Horo. The doctor examined the
patient.
OCMOTPfiTb see OCMAXPHBATb
OCHOBA
/.
1. basis. OcHOBOH aoKJia^a 6tiJiH
c66cTBeHHMe BneHaTJieniiH aBTO-
pa. The report was based on the
author's own impressions.
2. only pi. fundamentals. Och6bu
reoJiornn. Foundations
of
geology.
^
Ha ocHoee oobiTa. On the basis
of experience.
OCHOBATEJIb m. founder
OcHOBaTeJib yqeuHfl, TeopHH, nay-
KH. The founder of
a teaching, theo-
ry, science. OcHOBaTejib ropo^a.
The founder of
the city.
OCHOBATb see OCHOBblBATb
OCHOBHIOfl, -an, -6e, -ue cardinal,
basic
OcnoBHOH Bonpoc MeHcayHapoAHon
oScTauoBKH. The main problem
of
the international situation. B ochob-
HOM Bbi npaBH. On the whole you
are right.
OCHOBblBAjTb, -K), -emb, -k)t imp.
HTO?
/
p.
ocHjoBdTb, -yio, -yemb,
-yK)T
1. to found. OcHOBaTb
r6pofl.
To
found a city. OcHOBaTb yuHBep-
CHTeT. To found a university.
2. to base. Ha hbm bm ocHoBuBae-
Te Bame MH^une? What do you
base your opinion on?
OCOBEHHOCTb /. peculiarity
Oc65eHHOCTH paCoTH. Peculiarities
of
a work. XyAOJKecTBeHHbie oco-
6eHH0CTH poMana. The artistic pe-
culiarities
of
a novel. OcoSchhocth
xapaKTcpa aToro HeJioBeKa. The
peculiar features
of
that man's
character.
<> B oc65eHHOCTH. In particular.
OCOBEHHIblfl, -an, -oe, -ue; adv.
oc66eHHO
1. particular, especial. Oc66eeHLiH
ycnex hmcjio BMCTynjieHHe mo-
jfOAOH
neBHn;bi. The perform-
ance
of
the young singer was par-
ticularly successful.
2. peculiar. Y nee KaKou-TO oc<5-
6eHHHH KOCTiOM. She wears a
somewhat unusual costume.
OCTAIBATbCfl, -K)Cb, -embca, -iotch
imp.
/p.
ocTa|TbCH, -nycb, -nerabCH,
-HyTCH
1. to remain. IlocJie OKomaHHH
HHCTHTyTa H OCTSIJICH B pO^HOM
ropoAe. On graduating from the
institute I remained in my na-
tive town.
2. to remain. Oh o^eHb HSMeHHJi-
CH, TOJibKO rJiaaa ocTajincb
npeJKHHMH. He has changed a lot,
only his eyes are still the same.
3. to be left. Oh ocTajicfl cnpoToH.
He was left
an orphan. V mghh
ocTaJiocb 10 pySJieH. / have
10 roubles left. Jl^Qiv.
ocTa-
jiHCb 6e3 poAHTeJieH. The child-
ren were left
without parents.
<> OcTaTbCfl B HCHBbix. To remain
alive. OcTaBaTbCfl npn CBOeM Mne-
Hiiii. To remain
of
the same opin-
ion.
OCTABHTb see OCTABJlHTb
OCTABJlH|Tb, '10, -emb, -iot imp.
K r 6? q t o?
/
p. ocTaJBHTb,
-bjik),
-BHmb, -BHT
1. to leave. OcTaBHTb TexpaA^'
fl6-
Ma. To leave a copy-book a t home.
OCT
89
ocy
2. to leave. Oh
ocxaBHJi Hpyry 3a-
HHCKy. He left
a note for his
friend.
3. to leave. Maxb ocTaBHJia h6jiokh
j^jifl flCT^H.
The mother left the
apples for
her children.
4. to leave.
OcxaBHTb poflHoH ^gm.
To leave one's home.
5. to leave alone {only imper^). Oc-
TaBb pe6eHKa, He xporaH ero!
Leave the child alone, don't touch
him/
OCTAJIBHlCfl,
-an, -6e, -He
1. (the) rest. B HioJie cxyAeHTH
6HJIH B AOMe OTAHXa, GCXaJIb-
nyio qacTb KannKyji ohh npo-
BCJIH B TypwCTCKOM HOXOfle. In
July the students were at a rest-
-home, the rest
of
their holidays
they spent hiking. 3to hCjio-
KO ocTaBb MHe, a ocTaJibHLie
B03bMH ce6e. Leave that apple
for
me, and take the rest.
2. used as n., pi. the rest. Mh c
HaBJiOM
npHHiJiii b 6 nacoB, oc-
xaJibHHe nosAHce.
Pavel and I
came at 6 o'clock; the rest came
later.
OCTAHABJlHBA|Tb,
-lo, -emb, -kit
imp. K o r 6? ^ t o?//?. ocTalHOBHTb,
-HOBJIK), -HOBHUIb, -HQBHT
1. to stop.
OcTaHOBiiTb Serynxero
qeJiOBcKa.
To stop a running
man. OcTanoBUTb ndesA CTon-
KpanoM. To stop the train with
the emergency brake. OcTanoBiiTb
paSoTH. To cease work.
2. to rest.
OcxaHOBHTb bsfjiha
Ha KapTHHe. To rest ones gaze
on a picture.
3.: Oh ho anaji, na hcm ocxaHOBiiTb
CBOH BH6op. He didn't know
what to fix
his choice on.
OCTAHABJmBAlTbCH,
-rocb. -embCH,
-lOTCfl imp. r
a
e?/p. 0CTa|H0BeTbCH,
-HOBJIMCb, -HOBHmbCH, -HOBHTCH
1. to stop. BApyr noesA ocTanoBiiJi-
Cfl. The train suddenly stopped.
2. to stop working. CTanoK ocxa-
HOBlJJICfl H3-3a TOro, HTO HO
6hjio 9JieKTp09HeprHH. The
machine-tool stopped working be-
cause
of
a power failure.
3. fig.
to deal. npo|)eccop b cbooh
jieKHHH ocTaHOBHJicH Ha npo6ji6-
MaX COBpOMenHOH
leXHHKH.
In his lecture the professor dealt
with the problems
of
modern
technology.
4. to put up. OCTaUOBHTbCH B TOC-
THHHHe. To put up at a hotel.
OCTAHOBflTB see OCTAHABJIH-
BATb
OCTAHOBflTbCH see OCTAHABJTH-
BATbCH
OCTAHOBIKA /.,
gen. pi. -ok
1. stop. CAeJi Tb ocxaHOBKy. To
stop.
2. pause. FoBopnTb 6e3 ocxaHoBKH.
To speak without stopping.
3. stop. ABT66ycHaH ocxanoBKa. A
bus stop. Ha ocxaHoBKe cxoflJia
rpynna cxyAenxoB. There was a
group
of
students at the stop.
KoHCHHaH ocxaHOBKa. A termi-
nal. BaM HaAo exaxb 5 ocxano-
BOK. You must get
off
at the
sixth stop. HaM cxoA^xb na cjie-
AyiomeH ocxanoBKe. We get
off
at the next stop.
OCTATbCH see OCTABATbCH
OCTOPOaCHIbiS, -an, -oe, -hb, short
form ocxopoHten, ocxopoJKHla, -o,
-h; adv. ocxop6>KHO careful
OcxopoJKHMH HGJiOBeK. A careful
person. Oh ocxopojKHO nocxaBiiji iia
cxoJi Ba3y c HBoxaMH. He put the
vase
of flowers on the table carefully.
Ocxop6H<Hol Take care! Be careful!
OCTPOB m., pi -a island
OCTPOy'MHlblfl, -an, -oe, -He, short
form ocxpoyMGH, ocxpoyMH|a, -o,
-h; adv. ocxpoyMHO witty
OcxpoyMHHH HejiOBeK. A witty
person. OcxpoyMHHH oxbgx. A witty
answer.
OCTF|blfl, -an, -oe, -ne, short form
ocxep, ocxpa, 6cxp|o, -h
1. sharp. OcxpHH nom. A sharp
knife.
2.
fig.
keen, sharp. Ocxpoe 3peHHe.
Keen eyesight. OcxpHH yM. A
sharp wit.
3.
fig.
sharp. Ocxpan 6ojib. A sharp
pain.
4.
fig. pungent. Ocxpnn coyc. A
pungent sauce.
<> 05xoAHTb ocTpwe yr.ibi. To
avoid all controversial subjects.
OCyJUECTBflTb see OCymECTB-
JlHTb
ocy
90
OTA
OCymECTBflTbCH see OCVmECTB-
JlHTbCH
OCymECTBJlUlTb, -K), -emb, -h)t
imp. H T o?//>. ocymecTlBWTL, -bjik),
-BHmb, -BflT to realise
OcymecTBHTb njian, Menxy, jKeJia-
HHe. To realise a plan, one's dream,
one's wish. OcymecTBHTb aJieKxpn-
4)HKaiIHK) HapoflHOrO X03HHCTBa.
To electrify the national economy.
OCymECTBJlH|TbCH, 1st & 2nd pers.
not used, 3rd pers. -excH, -iotch
imp.
/p. ocymecTBliJTbCH, 1st & 2iid
pers. not used, 3rd pers. -pitch,
-HTCH to realise
Ham nJian ocymecTBHJiCH. Our plan
has been realised.
OT (OTO) prep.
+
gen.
1. from. Oi-bexaxb ox ropo^a. To
go a certain distance from the
city. Vexaxb ox poAHbix. To go
away from one's relatives. Ox
MocKBw
AO JleHHHrpafla. From
Moscow to Leningrad. Ox xpex
AO HHXH. From three to five.
2. from. nojiyHiixb hhclmo ox ox-
n;a. To get a letter from one's
father, yaiiaxb hobocxh ox xo-
Bapiima. To learn the news from
one's friend.
3. for. Ox BOJineHHH oh hg Mor CKa-
3axb HH cJioBa. He couldn't utter
a word
for excitement. Ox pa;;ocxH.
For joy. Ox cxpaxa. For fear.
4. to. Kjiioh ot KOMHaxH. A key to
a room.
5. from, against. 3am;Hxa ox Bpa-
ra. Defence against the enemy.
JleKapcxBo ox rpanna. A medi-
cine
for the
'flu.
0* Ot
flyniH. Sincerely. Ot ecero
cepnixa. With all one's heart. Ot
HMeHH Kr6-JiH5. On some-
body's
behalf.
0TBET m.
1. answer. Hanncaxb oxBex. To
write an answer.
JJ^aTb oxBex. To
give an answer. OxBex na dhcb-
m6. An answer to a letter.
2. answer. Xopomna oxb^x yqenn-
Ka Ha ypoKe. The pupil's good
answer at a lesson.
3. solution. OxBex saAa^H. The so-
lution
of
a problem. IIpaBHJib-
HHH oxBex. A correct solution.
OTBETHTb see OTBEHATb
OTBfiTCTBEHHlblB, -an, -oe, -He
adv. oxB^xcxBCHHO responsible
OxBexcxBeHHHH pa66xHHK. A res-
ponsible worker. OxsexcxBeHHUH pe-
AaKXOp. The editor-in-chief. Oxbgx-
cxBeHHHH aa pa6dxy. Responsible
for the work.
OTBEHAITb, -K), -emb, -rox imp./p.
OXBe|XHTb, -Hy, -THmb, -XHX
1. ^xo? KOMy? Ha qxo? to an-
swer. OxBexHXb
Apyry.
To an-
swer one's friend. OxBexHXb na
Bonpoc. To answer a question.
OxBexHXb Ha nncbMo. To answer
a letter. OxBe^axb ypoK. To say
one's lesson.
2. HCM? Ha Hxo? to return. Ox-
Benaxb apvjkGoh na ApyjKSy.
To
return somebody's friendship.
OxBexHXb y^apoM na
yAap.
To
return blow for blow.
3. H e M
y?
no
p. to meet, to satisfy
^xa pa66xa oxBeqaex mohm hh-
xepecaM h jKeJiaHHHM. This work
satisfies my interests and wishes.
4. 3 a H X 6? no
p. to be respon-
sible. OxBenaxb aa pa66xy. To
be responsible for the work.
OT^AlBAXb, -K), -emb, -i6x
^
imp.
Koro? qxo? KOMyPqeMy?
/p.
ox^axb, oxAaM, oxAamb, oxAacx,
oxAaAHM, oxAaAHTe, oxAaAyT, past
oxAaJi, oxAaJia, oxAaJilo, -h
1. to return. OxAaxb KHiiry b 6h-
6jiH0xeKy. To return a book to
the library.
2.
fig.
to devote. OxAaBaxb Bce ch-
JiH jik)6hmoh pa66xe. To devote
all one's strength to the work one
likes. OxAaxb JKHSHb 3a poAHHy.
To give up one's life for
one's
country.
OT^ATb see OT^ABATb
OT^EJIbHlblH, -an, -oe, -He sepa-
rate
OxAeJibHan KBapxnpa. A separate
flat. OxACJibHaH KOMHaxa. A sepa-
rate room.
OTAOXH^Tb see OT^blXATb
OTj^blX m., no pi. rest
npaBO na oxahx. The right to rest.
JllxHHft oxahx. Summer holidays.
<> JI,9M OTAMxa. A rest-home.
OT^blXAlTb, -K), -emb, -lox imp.
Tjs,e?/p. oxAOXHiyxb, -y. -emb, -yx
to rest
OTE 91
OTJI
JlexoM MH OTflHxaJiH Ha 6epery
Mopfl (b canaTopHH, b aomg oxflH-
xa). In summer we rested at the
seaside (in a sanatorium, in a rest-
home), ndcjie o6eAa mh oT^HxaeM.
We have a rest after dinner.
OT|EI^ m., gen. -^a father
OTEqECTBEHHlblH, -an, -oe, -He
home
ToBapH oxeiecTBeHHoro nponsBOA-
cxBa. Home-made goods.
^
OxeqecTBeHHaa BOHHa. A pa-
triotic war.
OTE^ECTBO neut. fatherland
OTKASATbCH see 0TKA3bIBATbCH
OTKA3bIBA|TbCH,-iocB, -emtCH, -lox-
cfl imp. ox Koro? ox Hero?
&
-f
inf.
I
p. oxKaaaxbCH, oxKa>Kycb,
oxKaJKenibCfl, oxKa>Kyxcfl
1. to refuse. Oh oxKaaajicfl BMnoJi-
HHXL npHKas. He refused to car-
ry out the order.
2. to refuse, to decline, to give
up. Oh oxKa.iajicfl ox flener.
He refused to take the money.
OxKasaxBCH ox cbohx cjiob. To
go back on one's words. Ox-
KasaxbCH ox npHrjiameuHH. To
decline an invitation. OxKaaaxb-
CH ox CBOHX npaB. To give up
one's rights.
OTKPOBEHHlblfl, -an, -oe, -He,
short form oxKpOBeneH, oxKpoBeenla,
-0, -bi; adv. oxKpoBeHHO frank
OxKpoBeHHbiH paaroBop. A frank
conversation. FoBopiixb oxKpoBen-
HO. To speak frankly.
OTKPblBAJTb, -K), -emb, -lox imp.
HTO?/p. oxKpHXb, oxKp6|K), -emb,
-K>X
1. to open. OxKpHXb ^Bepb. To
open a door. OxKpnxb qeMOj^an.
To open a suit-case. OxKpHXb
KHHry. To open a book. OxKpHXb
rJiaaa. To open one's eyes.
2. to open. OxKpnxb hobhh Mara-
3HH, HOByK) cxoJioByio. To open
a new shop, a new dining-hall.
3. to open. OxKpnxb BHcxaBKy,
coSpaHHe. To open an exhibition,
a meeting.
4. to discover. OxKpnxb MecxopojK-
jil^HTie, HOByio njianexy, hobhh
3JieMeHX. To discover a mineral
deposit, a new planet, a new
element.
^
OTKpwTfa AMepHKy. To say
something which everyone already
knows. Cf. Queen Ann is dead.
OTKPbIBA|TbCH, 1st and 2nd pers.
not used, 3rd pers. -exca, -ioxch
imp.
I
p. oxKpHXbCff, 1st and 2nd pers.
not used, 3rd pers. 0XKpd|excH,
-iOXCH
1. to open. OxKpHJiocb okho. The
window opened.
2. to open. GxojioBafl oxKpHBaexcH
B 8 qacoB. The dining-hall
opens at 8 o'clock.
OTKPb'ITHE neut.
1. no pi. inauguration, opening.
OxKpHxne HOBoro HHCxnxyxa.
The inauguration
of
a new insti-
tute. OxKpHxne BbicxaBKH. The
opening
of
an exhibition.
2. discovery. Hayqnoe oxKpHxne.
A scientific discovery. OxKpn-
XHH B oSJiacxH $ii3HKH. Discov-
eries in the field of
physics.
GABJiaxb oxKpHxne. To make a
discovery.
OTKPKITIKA /.,
gen. pi. -ok postcard
HoHTOBaH oxKpHTKa. A postcard.
Ilocjiaxb oxKpmxKy. To send a post-
card. IloJiyqaxb oxKpnxKy. To re-
ceive a postcard. no3ji,paBHxejibHaH
oxKpbiXKa. A postcard
of
congratu-
lation.
OTKPb'ITIbitt, -aa, -oe, -ne
1. open. OxKpbixaa MecxHocxb. Open
country.
2.
fig.
frank. OxKpnxoe jihi;6. A
frank face.
^
OTKpbiTe Mope. The open sea.
OTiq)biT#e nncbMo. An open letter.
IIoA OTKpMTbiM eeSoM. In the open
OTKPklTb see OTKPblBATb
OTKPb'ITbCH see OTKPblBATbCH
OIKS'AA adv. where from
OxKy^a BH npnexaJiH? Where did
you come from? OxKy^a bh axo
BHaexe? How do you know that? H
BH^PO, oxKy^a xbi n/temb. / know
where you are coming from.
OTJIinAlTbCfl, -K)Cb, -embCH, -ioxch
imp. qeM? ox koto? ox nero?
to be different
Bam HJiaH oxjinqaexcn ox ;^py^HX
rJiy6HH6H. Your plan differs from
the others by its profundity.
OTJI 92 oxn
OTJIfiHHO adv.
1. excellently, very well. Bu ot-
jiHHHO 3T0 BH^eie. You know it
very well.
2. used as n. yqHTLCfl Ha OTJinH-
H0. To get only excellent marks.
noJiyHnTB OTJiHiHO no pyccKO-
My H3biKy. To get an excellent
mark in Russian. IIocTaBHTb
yneHHKy OTJitiqHO. To give a
pupil an excellent mark
0TMT|KA
/.,
gen. pi. -ok mark
H nojiyniiji xopomyio OTMCTKy no
pyccKOMy flSHKy. / got a good
mark in Russian.
OTHECTfl see OTHOCflXb
OTHECTflCb see OTHOCfiTbCH
OTHHMAlTb, -K), -emb, -iot imp.
Koro? HTO? y Koro? y ne-
r
6?/
p. OTHHTb, OTHHMy, OTHFIMemb,
OTHi'iMyT, past oTHflJi, 0THHJi|a, 6t-
HHJl|0, -H
1. to take away, y MaJib^HKa 6t-
HflJiH Mflii. They took the ball
away from the boy.
2. to take. PaaroBop dxHHJi
y
Me-
HH Miioro BpeMeHH. The conver-
sation took away a lot
of
my time.
3. to subtract. OT AeCHTW OTHHTb
TpH Sy^eT ceMb. // 3 is sub-
tracted from 10 the answer is 7.
OTHOCflTb, OTHomy, OTHocnmb, ot-
HOCHT imp. HTO? Ky^a? ko-
M
y?/p.
OTHeciTii, -y, -emb, -yT, past
oTHec, oxnecjila, -6, -n to take
(to some place)
H OTHec KHiirn b 6H6JiHOTeKy. /
took the books back to the library.
Mu OTHecjiH HBexH npenoAaBaxe-
JiK). We took the flowers to the teacher.
OTHOCflTtCH, OTHO^Iycb, OTHocnmb-
Cfl, OTHOCflTCfl imp. K a K? K K
0-
M y? K n e M
y?/p.
OTHec|Tncb, -ycb,
-erabCH, -yxcH, past othccch, ot-
Hecji|acb, -ocb, -licb
1. to treat. Xopomo (njioxo) ot-
HOCHTbCH K KOMy-JiH5o. To treat
somebody well (badly).
2. no
p. to concern. Moh cJiOBa ne
OTHocflTCH K BaM. My words do
not concern you. 3x0 ne oxhochx-
cfl K fleJiy. It's beside the point.
OTHOfflfiHHE neut.
1. no pi. attitude. Xopomee oxho-
raeHHe k jiioahm. A kind attitude
to people.
2. no pi. relation. 3xo ne HMeex ko
mh6 oxHOffl^HHH. /( has nothing
to do with me.
3. only pi. relations.
J\pymecKne
oxHomeHHH. Friendly relations.
/^HHJIOMaXlfHeCKHe
OXHOm^HHH
MejKfly cxpanaMH. Diplomatic
relations between countries. Ycxa-
HOBHXb (paaopoaxb) ;^H^JIOMaXH-
HecKHe oxHomeHHH. To establish
(to break
off)
diplomatic relations.
<> EblTb C KeM-JIH60 B KaKHX-JI^-
6o OTHomeHHflx. To be on (some
sort
of) terms with somebody.
OTHHTb see OTHHMATb
OTOflTfl see OTXOAflTb
OTnPABHTb see OTHPABJlHTb
OTnPABHTbCfl see OTHPABJlHTb-
CH
OTDPABJlHlTb, -K), -emb, -lox imp.
Koro? Hxo? Ky ji B?/p. oxnpal-
BHXb, -BJiK), -BHmb, -Bflx to Send
Mab oxnpaBJiaex cwna b mKOJiy.
The mother sends her son to school.
fl oxnpaBHJi MOMOH nncbMo (xejie-
rpaMMy, nocwJiKy). / se/it a letter
(a wire, a parcel) home.
OTHPABJlHlTbCH, -locb, -embCH,
-loxcfl imp. K
y A
a? without an obj.
&
-f
inf.
I
p. oxnpa|BHXbCH, -BJiiocb,
-BHmbCH, -BflXCH
1. to go. IlocJie aaHHXHH mm ox-
npaBHJiHCb ryjTflXb. After the
lessons we went for a walk. Mh
oxnpaBHJiHCb B napK. We went
to the park. OxnpaBHXbCH b nyxb.
To set out.
2. to leave. Uoesjj, oxnpaBJinexc^
nepea 10 MHnyx ox 5-h njiax-
$6pMU. The train leaves in 10
minutes from platform 5.
OTnyCK m. holidays
JlexHHH oxnyCK. Summer holi-
days. MecHHHWH oxnycK. A month's
holiday. IIohxh b oxnycK. To go on
one's holidays. BepnyxbCH H3 6x-
nycKa. To return after one's holi-
days. Bwxb B 6xnycKe (b oxnycKy).
To be on one's holidays. IIpOBOjiiixb
oxnycK Ha lore. To spend one's
holidays in the South.
OTnyCKA|Tb, -10, -emb, -lox imp.
K r 6? q T o?/p. oxnycxtixb, oxny-
my,
oxnycxHmb, oxnycxHx
1. to let go. Maxb He oxnycKaJia
peScHKa ox cc6h. The mother
oxn 93 OOH
did not let her child go away
from her.
2. to let go. Oh oTnycxiiji mok) py-
KV. He let go
of
my hand.
oxnycTflTb see oxnycKAxb
OXPAHCEHHE neut.
1. no pi. reflection. OxpaHteHne
CBexa. The reflection of
light.
2. reflection. VBviji,eTh CBoe oxpa-
jKenne b sepKaJie, rJiaAKOH no-
BepxHOCXH BOflM.
To sce one's
reflection in a mirror, on the
smooth surface of
the water.
3.
fig.
no pi. reflection. Bee axo
Hamjio oxpajKenne b ero KHHre.
All this was reflected in his book.
4. philos. no pi. reflection. TeopHH
oxpajKeHHH. The theory
of
reflec-
tion.
0XPE3AXb see PE3AXb, 2
OXPHJ^ m. detachment
IlHOHepcKHH oxpflA- A Young Pio-
neer detachment. IlapxHaaHCKHH ox-
pH^. A guerrilla detachment.
OXCXA|BAXb, -K), -emb, -K)X imp.
ox Koro? ox qero? or without
an ohj.jp. oxcxa|xL, -ny, -Hemb, -nyx
1. to lag behind. Oh meji MOA^en-
Ho H cKopo oxcxaJi ox XOBapH-
niieH. He walked slowly and soon
he fell behind his friends.
2. colloq. to miss. Ha 0]\u6vl ocxa-
HOBKe a oxcxaji ox noeaAa. At
one stop I missed my train.
3. to fall behind. H mhofo 6oJieJi
H oxcxaji ox rpynnu. / was ill
for a long time and I fell
be-
hind my group. Oxcxaxb ox jkhs-
HH. To lag behind life.
4. to be slow. Hacw oxcxaiox na
10 MHHyx. The watch (clock) is
10 minutes slow.
OTCXAJI|bIfl, -aa, -oe, -He backward
OxcxaJiaa cxpana. A backward coun-
try. OxcxaJiHe bsfjihaw.
Backward
views.
OXCXAXb see OXCXABAXb
OXCXynAlXb, -ro, -emb, -lox imp.
/p. oxcxynnxb, oxcxynJiK), oxcxy-
nnrab, oxcxynax
1. to retreat. BoncKa oxcxyoMjin.
The troops have retreated.
|
fig.
He oxcxynaHxe nepefl
xpy^Hoc-
XHMH. Don't give in in the face
of difficulties.
2. ox Hero? to deviate. Oxcxy-
naxb ox npasHJi, ox hopmbi. To
deviate
from the rules, the norm.
oxcxynflxb see oxcxynAxb
OXCS^XCXBIOBAXb, -yro.-yemb, -yiox
imp. to be absent
OxcyxcxBOBaxb na ypoKe no 6o-
jieaum, no yBajKHxejibHon npn^H-
ne. To be absent from the lesson
owing to illness, for good reasons.
Oh oxcyxcxBOBaji 3 Mecfln;a. He
was absent
for 3 months.
OXCIDAA adu. from here
OxciOAa BHAHa Bca MocKBa. One
can see the whole
of
Moscow from
here. OxciOAa xopomo cJiMmno. You
can hear well from here. He yxoAH
oxciOAa. Don't go away from here.
OXXy/^A adv. from there
B sajie HppaJi opKecxp, oxxvAa
cjiMmajica cmcx, sByKH necen. An
orchestra was playing in the hall,
from which came laughter and
songs. Bh Swjih b khho?

J^a,
mh
HAeM oxxyAa. ''Have you been to
the cinema?" *Yes, we are coming
from there."
OXXOJl,flXb, oxxoHty, oxxoAHrab, ox-
x6at
imp. oxKoro? ox ne-
r6?/p. oxoHJxH,
-Ay,
-Aemb, -Ayx,
past oxomeji, oxomJi|a, -6, -h
1. to go away. Mh oxomjiii ox Ma-
raanna Ha necKOJibKo maroB.
We went a few
steps away from
the shop.
2. to leave. HoesA oxxoahx b 6 na-
coB. The train leaves at 6
o'clock.
OX^ECXBO neut. patronymic
HasoBiixe name riMa, oxhccxbo h
(|)aMHJiHK). Give your name, patro-
nyniic and surname.
0XT>E3^ m., no pi. departure
OxT>e3A HasnaHen na 6 qacoB. The
departure is fixed for 6 o'clock. B
AeHb oxtesAa. On the day
of
de-
parture.
OXT>E33KAlXb, -K), -emb, -lox imp./
p.
ox-bexaxb, ox'beAly,
-emb, -yx to
drive off
MamHHa ox-bexajia ox AOMa ncBep-
nyjia na mocce. The car drove away
from the house and turned on to the
highway.
OXT)EXAXb see 0XT>E3aCAXb
OOHI^EP m. officer
OOH 94 nAji
OOHI^HAJlbHIblfl, -afl, -oe. -ue;
adv. o<|)ni:(Bawii>Ho
1. official. 0$Hii;HaJibHoe saHBjie-
HHe. An official statement. 0$h-
ilHajibHWH BH3HT. An official
visit. O^HJ^najiBHoe jihi;6. An
official.
2. official, formal. 0(|)HaHajibHHH
H3HK. An official language. Oi^u-
i;HaJibHoe npHrJiameHHe. A for-
mal invitation. roBopiiTb o^hi;h-
aJibHUM TOHOM. To spcak in an
official manner.
OXOTA
/.,
no pi. hunting
BbiTb Ha oxoie. To hunt. ynacTBO-
Baxb B oxoxe. To take part in a
hunt. Math na oxoxy. To go hunt-
ing. Oxoxa Ha bojikob. Wolf-shoot-
ing. Oxoxa coSaKaMH. A chase.
OXOTHHK m. hunter
OXOTHO adv. readily, willingly
H oxoxHO corjiamaiGCb c BaMH. /
readily agree with you.
OXPAHIIlTb, -K), -emb, -lox imp.
KoropHTO? ox Koro? ox ne-
r 6? to guard
OxpaHfixb 3;^aHHe. To guard a build-
ing. OxpaHHXb rpaHHuy. To guard
the frontier.
O^EHb adv. very; very much
O^eHb KpacHBHH napK. A very
beautiful park, fl o^enb njioxo no-
HHMaio no-pyccKH. / understand
Russian very badly. Ha neqep
npnmjio o'jeHb mhofo napoAy-
There were very many people at
the evening-party. Mhc oneHb Hpa-
BHxcfl 3X0X (|)HjibM, / like this film
very much.
OHEPEAlb
/.,
gen. pi. -en
1. queue. Cxorixb b onepeAH. To
stand in a queue. O^iepeAb 3a 6h-
JiexaMH. A queue for tickets.
2. turn.
<> CACjiaxb B nepeyio o^epeflb. To
do in the first place. B cboio
6iepenb. In its turn.
OHflClHTb see HfiCTHTb, 2
OHKjfl no sing., gen. -6b spectacles
HociTXb OHKii. To wear spectacles.
MeJiOBeK B OHKax. A man in spec-
tacles.^ TeMHHG oqKH. Sun-glasses.
H HJIOXO BUHCy 693 O^KOB. / SCC
badly without spectacles.
OfflHBAlTbCH, -locb, -embca, -ioxch
imp. B K M? B H e M? or without
anobj./p. omH6|HXbCH, -ycb, -embCH,
-yxcH, past omnScH, omiiGjilacb.
-ocb, -HCb to make a mistake
CxyfleHX omH6cfl npH pemeuHH 3a-
flaHH. The student mode a mistake
in solving the problem. KoHCxpyK-
xop omHScH B pacqexax. The
designer made a mistake in his calcu-
lations. H omnScfl b mocm xoBapn-
me. / was disappointed in my
friend, fl omnSajiCH, KOPAa AyMaJi o
xe6e HJIOXO. / was wrong when
I thought badly
of
you. FjiyGoKO
omnGaxbCH. To be greatly mistaken.
OfflHEflTbCfl see OfflHBAXbCH
OmflBlKA /.,
gen. pi. -ok mistake
FpyCafl omnSKa. A gross mistake.
CAeJiaxb omnSKy. To make a mis-
take. IlHcaxb c omiiSKaMH. To make
mistakes in writing. HcHpaBJiaxb
omnCKH. To correct mistakes. Cp,e-
jiaxb qx6-HH6yAb no omri6Ke. To
do something by mistake. npH3H^xb
CBdlo omM6Ky. To admit one's mis-
take. Co3HaxbcH b cbogh omriCne.
To confess one's mistake.
n, n
nA/^A|Tb, -K), -emb, -lox imp. k y-
Aa?//).
ynalcxb,
-Ay,
-Aemb, -Ayx,
past yn^ji, -a, -0, -h
1. to fall. OceHbK) jiHCXbH naAaiox
c AepeBbeB na scmjiio. In autumn
leaves fall from the trees to the
ground.
2.
fig.
to drop. K yxpy xeMnepa-
xypa
y
Sojibuoro ynajia. By the
morning the patient's tempera-
ture had dropped.
^AJIE^ m., gen. ^aJlb^a finger, toe
^jiPiHHHe uajihUM. Long fingers.
BoJibmoH naJien;. The thumb. Yua-
saxejibHHH najiei^. The forefinger.
IIOKasbiBaxb najibi^eM. To point
with the finger.
<> CMOTpeXb Ha qTO-JIHSo CKBOSb
najibHbi. To close one's eyes to
something. Snaxb mto-jihSo kek
CBOH HHTb naJibn.eB. To have
something at one's finger-tips.
nAJI|KA
/.,
gen. pi. -ok stick
OuHpaTbCfl Ha naJiKy.
To lean on a
stick. Jlumuue^ naJiKH. Ski sticks^
^
JXenATh
qxo-JiHSo H3-noA naji-
KH. To do something under the lash.
HAJI 95 HAX
HAJIblO neut., indecl. overcoat
SHMHee najibTo. A winter overcoat.
HaJ^eBaTb naJibTo- To put on an
overcoat. GHHMaTb naJiBxo. To take
off
an overcoat. TyjiflTb 6e3 najib-
t6. To take a walk without an over-
coat on.
nAMflTHHK m.
1. K o M y?
q e M y?
monument.
IlaMflTHHK nvfflKHHy. A monu-
ment to Pushkin.
2. Hero? monument. IlaMHTHHK
apxHTeKxypH. A monument
of
architecture.
HAMHTb
/.,
no pi.
1. memory, y nee njioxaH naMHXb.
She has a poor memory.
2. memory. IlaMflTb o xex ahhx
HHKorjta He HCHesneT. The mem-
ories
of
those days will live
for
ever.
<> IIoAapHTb ^t6-jih6o KOMy-JiH-
6o Ha naMflTb. To give something
to somebody as a keepsake, nojiy-
HHTb qTO-JiH^o OT Kor6-JiH6o na
naMHTb. To get something from some-
body as a keepsake. YiHTb Ha
naMHTb. To learn by heart.
nAlIA m. daddy
HAnHPOCA /. cigarette
KpenKHe nannpocH. Strong ciga-
rettes. KypHTb nannpocy. To smoke
a cigarette.
IIAP m., pi. -H vapour
BojlHHoH nap. Water vapour. Hpn
TeMnepaxype 100 rpa^ycoB L[ejibCHH
Bo^a npeBpan];aexcH b nap. At a
temperature
of
100
C. water turns
into vapour.
nAPA
/.
1. pair. Ilapa xy$ejib. A pair
of
shoes.
2. couple. B 3aJie xanneBajio ne-
CKOJibKO nap. Several couples
were dancing in the hall. MoJio-
flaH napa. A young couple.
IIAPAJ^ m. parade
BoeHHHH napa^. A military pa-
rade. (DH3KyjibxypHHH napaA- A
sports parade. Bbixb na napaA-
To be on parade.
nAPlEHb m., gen. -hh lad
Th xopomnn napenbl

cKasaJi
OH. ''You are a fine ladJ" he said.
IIAPHKMAXEP m. barber, hairdresser
PaSoxaxb napHKMaxepoM. To work
as a barber (hairdresser).
nAPHKMAXEPCKlAH /., gen. -oh,
pi. -He
MyjKCKaH napHKMdxepcKaH. Bar-
ber's shop. TKeHCKafl napHKMaxep-
CKaa. Hairdressing saloon.
IIAPK m. park
TopoffCKOH napK. A city park. Ty-
jiHXb B napKB. To take a walk in
the park. Xo^Hxb no napny. To
walk about in the park.
IIAPOXO^ m. steamship
HaccajKHpcKHH napoxoA. A pas-
senger steamer. PeqnoH napoxoA.
A river steamer. HJitixb (exaxb) na
napoxoAG. To sail on a ship.
HAPTEP [-X9-] m. the stalls and
the pit (in a theatre, etc.)
Mecxo B napxepe. A place in the
stalls. CHAexb b napxepe. To sit in
the stalls. Kynuxb 6hji6x b napxep.
To buy a ticket for the stalls.
nAPTH3AH m., gen. pi. napxHsan
guerrilla
Bo BpeMH BOHHw MOH 6pax 6l>IJI
napxnaanoM. During the war my
brother was a guerrilla.
I1APTH3AHCK1HH, -an, -oe, -ne guer-
rilla
IlapxHaaHCKOe ABHJKeHHe. The guer-
rilla movement. IlapxHaaHCKHH
oxpHA- A guerrilla detachment.
UAPTflflHlblH, -aa, -oe, -He party
Ilapx/iHHoe coGpaune. A party meet-
ing. riapxHHHHH 6HJiex. A party
membership card.
nAPTHH /. party
^Jien napxHH. A member
of
the
party. Bcxynnxb b napxHio. To join
the party.
nACMYPHIblfl, -aH. -oe, -iie dull,
gloomy
IlacMypHBiH AGHL. A dull (gloomy)
day.
HACCAHCflP m. passenger
B Kyne 6ujio Hexwpe naccaH^iipa.
There were four passengers in the
compartment.
HATPHOT m.
1. patriot. BopbSa naxpnoxoB aa
ocBoSomAeHHO CBoen cxpanbi.
The struggle
of
the patriots
for
the liberation
of
their country.
2. enthusiast. HaxpHox cBoero Ae-
Jia. An enthusiast for a cause.
IIAXATb, namy, namemb, namyx
imp. H T 0? He M?//>. Bcnaxaxb,
HAX 96 HEP
Bcnamy, Bcnamemb, Bcnamyr
to plough
IlaxaTb aeMJiK). To plough the
land.
nAXHiyXb, -y, -emb, -yi, past nax,
-jia, -jio, -JiH imp. q e M? to smell
/^yxH npHHTHO n^XHyx. The per-
fume smells pleasant.
\
impers. Ha
Jiyry npHaxHO ndxHex cchom.
There is a pleasant smell
of
hay in
the meadow.
nAH|KA
/.,
gen. pi -eK packet
na4Ka caxapa. A packet
of
sugar.
naqKa nannpoc. A packet
of
ciga-
rettes.
MHCHH /.
pension
IleHCHH no cx^pocxH. An old-age
pension. IloJiynaxb nencHio. To get
a pension. Buhxh na neHCHio, To
retire on a pension. BHXb na nen-
CHH. To be on pension.
^ll;^EJlbHH^A /. ash-tray
HEPEBECTfl see nEPEBOAflTb
^EPEBC);^ m.
1. translation. Tohhlih nepoBOfl.
An exact translation. GfleJiaxb
nepeBOA- To make a translation.
2. transfer. IlepeBOA ^ener no ndn-
xe. A postal order.
IIEPEBOAflTb, nepeBOjKy, nepeso-
flnmb, nepcBOAHx imp. hxo?/
p.
nepeBe|cxri, -^y, -Aemb, -Ayx,
past
nepeBcji, nepeBeJi|a, -6, -a
1. to take. llepeBecxH peSenKa
Hepea yjinny. To take a child
across the street.
2. to transfer. nepesecxH ^enbra no
TeJierpi(|)y. To send money by
telegraph.
3. to translate. IlepeBecxH KHHry c
(|)paHEty3CKoro HSHKa na pyc-
CKHH. To translate a book from
French into Russian.
nEPEBO;^HHK m. translator, inter-
preter
HepeBOA^HK c anrjinncKoro asHKa.
An English translator (interpreter).
VcxHWH nepeBOA^HK. An interpret-
er. PaSoxaxb nepenoA^nKOM. To
work as a translator (interpreter).
nEPEBb'inOJIHHTb see nEPEBbl-
nOJlHUTb
HEPEBbinOJlHUlTb, -ro, -emb, -K)x
imp. qxo/p. nepeBwnonnlHXb, -to,
-nmb, -Hx to overfulfil
IlepeBHnojiHHXb njian. To overful-
fil a plan. nepcBMnoJiHHXb nopMy.
To overfulfil the quota.
DEPErnATb see nEPEPOHHTb
HEPErOBOPbl no sing, o hom?
talks, negotiations
JleperoBopu o Mnpe. Peace talks.
IleperoBopu MeAy cxpanaMH.
Negotiations between countries. Bec-
TH neperoBdpu c k6m-jih6o o hbm-
jih6o. To conduct negotiations with
somebody about something. Ilepero-
BopH cocxoHJiHCb B Mockb6. The
negotiations took place in Moscow.
nEPErOHUlTb, -10, -emb, -lox imp.
Kor6? *!xo? B^e m?//>. nepe-
rnaxb, neperoHio, neperonnmb, ne-
peroHHx, past neperaaji, -rnajia,
-FH^jilo, -H to overtake
3xox cnopxcM^H nepernaji Bcex bo
BpeMH copeBHOBaHHH. This sports-
man overtook everyone in the com-
petition.
UEPEp, prep.
+
instr.
1. in front of. IlepeA okhom. In
front of
the window.
2. before. IlepeA ypoKOM. Before
the lesson.
3.: Mne cxhaho nepeA BaMH. / feel
guilty towards you.
IIEPE^AIBATb, -K), -emb, -rox imp.
q X 0? K o M
y?/p.
nepeA^xb, nepe-
AaM, nepeAamb, nepeAacx, nepeAa-
AHM, nepeAaAHxe, nepeAaAyT, past
nepeAaji, -a, nepeAaji|o, -h
1. to give. HepeAaxb nncbMo
Apy-
ry. To give a letter to a friend.
2. to tell. HepeAanxe npHBex poA-
HHM. Give my regards to your
relatives. IlepeAaH CMy, mo a
CKopo npHAy. Tell him that I'll
come soon.
3. to broadcast. IlepeAaBaxb koh-
n,epx no paAno. To broadcast a
concert. IlepeAaBaxb nocJieAHHe
H3BecxHH. To broadcast the news.
HEPEJ^ATb see nEPE^ABAXb
HEPE^AHA
/.
broadcast
IlepeA'^^a no paAHO. Radio broad-
cast. Cjiymaxb nepcAany. To lis-
ten to a broadcast.
HEPE^OBlOfl, -aH, -6e. -we
1. foremost. OepeAOBdH pa66qHH.
A foremost worker.
2. advanced. HepcAOB^H x^XHHKa.
Advanced technique.
HEP
97
HEC
nEPEE35KA|Tb, -k), -emb, -k)t
imp./p. nepeexaTfc, nepeeAly, -emb,
1. He pea hto? or hto? to cross.
IlepeexaTb (^epea) rpaHHii;y. To
cross the border. IlepeexaTb (^le-
pea) peKy. To cross the river.
2. o T K
y
3
a? K
y A
a? to move.
IlepeexaTb na HOByio KBapTjipy.
To move to a new place
(of
res-
idence). IlepeexaTb h3 Mockbh
B JleHHHrpaA- To move from
Moscow to Leningrad. Ilepeea-
H?aTb c MecTa ea MecTO. To keep
moving from one place to anoth-
er.
HEPEEXATb see HEPEESHCATB
HEPEttTfl see HEPEXOAflTb
HEPEMEHA
/.
1. change. UepeMeHa KJiHMaTa. A
change
of
climate.
2. change. B ero mmmi nponao-
mJiH Sojibmwe nepeMeHH. Great
changes took place in his life.
llEPEHECTfl see HEPEHOCflTb
IXEPEHOCflTb, nepenomy, nepeno-
CHrab, nepeHOCHT imp. k o r 6?
H T o?/p. nepeneclTH, -y, -emb, -yT,
past nepenec, nepeHecji|a, -6, -h
1. to carry. nepenecTH pe6eHKa
lepea flopory. To carry the child
across the road. HepeHecTH Bemn
H3
OflHOH KOMHaTH B ji;pyryio.
To carry the things from one
room to another.
2. to endure. IlepeHecTii TajKOJiyio
6oJie3Hb. To suffer a serious
illness.
3. to put off. nepenecTH coSpanne
ua ;5pyr6e BpeMH. To put
off
a
meeting to another time.
HEPEnHCATb see IIEPEnflCblBATb
HEPEnflCblBAlTb, -K), -emb, -iot
imp. H T o?
I
p. nepeuHcaTb, nepe-
nnmy, nepeniimemb, nepennmyT
to copy
UepenHcaTb tokct. To copy a text.
HEPEPblB m. i
1. interval, break. IlepepuB b pa-
SoTe. A break in work. HocJie
TpexjieTHero nepepusa ona cho-
Ba nomjia paSoTaTb. After a three
years' interval she went to work
again.
2. interval. IlepepMB MejK^y JieK-
ij;HaMH. An interval between
74002
lectures.
GffeJiaTb nepepHB. To
have a break.
<> OSe^eHHbiH nepepuB. A break
for lunch. The dinner hour.
^EPECAJ^|KA
/.,
gen. pi. -ok change
GaeJiaTb nepecaAKy. To change.
ExaTb c nepecaAKaMH, Sea nepecaa-
KH. To have to change (trains, etc.),
not to have to change (trains, etc.).
IIEPECTAIBATb, -i6, -emb, -iot imp.
-\-
inf.
I
p. nepecTa|Tb, -ny, -nemb,
-HyT to cease, to stop
/lloJKAb nepecTaJi. The rain has
stopped. PeSenoK nepecTaJi njia-
KaTb. The child stopped crying. Ile-
pecTaHbTe paaroBapHBaTbl Stop talk-
ing!
^
HEPECTATb see nEPECTABATb
IIEPEy'JI|OK m., gen. -Ka lane, street
yaKHH nepeyjiOK. A narrow street.
IIEPEXOJIi ^- passage, crossing
IIoAaeMHBiH nepexoA- An under-
ground passage. EepexoA Hepea
yjiHD;y. A street crossing.
HEPEXOAflTb, nepexojKy, nepexo-
AHmb, nepexoAHT imp.
I p. nepeH|TH,
-Ay,
-Aerab,
^
-AyT,
past nepemeji,
nepemJija, -6, -h
1. qepea hto? or hto? to cross.
HepexoAHTb nepea yjiHn;y. To
cross the street. IlepexoAHTb
rpaHHEty. To cross the border.
HepexoAHTb nepea moot. To cross
a bridge.
2. to change. HepeHTH na Apyryio
paSoTy. To change one's fob.
3. to pass. BjiacTb nepemjia BpyKH
HapoAa. The power passed into
the hands
of
the people.
IIEP|EE[ m., gen. -^a pepper
HepHLiH nepen;. Black pepper. Kpac-
HHH nepen;. Cayenne pepper. FopbRHH
nepen;. Hot pepper. Maco c nepn,eM.
Meat with pepper.
IIEPO neut., pi. nepba
1. feather. Ilepo nTHn;bi. A bird's
feather.
2. nib. SojiOToe nepo. A gold nib.
HEPHATIKH pi, gen. pi. -ok; sing.
nepqaTKa /. gloves
KoacaHHe nepnaTKH. Leather gloves.
JleTHHe nepqaTKH. Summer gloves.
HaACTb nepqaTKH. To put on one's
gloves.
IIEC|Hfl
/.,
gen. pi, -en o kom? o
HOM? song
EEC
njiA
HapoflHaH necHH. A folk song, flexb
necHK) jiioSbh. To sing a love song.
nEClOK m., gen. -Ka sand
MopcKOH necoK. Sea bottom sand.
MeJiKHH necoK. Fine sand. JleHtaxt
Ha necKe. To lie on the sand.
<> CaxapHMH necoK. Granulated
sugar.
IIETb, no|K), -emt, -m imp. h t o? o
k6m?o hgm? kom y?/p.
cneib,
cnolK), -enib, -k)t to sing
ITexb necHK) flpysbHM. To si/i^ a
song to one's friends. IleTb c qyB-
CTBOM. To sing with feeling. Deib
xopoM. To sing in chorus.
IIEHAJIbHIblfl, -aH, -oe, -ue sad.
melancholy
HeqaJibHaH MysbiKa. Sad music.
He^aJibHoe HacTpoenne. A melan-
choly mood. Ile^aJibHHe rjiaaa. Sad
eyes.
nE^ATAjTb, -K).^ -emb, -lox imp.
H T 0?
/
/?. HaneHaxalxb, -lo, -emb, -lox
1. to publish, to print. Hane^ia-
xaxb cxaxbK) b HxypnaJie. To pub-
lish an article in a magazine.
2. to type. Ileqaxaxb na MamnnKe.
To type on a typewriter.
HEHATB
/.
1. lit. &
fig.
seal, stamp.
2. press.
IIEHEHbE neut., no pi. pastry, biscuits
CJia^Koe nenenbe. Sweet pastry.
Han c neieHbeM. Tea and biscuits.
HeqeHbe k ^aio. Tea biscuits.
HEmKOM adv.^ on foot
Haxh nemKOM. To go on foot.
nnAHflHO neut., indecl. upright
piano
Hrpaxb Ha nnaHHHO. To play the
piano.
nflBO neut., no pi. beer
Xojio/IHoe HHBO. Cold beer. Ilnxb
napo. To drink beer. KpyHtKa nii-
Ba. A mug
of
beer.
^HJ^3KAK m., gen. -a jacket
JI^THHH ^H;^}KaK. A summer jacket.
HocHXb HHfljKaK. To wear a jacket.
DHHCAMA
/. pyjamas
Tenjian nnHtaMa. Warm pyjamas.
Cnaxb B HHwaMe. To sleep in one's
pyjamas.
nnOHEP m.
1. a Young Pioneer. Moh 6pax

nnonep. My brother is a Young


Pioneer.
2. pioneer. IlHOHepH KocMOca. The
pioneers
of
Space.
IIHPOaCHlOE neut., gen. -oro fancy
cake
rieco^Hoe nnpoH^Hoe. A shortcake.
nnpoJKHoe c KpeMOM. A cream cake.
Han c nnpoMCHLiM. Tea and cakes.
Kynnxb H^CKOJibKo nnpoJKHWx. To
buy some cakes.
nHPOH^lOK m., gen. -Ka small pie
nnCATEJlb m. writer
IlHCATb, nnmy, nnmemb, nrimyT
imp. q X o? k o m y? o kom?
one u?/p. Hanncaxb, nannmy, na-
nrimemb, Hannmyx to write
a) Oh njrmex nncbMo poAHxeJiHM.
^e is writing a letter to his par-
ents.
b) IlHcaxb cxHXii. To write poetry,
Hanncaxb KHPiry o jkhshh yqe-
HHX. To write a book on the life
of
scientists. Oh nanncaJi o x6m>
Hxo BH^eJi BO BpeMH uyxemecx-
BHH. He wrote about what he saw
on his journey.
IIHCbMO neut., pi. nMCLMa, gen. pL
nnceM KOMy? letter
^o;^p66Hoe nncbMo. A detailed letter.
SaKasHoe hhclmo. A registered let-
ter. HocbiJiaxb HHCbMO. To send a let-
ter. IIoJiyHHXb nncbMo. To receive a
letter. HncbMo
Jipyry.
A letter to
one's friend.
nHTb, nb|K), -emb, -lox, past hhji, hh-
Jia, HHJiIo, -H imp. H X o?
/
/). bw-
HHXb, BbinblK), -emb, -lox, past bw-
nHJi, -a, -0, -H to drink
IlHXb BOAy-
To drink water. BbinHXb.
lamKy K6$e.j To have a cup
of
coffee.
njIABA|Tb, -K), -emb, -lox imp. r^e?
Ky^a? to swim, to sail
H jih)6jik) HJiaBaxb. / like to swim^
KajKfl;biH fleHb oh nJiasaJi na ocx-
poB. Every day he swam to the is-
land. IIoqxH roA OH njiaBaji Maxpo-
COM Ha SoJibmoM napoxoAe. For al-
most a year he sailed on a large
ship as a deckhand.
nJlAjKATb, -qy, -qemb, -qyx imp./
p.
3anjia|Kaxb, -qy, -qemt, -qyx
(p.
verb shows beginning
of
action) to cry
FopbKO nJiaKaxb. To cry bitterly.
IIJiaKaxb ox 66jih. To cry with pain.
njIAH m. plan
IIJiaH pa66xH. A plan
of
work. IlJiaa
nJiA 99 no
paSBHTHH HapOAHOrO X03flHCTBa. A
plan of
national economic develop-
ment. BbinoJiHHTb njian. To fulfil
a plan.^ IlepeBBinoJiHHTb nJian na
50%
(npoiieHTOB). To overfulfil the
plan by 60%.
njIAHETA /.
planet
^aJieKan njianexa. A distant planet.
njIAHSPlOBATb, -yio, -yemb, -yiOT
imp. q T 0? to plan
IIJiaHHpoBaTb paGoxy. To plan one's
work. Hjiae/ipoBaTb cBoe BpeMH. To
plan one's time.
njIACTflHlKA /.,
gen. pi. -ok record
IIocTaBbTe HOByK) njiacTHHRyl Put
a new record on! FpaMnjiacTitHKH.
Gramophone records.
njIACTMACCA /. plastics
HsAeJiHH H3 nJiaCTMaccM. Plastic
articles.
njIATA /.
payment
3apa6oTHafl njiaxa. A salary, a
wage IlJiaTa 3a bxoa-
Admission fee.
njiara sa npoe3;i;. Fare.
njIATflTb, njiaqy, nJiaTHmb, nJiaTHX
imp. iTO? 3a HTO? 3a koto?
H e M?/p. sanjiaTHTb, 3anJiaHy, sa-
njiaTHfflb, sanjiaTHT
1. to pay. IIjiaTHTb (AeHbrn) 3a no-
KynKy. To pay (money) for a
purchase. SanjiaxHTb sa xoBapn-
ni;a. To pay for
one's friend.
2.
fig.
to return. IlJiaxHXb JiioCoBbio
3a 3a66xy. To return love for
solicitude.
njIAT|OK m., gen. -Ka
1. scarf. HpKHH njiaxoK. A bright
scarf.
2.: HocoBoH njiaxoK. A handkerchief.
njIATOOPMA /. truck, platform
JKejiesHOflopoJKHaH njiaT(|)6pMa. A
railway truck. JK^axb na njiax(|)6p-
Me. To be waiting on the platform.
njIATBE neut
,
gen. pi. nJiaxbeB
1. dress. EHejiKOBoe njiaxbe. A silk
dress. Ha Hen 6hjio o^eHb Kpa-
CHBoe njiaxbe. She had a beauti-
ful
dress on.
2. no /?L clothes. MarasiiH Bepxnero
nJiaxbfl. A clothes shop.
nJIAm m., gen. -a raincoat
HenpOMOKaeMbiH njiam. A water-
proof coat.
njIEMUHHHK m. nephew
^JIEM}^HHH^A /. niece
nJIEHlKA /.,
gen. pi. -ok film
IlpoflBMXb HJieHKy. To develop a
film^
nJIEHO neut., pi. nJie^H shoulder
ninpoKHe njie^H. Broad shoulders.
riojiojKHxb pyKy KOMy-;iH6o na njie-
qo. To put one's hand on somebody's
shoulder.
<> Eiuy axo hb no njieqy. This is
beyond his capacity {power, etc.) Pa-
SoTaxb njie^oM k njie^y c Kein-JiHSo.
To work hand-in-hand with some-
body.
njIOTflHA /. dam
nJIOXlOfl, -an, -6e, -lie. short form
nJiox, njioxa, njioxo, hjioxh; adv.
njioxo; comp. xyjKe (q.v.) bad
riJioxaa noroAa. Bad weather. Ujio-
xoe HacxpoeuHe. A bad mood. Ero
AeJia nJioxH. He is in a bad way.
EMy nJioxo. He feels bad. IIjioxo
paSoxaxb. To work badly.
njIOmAmKA /.,
gen. pi. -ok ground,
pitch
CnopxHBHaH nJioma^Ka. A sports
ground.
njIOmA^b /.,
gen. pi. en
1. square. U^eHxp^JibHaH njiomaAb.
A central square. OoHxaH na
nJioTD^ajxn. A fountain in a
square.
2. area. Hjion^aAb xpeyroJibUHKa.
The area
of
a triangle.
njIbllTb, -By, -Bemb, -Byx imp. Ky-
A
a? H a q e M? to swim, to sail
CnopxcMeu njiHBCx k 6epery. The
sportsman is swimming towards the
shore. JIoA^a nJiMBex no peKe. The
boat is sailing on the river. JJ^e-
XH nJibiByx Ha JioAKe. The children
are sailing in a boat.
njIH3K m. beach
IlecqaHbiH ujihjk. A sandy beach.
JleJKaxb (saropaxb) na njifiJKe. To
lie (to sunbathe) on the beach.
no prep.
I.
+
dat.
1. along. Haxh no Aopore. To go
along the road. Xo^HTb no k6m-
naxe. To walk about in the room.
2. on, according to. npnexaxb no npn-
rJiameHHK). To come on somebody's
invitation. C^eJiaxb no coBexy
KOr6-JiH6o. To do something on
somebody's advice. Pa66xaTb no
njiany. To work according to plan.
noB 100 nor
3. over. ToBopHTb no Tejie^ony. To
speak over the telephone. nepefl;a-
na no pa^HO. A radio broadcast.
4.: TeipaAb no ^hshkb. A physics
copy-hook. HeMnnoH no rHMnacTH-
Ke. A gymnastics champion.
5. in
+
'^^ in pl' SaHHMaxbCH no
BeqepaM. To study in the eve-
nings.
6. on. IIoexaTb no ^eJiaM. To go on
business.
II.
-J-
ace.
1. to. C naxoro no BocbMoe hhcjio.
From the fifth
to the eighth (in-
cluded).
II0BEJ1;A /. HaJ^ kgm? naji; hgm?
victory
IIoJiHaH no6efl;a.
A complete victory.
OflepjKaTb noSefly na^ BparoM. To
win a victory over the enemy. Bep-
nyxbCH c no6eAOH. To return vic-
torious.
nOBEAHTB see UOBETKJlJiTh
U0BE1iKJ\A\Th, -10, -enib, -lox imp.
K r 6? q X 0?
/
p. no6eA|HXb, 1st
pers. sing, not used, -nnib, -hx to win,
to conquer, to defeat, to overcome
IloGeAHXb Bpara. To defeat the ene-
my. IIoSeAHXb B Bonne. To win a
victory in a war. HoSejKAaTb cxpax.
To conquer fear. ^o6e;^HXb 6oJie3Hb.
To overcome an illness.
nOBJIArOAAPflTB see BJIArO^A-
PflTB
nOBJIEJ^HETB see BJIE^HETB
nOBPflTBCH see BPflTBCH
no-BAmEMy
1. adv. as you want. Mh c^eJiaJiH
no-BameMy. We did as you want-
ed us to.
2. paren. word in your opinion.
Ho-BameMy, axo npaBHJibno? Do
you think it is right?
nOBEAEHHE neut. behaviour
CnpoMHoe noBe^eHHe. Modest be-
haviour. GxpaHHoe noBe^eHHe.
Strange behaviour.
nOBKPHTB see BEPHTB
nOBEPHS^TBCH see HOBOPAHH-
BATBCH
nOBEPXHOCTB /. surface
Ha noBepxHOcxH aeMJiH. On the
earth's surface. J^Bumeune no no-
BepxHOcxH. Movement along a sur-
face.
nOBECHTB see BfilHATB
nOBOPAHHBAITbCH, -locb, -enibOH,
-loxcfl imp.
Kyfla?//). noBepnlyxb-
cfl, -ycb, -embcfl, -yxcH to turn
IIoBopaqHBaxbCH na cnnny. To turn
on to one's back. IToBepnyxbCH cuhhoh
K OKHy. To turn one's back to the
window. rioBepnyxbCH najieso. To
turn to the left.
nOBTOPEHHE neut. review, recapi-
tulation
IIoBXopeHHe Maxepnajia. Recapitula-
tion
of
the material.
<> rioBTopeHbe

MaTb yqeHbH
(proverb). Repetition is the mother
of
learning.
nOBTOPHTb see nOBTOPHXb
nOBTOPflXbCH see nOBTOPUXBCfl
nOBTOPHlTb, -K), -emb, -rox imp.
q X o?/p. noBxoplHXb, -i6, -Hmb, -hx
1. to repeat. IIoBxopHxe, noH^ajiyn-
cxa. Repeat that, please.
2. to review. IIoBxopHXb yp6K. To
review one's lesson.
nOBTOPHlTBCH, -locb, -embCH, -lox-
cfl imp./p. noBXoplHXbCH, -locb,
-HfflbCfl, -axCH
1. to recur. 3xo cjiobo nacxo no-
Bxopaexcfl b xeKcxe. This word
often recurs in the text.
2. to repeat oneself. J]|oKJiaAqHK
Hacxo noBXopnJicH. The speaker
often repeated himself.
norACflTB see rACflTb
nOPHBAlTB, -K), -emb, -rox imp.
ox Her 6?//>. nornSnlyxb, -y, -emb,
-yx, past norH6, -Jia, -Jio, -jih to
perish
ftoriiSHyxb ox nyjin. To perish from
a bullet.
nOrflBHyTb see nOPHBATB
norjlA^HTB see FJlAJlllTh
norJIHA^TB see TJIHAETb
nOrOBOPlflTb, K), -nmb, -ht
p.
o K 6 M? q e M? c Ken? to
talk
IIoroBopHXb o nor6fle. To talk about
the weather. Mne naffo noroBopHXb
c BaMH. / must speak to you.
norO/^A
/.,
no pl. weather
KaKan ceroflna noroAa? What is
the weather like today? Bee Ji6xo
cxoflJia njioxan noroAa- I'he whole
summer the weather was bad.
noryjiHTb see ryjiHxb
noA
101 noA
UOJS, (nOAO)
prep.
+
ace. & instr.
I. + instr.
1. under. Oh chjigji noA AepesoM.
ife was sitting under a tree.
2. jig. under. PaCoxaTb no^ pyno-
BOffCTBOM...
To work under...
BojibHOH 6hji noA HaGJUoffenneM
Bpana. The patient was under
medical observation.
3. near. JKhtb no^ Mockboh. To live
near Moscow.
4. in. Hath nofl aoJKAGM. To walk in
the rain.
II.
+
ace.
1. under. Oh ceJi no^ ^epeBO. He
sat down under a tree.
2. to. TaHi;eBaTi> noa MVSHKy. To
dance to music.
IIOAAlBATb, -K), -emb,^ -i6t imp.
H T o? K M
y?/p.
noASiTb, noAaM,
noAamb, noAacT, noAaj],HM, no^a-
flHxe, noAafliyT,
/>as^ noAaji, no^ajia,
noAajiIo, -H
1. to help on. IIoAaBaTb najibio
AeBymKe. To help the girl on
with her coat.
2. to serve. HoAaBaxb nan na ctoji.
To serve tea.
3. to extend. HoAaBaTb pyny. To
extend one's hand.
^ PyKOH noAaxb! A stone's throw
(from).
nOAAPHTb see AAPflTb
nOAAPlOK
m., gen. -Ka present
AoporoH noflapoK. An expensive
present. CfleJiaib no^apoK apyry.
To give a present to one's friend.
IIoJiyqiiTb noAapoK ox APyra.
To
receive a present from one's friend.
nOAATb see nOAABATb
noaBHr
m. feat
TpyAOBOH noABHr. A feat of
labour. CoBepmHXb noABHr. To ac-
complish a jeat.
nOABOAHlblH, -aa, -oe, -bie under-
water
noABOAHHH MHp. The underwater
world. HoABOAHafl oxoxa. Underwa-
ter hunting. IIoABOAHaH JiOAKa. A
submarine.
noarOTOBHTb see rOTOBHTb, 2
nogrOTOBKA /. K H e M
y?
1. preparation. HoAroxoBKa k 3K-
saMenaM. Preparation for
exami-
nations.
2. grounding. Y Hero xopomaH
noAroxoBKa no MaxeMaxHKe. He
is well grounded in mathematics.
nOAAEPHCATb see HOAAEPH^H-
BATb
nOAAEP^HBAITb, -K), -emb, -iot
imp. Koro? hxo? Hem? b hg
m?/
p. noAAepH^axb, noAAepJKy, noAAep-
jKHHib, noAAepatax
1. to support. HoAAepJKaxb Apyra
coBexoM B xpyAHyio Mnnyxy. To
help a friend with one's advice
at a difficult time.
2. to second. HoAAepJKaxb npeAJio-
jKeHHe Ha co6paHHH. To second
a move at a meeting.
nOAH^APHTb see HCAPHTb
nOAMECTfl see nOAMETATb
nOAMETA|Tb, -K), -emb, -rox imp.
q T o? q e u>lp. noAMelcxiT, -xy,
-xemb, -xyx, past hoamcji, noAMe-
jija, -6, -H to sweep
HoAMexaxb noji. To sweep the floor.
nOAHHMAITb, -K), -emb, -lox imp.
K r 6? H T 0?//). nOAHHXb, nOAHH-
My, noAHWMemb, noAHHMyx, past
noAHflJi, noAHHJia, hoahhjiIo, -h
1. to pick up, to lift. IIoAHHXb xex-
paAfc c noJia.To pick up a copy-book
from the floor. IIOAHHXb peSeuKa.
To lift a child. IIoAHflXb pyny.
To raise one's hand. IIOAHaxb
BopOTHHK. To raise one's collar.
2. to rouse. IIoAHflXb c nocxeJin.
To rouse.
<> IXoAHHTfa myM, KpHK. To make
a noise, to start shouting.
nOAHHMAITbCH, -locb, -embcH, -lox-
CH imp./p. noAHflxbCH, noAHHMycb,
noAHHMembCfl, noAHHMyxca, past
nOAHH|jICH (& nOAHHJICfl), -Jiacb,
-JlOCb, -JIHCb
1. to get up. noAHHMaxbCH yxpoM c
nocxeJiH. To get up in the morning.
2. to ascend. IIOAHHMaxbCH na ro-
py.
To ascend a mountain. IIoa-
HHMaxbCH no JiecxHHi];e. To go
up the stairs.
3. to rise. IIoAHHMaxbCH na 6opb-
6y c BparoM. To rise to the
struggle against the enemy.
4. fig. to go up. I^GHH na npoAyK-
XH nOAHflJiiicb. The prices
of
food-stuffs have gone up.
5. fig. to begin. IIoAHflJicfl iiiyM. A
noise began. HoAHflJiCH
CHJibHHH
Bexep. A strong wind has risen.
nofl 102 no(
nO^HOC m. tray
nOAHIlTb see nO^HHMATb
nOAHIlTbCH see nOAHHMATbCH
nOAOaCAIATb, -y, -emb, -yi, past
noflOjKAaji, no;to>KAajia, no;to>KAa-
ji|o, -H p. Koro? HTO? or Hero?
to wait
noT^o>KAeM eme HeMHoro! LeVs wait
a hit longer!
nOjaiOflTfl see no^xoAflTb
noflnncATb ^ee noj^niicbiBATb
nOAnflCbIBA|Tb, -H), -emb, -iot imp.
H T 0?
/
p. noAHHcaTb, no;i;nHiny,
noflniiraeinb, noAniimyT to sign
noAOHcaxb flOKyMeHT. To sign a
document. IIo/inHcaTb ^oroBop. To
sign a treaty. IloAnHcaTb corjiaine-
HHe. To sign an agreement.
IIOAPOBHIblfl, -afl, -oe, -He; adv.
no;tp66HO detailed
lioApoGHoe HHCbMo. A detailed let-
ter. Oh noAp66HO paccKaaaJi o cbogh
noesAKe. He described his trip in
detail.
^OJ^Py^A /. (female) friend
niKoJibHaa noApyra. A school friend.
no;i;pyra aexcTBa. One's playmate.
^OJ^PyHCflTbCH, noApyjKycb, no-
flpywHmbCH, noApyacaxcH p. c
K e M? to become friends
nOflpyJKHTbCH C HOBHMH TOBapH-
ntaMH. To make new friends. Bhct-
po noApy>KMTbCfl. To become friends
quickly.
nOATBEP^flTb see nOATBEP-
^AATb
^0;^TBEP3K^A|Tb, -lo, -emb, -iot
imp. q T o?/p. noATBeplAHTb, -Hcy,
-flHmb, -AflT to confirm
Oh noATBepAHJi, hto npHaei saBx-
pa. He confirmed that he would
come the next day.
nOJ^YMATb see ^yMATb
^0;^ym|KA
/..
gen. pi. -en pillow.
cushion
nOJ^XO/^flTb, noflxojKy, noaxoAnmb,
noAxoAHT imp. k k m y? k h e-
My?/p.
noflOHlTH,
-fly,
-flemb, -ayx,
past noflomeji, noAomJi|a, -6, -h
1. to approach, lIoAXOAiiTb k ok-
Hy. To approach the window.
2. KOMy? to fit. 3xH xy^Jin Mne
noflxoflHT. These shoes fit me.
nOflHEPKHBAITb, -K), -emb. -iot
imp. q T o?/p. noflqepKHlyxb, -y,
-Smb. -yT
1. to underline. HoflHepKHyTb cjio-
Ba KapaHflamoM. To underline
words in pencil.
2.
fig. to emi)hasise. B
flOKJiaae
H ooflHepKHyji 3HaHeHHe 3Toro
H3o6peTeHHH. In my report I
emphasised the importance
of
this invention.
^OJ^HEPKHyTb see nonqpKH-
BATb
nOAT>E35KA|Tb, -lo, -emb. -lox imp.
K KOMy? K qeMy?
/
p. noAT.6-
xaxb,
noA-beAly, -emb, -yx to ap-
proach, to drive up to
nofl-beaHtaTb k ropoAy. To approach
the town. ABx66yc noA'bexafl k oc-
xanoBKe. The bus drove up to. the stop.
nOJliT>EM
m.
1. ascent. U.oji'heM b ropy 6hji xpy-
flCH.
Climbing the mountain was
difficult.
2. enthusiasm. ApTiicTU nrpaJiH c
CoJibmiiM noAteMOM. The actors
performed with great enthusiasm.
nOAT>EXATb see nO/^TjESaCATb
nOESJi; m., pi. -a train
CKopHH noesA. A fast train. Exaxb
Ha noesAe. To go by train. Ilepe-
cecxb Ha noesA- To change for a train.
nOE3mKA
/.,
gen. pi. -ok trip, tour
HnxepecHaH noesAKa. An interesting
trip. IIoeBAKa no crpaue. A tour
of-
the country.
nOECTb, HoeM, noemb, noecT, ooeAiiM,
nocAHTe, HoeAHT, past noeji, -a, -o,
-H to eat
noHACM HoeAHMl Let's go and get
something to eat!
nOF.XATb, noeAly,
-emb, -yT
p. k y-
A
d? Ha q e M? to go, to drive
Iloexaxb Ha aKCKypcnio. To go on
an excursion. ABT66yc ocTaHOBHJiCH
OKOJio AOMa,
a hotom noexaJi jianh-
me. The bus stopped near the house
and then drove on. JleTOM mm no-
CAGM na i6r. In summer we shall go
to the south.
<> Iloexajio na Mexpo! (colloq.)
Let's go by the underground!
nOaCAJIETb see HCAJIETb
nOJKAjIOBATbCH see JKAJIOBATb-
CH
nOJKAjiyflCTA particle please
HaBHHHTe, noHtaJiyncTa. Excuse me
please. J^aHTe Mne, nowaJiyncTa,
KHiiry. Will you give me the book.
noHC 103 noK
please? CKa>KHTe, nowaJiyncTa, r^e
Mexpo? Could you tell me where the
underground station is, please? Cna-
ch6o.

HoKajiyHCTa. "Thank you."


''Don't mention it."
nOUKkTh see nOJKHMATB & HCATb
no5KEJIAHHE neut. wish
HoBoroAHHe nojKejiaHHH. New
Year's wishes.
noaCEJIATb see ^EJIATb
nOHCHJIIOfl, -an, -6e, -He elderly
n05KHMA|Tb, -K), -eniL, -jot imp.
H T 0?
/
p. nojKaxb, nojKM|y, -emb,
-yT to press
1.: Ohh KpenKO noJKajiH jtpyr apyry
. pyKH. They shook hands heartily.
2.: nojKHMaxb nJieHaMH. To shrug
one's shoulders.
n03AB0THTbCH see 3AB0THTbCH
nOSABfl^OBATb see 3ABflja(0BATb
noaABTPAKATb see BABTPAKATb
nOSABHEPA adv. the day before
yesterday
3x0 cjiyqHJiocb noaaBqepa. It hap-
pened the day before yesterday.
nOSBATb see 3BATb
n03B0HflTb see 3B0HflTb
II03/i;HlHfl, -HH, -ee, -ne late
nosAHHH Be^ep. A late evening.
IIoaaHHe itBexM. Late flowers.
^03J^H0
adv., comp. noajKe & nosA-
Hee late
1. late. noa^HO Ho^bio. Late at
night. rioa^HO Jie^b cnaxb. To
go to bed late. Oh npHmeJi nos-
jKe Bac. He came later than you.
PeSeHOK nosAHO naqaji roBopnxb.
The child began to speak late.
2. predic. impers. (it is) late. CeHnac
noa/^HO. It's late now. IloaAHO
roBopHXb o6 3X0M. It's too late
to speak about that.
<> Jlyqrae nosAHO, ieM HHKorAa.
Better late than never. Paeo hjih
no3AHO. Sooner or later.
nO3flOP0BATbCH see 3AOP(3BATb-
CH
n033PABHTb see n03APABJlHTb
n03J5PABJlHiTb, -K), -emb, -rox imp.
Koro? Hxo? c HeM?/p. no3Apa|-
BHXb, -BJiK), -BHmb, -Bflx to Congrat-
ulate
nosApaBHXb flpyaea c npa3;5HHK0M.
To congratulate friends on a festive
occasion. IIoaApaBHXb c ;^HeM po)K-
JteHHfl. To congratulate somebody on
his birthday. IIoBjtpaBJiflio c Hobhm
toaom! / wish you a Happy New
Year!
n03HAK0MHTbCH see 3HAK0-
MHTbCH
nOBMATb see JIOBflTb
^Ofl[|Tfl,-;^y, -aemb, -;tyx,
past nomeji,
noniJija, -6, -h
p. Ky ji, a? -{-
inf.
to go
noHXH B xeaxp, na KOH^epx. To go
to the theatre, to a concert. Mh
noH^eM ceroAHH BenepoM b rocxH.
Tonight we shall go visiting. Oh
Me^JieHHO nomeji k ABepn. He
slowly went towards the door. IIoH-
AeM TyJiHThl Let's go for a walk/
<>noniJiH B KHHOl (colloq.) Let's go
to the cinema!
nOKA
1. adv. yet. Oh noKa ne y^HxcH.
He doesn't go to school yet.
2. conj. while.
*
IIOKa mh aaHHMa-
JiHCb, nomeji ji,07K}},h. While we
were studying it began raining.
rioKa meji ji,omjj,h, mh CHAeJiH
JtOMa. We stayed at home as long
as it rained. IloKa He KOH^y
HHCbMo, He noHAy ryjiaxb. /
won't go out before I have fin-
ished the letter.
nOKA3ATb see nOKASblBATb
nOKA3ATbCfl see KA3ATbCH &
nOKA3bIBATbCH
nOKA3bIBAlTb, -K), -emb, -lox imp.
K o M y?
H e M y? k o r 6? h x o? or
Ha Koro? na hx 6?//). noKaaaxb,
noKaJKV, noKaacemb, noKawyx
1. to show. rioKasaxb Apyry
$oxo-
rpa$HK). To show one's friend a
photograph.
2. to point (at, to). IIoKaaHBaxb
pyKOH Ha oSJiaKO. To point at a
cloud with one's hand.
nOKA3bIBA|TbCH, -locb, -embCH,
-loxcfl imp./p. noKaaaxbCfl, noKa-
jKycb, noKajKembcH, noKaJKyxca to
show
Ha-aa xyq noKaaaJiocb cowinqe. The
sun showed from behind the clouds.
Jlyna xo noKasHBaJiacb, xo Hcneaa-
Jia aa o6jiaKaMH. The moon was now
visible, now hidden behind the clouds.
nOKOJiEHHE neut. generation
MoJio^oe noKOJienne. The young gen-
eration. noKOJienne oxnoB. The
older generation.
noK
104 noji
nOKPACHETb see KPACHEXb
nOKynAlTb, -lo, -emb, -lOT imp. k o-
r 6? H T o? K M y?//). KynHTb, Kyn-
Jiio, Kynnmb, Kynnx to buy
EoKynaTb xjie6 b MarasHne. To buy
bread in a shop. Kynii mhg ceroji;-
HHfflHioK) raaexy! Buy me today's
paper/
nOKyPflXb see KYPflTb
nOKymATb see K^^fflATb
nOJI m., prepos. na -y; pi. -h floor
Hhcthh noji, A clean floor. IIo^tMe-
Taxb noJi. To sweep the floor. fleiH
HrpdJiH Ha noJiy. The children were
playing on the floor.
n6jI|E neut., pi. -a
1. field. ninpoKoe nojie. A large
field. PacTH na noJie. To grow
in a field. PaSoxaxb b noJie. To
work in the field.
2.
fig.
field. HlnpoKoe nojie jtea-
xeJibHOCXH. A wide field of
activ-
ity.
3. field. MarHHXHoe noJie. A magnet-
ic field.
4. pi. brim. niJinna c hojiamh. A
hat with a brim.
nOJIE3HO adv., predic. impers. (it is)
useful
EMy nojiesHO MHoro ryjiaxb. It is
useful for him to walk a lot. BoJibHO-
My nojiesHO nnxb (|)pyKx6BHH cok. It
is good
for the sick man to drink
fruit juice.
nOJIE3Hlblfl, -an, -oe, -He, short
form nojieaen, noJie3H|a, -o, -h
useful
noJiesHafl KHiira. A useful book.
nojiesHHH coBex. Useful advice.
nOJlET m. flight
OnacHHH nojiex. A dangerous
flight.
CoBepniHXb nojiex. To make a flight.
nOJIEjTETb, -Hy, -XHuib, -xhx p. to fly
HoJiexexb b kocmoc. To
fly
to outer
space.
nOJIflTHKA
/.,
no pi. policy, politics
BnemnHH noJiHXHKa. Foreign poli-
cy. BnyxpeHHHH nojiHXHKa. Home
policy. 3aHHMaxbCH uojimxhroh. To
go in for politics.
nOJlHTflHECKlHfl, -afl, oe, -ne
1. political. IIoJiHXHHecKaH o6cTa-
HOBKa. The political situation.
IIoJiHXHqecKaH 6opb6a. A politi-
cal struggle. IIojiHXHHecKHH
flea-
TeJib. A politician.
2. political. IlojiHTHqecKaH 3koh6-
MHH. Political economy.
nOJIlKA
/.,
gen. pi. -ok
1. shelf. KuHJKHaH noJiKa. A book-
shelf. KuHrH cxoHx Ha nojiKe.
The books are on the shelf.
2. berth. BepxHHH (hhhchhh] hoji-
Ka B Barone. An upper (lower)
berth in a railway carriage. Jle-
Hcaxb Ha BepxHeH nojiKe. To lie
on an upper berth.
<0* IIojioHCHTb 3y6iJ Ha nojiKy. To
starve.
nOJlH|blB[, -afl, -oe, -we, short form
noJiOH, nojiH|a, -6, -w
1. full. IIojiHbiH cxaKan BOflH. A
flass
full of
water. 3aJi n6jiOH
pHxeJien. The hall is full of
spectators. KoMHaxa, nojiHafl
CBexa. A room full of
light.
2. complete. IIoJiHaH cBoGoAa. Com-
plete freedom. IIojihhh oxamx.
Complete rest.
3. stout. nojiHbiH neJiOBCK. A stout
man.
nOJIHOCTbK) adv. completely
H noJiHOCxbK) corjiacen c BaMH. /
am in complete agreement with you.
nOJIOBflHA /. half
IIoJiOBHHa nyxH. Half the way. ITo-
JiOBHHa roAa. Half a year. EepBaH
nojiOBHHa HrpLi. The first half of
a match. Bxopafl noJiOBHHa XIX Be-
Ka. The second half of
the 19th
century. CcH^ac noJiOBHHa raecxoro.
It is half past five. IIpHXOAH-
xe B DOJioBHHe mecxoro. Come at
half past five.
nOJIOHCEHHE neut. situation
3KOHOMHHecKoe noJiOHteuHe. The
economic situation. TflweJioe nojio-
jKenne. A difficult situation. OKa-
aaxbcfl B xpy^HOM noJiojKenHH. To
find oneself in a difficult situation.
HaHXH BHXOA H3 jiK)66ro noJiowe-
HHH. To find a way out
of
any
situation.
nOJIOHCflTb see KJIACTb
nOJIOTEnmE neut., gen. pi. -e^ tow-
el
Moxnaxoe noJioxcHue. A Turkish
towel. BbixHpaxb pyKH nojioxenuew.
To dry one's hands with a towel.
nOJITOPA m. & neut., gen. noJiyxopa;
nojixopM /., num. one and a half
nOJiyOCTPOB m., pi. a peninsula
noji
105 noM
nOJiyHAITb, -K), -emb, -iot imp.
qTO? OT Koro? OTKYAa?/
p. nojiyqHTB, nojijrqy, nojiy^HmB,
noJiynaT
1. to receive. IIojiyHaTB nacBMa h3
AOMa. To receive letters from home.
IIojiy^HTB ;^eHB^H 3a pa66-
Ty. To get money for one's
work. HojiyHHTB nojtapoK ot ot-
Hdi.
To get a present from one's
father. HojiyHHTB npHrjiamcHHe.
To receive an invitation.
2. to get. IIoJiyqHTB nyntHMH pe-
syjiBTaT. To get the necessary
result. HoJiyqaxB caxap hb cbck-
JiBi. To obtain sugar from beetroot.
3. to receive. HoJiyHHTB sBaHHe
npo^eccopa. To receive the title
of professor. IIoJiyqHTB oxMCTKy.
To get a mark. IIojiyHHTB 6Jia-
rOAapHOCTB. To be thanked.
nOJiyHAlTBCfl, 1st & 2nd pers. not
used, 3rd pers. -excH, -iotch imp./p.
noJijrqHTBCfl, 1st & 2nd pers. not
used, 3rd pers. noJiy^HTCH, nojiy-
HaTCfl
1.: y MCHH He nojiyqaexcH aaflana.
/ can't manage the problem. CDoxo-
rpa$HH nojiyHHJiHCB xopomo.
The photographs proved to be
good.
Saflana ne noJiyqaexcH.
The problem won't work out.
2.: impers. EoJiyqaexcH, hxo h bhho-
Bax. It looks as
if I am to blame.
nojiyqflxb see nojiynATb
nOJiynflTbCH see nOJiy^ATbCH
nOJI^ACA m., gen. nojiynaca half an
hour
H TKjiaJi ero ii;eJiHx nojiqaca. / wait-
ed
for him for a whole half-hour.
Oh DHcaJi B xeqeHHe nojiyqaca. He
wrote
for half an hour.
nOJIb3A
/. use
JlenapcxBO npHuecJio GojiBinyio
noJiBsy CoJiBHOMy. The medicine
helped the sick man very much.
nOJIb3|OBATbCH, -yiocB, -yemBCH,
-yioxcH imp. q e m?
/
/?. bochojibbIo-
BaxBCH, -yiocB, -yemBCH, -yioxcH
1. to use. IIojiBBOBaxBCH 6H6jiH0xe-
KOH. To use a library. Hojibbo-
BaXBCH HyHtHOH KHHrOH. To usc
the book one needs. IIoJiBBOBaxB-
Cfl ycjiyraMH. To avail oneself of
services. BocnojiBBOBaxBCfl cose-
TOM. To make use]
of
advice.
BocnojiBBOBaxBCH cjiyqacM. To
avail oneself
of
an occasion. IIojib-
BOBaXBCH BOBMOJKHOCXBK). To
avail oneself
of
an opportunity.
IIoJiBBOBaxBCH opaBOM. To exer-
cise the right.
2. no p. to enjoy. IIojiBaoBaxBCH
HBBecxHOCXBK). To be well known.
nOJIIOBflTb see JlIOBflTb
nOJlIOBOBATbCH see JIIOBOBATb-
CH
nOJIIOC m. pole
CeBepHMH nojiioc. The North Pole.
HayqnaH aKcne^iinHH na KDjkhhh
nojiioc. A scientific expedition to
the South Pole.
nOMEmATb see MEIHATb
nOMEm^HHE neut. room, premises
>KHJi6e ^OMe^^eHHe. Living premises.
IIOMEn^HK m. landowner
KpynHHH noMeni;HK. A big landown-
er. BoraxHH noMeni;HK. A rich
landowner.
IIOMHJ|;OP m. tomato
CneJiue noMH^opLi. Ripe tomatoes.
CaJiax HB HOMH/topoB. Tomato salad.
nOMH|HTb, -K), -HmB, -hx imp.
K r 6? or q X 0? o k 6 m? o q e m?
to remember
IIoMHHXB -pojiBopL j^OM. To remember
the house where one was born. IIom-
HHXB oxna. To remember one's
fa-
ther. rioMHHXB o jxpyre. To remem-
ber one's friend. IIomhhxb o cboch
neJiH. To bear in mind one's aim.
<> He noMHHTb ce5fl (ot rneBa).
To be beside oneself (with wrath).
nOMOrAlTb, -K), -emb, -lox imp.
KOMy? qeMy? qcM? &-1-
inf./
p. HOMoqB, noMory, noMOJKemb,
noMoryx, past noMOr, -Jia, -Jio, -jih
to help
IIoMoraxB cxapoH Maxepn. To help
one's old mother. IIoMoqB
Apyry
;^66pHM coBexoM. To help one's
friend with good advice. IIoMoqb
6paxy pemHXb aaflaqy.
To help
one's brother to solve a problem.
no-MOEMy
1
.
adv. my way. Oh cj^eJiaJi axo no-
MoeMy. He did it my way.
2. paren. word in my opinion.
Ilo-MoeMy, oh xopomnn qejio-
BeK. In my opinion, he is a good
man.
nOMOHb see HOMOrATb
noM
106
no
nOMOmHHK m. help
ChH 5mJI XOpOmHM nOMOmHHKOM
omy.
The son was a good help to
his father.
nOMOmb /.,
no pi. help
OKaaaib noMomb paHenoMy. To
give help to a wounded man. IIpo-
CHTb noMomn
y
;^py3eH. To ask
one's friends for help. IIpocHTb o
noMomn. To ask
for help. IIpHHTH
Ha noMomb. To come to the did.
OxKasaxb b noMOmn. To refuse to
give help.
nOHEAEJILHHK m. Monday
B noHe;;eJibHHK mh yesjKaeM. We
leave on Monday. Ka?K;;biH: none-
ACJibHiiK (no noHe;teJibHHKaM)
y
nac
6biBaK)T JieKi^HH no JinxepaType.
Every Monday we have lectures on
literature.
nOHHMAlTb, -K), -emb, -k)t imp.
K o r 6? H T o?/p. nonaxb, noHMly,
-emb, -yx, past noHHJi, noHHJia,
noHHJiIo, -H
1. to understand. H eac noHHJi.
/ understood you. Bu Bce noHH-
Maexe? Do you understand every-
thing? IIoHMHxe Mena npaBHJib-
Hol Don't misunderstand me.
2, to^ understand. Oh MaJio hohh-
Maex B MysMKe. He does not
understand much about music.
nOHPABHTbCfl see HPABHTbCfl
nOHflTHE neui. notion
Gjiobo h noHHxne
pasHbie Bema.
The word and the notion are differ-
ent things.
<0> H He HMeiO nOHHTHH O TBOefi
pa66Te. I've no idea
of
your work.
nOHHTHlMfl, -aH, -oe, -He, short
form noHHxen, noHHXH|a, -o, -u un-
derstandable, clear
nOHHTHO
1. adv. clear(ly). 3xo cjiobo Bam no-
HHXHO? Is this word clear to you?
Oh roBopHJi noHHXHo. He spoke
clearly. Mne see hohhtho. Eve-
rything is clear to me.
2. predic.impers. (it is) clear. IIoHflX-
HO, HXO B XaKOH Z^OTK^b OH HO npH-
jifiT.
It's clear that he won't
come in such a rain.
nOHHTb see nOHHMATb
^OOBJ^ATb see OBEJ^ATb
nOOBElftATb see OBEmATb
nOHA^AlTb, -K), -emb, -rox imp.
/
p. nonacxb, nona|y, -emb, -yx, past
nonaJi, -a, -o, -h
1. to hit. Ilonacxb b EteJib. To hit
the mark.
2. to get. Honacxb b xeaxp. To get
to the theatre.
3. to get. KaK bh cio^a nonajin?
How did you get here?
4. impers., colloq. to catch it. Mne
nonaJio ox Maxepn. / caught it
hot from Mother.
<> KaK nonajio. Anyhow. IIonacTb
He B 5p6Bb, a b r.iaa. Gf. To
hit the nail on the head.
nO-nPEaCHEMy adv. stlll, as before
Oh no-npeJKHeMy jkhbcx zj^qci. He
still lives here.
nonPOBOBATb see HPOBOBATb
nonPOCflTb see HFOCflTb
nonPOmATbCH see
HPOmATbCH
nOPAi
/. time
H 3Haio ero c /^asHHX nop. I've
known him for a long time. G xex
nop npomjio MHoro Jiex. Many
years have passed since then.
J[o
chx
nop MH HHHero ne snaeM o hcm. We
still don't know anything about him.
nOPA^ predic. impers. it is time
Ilopa BcxaBaxb

y)Ke noSAHO. It's


time to get up: it's already late.
Ilopa HflXH AOMOH. It's time to go
home. HaM nopa oGe^axb. It's time
for us to have dinner.
nOPAMCEHHE neut. defeat
TflJKCJioe nopaHt^HHe. A heavy de-
feat. Iloxepnexb nopawenne b boh-
ne. To be defeated in a war. Hane-
cxH nopaJKeHHe. To defeat.
nOPOiniOK m., gen. -Ka powder
1. only sing, powder. SyGnoH nopo-
moK. Tooth,-powder.
2. powder. JlenapcxBo b noporaKax.
Medicine in the form of
powder.
IIpHHHMaxb no o^HOMy nopom-
Ky 3 paaa b ji^eub. To take one
powder 3 times a day.
nOPT m., prepos. b nopxy & o nopxe
port
MopcKOH nopx. A seaport. PeHHoii
nopx. A river port. PaSoxaxb b nop-
xy. To work at the port.
nOPTPET m. portrait
nOPTOeJIb m. brief-case
JTO-P^CCKH adv. (in) Russian
ToBopHXb no-pyccKH. To speak
IIOP
107
HOC
Russian. Ohh neJiH 3Ty necHio no-
pyccKH. They sang this song in
Russian.
nOP>lAIOK m., gen. -Ka
1. order. V mghh b KOMHaxe Bcer-
fla
nopHAOK. My room is always
in order. Jl^epjKaTb BemH b no-
pH;5Ke. To keep things in order.
IIpHBecTii Bce b nopH;i;oK. To
put everything in order. Hpn-
BecTH ce6H b nopaAOK. To tidy
oneself up.
2. succession. PaccKaaaxb see no
nopaflKy. To tell, everything in
the same order as it happened.
<> Bee B nopnAKe. Everything is
all right.
nOCA^flTb see CAaCATb
nOCBHTflTb see HOCBHIIiATb
nOCBHmAlTb, -K), -emb, -iot imp.
q T 0? K o M y? 1 e M y?
/
/>. hocbhI-
THTb,
-nty, -Tiinib, -tht
1. to devote. nOCBHTHTb JKH3Hb
HayKe. To devote one's life to
science.
2. to dedicate. nocBflmaxb KHnry
flPyry.
To dedicate a book to
one's friend.
nOCETflTb see HOCEmATb
nOCEmAlTb, -K), -emb, -jot imp.
Koro? mo?/ p. noce|THTb,
-my,
-THOIb, -THT
1. to visit. noceni;aTb 6ojibH6ro to-
BapHn5a. To visit a sick friend. Uo-
cexiiTb Myaen. To visit a museum.
2. no
p. to attend. nocen;aTb JieK-
nHH. To attend lectures.
nOCJIATb see HOCblJIATb
nOCJIE
1. adv. later. Mojkho npHHXH cea-
qac?

Hex, npnxoAH nocjie.


""May I come now?" "No, come
later.''
2. prep. -\- gen. after. IlocJie oSefla.
After dinner. IlocJie paSoxH. After
work. MojKHO MHe BSHXb 9xy
KHHry nocJie nee? May I have
the book after her?
nOGJljO[H|na, -HH, -ee, -ne last
nocJiGAHHH AGHb MecHn;a, The last
day
of
the month. Kxo nocjieAHHH?
Who is the last?
<0 EopoTbCH
Ao
nocJie^HeH KanjiH
KpoBU. To fight to the last drop
of
blood. CosAaBaTb HOBue ManiH-
Hbi no nocjieAHeMy cjiOBy TexHHKH.
To build new machines accord-
ing to the last word in technology.
UocjieAHHe HSBecTOH. The latest
news.
nOCJIE3ABTPA adv. the day after
tomorrow
nOCJIOBHIliA
/. proverb
nOCIlS'inAlTb, -H), -emb, -lox p. ko-
to? H X 0?
1. to listen (for a while). Oh no-
cxoHJi, nocjiymaji neMHoro h
ymeji. He stood and listened
for
a while, then he went away.
2.: nocJiymaH(xe), passe 3xo npa-
BHJibHO? Look here, is that right?
nOCJl5^fflATbCH see CJiyiHATbCa
nOCMOTPETb see CMOTPETb
nOCOBETOBATb see COBETOBATb
nOCOBETOBATbCH see COBETO-
BATbCH
nOCnOPHTb see CHOPHTb
nOCPEAfl
1. adv. amid, among. Ha yjiHn;e
co6paJiacb xojina Hapo^a. Hocpe-
Aii cxoffji peSenoK h nJiaKaJi. A
crowd
of
people had gathered in
the street. Among the crowd
stood a child, crying.
2. prep. -{-gen. in the middle of.
IlocpeaH nji6n;aAH

KpacHBHH
$0HxaH. In the middle
of
the
square there is a beautiful foun-
tain.
nOCCOPHTbCH see CCOPHTbCH
nOCTABHTb see CTABHTb
nOCTAPATbCa see CTAPATbCH
nOCTEJIb
/. bed
BojibHOH AOJi/KGH Jiewaxb B nocxe-
JiH. The patient must remain in
bed. EMy neJibsa BcxaBaxb c no-
cxeJiH. He is not allowed to get up.
nOCTEHEHHO adv. gradually
Oh nocxeneHHO npnBUKaJi K kjih-
Maxy. He gradually got accustomed
to the climate.
nOCT05lHH|bia, -aa, -oe, -He con-
stant; adv. nocxoHHHO constantly,
always
IIocxoaHHaa xeMuepaxypa. A con-
stant temperature. Pe6eH0K nocxoan-
HO 6oJieex. The child is always ill.
nOCTOlHTb, -ro, -nmb, -ax
p.
1. to stand (for a while). CnAHxe,
He SecnoKOHxecb, a nocxoio.
Keep your seat, and don't worry;
I'll stand. Oh nocToaji neMHoro
noc 108 no3
H ymeji. He stood
for a while
and then went away.
2.: nocT6H(Te)! Wait!
nOCTPflHbCH see CTPflHbCH
nOCTPOHTb see CTPOHTL
nOCXyilAlTb, -K), -emb, -iot imp.
I
p. nocxynHTb, nociynjiio, nociy-
namb, nocTynflx
1. to act. HecTHO nocTynaxb. To
act honestly. IlJioxo nocxyniixb.
To act badly.
2. K
y fl
a? to enter, riocxynnxb b
HHCXHXyX, Ha HCXOpHHeCKHH $a-
Kyjibxex. To enter an institute,
the history department. Ilocxy-
nnxb Ha pa66xy. To take up work.
3.: HocxynHJio npefljio^Kenne. There
is a proposal.
nocxynflTb see nocxynAxb
nOCX:9'n|OK m., gen. -Ka action
HecxHHH nocxynoK. An honest ac-
tion. CoBepmnxb repoHHecKHH no-
cxynoK. To accomplish a feat.
nOCXyHAXb see cxy^AXb
nOCS^^A /. crockery
^aHHafl nocy^a. Tea-things. Mbixb
nocvay. To wash up.
nOCblJlAIXb, -K), -emb, -lox imp.
Koro? Hxo? KOMy? HeMy?
or K KOMy?
/p.
nocjiaxb, nomji|K),
-emb, -K)x
1. to send. Maxb nocjiaJia pe6eHKa
B MarasHH sa XJie6oM. The mother
sent her child to the shop for
some bread. Ero nocjiaJiH Ha
pa66xy b GapaxoB. He was sent
to work in Saratov.
2. to send. Ilocjiaxb nncbMO po;;H-
xejiHM. To send a letter to one's
parents.
noCKlJIlKA /.,
gen. pi. -ok parcel
IIoqxoBafl nocMJiKa. A parcel sent
by post. OxnpaBHXb nocHJiKy. To
send a parcel. IIojiyHHXb nocwJiKy
ox pojiHxeJieH. To receive a parcel
from one's parents.
no-xBOEMy
1. adv. as you wish. Bee 6yflex no-
xBoeMy. Everything will be done
as you wish.
2. paren. word in your opinion.
IIo-xBoeMy, 3X0 npaBHJibHO? Do
you think it's right?
nOXEPHXb see XEPflXb
nOXOJIlOK m., gen. -Ka ceiling
Bhcokhh noxoJiOK. A high ceiling.
HH3KHH noxoJiOK. A low ceiling.
Ha noxoJiKC bhchx jiaMna. A lamp
is hanging from the ceiling.
nOTOM adv. then
CnaHaJia mm nooSejiajiH, a noxoM
nomjiH ryjiflxb. We first had dinner
and then went
for a walk.
nOXOMy HXq [mxo] conj. because
Oh He HHcaJi naceM, noxoMy mo
6uJi saHflx. He didn't write letters
because he was busy.
nOXOH^Xb see XOH^Xb
nOXPEBOBAXb see XPEBOBAXb
nOXPOPAXb see XPOPAXb
nOXHH^Xb see XHH^^Xb
noyjKHHAXb see YHCHHAXb
nOXBAJiflXb see XBAJlflXb
^OX0'J^
m. hike
TypHcxHqecKHH noxoj. A walking-
tour. Xo;5HXb B uoxojs,. To hike, to
go on a walking-tour.
nOX05K|Hfl[, -an, -ee, -ne, short form
noxojK, -a, -e, -h resembling
Ha Koro oh hoxojk? Whom does he
look like? Oh hoxoh? na Moero 6paxa.
He looks like my brother.
nOU;EJIOBAXb see IliEJIOBAXb
nOI^EJIOBAXbCH see E(EJIOBAXbCH
nOHBA /. soil
nOHEM>^ adv. why
HoqeMy bh onosflaJin? Why are
you late?
nOHEM^-XO adv. for some reason
HoqeMy-xo oh ne npHme-i. For some
reason he has not come.
nOHEXHIblfl, -an, -oe, -He honorary
Ho^exHoe aBanne. An honorary title.
noHexHHH rocxb. A guest
of
honour.
nOHHHflXb see HHHflXb
nOHflCXHXb see HflCXHXb, 1
nOHXA
/.
1. post. HocHJiaxb hx6-jih6o ooh-
xoH (no no^xe). To send some-
thing by post.
2. post-office. PaSoxaxb na noHxe.
To work at a post-office. HoHxa
pa66xaex c 7 yxpa ffo
12 hohh.
The post-office is open from
7 in the morning to 12 at night.
nOHXfl adv. almost
Oh oxflHxaJi no^xii aBa Mecnna. He
rested
for
almost two months.
nOH^BCXBOBAXb see HS^BCXBO-
BAXb
norayxflxb see rayxflxb
n09X m. poet
no3 109
nPE
noSTOMy adv. that is why
IloineJi AOJKflb, noaxoMy mm ocxa-
jiHCb AOMa. It began raining, that's
why we stayed at home.
nOHBflTbCa see nOHBJIilTbCH
nOHBJlHlTbCH, -K)Cb, -embCH, -rox-
CH imp. r 3 e?
/
p. noHBHXbca, hohb-
jiiocb, noHBHmbcn, hohehxch to ap-
pear, to come out
Ha He6e noHBHJiHCb SBesAU. Stars
came out in the sky.
nOHC m., pi. -a
1. belt. Iloflc najibxo. A coat belt.
niHpoKHH noHC. A wide belt. 3a-
cxernyxb none. To fasten the belt.
2. waist. Gxonxb b bojib no none.
To stand waist-deep in water.
nPABAA
/
1. truth. 3x0 npaB;^a. This is the
truth. ToBopiixb npaB^y b rjiaaa.
To speak the truth to somebody's
face.
2. used as pred. it is true. npaB^a,
njo OH yexa.i?IIpaBna.
"/.? it
true that he has left?"

''Yes,
it is."
0^ Ho npaBj];e roBopa... To tell the
truth...
nPABAflBlblfl, -aa, -oe, -He truthful
npaBAHBEiH ^ejiOBeK. A truthful
man. HpaBAHBEie rjiaaa. Truthful
eyes. IIpaBAHBaa ncxopna. A true
story.
nPABHJIO neut.
1. rule. IIpaBHJio rpaMMaxHKH. A
grammar rule.
TpyflHoe npaBUJio.
A hard rule.
2. only pi. rules. Go6jiK)Aaxb npa-
BHJia. To observe the rules.
<> KaK npasHJio. As a rule.
nPABHJIbHIblS, -aa, -oe, -He; adv.
npaBHJibHO correct; right
HpaBHJibHHH oxBex. A correct an-
swer. Oh npaBHJibHO pemnji
3afl;aHy.
He solved the problem correctly.
IIpaBHJibHo! That's right/
nPABflTEJIbCTBO neut. government
nPAB|0 neut., pi. -a
1. right. HaGnpaxejibHoe npaBo.
6"^/-
frage. TpaJK^aHCKHe npaBa. Civil
rights. ITpaBO na xpy;^. The right
to work. IIpaBO Ha oxahx. The
right to rest. IIojibaoBaxbca npa-
BaMH. To exercise one's rights.
2. law. Hayqaxb npaBo. To study
law.
nPAB|bIfl^, -aa, -oe, -ne right
ITpaBaa pyKa. The right hand (arm).
nPAB|blfi2, -aa, -oe, -He, short form
npaB, npasa, npaslo, -h
1. only short form right. Oh npaB
B axoM Bonpoce. He is right in
this question. Bu He npaBH. You
are not right.
2. only complete form right. Bo-
poxbca 3a npaBoe ^ejio. To fight
for the right cause.
nPAS^HHK m. holiday, festive occa-
sion
Hai^HOHaJibHHH npasAHHK. A nation-
al holiday. IlpaBAHHK IlepBoro
Man. The First
of
May holiday.
HosApaBJiaxb c npaaAHHKOM. To
congratulate on a holiday.
nPASaHHHHIblfl, -aa, -oe, -ne fes
tive, holiday-like
npasAHHqHHH ropoA- A holiday-
like city. npasAHHHHHH Benep. A
festive evening-party. IIpaSAHHHHHH:
KOCxioM. One's best clothes. IIpaBA-
HHHHoe Hacxpoenne. A holiday mood.
^PA3J^H|0BATb, -yro, -yemb, -yrox
imp. H X 0? to celebrate
HpaSAHOBaxb noSe^y. To celebrate
a victory. IIpasflHOBaxb ^^Hb po)K-
j^enna. To celebrate one's birthday.
nPAKTHKA /.
1. practical work. Iloexaxb aa npaK-
XHKy. To go to practical work.
IIpoxoAHXb npaKXHKy na saBOAe.
To do one's practical work at a
plant.
2. practice. GBaaaxb xeopnio c npaK-
XHKon. To link theory with prac-
tice.
nPAKTflqECKIHtt, -aa, -oe, -ne
1. practical. HpaKXHqecKHe aana-
xna. Practical studies.
2. practical. HpaKxaqecKHH conex.
Practical advice.
nPAHEHHIAa
/.,
gen. -on laundry
GAanaxb
6ejibe b npaqeqayio.
To
send one's washing to the laundry.
nPEBPATflTb see HPEBPAmATb
nPEBPATflTbCH seeHPEBPAlHATb-
CH
nPEBPAIHAITb,
-10, -enib, -K)x inip.
K r 6? q X o? B K o r 6? b o ^ x 6?/
p. npeBpa|XHXb,
-my,
-xnrab, -xht
to turn (into)
HpeBpaxHXb nycxwHio b ca^- To
turn a desert into an orchard.
nPE 110 nPE
nPEBPAipAlTbCH, -locb, -embCH,
-lOTCH imp. B Koro? boht 6?/
p.
npGBpalTiiTbCH, -mycb, -xHinbCH,
-THTCH to turn (into)
Bofla
npespaTHJiacb b nap. The wa-
ter turned into vapour,
IlPEA^ArA|Tb, -K), -emb, -iot imp.
KOMy? HGMy? HTO? & +
inf. I p. npej^JiowHTb, npejtJioHty,
npejtJiojKHmb, npeflJiojKaT
1. to offer. Oh npeflJioJKHJi naM
KO^e. He offered us coffee.
2. to suggest. Oh npeTtJiojKHJi hoh-
TH B KHHO. He suggested that we
should go to the cinema.
nPEaJlOHCEHHEi neut.
1. proposal, suggestion. Bhccth
npe^JiojKeHHe Ha coopaHHH. To
make a proposal at a meeting.
BocnojibBOBaxbCH npeflJiojKeHneM.
To avail oneself of
a suggestion.
ITojiesHoe npeaJiojKeHne. A use-
ful suggestion.
2. proposal. CAeJiaib npeajioweHHe
jik)6hmoh flGByniKe, To propose
to the girl one lovec.
nPE^^JIOaCEHHE^ neut. sentence;
nPEAjioHCfiTB see HPEAJlArATB
nPE^MET m.
1. object. TH>KeJibiH npeflMex. A
heavy object.
2. subject. H HsynaJi axn npeflMexu
B niKOJie. / studied these subjects
at school.
DPE^^IIPHHTHE neut. enterprise
Pa66xaxb na npe^npHHXHH. To work
at an enterprise. CoBpeMeHHoe npefl-
npHflxne. A modern enterprise.
nPEACE^ATEJIb m. chairman
^pe;^ceflaxeJIb co6paHHH. The chair-
man at a meeting. EpeflceflaxeJib
KOJixoaa. A collective-farm chairman.
nPEflCTABflTEJIb m. representative
ripeflcxaBHxeJifi Hapojia. Representa-
tives
of
the people. IIpeACxaBHxejiH
3aB6;ia. Representatives from a
plant.
nPEnCTABHTb see nPE^CTAB-
JlflTb
nPE^CTABJlUlTb, -K), -emb, -lox
imp.
I
p. npeflcxalBHXb, -bjik), -BHmb,
-BHX
1. H X 0? to imagine. IIpejtcxaBJiHXb
ce6e KapxHHy 6yAyntero.
To
imagine the future.
2. K r 6? KOMy? to introduce.
IIoBBOJibxe npejtcxaBHXb Baw to-
Bipamc* H. Let me introduce
Comrade N.
nPE^CTGlHTb, 1st & 2nd pers. not
used, 3rd pers. -nx, -hx imp. k o-
M y? q e M y? to be ahead
HaM npe;^cxoHX HHxepecnaH noeafl-
Ka. We are faced with an interesting
journey. Mne npe;;cxoHx noexaxb na
ceBep. / am to go to the north.
HPEAynPEAflTb see HPEAynPE-
HCaATb
nPE^ynPEHCAAlTb, -lo, -emb. -k)t
imp. Koro? hxo? o ne m?/
p. npe;tynpelAHXb, -my, -AHmb, -aht
1. t^ warn. npeAynpe;i;HXb ^ejioae-
Ka o6 onacHocxH. To warn a per-
son
of
danger.
IlpeflynpeAHXb ox-
paA npH6jiH?KeHHH epara. Ta
warn a detachment
of
the ap-
proach
of
the enemy.
2. to prevent. ripej^ynpewAaxb 6o-
jiesHb. To prevent a disease.
1. adv. before, first of all. Uipemji,&
MH Bcxpe^aJiHCb nacxo. We used
often to meet before. Upemj\e
Bcero, cKa>KHxe rjiasHoe. First
of
all, tell me the main thing.
2. conj. before. ITpcjKae qcM roBO-
pnxb, nOAyMan. Think before you
speak.
nPEH{H{Hfl, -HH, -ee, -ne former
B nprnnee BpeMH. In former times;
in the old days. npe>KHHH nanaJib-
HHK. The former chief.
nPEKPACHlblfl, -an, -oe, -He, short
form npeKpacen, npeKpacHja, -o,.
-h; adv. npcKpacHO
1. beautiful. Ona 6Mjia npeKpacna.
She was beautiful.
2. fine, wonderful, beautiful. Ilpe-
KpacnaH noro^a. Fine weather.
IIpeKpacHHH cneKxaKJib. A won-
derful performance. Oh HpeKpacHO
xannyex. He dances beautifully.
3. used as particle very good, fine.
IIpeKpacHO, H saBxpa npHAy.
Very good, I'll come tomorrow.
<> B OfliH npcKpacHbiii A^Hb.
One
fine day.
nPEKPATflTb see nPEKPAmATb
nPEKPATflTbCHsee nPEKPAIIlATb-
Cfl
nPE 111 nPH
I
nPEKPAmAlTb, -K), -emb, -k)t imp.
g T 0? & 4"
^^f- I P-
npeKpaJTHTb,
-my,
-THinb, -THT to stop
IIpeKpaTHTb paarOBop. To drop a
conversation. IIpeKpaTHTe paaroBa-
pHBaTb! Stop talking!
nPEKPAmAjTBCH, 1st & 2nd pers.
not used, 3rd pers. -btch, -iotch imp./
p. npeKpaT|HTbCH, 1st & 2nd pers. not
used, 3rd pers. -htch, -htch to stop
J^OJKflb
He npeKpamaJiCH. The rain
didn't stop. Bexep npeKpaxH.ncH.
The wind has abated.
nPEMHH /. bonus
HoJiy^HTb npeMHK). To get a bonus.
nPEO;i,OJIEBAlTb, -K), -erab, -iot
imp. ^ T o?/p. npeoflOJie|Tb, -lo,
-erab, -K)T to overcome
HpeoAOJieBaxb npenHxcTBHH. To
overcome obstacles. EpeoflOJieTb yc-
TaJiocTb. To overcome fatigue. Ilpe-
OflOJieTb CTpax, To overcome fear.
nPEOJ^OJIETb see nPEO^OJIEBATb
nPEnO^ABATEJlb m. teacher
OnHTHHH npenoflaBaTejib. An ex-
perienced teacher. npeno^aBaTejib
pyccKoro H3HKa. A Russian teacher.
nPEHHTCTBHE neut. obstacle
CepbeaHoe npenHTCTBne. A serious
obstacle. BcTpexHXb npennxcxBHe
sa nyxH. To meet with an obstacle.
ripeoflojiexb Bce npenHxcxBHH. To
overcome all obstacles.
nPECXynjIEHHE neut. crime
CoBepmHXb npecxynji^HHe. To com.'
mit a crime.
nPECXynHHK m. criminal
OnacHHH npecxynHHK. A dangerous
criminal. ApecxoBaxb npecxynnHKa.
To arrest a criminal.
nPH prep. -\- prepos.
1. in one's presence. He roBopnxe
xaK npn mhc. Don't speak so in
my presence.
2. under. Jlpn Xlexpe I. Under
Peter I.
3. at. IIpH xeMnepaxype e 100 rp^ay-
coB U^ejibCHH BOfla npespamaexcH
B nap. At a temperature
of 100"
C
water turns into vapour. IIpH cepb-
eanoM oxHoraenHH k flejiy bh ;^o-
Sbexecb 6ojibraHx ycnexoB.
//
you
adopt a serious attitude towards
what you do, you'll make great
progress.
4. on, with. PlMCxb hx6-jih6o npn
ce6e. To have something with one.
5. in. npn csexe Jiynw. In the moon-
light.
nPHBJlHHCAlTbCH, -locb, -erabcn,
-lOxcH imp. K KOMy? k neM
y?/
p.
npH6jiH|3HXbCH, -5Kycb, -amnbCH,
-3flXCfl
1. to approach, noea;^ npnSjiHmaex-
CH K ropoay. The train is ap-
proaching the town.
\
fig.
HpnGJiH-
BHXbcH K i^eJiH. To get nearer to
one*s aim.
2.
fig.
no
p. to draw nearer. npnSJiH-
HtaexcH npasAHHK. The holiday
is drawing near.
nPHBJiBSHTbCH see HPHEJIH-
HCATbCH
nPHBOP m.
1. device, instrument. To^HHe
npH66pbT. Precision instruments.
2. set. 06eAeHHHH npnSop. Cover.
BpnxBeHHHH npH66p. Shaving
requisites.
nPHBblBAlTb, -K), -erab, -lox imp.
Kyaa?
/
p.
npnSHXb, npnSyAly,
-enib, -yx, past npn6Hji, npH6HJia,
npH6Hji|o, -H to arrive
FjiaBa npaBHxejibcxBa npH6biJi c bh-
3HX0M B coceAHiOK) cxpaHy. The
head
of
the government arrived in
the neighbouring country on a visit.
CaMOJiex npnSHJi xohho. The plane
has arrived on time.
nPHBb'ITb see HPHEblBATb
nPHBECTfl see DPHBOJ^flTb
nPHBET m. regards
FopflHHH npHBex. Warmest regards.
Hepeaaxb npHBex
flpyry.
To send
a friend one's regards.
nPHBETCTB|OBATb, -yio, -yerab.
-yiox imp. koto? h x o? to wel-
come
Bce npHBexcxBOBaJiH bhcokofo ro-
cxfl. Everyone welcomed the guest
of
honour. HpHBexcxBOBaxb pemenHe
npaBHxejibcxBa. To welcome the de-
cision
of
the government.
^PB[BOJ^B[Tb, npHBowy, upuBOjxmmh,
npHBO^Hx imp. k o r o? h x o?/
p. npHBecxH, npHBe;iIy, -erab, -yx,
past npHBCwi, npHBeJi|a, -6, -u
1. to bring. npHBecxH pe6eHKa b
fl;excKHH ca^. To bring a child
to the kindergarten.
nPH 112 nPH
2. to lead, /^opora npHseJia b jiec.
The road led to the forest.
3. fig.
to lead. 3to npHBeJio k to-
My, HTO... This led to...
4. to quote, to cite. IIpHBOAHTb npH-
MepM. To quote examples. IIpHBec-
TH qHTaxy. To cite a quotation.
nPHBMKAlTb, -K), -emb, -iot imp.
K KOMy? K HOMy? &~}-inf./p.
npHBUKHlyxb, -y, -emb, -yx, past
npHBMK, -Jia, -JIO, -JIH
1. to get accustomed. IIpHBUKaxb
K HOBOMy KJlHMaxy. To get accus-
tomed to a new climate. IIpHBbi-
Kaxb K HOBbiM xoBapnmaM. To
get accustomed to new friends.
2. to get into the habit (of). IIpH-
BUKuyxb Kypnxb. To get into
the habit
of
smoking.
nPHBb'IKHyXb see HPHBLIKATb
nPHBb'IHIKA /.,
gen. pi. -en habit
XopotnaH npHBMqKa. A good habit.
Bpejieafl npHBUHKa. A dangerous
habit.
nPHrJIACflXb see nPHrJlAIHATb
nPHrjIAHIAlTb, -K), -eoib, -lox imp.
Koro? qxo?&4- i^f- 1 P-
npHFJial-
CHXb, -ray, -Climb, -cax to invite
npnrjiacHXb ^eBymKy b xeaxp. To
invite a girl to the theatre. IIpH-
rjiamaxb b rocxH. To invite some-
body to one's house. Oh npHrjiaciiJi
AeByraKy xanneBaxb. He asked the
girl to dance with him,
nPHrjIAIHEHHE neut. invitation
riojiyHHXb npHrJiaraeHHe Ha Benep.
To get an invitation for an evening-
party. npHHHXb npHrnamenne no-
cexHXb cxpaHy. To accept the invi-
tation to visit a country.
nPHPOBOP m. sentence
GnpaBeAJiHBUH npnroBop. A just
sentence. BbiHOCiixb npnroBop. To
pass sentence. IIpHBOZiHXb npnro-
BOp B HcnojiHeHHe. To execute] a
sentence.
nPHPOmftTbCa, -mych, -flHmbCH,
-AfixcH p. KOMy? q e M y?
to prove
useful
Mne npnroAHJiCH xboh cobcx. Your
advice proved useful to me.
nPHPOXOBHTb see TOTOBHTb, 1
nPHrOXOBHTbCa
see rOXOBHTb-
CH
nPHA^MAXb
see HPHAS^MblBAXb
nPHA^MblBAIXb, -K), -emb, -rox
imp. H X o?
/
p. ^pH;^y^^a|xb, -lo,
-emb, -lox to make up, to think of,
to invent
HpHAyMaxb npeAJioJKeHHe. To make
up a sentence. IIpH^yMaxb hcto-
pHK). To invent a story.
IIpHjtyMaHxe
HT6-HH5yflbl Think
of something!
nPHESaCAlXb, -K>, -emb, -lox imp.
KyAa?/p. npnexaxb,
npn^Aly.
-erab, -yx to come
Ilpnexaxb b qyjKOH ropo^. To come
to a strange city. IlpHexaxb k po-
aiixenHM. To come to one's parents.
Jlpnexaxb na xpaMBae. To come by
tram.
nPHEXAXb see HPHESaCAXb
nPH3qAlBAXb, -K), -erab, -lox imp.
Koro? qxo?
/ p. npH3Ha|xb, -lo,
-erab, -lox
1. to recognise. npHsnaBaxb noBoe
npaBHxeJibcxBO. To recognise a
new government.
2. to admit, npnanaxb cbok oraH6-
KH. To admit one's mistakes.
nPH3HAlBAXbCH, -locb, -erabcn,
-loxcfl imp. KOMy? qeMy? b
^eM.?/p. npH3Ha|xbCfl, -locb, -erab-
Cfl, -lOXCfl
1. to declare. npHsnaxbCH AeByraKe
B jhoSbw. To declare one's love to
a girl.
2. to admit. npnaHaxbCH b cbohx
oranSKax. To admit one's mis-
nPH3HAXb see nPH3HABAXb
nPH3HAXbCH see nPH3HABAXbCH
nPHflXfl see HPflXOAflXb
nPHflXflCb see nPHXOAflXbCH
nPHKA3 m. order
GxporHH npHKaa. A strict order. Bm-
noJiHHXb npHKaa KOMaH^iipa. To
carry out the commander's order.
Ox^axb npHKaa coJi^axaM. To give
an order to the soldiers.
nPHKA3AXb see nPHKA3bIBAXb
nPHKA3bIBA|Xb, -K), -erab, -lox imp.
KOMy? qeMy?-|- inf.
/
p. npHKa-
aaxb, npHKajKy, npHKaHcerab, npn-
KajKyx to order
HpHKasaxb BOHCKaM naqaxb na-
cxynJiGHHe. To order the troops to
commence an offensive.
nPHMfiP m.
1. example. Bbixb npHMepoM fljia
;^py^HX. To set an example for
nPH 113 nPH
others. GJieAOBarb npHMepy Spaxa.
To follow one's brother's example.
2. example. IIpHBecTH npHMep. To
quote an example.
nPHHAAJIEaCjATb, -y, -wmb, -ax
imp. K M y?
H e M y? to belong
SeMJifl npHHaaJie>Kiix napoAy. The
land belongs to the people.
nPHHECTfl see HPHHOCflTb
nPHHHMAiTb, -K), -emb, -lox imp.
K r 6? H X o?//>. npHHfixb, npHMy,
npHMemb, npimyx, past npHHflji,
npHHfljia, npimfljijo, -h
1. to receive. IIpHHHMaxb rocxen.
To receive guests.
2. to take. JIpimnMaxb JienapcxBO.
To take medicine.
3. to take. IIpHHflxb pemenne. To
take a decision.
4. to adopt. HpmiHXb hoblih 3a-
KOH. To adopt a new law. IIpii-
Hflxb pe3oJiK)ii;Hio. To adopt a
resolution.
5. to accept. IIpHHHMaxb npejiJio-
meHHe. To accept an offer. Hpn-
Hfixb npHrJiameHHe. To accept
an invitation.
6. to admit. Moero CHua npiiHHJiH
B HHCXHxyx. My son has been
admitted to the institute.
7.: ripHHfixb yqacxne (b hcm-jihSo).
To take part (in something).
nPHHOCflTb, npHHomy, npHHocnrnb,
npuHocHX imp. k o r 6? q x o?/
p.
npHHec|xji, -y, -emb, -yx, past
npHHec, npnHecji|a, -6, -it
1. to bring. IIpHHecxii leMOAan. To
bring a suit-case.
2. : IIpHHOciixb noJibsy (Bpe^). To
prove useful (harmful).
nPflHUinn m. principle
MMexb xsepALie npHHn;HnH. To have
firm principles. OcHOBHbie npimn;H-
nw HccjieAOBaHHH. The basic princi-
ples
of
investigation.
nPHHflTb see niHlIHMATb
nPHPOAA /. natm-e
BoraiaH npnpoAa. Rich plant and
animal life. Hayqaxb npHpoAY-
To
study nature.
nPMCriATb see nPHCblJIATb
nPHCS^TCTBIOBATb, -yio. -yemb,
-yiox imp. r
a
e? to be present
IIpHcyxcxBOBaxb na coSpaHHii. To
be present at a meeting. Oh npn-
cyxcxBOBaJi npn axoM pasroBope.
84002
He was present when this conversa-
tion took place.
nPHCblJlAITb, -K), -emb, -rox imp.
Koro? Hxo? Kouy?
/
p. npH|-
cJiaxb, -mjiK), -mjiemb, -mjiiox
1. qxo? KOMy? to send. IIpHCHi-
jraxb niicbMa Maxepn. To send
letters to one's mother. IIpHCJiaxb
HHCbMo no no^xe. To send a
letter by post.
2. K o r 6? 3 a h e m? to send. IIpH-
cjiaxb 6paxa 3a KnnroH. To send
one's brother
for a book.
nPHX03flTb, npHxojKy, npnxoAHmb,
npnxoAHx imp.
I
p.
npnaxja,
npHAly,
-emb, -yx, past npnmeji, npHmji|a,
-6, -H
1. to come. ITpHHXH aomoh. To
come home. ITpHXOAHXb na JieK-
niHK). To come to a lecture. IIpH-
xoAHXb K 6oJibH6My xoBapHiny.
To come and see a sick friend.
npHHXH B rocxH. To come on a
visit.
2. to set in. HpHmjia Becna. Spring
has set in.
3. to come. IIpHnxH k BMBOAy (pe-
meHHK)). To come to a conclusion
(a decidon). ITpHHxii k corJia-
meHHK). To come to an agree-
ment.
4.:npHHXH B Bocxopr. To be enrap-
tured.
<> Mne B rojioey npumjia Mbicjib.
An idea occurred to me. IlpHHTH
B ce6a. To come to one's senses.
IIpmlTH B cosHaHiie. To regain
consciousness.
nPHXOAflTbCH impers. npHXOAHxcH
imp. KOMy?
/
p. npHHXHCb, npn-
aSxch, past npnmJiocb to have (to)
Mne npHAGxcH BaM Bce paccKaaaxb.
I'll have to tell you everything. HaM
npnmjiocb npoHHxaxb SoJibmoH Ma-
xepwaji. We had to read much ma-
terial.
nPHHECATbCH see HPHHECbl-
BATbCH
nPH^ECblBAlTbCH, -rocb, -embcn,
-HDxcfl imp. neM?/p. npaqecaxbCH,
npnqemycb, npHqemembCH, npn-
^emyxcH to comb one's hair
IIPHHflHA
/.
cause, reason
CMeHXbCfl 6e3 npHHHHLi. To laugh
without any reason.
nPH
114 npo
nPHHTHlblfl, -an, -oe, -ue, short
form npHHTGH, npHHTH|a, -o, -h;
adv. npHHTHO pleasant, nice
npHHTHtiH qeJiOBBK. A nice person.
IIpMflTHUH neeT. A nice colour.
IIpHHTHaH HOBOCTb. Pleasant news.
\predic. impers. Mne 61JJ10 npHHTHO
CJij'raaTb ero. It was pleasant to
me to listen to him.
U.VO prep.
-^
ace, colloq. about
FaccKajKH npo ce6fl. Tell about
yourself. Oh paccKaaaJi naM CKasKy
npo BoJiKa. He told us a tale about
a wolf.
*> HnxaTb npo ccSh. To read to
oneself.
nP0B|OBATb, -yio, -yemb, -yiOT
imp. q T o? or
+ inf. /p.
no-
np66|0BaTb, -yio, -yemb, -yiox
1. to try. rionp66oBaTb peniHTb
aaflaqy. To try to solve the prob-
lem.
2. to taste. IIonpoCoBaTb cyn. To
taste the soup.
3.: Oh nonp66oBaJi cboh chjiu b
4>yT66Jie. He tried his skill at
football.
nPOBfil*ItTb see nPOBEPHTb
nPOBEPHlTb, -K), -emb, -k)t imp.
H T 0? / p. npOBeplHTb, -K), -HUIb,
-HT to check, to try
EpoBepHTb ynpajKHCHHe. To check
an exercise. DpoBepHTb onbiT. To
check an experiment.
nPOBECTfl see nPOBOAflTbi
DPOBOAflTbi, npoBOH^y, npoBOAnnib,
npoBOAHT imp.
/p. npoBecTii, npo-
Beflly,
-emb, -yx, past nposeji, npo-
Bejila, -6, -A
1. Koro? H X 0? KyA^?
to lead.
Oh npoBCJi rocxH b KOMHaxy.
He led the guest into the room.
IIpoBecxH napoxoA no KanaJiy.
To navigate a ship through a
canal.
2. to run over. IIpoBecxH pyKon no
BOJiocaM. To run one's hand over
one's hair.
3. to draw. IIpoBecxH jihhhk). To
draw a line.
4. to put. IIpoBecxH KaH^Ji b ny-
cxMHe. To cut a canal through
the desert. IIpoBecxH paflHO, raa.
To put radio, gas (in the house).
5.: IIpoBecxH aKCKypcHio. To con-
duct an excursion.
6. to spend. IIpoBecxH KaHHKyjiH
B flep^BHB. To spend one's holi-
days in the country.
nP0B0aflTb2 see nPOBOMCAXb
IIPOBO>KA|Tb, -K), -emb, -lox imp.
K r 6?
/
p. npoBOfliixb, npoBOHcy,
npOBOAHnib, UpOBOAHX
1. to see (somebody home). Oh
npoBOfliiJi fleB5nnKy ^omoh. He
saw the girl home.
2. to see off. IIpoBomaxb flpyra Ha
BOKaaJi. To see one's friend to
the railway station. Bqepa mh
npoBOwaJiH npo$coK)3HyK) ^ejie-
rannio. Yesterday we saw
off
a
trade-union delegation.
nporpAMMA
/.
1. programme. IIporpaMMa bA nHXb
Jiex. A five-year programme.
IIporpaMMa napxHH. A party
programme.
2. programme. IIporpaMMa Konn^p-
xa. The programme
of
the con-
cert. TeaxpajibHaH nporpaMMa.
A theatre programme.
3. syllabus. IIporpaMMa no Maxe-
MaxHKe. A syllabus in mathemat-
ics.
IIFOAA|B^Tb, -K), -emb, -rox imp.
Hxo? Koro? KOM y?//). npoAaxb,
njpoflaM, npoAamb, npoflacx, npofla-
flHM, npoAaAHxe, npoAaflyx,
past
npoAaJi, npoAajia, npoAajijo, -h to
sell
Ha pwHKe npoAaiox (|)pyKXH h obo-
mn.
They sell fruit and vegetables
at the market.
nPO^ABllim m., gen. -na shop-assis-
tant, salesman
PaSoxaxb npoflaBuoM. To work as
a shop-assistant (salesman).
nPOAATb see nPOMB^Tb
nPOAOJlHCAITb, -K), -emb, -lox imp.
Hxo? &
-f
inf. to continue
IIpoAOJijKaxb pasroBop. To continue
the conversation. IIpoAOJiHtaxb nexb.
To continue singing.
nPOAOJlHCAlTbCfl, 1st & 2nd pers.
not used, 3rd pers. -excH, -ioxch
imp. to last
CoSpanne npo^ojiHtaJiocb ao
B^ne-
pa. The meeting lasted till the
evening.
IIP0J^0J13KEHIIE neut. continuation
IIpoAOJiweHHe pa3roB6pa. The con-
tinuation
of
a conversation. IIpoAOJi-
npo 115 npo
weHHe poMana. The continuation
of
a novel.
^
IIpoflOjiHceHne cjieffyer. To be
continued.
nPOAS^KTbl pi. provisions
npoAVKTM nHTaHHH. Food-stuffs.
MojioHHtie npoAyKTH. Dairy prod-
ucts. IIoKynaTb npoAVKTH b Mara-
3HHe. To buy provisions at a shop.
nPOE35KA|Tb, -lo, -emb, -k)t imp.
HT0?MHM0 ^ e T 6?
/
p. upoexaxb,
npoeAly,
-emb, -yT
1. to drive past. IlpoeaHtaTb ropoA-
To drive past a town. Ilpoea-
jKaxb MHMO ;;6Ma. To drive past
a house.
2. to cover (a distance). IIpoexaTb
CTO KHJiOMeipoB. To covcr 100
kilometres. B ;;eHb mm npoea-
?KaJiH 50 KM. We covered 50 kilo-
metres a day.
3. to miss. H ne snaji, r^e nyHCHO
BuxoAHTb, H npoexaji ocTanoBKy.
/ didn't know where to get
off
and missed my stop, fl nacTO
npoesH^aK) cbok) ociaeoBKy. /
often miss my stop.
nPOXATb see HPOESaCATb
nP0|3KE[Tb, ->KHBy, -JKHBCmb, -JKHByT,
past npoTKHJi, npoH^HJia, np6JKHJi|o,
-H p. to live
Oh upomnji 75 jict. He lived 75
years. H npoHtHJi b 3T0m ropo^e
10 Jiei. / lived 10 years in that
town.
nP03PAHH|blfl, -afl, -oe, -ue trans-
parent
nPOnrPATb see nPOflrPblBATb
nPOflrPblBAITb, -K), -emb, -k)t imp.
HTO? KOMy? hcm
y?/p.
nponr-
pa|Tb, -K), -emb, -iot to lose (a
game, etc.), to be defeated
Hama KOManfla nponrpajia. Our
team lost. XIpoHrpaxb Bonny. To be
defeated in the war.
nP0H3BEAHHE neut. work
npoH3BeAeHHe HCKyccTsa. A work
of
art. IIpoHSBeAeHHfl IlymKHHa.
The works
of
Pushkin.
nP0H3BECTfl see nP0H3B0Ji;flTb
^P0H3B0/^flTb, npoHSBOJKV, npona-
Boflnmb, npoHSBOAHT imp. q t o?/
p. npoH3BecTM, npoH3BeA|y, -emb,
-yi,past nponsBCJi, npoH3BeJi|a,-6, -ri
1. to produce. IlpoHSBOAHTb cxan-
KH. To produce machine-tools.
8*
2. fig.
to make. IIpoHSBecTH rjiy66-
Koe BnenaTJieHHe. To make a
profound impression.
nPOH3B0ACTBO neut.
1. output. npOHSBOflCTBO CXaJIH.
Steel output.
2. production. OpyAHH npoH3B6A-
CTBa. Implements
of
production.
nP0H3H0meHIlE neut. pronuncia-
tion
IIpaBHJibHoe npoH3HomeHHe. The
correct pronunciation.
nPOHSOHTfl see HPOHCXOAflTb
nPOHCXO^flTb, 1st & 2nd pers. not
used, 3rd pers. npoHCXOAHT, npo-
HCXOAHT imp.
I
p. npOH30HTH, 1st &
2nd pers. not used, 3rd pers. npo-
H30HAleT, -yT, past nponsomeji,
npoHsomJija, -6, -h to happen
Co MHOH npoHsomeji HHTepecHHH
cjiyqan. An interesting thing hap-
pened to me. Hto 3Aecb nponcxo-
AHT?
WhaVs happening here? 3Toro
6w He npoH3omji6, ecjin 6u bh 6ti-
jiH ocTopoJKHH c omeM. This would
not happened had you been careful
with fire.
nPOflTfl see nPOXOAflTb
nPOMb'IfflJIEHHOCTb /. industry
TflHtejian npoMumJicHHOCTb. The
heavy industry. JlerKan npoMijm-
jiCHHOCTb. The light industry. Paa-
BHBaxb npOMumJiCHHOCTb. To devel-
op industry.
nPOMKimJlEHHIbin, -an, -oe, -He
industrial
IIpoMHmjieHHHH ropoA- An indus-
trial town. IIpoMHmJieHHHH n;eHTp,
paHOH. An industrial centre, region
nPOIIAAAITb, -K), -emb, -k>t imp./p,
nponacTb, nponaAly,
-emb, -yx,
past oponaji, -a, -o, -h
1. to be lost, y MCHH nponaji hocoboh
nJiaxoK. / lost my handkerchief.
2. to disappear. Oh ymeji BHcpa
BeqepoM h nponaJi. He went
away yesterday evening and dis-
appeared.
3. to be wasted. BpeMH nponajio
apH. The time has been wasted.
<> Bee nponajio! All is lost/ fl
nponSji. / am a lost man/
nPOnACTb see nPOHAAATb
nPOnyCKA|Tb, -lo, -emb, -H)x imp.
K r 6? H X 0?
/
p.
nponycxHxb, npo-
^y^^y,
nponycxnmb, nponycxHT
npo 116 nPO
1. to let through, rpfiaaoe CTeKJi6
nJioxo nponycKaex cbct. A dirty
glass lets the light through badly.
2. to let go before. IlponycKaTb
flCBymKy B^]epe;^. To let a girl
go before one.
3. to omit. nponycTiiTb cjiobo b
flHKxaHTe. To omit a word in
the dictation.
4. to miss. IIponycKaTb jicki^hh.
To mis'i lectures.
nponycTflTb see nponycKATb
nPOCflTb, npomy, npocHint, npocHT
imp. Koro? qxo? o HeM?&
+
p. inf.
I
p.
nonpocHTb, nonpo-
ray, iionpocHinb, nonpocflx to ask
npociiTb TOBapwma o noMomn.
To ask one's friend for help. IIo-
npocHTb hobuh jKypaaji
y Apyra.
To ask a friend for a new maga-
zine. Oh npociiJi nac npotiiiTaxb
paccKaa eme pas. He asked us to
read the story once more. Mu no-
npocMJiH, ^ixoobi OH HOiHeji c heImh.
We asked him to go with us.
nPOCHyXbCH see nPOCbinATbCfl
nPOCnf:KT m. avenue
nPOCTflTb see HPOm
VTb
nPOCTflTbCa see HPOmATbCH
nPOCT|Ofl, -aa, -6e, -we, short form
npocx, npocxa, npocxjo, -h; adv.
npocxo; comp. npome
1. simple, npocxoii npnCop. A
simple device, npocxaa aa^aia.
A simple problem. 3x0 o'lenb
npocxo c;j.eJiaxb. It is very sim-
ple to do.
2. ordinary. IIpocxoH nejioBeK. An
ordinary man.
3. npocxo particle simply, merely. H
cKaaaji axo npocxo xan. / said this
for
no special reason. 3xo npcS-
cxo nexopomo. It is simply ru)t
nice.
UPOCTPAHCTBO neut.^ space
npocx pa HCXBo H BpeMH. Space and
time. Be.iB03AyniHoe npocxpancxBO.
A vacuum.
nPOCTYAftTbCH see HPOCTS^JKH-
BATbCa
nPOCTS'JKHBAITbCH,
-locb, -embCH,
-lOXCH imp.
I
p.
npocxyjxHXbCH,
npocxyjK^'cb, npocxyj^HmbCfl, npo-
cxy;^HXCfl to catch cold
OceHbK) JiexKo mowho npocxyAwxb-
CH. In autumn people catch colds
easily. Oh cnJibHO npocxyAUJicfl.
He caught a bad cold.
nPOCTblHH
/.,
pi npocxHHH, npo-
cxMHb, npocxMHHM, etc. bedshect
nPOCbinA|TbCH, -locb, -embcfl, -iot-
CH imp.
I p.
npocHlyxbCH, -ycb,
-embCH, -yxcH to awake
IlpocHyxbCH paHO yxpoM. To awake
early in the morning.
nPOCbBA /. request
OGpaxfixbCH c upocbSoH. To make
a request. BbinojiHHXb npdcbSy. To
comply with one's request. V MeHH
K BaM 6oJibmaH npocbSa. / have a
great favour to ask
of
you.
nPOTHB prep.
-\-
gen.
1. opposite. Gxoaxb npoxne oKHa.
To stand opposite the window.
2. fgainst. BopoxtcH npoxHB Bpa-
ra. To fight against the enemy.
3. agaiust, in the opposite direc-
tion. MztxH npoxHB Berpa. To
go against the wind.
nPOXJIAJ^Hlblfl, -an, -oe, -ue, short
form npoxjia;i;eH, npoxjiaAH|a, -o,
-si; adv. npoxjiaAHO cool
ripoxjiaAHMH Be4ep. A cool evening.
\predic. impers. CeroAHH na
yjiHHe npoxjia^Ho. It is cool outside
today.
nPOXO/^flTb, npoxojKy, npox6ziHnib,
npoxoAHx imp.
/
p. npoHxw, npoH-
flly,
-emb, -yx, past npomeji, opo-
mJi|a, -6, -H
1. to move. IIpoHXH BoepcA. To
move to the front. IIpoHxif no
yjiHn;e. To go along the street.
2. to go through. IlpoHxn qepea
Jiec. To go through the forest.
Jlyqn coJiHua ne woryx npoHXH
CKB03b rycxyio JiHCXsy. The sun*s
rays cannot penetrate the think
foliage. Paapemnxe npoiixH. Will
you let me pass, please?
3. to go past. Ilpoxoflwxb mhmo
3AaHHH. To go past a building.
4. to cover. IlpoHXH aa aenb CoJiee
20 KHJioMexpoB. To cover over 20
kilometres a day.
5. to be over. 3HMa nponiJi^. The
winter is over. IlpomJio xpn Ha-
ca. Three hours went by.
6. to cease. FojioBHaa 6ojib nporajia.
The headache has ceased. J^o-m^h
npomeji 6ucxpo. It soon stopped
raining.
npo 117 nyc
7. to study. IIpoxofliiTb Kypc $h-
3HKH. To study a course
of
phys-
ics. Ilpoxoj^wTL Kypc jieqeHHH.
To undergo treatment.
nPOHHTATb see HHTATb
nPOHHIblfl, -aH, -oe, -He, short form
npoHGH, npoHHa, npoHHJo, -h; adv.
npoHHO
1. durable. IIpohhhh MaxepHaJi. A
durable material.
2. fig. strong, lasting. IIpoHHtiH
MHp. A lasting peace. Hama
^pVHtCa npoqna. Our friendship
is strong.
nPOfflJIIblfl, -an, -oe, -He last
B nporiiJiOM ro^y. Last year. Ha
npouiJiOH nej^eJie. Last week.
nPOniAlTb, -10, -einb, -lox imp. ko-
to? H T 0?
/
p. npolcTHTb,
-my,
-CTlimb, -CTflT
1. to forgive. IIpocTHTb ^ejioBGKa.
To forgive a person. Jlpomaxb
ouipiSkh. To forgive one's mis-
takes. IlpocTHTe Mena! Excuse me!
2. sorry. HpocTiiTe, bh ue sHaexe,
^;^e HBanoB? Sorry, do you know
where Ivanov is? ITpocTHTe, bh
He CKajKexe, KaK npoexaxb b
CoKOJibHHKH? Excusc me, can
you tell me how to get to So-
kolniki?
nPOmA.|TbCfl, -locb, -embCH, -loxca
imp. c KeM? c neu?
/
p. npo|-
cxHXbcfl, -m;ycb, -cxHuibca, -cxhxch,
or Donpon;a|xbCfl, -locb, -embca,
-lOXCH
1. to take leave. IIonpomaxbCH c poA-
HHMH nepe/t oxtesAOM. To say
good-bye to one's relatives before
one's departure.
2. fig.:
npocxnxbCH c Me^xoH. To
give up one's dream.
^
npoii(au(Te)! Good-bye
f
HPOflBftTb see HPOflBJlHTb
nPOflBJlH|Tb, -K), -euib, -K)x imp.
H T 0?
/
/>. npoHBHXb, npoHBJiio, npo-
HBHinb, npOHBflX
1. to display. IIpoHBHXb HHxepec
K xeMe. To display an interest
in a subject. IlpoflBHXb BHHMa-
HHe K ycnexaM jipyra. To show
interest in one's friend's success.
IlpoflBHXb 3a66xy. To show so-
licitude. IlpOHBHXb CMGJIOCXb,
repoH3M. To display courage,
heroism.
2. to develop. IlpOHBHXb njienKy.
To develop a film.
nPI>irA|Tb, -K), -euib, -lox imp./
p. npHrulyxb, -y, -emb, -yx to jump
HpHrnyxb ^epea cxyji. To jump
over a chair. Ilpbiraxb c 6epera b
BOfly.
To jump from the shore into
the water. Ilpbiraxb b fl;jiHHy. To
do a long jump. IlpHraxb b bhco-
xy. To do a high jump. HpHraxb
c napauiioxoM. To parachute.
npb'irHyxb see npi;irATb
nPiIM|OH, -afl, -oe, -ne, short form
npHM, npHMa, npHMJo, -h; adv.
npHMO
1. straight. IIpflMaa jihhhh. A
straight line. HpflMaH flopora.
A straight road. M^Hxe Bce BpeMfl
npjiMO. Go straight on all the time.
2. only complete form through.
ripHMoe cooSiueHHe Me?KAy ropo-
;i,aMH. A through service between
towns.
3. fig.
frank. IIpHMOH oxBex. A frank
answer. IlpflMOH xapaKxep. A
sincere character. GKaaaxb npaB-
^y
npHMO B JiHi;6. To speak the
truth to one's face.
nP>l|TATb, -qy, -nenib, -nyx imp.
K o r 6? q X 0? ox koto? o x ^ e-
t6?/p. cnpajxaxb, -ny, -nemb, -nyr
to hide
ripfixaxb cnHHKH ox peSeuKa. To
hide the matches from the child.
IIPH|TATbCH, -Hycb, -genibca, -nyxcH
imp. ox Koro? ox ner 6?/
p. cnpH|xaxbCfl, -nycb, -qeuibca,.
-nyxca to hide
Ilpflxaxbcfl ox BparoB b Jiecy. To-
hide from the enemies in the woods.
nXflUiA /. bird
nxHUH JiexeJiH K lory. The birds
were flying to the south.
<> J^OManiHflH nxHua. (no pi.}
Poultry.
n^^rOBHIXA /.
button
Sacxernyxb najibxo na Bce nyro-
BHiiH. To button up one's coat.
nyCKA|Tb, -K), -emb, -lox imp./
p.
nyCxHXb, nymy,
nycxnmb, nyc-
xax
1. to let go. H HHKyaa xe6a He
nymyl

CKaaaJia Maxb.
"/
won't
let you go anywhere!" said the
mother. Maxb ne nycKaJia ero
ryjiaxb. The mother would not
nyc 118 PAB
let him go for a walk. Hx nyc-
THJiH B
flOM.
They were let into
the house.
2. to put into operation. IlycTHTb
ajieKTpocTaHi;HK). To put an
electric power station into ope-
ration. EycTHTb noea;^. To start
a train service.
<> ElycTHTb KopHH. To take root.
IlycTHTb B xoA. To set in motion.
HycKfixb nbijib b rjiaaa. To show
nyCTflTb see nYCKAXb
nyCT|Ofl, -an, -6e, -bie, short form
nycT, nycTa, nycxlo, -u; adv. nycTO
1. empty. IlycTOH cxaKan. An
empty glass. 3aJi 6hji nycT. The
hall was empty. Ha yjiaqe 6hjio
nycTO. The street was deserted.
2.
fig.
shallow. IlycTOH qejioeeK.
A shallow person. IlycTOH cnop.
A pointless argument.
nyCTb'IHfl
/. desert
nyCTb particle lot
nycTb OH npH;;eT saBxpa. Let him
come tomorrow. Ilycxb Bcerfla 6y-
aex c6jiHi;el May there always be
sunshine!
nyXEfflECTBHE neut. journey, voy-
age, trip
KpyrocBexHoe nyxemecxBHe. A
round-the-world journey. nyxemecx-
BHe no MODK). A voyage. Ilyxemecx-
BHe B EBpony. A journey to Europe.
CoBepmnxb nyxemecxBne no
cxpane. To travel in a country.
nyXEmECTBlOBATb, -yio, -yemb,
-yiox imp. to travel
IlyxemecxBOBaxb no cxpane. To
travel in a country. IlyxefflecxBO-
Baxb no Mopio. To travel by sea.
fl jiio5jik) nyxemecxBOBaxb. / like
travelling.
nyXb m., gen., dat,, prepos. nyxH,
instr. nyxcM; pi. nyxH, nyxen,
nyxHM etc.
1. way. 3xox nyxb caMUH Kop6x-
KHH. This way is the shortest.
2. journey. BaM npe^cxonx xpyflHHH
H onacHWH nyxb. There is a
difficult and dangerous journey
ahead
of you.
3. fig. way. KaKHM nyxcM bh
flo6H-
JiHCb xaKHX peayjibx^xoB? How
{in what way) did you achieve
such results?
^
Bbi cTOHxe Ha BepHOH nyr^.
You are on the right track. H^T^
no BepnoMy nyxH. To go along
the right road. CqacxjiHBoro ny-
th! a happy journey/ Oh samcji
KG MHe no nyxH. He dropped
in at my place on the way. Ho
nyxH AOMou n KynHJi raaexy.
On my way home I bought a
newspaper. Ha o()paxHOM nyxH.
On one's way back.
nUJlb
/.,
prepos. b hlijih dust
CxHpaxb HMJib. To dust.
nbCA
/. play
3xa Hbeca hacx b xedxpe MaHK6B-
CKoro. This play is on at the Maya-
kovsky Theatre. 3xy nbecy no-
cxaBHJi OxJiOHKOB. This play was
stafed by Okhlopkov. IlbecH H6ce-
na. Plays by Ibsen.
nbUnibin, -an, -oe, -He
1. drunk.
2. used as n. a drunken man.
nUTEPO num. five
IlHxepo flpyaen.
Five friends.
riHTHO neut., pi. nnxHa, nHxen stain
HepHHJibHoe HHXHO. An ink-stain.
P,
P
PABOTA
/.
1. no pi. work. TsimejiaH pa66xa.
Hard work. Pa66xa aJieKxpo-
cxaHn;HH. The work
of
the elec-
tric power station.
2. no pi. work, job. Ilocxynnxb Ha
padoxy. To go to work. Iloxe-
pHXb pa66xy. To lose one^s job.
HaHXH pa66xy. To find a job.
HflXH Ha pa66xy. To go to work.
3. work. BucxaBKa pa66x xyflOJK-
HHKa. Exhibition
of
an artist's
works.
PABOXAITb, -H), -emb, -rox imp.
1. to work. Oh pa66xaex xopomo.
He works well. PaSoxaxb hhjkc-
HepoM. To work as an engineer.
Pa66xaxb b HHcxHxyxe. To work
at an institute. Pa66xaxb c hh-
xeperoM. To work with interest.
2. to work. PaSoxaxb naa cxaxbea,
Ha;^ KHHFOH. To work at an
article, at a book.
3. to work. MamHHa paSoxaex
oxJiHHHO. The machine works per-
fectly well.
PAB
119
PA3
^
Kto He paSoTaeT, tot hg ecT.
He who does not work^ neither shall
he eat.
PABOHlHtt m
,
gen. -ero worker
PABOHiHfl, -an, -ee, -ne
1. working. PaSo^HH KJiacc. The
working-class. Pa66qee jifimme-
HHe. The working-class move-
ment.
2. working. Pa66Hee BpeMH. Work-
ing hours. PaSoHHH koctiom.
Working clothes.
^
PaSoHHH flenb. Working day.
PaSoqaa CHJia. Manpower.
PABHOAS^mHlblfl, -aa, -oe, -He.
short form- paBHOAymeH, paBHO-
;(yuiH|a, -o, -m; adv. paBHo;^yI^HO
indifferent
Oh paBHOAynien k npnpoAe. He is
indifferent to nature.
PABHIHH, -aH, -oe, -ue, short form
paBGH, paBHia, -6, -u
1. equal. PaBHue chjih. Equal
forces.
2. equal. Mh Bce SACCb paBHu. We
are all equal here.
3. equal. J^bb
hjiioc ^Ba paBHO ^e-
THpcM. Two plus two is four.
-(^ Mee Bce pasHO. It's all the
same to me.
PAfl,
-a, -0, -H short adf. KOMy?
q e M y? &
+
m/ (to be) glad
fl BaM oqenb pa^. / am very glad
to see you. Mm paAH BaoiHM ycne-
xaM. We rejoice at your success.
PaA Bac BHflexb. I'm glad to see
you. fl pafla, mo bh npHouiH. I'm
glad you have come.
PAJ^HO
neut., indecl., no pi.
1. radio. MaoSpeTeHHe pa^HO. The
invention
of
the radio. Ilepefla-
B^Tb no paAHO. To broadcast.
2. radio. ITpoBecTii paano. To
put radio (in a house). BKjnoHHTb
paAHO. To turn on the radio.
BuKJiio^HTb pa^HO. To turn
off
the radio. CJiyuiaTb paAHO. To
listen to the radio,
j
PAJ^|OBATb, -yio, -yenib, -yioT imp.
Koro? qxo?//?. oSpaAloBaTb, -yio,
-yemb, -yrax to make glad
Hac paAyiOT Bauin ycnexH. We
rejoice at your success. Mena o6pa-
AOBaJio TBoe nacbMO. / was glad
to receive your letter.
PAJ^|OBATbCH, -yiocb, -yembca.
-yiOTca imp. k o m y?
h e m
y?/
p. o5paAloBaTbca, -yiocb, -yenibca,
-yiOTca to rejoice
P^AOBaTbca Becae. To rejoice at
spring. Mh paAyeMca BauiHM ycne-
xaM. We rejoice at your success.
PAj^OCTb /. joy, happiness
y Meaa 6oJibmaa paAOCTb. / have
great joy. Oh CKaaaJi Mae o6 3tom
c paAOCTbK). He told me about it
with joy.
PAS m.
1. time. }KH3Hb Aaexca TOJibKO
OAHH pas. Life is given to man
only once. HecKOJibKO pas. Sev-
eral times.
2. time. B nepBHH pas. For the
first time. Ha 3tot pas. This
time Oahh pas HAy a no yjiH-
ne... One day I was going along
the street ...
<> KaK pas. Just. He pas. More
than once. Hh pasy. Not once,
never. CeMb pas oxMepb, oahh
pas OTpeJKb. Gf. Measure thy cloth
ten times; thou canst cut it but
once.
PA3BHBA1TBCH -locb, -embca, -rorca
imp.
I
p.
pasSaxbca, pa3o6b|i6cb,
-embca, -loxca
1. to break. CxanaH pasSifjica. The
glass has broken. CxeKJio paaSa-
Jiocb. The glass has broken.
2. to crash. GaMOJiex pa36HJica. The
plane has crashed.
PA3Bflrb see BPITb
PA3BflTbCfl see PA3BHBATbCfl
PASBYAflTb see BVAflTb
PA3BE emphatic particle really
PasBe jieKi;Ha Koannjiacb? Has
the lecture ended? Paaae xh ae
aaaemb? Don't you know?
PA3BEJli|KA /.,
gen. pi. -ok
1. prospecting. PasBCAKa noJieaanx
HCKonaeMHX.
Pro<ipecting for
mineral deposits.
2.: BosAymnaa pasBCAKa.
Air recon-
naissance.
3.: Boeaaaa pasaeAKa.
Intelligence.
4. intelligence service. Pa66xa paa-
BeAKH.
The work
of
the intelli-
gence service.
PA3BHBA|Tb, -lo, -emb, -lox imp.
axo?//>.
paaaiixb, paPOBbjio, -emb,
-K)x to develop
PA3 120 PAH
PasBHBaxb naMHTb. To develop
one's memory. PasBHBaTb npoMtiiii-
JiGHHOCTb. To develop industry.
PasBiiBaxb MLicJib. To develop one's
idea. PasBHsaTb CKopocTb. To de-
velop speed.
PASBHBAITbCH, 1st & 2nd pers. not
used, 3rd pers. -eiCfl, -iotch imp.
to develop
PeSeaoK 6faicTpo pasBHBaeTCH. The
child develops quickly. IlpOMUfflJieH-
HOCTb paBBHBaexcH ycneiDHo. The
industry is developing successfully.
PA3BflTHE neut., no pi. development
Pa3BiiTne npoMuniJieHHOcTH, nay-
KH. The development
of
industry,
of
science.
PA3BllTb see PA3BHBATB
PA3BflTbCH see PA3BHBATbCH
PA3rOBAPHBA|TI>, -lo, -emb, -iot
imp. OKOM? HCM? CKGM?
to speak
PaaroBapHBaTb c jipyrou no-pyc-
CKH. To speak to a friend in Rus-
sian. PaaroBapHBaxb o saHainHX,
SHaKOMWX. To speak about one's
lessons, about one's acquaintances.
PA3rOBOP m. conversation
HHTepecHHH paaroBop. An interest-
ing conversation. PasroBop no Te-
jie(|)6Hy. A telephone conversation.
PA3J^AlBATtCH, Jst & 2nd pers. not
used, 3rd pers. -ctch, -iotch imp./
p. pasflaTbCH,
1st & 2nd pers. not
used, 3rd pers. paa^acTCH, paa^a-
flyTCfl, past pa3/i|aJiCH, -ajiacb, -ocb,
-HCb to be heard
PaaflaJiCH sbohok. A bell was heard.
B^aJiH pasAaiOTCH rojioca. Voices
are heard in the distance. PasAaJiCH
yMp
rpoMa. A thunderclap was heard.
PA3AATI>Cfl see PA3;^ABATbCfl
PA3AEBA|TbCH, -locb, -enibCH, -iotch
imp.
I
p. pa3Ae|Tbcfl, -nycb, -HenibCH,
-HyTCH to undress
PaBABBaTbCfl nepea chom. To un-
dress before going to bed. PasfleBaa-
Tecb, nojKaJiyncTa! Take
off
your
coat, pleasel
PA3AEJlflTb see J^EJlUiTh
PA3aETbCfl see PA3JtEBATbCH
PA3MfiP m. size
PasMep 66yBH. The size
of foot-
wear. IIoKa>KHTe, nojKaJiyncTa,
KOCTioM 50-ro pasMepa. Show me a
size 50 suit, please.
PA3H|bin, -an, -oe, -He {sing, used
rarely)
1. different. Y nnx pasnue xapaK-
Tepu, Their characters are quite
different.
2. different. TKuTh b paanbix ropo-
jxkx. To live in different cities.
3. various. CTyAeHTu paanux na-
UHOHaJibHOCTen. Students
of
va-
rious nationalities. ^ejieraTH H3
paanux cTpan. Delegates from
various countries.
PA30nTlICb see PACXOAflTbCH
PA30PBATb see PBATb
PA3PE3ATb see PE3ATb
PA3PEfflA|Tb, -K), -euib, -iot imp.
qTO? KOMy? &-j-
inf./p. paape-
mjHTb, -y, -Hmb, -aT to allow
Paap^mHTb GoJibnoMy BCTaBaTb. To
allow the patient to get up. Paape-
niHTe npoiiTii! May I get past,
please? PaapeniHTe bohth! May I
come in?
PA3PEraflTb see PA3PEinATb
PA3PyfflAlTb, -K), -emb, -k)t imp.
n T 0?//?. pa3pym|HTb, -y, -nnib,
-aT to destroy
PaapyuiHTb aom.
To destroy a
house. Pa3pymHTb ropo^. To destroy
a city.
PA3PymHTb see PA3PymATb
PA3TbE3aCA|TbCH, 1st & 2nd pers.
not used, 3rd pers. -eTCH, -iotch
imp. K
y A
a? o t k
y a
a? /p-
pa3T.e-
xaTbCH, 1st & 2nd pers. not used,
3rd pers. paBTieAleTCH, -yTCH to go
away in different directions
Ka>KAbiH roA CTyAeHTM paa^eawd-
lOTCH Ha KaHHKyjiw. Each year the
students disperse for
the holidays.
PA3'bXATbCH see PA3'bE3MCATb-
Cil
PAflOH m.
1. region, area. 9to oCmnpHUH
npoMtiniJieHHHH paaoH. It is a
vast industrial area.
2. district (an administrative di-
vision), fl WHBy B JleHHHCKOM
panoHe Mockbh. / Hue in the
Lenin district in Moscow.
PAKETA /.
rocket
SanycTHTb paKCTy b kocmoc. To
launch a rocket into outer space.
PAH|HTb, -K), -HHib, -HT Koro? bo
q T 6? n e M? imp. & p.
to wound
PAH 121
PEB
I
PaHHTb nyjien. To wound with a
bullet.
I
impera. Boiiua paHHJio b py-
Ky. The soldier was wounded in the
arm.
PAHUinfl, -Hfl, -ee, -He early
PaHHee yipo. An early morning.
PaHHHe $pyKTH. Early fruit.
PAHO adv., comp. paHBine
1. early. Pano yxpoM. Early in the
morning. BciaTb paho. To get up
early. Paho Jie^b cnaxb. To go
to bed early. 3HMa nacTynHJia
paHO. Winter came early. H
npnuieji paHO, a oh eme
panb-
me. / came early, but he had
come still earlier. H pano na-
yqHJiCH qHTaib. / learned to
read early.
2. predic. impers. (it is) early. 06e-
fl;aTb eme pano. It is too early
tq dine yet. Cefiqac pano. It is
early now.
^
HeM paHbme, tbm jiyqme. The
earlier, the better.
PAHbfflE adv. before
PaHbuie OH 6eiji jtpyrHM. He was
different before.
PACCEPAfiTbCH see CEPflflTbCH
PACCKA3 m.
1. story. PaccKas MaJibHHKa Mena
BSBOJiHOBaJi. The boy's story
moved me.
2. story. MHTepecHHH paccKaa. An
interesting story. C66pHHK pac-
CKaaoB. A collection
of
stories.
PACCKA3ATB see PACCKA3bIBATb
PACCKA3blBA|Tb, -lo, -emb, -K)t
H T 0? K 6 M? o H e M? imp./
p. paccKaaaxb, paccKaHy, paccKa-
jKenib, paccKajKyx to tell
PaccKaaaxb HcxopHio. To tell a story.
PaccKasaxb o Apyre, o h<H3hh. To
tell about one's friend, life. PaccKa-
SHBaxb CKasKH A6XHM. To tell fairy-
tales to children.
PACCTOHHHE neut. distance
PaccxoHHHe Mm^y ;;ByMH TOHKaMH.
The distance between two points.
PaccxoHHHe ox Mockbu
flO
JleHHH-
rpa^a- The distance between Moscow
and Leningrad. Ilpoexaxb 6oJibm6e
paccxoHHHe. To cover a long dis-
tance.
PACTAflTb see TAflTb
PACTEHHE neut. plant
PACT|B[, -y, -enib, -yx, past poc, -Jia,
-Jio, -JiH imp.
/p. BupacxlH, -y,
-emb, -yx, past Bbipoc, -Jia, -Jio,
-JIH
1. to grow. ^epeBbfl pacxyx mca-
JieHHO. Trees grow slowly.
2. to grow up. MaJibHHK poc b
AepeBHe. The boy grew up in
the countryside.
3. to grow, to increase, to rise.
Ham ropoA pacxex. Our town is
growing. VpoBenb mmun pacxex.
The living standard is rising.
4. to grow. BanaHH pacxyx na lore.
Bananas grow m the south.
PACXOAflTbCH, pacxojKycb, pacxo-
flHmbCfl, pacxoAflxcfl imp./p. paaoH-
xHCb, paaoHAlycb, -embCH, -yxcH
1. 1st and 2nd pers. sing not used to
disperse. PaaoHXHCb c coSpannn.
To disperse after the meeting.
HapoA MeAJieHHO pacxoAHJicfl.
The people were slowly dispersing.
2. to differ. PaaoiixHcb bo bsfjih-
Aax. To differ
in opinion, to dis-
agree, y Hero cJioBa ne pacxo-
AflXCH c AGJiOM. His words and
deeds are never at variance.
3. to divorce. Paaouxiicb c MymeM
(c JKeHOH). To divorce one's hus-
band (one's wife).
PBlATb, -y, -emb, -yx, past psaJi,
pBaJia, pBaJi|o, -h imp. qxo?
1. p. copBlaxb, -y, -emb, -yx to
pick. PBaxb D;BexH. To pick flow-
ers.
2. p. pasopBlaxb, -y, -emb, -yx to
tear (up). PBaxb 6yMary, rasexy.
To tear paper, a newspaper.
\\
fig. to break off. PasopBaxb
oxHomeHHH. To break
off
rela-
tions.
PEBEHIOK m., gen. -Ka; pi pe6Hxa &
AexH; gen. peSax & AexeH child
SAopoBMH pe5eH0K. A healthy
child.
PEBOJlIOI^HOHHIblfl, -aH, -oe, -He
1. revolutionary. PeBOJiK)i;n6HHoe
paSonee ABHJKeHHe. The revolu-
tionary working-class movement.
PeBOJiFOUHOHHan xeopna. A re-
volutionary theory.
2. revolutionary. PeBOJiKmHOHHoe
pasBHXHe. The revolutionary de-
velopment.
PEBOJIIDI^HH
f.
revolution
PEfl 122 POA
PFi/^KIHfl, -an, -oe, -He; adu. pe^Ko;
comp. peme
1. (ant. rycTdfi) thin. P^AKHe b6-
jiocH. Thin hair. Pe;5KHH Jiec.
A thin wood.
2. (ant. qacTo) rare, seldom. PeflKO
6oJieTb. To be seldom ill.
3. rare. PeAKHe MexdjiJiH. Rare
metals. PcAKan KHHra. A rare
book. PeflKHH cjiyqan. A rare case.
P3ATb, pe)K|y, -enib, -yi imp. hto?
qeM?
1. onZ?/ imp. to cut. Ho>K nJi6xo
peJKCT. The knife cuts badly.
2. p. oTpeaaTb, 0Tpe>K|y, -emb, -yx
to cut. Peaaxb xJie6 ho}k6m. To cut
bread with a knife. Oxpeaaxb
KycoK xjie6a. To cut
off
a slice
of
bread.
3. p. paapeaaxb, paapejKly, -enib, -yx
to cut, to carve. Paapeaaxb Kypn-
uy.
To carve the chicken.
P3K|Hfl[, -an, -oe, -ne, short form
peaoK, pesKa, pe3K|o, -h
1. shrill. PeBKHH sbjtk. A shrill
sound. PesKHH rojioc. Ashrill voice.
2. harsh. Pcskhh qeJioeeK. A harsh
person. Oh 6mji peaoK co bc^mh.
He was harsh to everybody.
3. adv. abruptly, suddenly. IIoeaA
peBKO ocxaHOBHncH. The train
stopped suddenly.
PESyjlbTAT m. result
PeayjibxaxH 6nMX0B. The results
of
experiments. IIoJiyHHXb xopomne
peayjibxaxBi. To get good results.
^ocxHHb xopomnx peayJibxaxoB. To
achieve good results.
O-
B peayjibTfixe. As a result.
PEKA
/.,
ace. pcKy, pi. peKH, peK,
peKaM, etc. river
ninpoKaH peKa. A wide river.
riJiuxb no peK6. To sail along the
river. Ha 6epery peKH. On the river
bank,
PEMOHT m., no pi. repair
PcMOHX 66yBH. Shoe repairs. Ox-
flaxb B peMOHX. To have (something)
repaired. C^^Jiaxb peMOHX KBapxH-
pu. To redecorate one's flat.
PECHtmA /. eyelash
JljiwBHue pecHHULi. Long eyelashes.
PECn^BJHKA /. republic
PECTOPAH m. restaurant
06eflaxb b pecxopane. To have din-
ner at a restaurant.
PEI^EnX m. prescription
Hanac^xb peq^nx. To write out a
prescription. IloJiyHHXb jieK^pcxBO
no peu6nxy. To have a prescription
made up.
PEH|b
/.,
gen. pi. -6h
1. speech. HtHBan penb. Living
speech.
2. speech. Bucxynaxb c p^qbio. To
make a speech.
-^Peib HABT o TOM, (iToSbi)... The
point is... 05 3tom hb MdHcex 6biTb
H peiH. It is out
of
the question.
PEinA|Tb, -K), -emb, -lox imp. qxo?
&
-f-
inf.
I
p. pein|Hxb, -y, -nmb, -dx
1. to decide. Mu pemHJin noHxn b
KHHO. We decided to go to the
cinema. On peuiHJi ^xaxb. He
decided to go.
2. to solve. Pemaxb aaflany. To
solve a problem. Pemaxb B^HCHbie
Bonpocbi. To solve important
questions.
PEfflEHHE neut.
1. decision. IIpdBHJibHoe pem^HHe.
The right decision. IlpHHHXb pe-
mcHHe. To take a decision.
2. solution. PemeHHe BawHOH npo-
6JieMM. The solution
of
an impor-
tant problem.
PEinflTb see PEfflATb
PHC m., no pi. rice
ypowaH pHca. Rice crops. Mhco c
PHCOM. Meat and rice.
PHC|0B.4Tb, -yio, -yemb, -yiox imp.
K r 6? H X o? H e M?
/
/?. napHCjo-
Baxb, -yro, -yemb, -yiox to draw
PHCOB^xb KapaHAam6M na 6yMare.
To draw with a pencil on paper.
PncoB^xb ;^0M. To draw a house.
POBH|bIfl, -an, -oe, -we; adv. p6BH0
1. smooth. PoBHaH flop6ra. A level
road. IlHc^xb poBHO. To write a
smooth hand.
2.
fig.
smooth, equable. P6bhhh
r6jioc. A smooth voice. Pobhuh
xapfiKxep. An equable temper.
3. adv., used as particle sharp. H
npHAy poBHO B xpH. ril come at
three sharp.
POJ^ m., pi. poflw, poHOB
1. prepos. B pofly
family, kin
2. prepos. b
pofly
birth, stock, ori-
gin; generation
3. sort, kind. BcHKoro p6Aa. All
kinds
of.
POA
123 PYK
t
<^ B CBoeM p5Ae. In its (his, her,
etc.) way. Ht6-to b otom poffe.
Something
of
the sort.
POJ^HHA /.,
no pi. mother country
SamHxa poAHHH. The defence
of
one's mother country. TKhtl na p6-
flHHe.
To live in one's country.
IlHCbMO c poAHHH. A letter from
one's mother country.
POJ^flTEJI|H no sing., gen. -gh par-
ents
IIoMoraTb poAHTejiHM. To help one's
parents. H^htb c poAHiejiflMH. To
live with one's parents.
POAlflTbCH, 1st & 2nd pers. not
used, 3rd pers. -htch, -htch imp.
&
p.,
past -HJICfl, -HJllaCb, -OCb, -HCb
& -HJijacb, -OCb, -HCb {only
p.)
1. to be born. H poflHJicH b 1930
^o;^y. / was born in 1930.
2. fig. to occur. V mchh po^HJiacb
HACfl. An idea occurred to me.
POOTlOfl, -aH, -6e, -He
1. related by blood or affinity. Poa-
HOH 6paT. A brother. PoAnaa
TCTKa. An aunt.
2. native. Poahoh Kpan. Native
land. Poahoh hswk. Mother
tongue.
3. used as n., pi. PoAHue. Rela-
tives.
POACTBEHHHK m. relation
jJaJibHHH poACTBeHHHK. A distant
relation. Bjihskhh poACTBeHHHK. A
near relation.
POMC^EHHE neut. birth
^eHb pojKAeHHH. One's birthday.
n03ApaBJIHK) BaC C AHCM pOHtA^HHH.
Many happy returns
of
the day.
P03A /. rose
Kpacnan posa. A red rose. ByK^x
po3. A bunch
of
roses.
P030B|blfl, -aH, -oe, -He pink
PoaoBoe njiaxbe. A pink dress.
POJlb
/.,
pi. pojiH, pojieH part
BnyHHTb pojib. To learn one's part.
HrpaTb pojib raMJieia. To play the
part
of
Hamlet.
^
HrpaTb BawHyio
pojib (b
^eM-Jli^6o). To play an important
part (in something). 3to He erpa-
CT pojiH. This is
of
no conse-
quence.
POMAH m. novel
McTopHHecKHH poMaH. An
historical
novel. OnyCJiHKOBaxb poM^H.
To
publish a novel. Anxop poMana. The
author
of
a novel.
POCT m.
1. growth. PocT pacxeHHH. The
growth
of
plants
2. growth. PocT ropoAOB. The
growth
of
cities. Pocx npoMHin-
jieHHOCXH. The growth
of
in-
dustry.
3. stature, ^cjiobok bhcokofo poc-
xa, cpeAHero pocxa, HHSKoro
pocxa. A person
of
large stature,
of
medium stature,
of
small stat-
ure.
POT m., gen. pxa, prepos. bo pxy
mouth
Bo pxy OH AepJK^Ji nannpocy He
had a cigarette in his mouth.
POHJIb m. (grand) piano
Hrpaxb Ha poaJie. To play the piano.
PYBAmiKA
/.,
gen. pL -ck shirt;
chemise
BeJiaa pySaraKa. A white shirt.
HoHudH pyS^mna. A nightgown,
a night shirt.
PyBJl|b m., gen. -a rouble
J^sa
pySJia. Two roubles. Ilaxb
pySJieH. Five roubles. B py6Jie cxo
KoneeK. A rouble contains one hund-
red copecks.
<> He HMefi CTO pySjiefi, a hmgh
CTO Apysefi (proverb). It's better to
have a hundred friends than a hund-
red roubles.
pyrA|Tb, -K), -emb, -lox imp. kofo?
3 a H X 6?
/
p. o6pyraIxb, -lo, -emb,
-lox to scold
MaJib^HKa pyr^JiH aa njioxoe no-
BeACHHe. The boy was scolded
for
bad behaviour.
PYKA /.,
ace. pyny; pi. pyKH pyK,
pyKaM, etc. hand, arm
JleBaa pyKa. The left hand (arm).
IIpaBaa pyna. The right hand (arm).
^epHcaxb B pyKe. To hold in one's
hand. Oh nowaji en pyny h ymeji.
He shook hands with her and left.
^
HMeTb sojioTue pyKH. To be
master
of
one's work. Macxep ea Bce
pyKH. Jack-of-all-trades. ^epKcaxb
ce6a B pyKax. To control oneself.
BpaTb ceSa b pyKH. To pull oneself
together. Hath noA pyKy* To walk
arm-in-arm. BpaTb noA pyKy. To
take somebody's arm. PyKofi noAaTb.
It's a stone's throw (from here)
PYK 124
CAfl
MaxHyxb pyKOH na Kor6-jiH6o,
HTO-JifiSo. To give up somebody,
something. 3to b namiix pyKax.
It is in our hands. BpaTb b cboh
pvKU. To take into one's hands.
BbiTb 6e3 Kor6-JiH6o, nero-JiHSo
KaK 6e3 pyK. To be quite helpless
without somebody, something.
PYKAB m., gen. -a sleeve
KopoTKHe pyKSBa. Short sleeves.
pyKOBOAflTEJlb m. leader
PyKOBOIAflTb, -jKy, -flHinb, -flax
imp. K e M? q e M? to direct, to
run, to lead
FyKOBOjiHTb paSoTOH. To direct the
work. FyKOBOjtHTb JiioflbMH. To lead
people. PyKOBO;^HTb aaBOAOM. To
run a plant.
PycCKIHH, -aH, -oe, -ne
1. Russian. PyccKHH napoA- The
Russian people. PyccKaa npapo-
;^a. The Russian countryside.
PyccKHH H3MK. The Russian
language.
2. used as n. Russian. Mm pyccKHe.
We are Russians.
P5^M|KA
/.,
gen. pi. -eK
1. handle. PyqKa ABepn. A door-
handle.
2. pen. ITHcaxb pyqKOH. To write
with a pen.
PL'IBA /.
1. fish. B aKBapnyMe njiaBaJiH paa-
Hwe pmSh. Various fishes were
swimming in the aquarium.
2. collective fish. JIoBHXb pwCy. To
catch fish.
3. collective fish. }KapeHaH pmSa.
Fried fish.
<> Hii pwGa HH Mnco. Neither
fish nor flesh.
Pb'IHlOK
m., gen. -na
1. market. Kojixoshwh pwHOK. A
collective- farm market. IlpoflaBaTb
$pyKTbi Ha pbiHKe. To sell fruit
in a market.
2. market. MnpoBoa pwHOK. The
world market.
PHfl
m., prepos. o (b) pHAe & b pHAy;
pi. pflAM
1. row. PflA AOMOB. A row
of
houses.
Pha JiiOAeH. A line
of
people.
riepBUH
pHA napT^pa. The
first row
of
the stalls. CHAeib B
n^pBOM
pflAY-
To sit in the first
row.
2. a number (of). Oh npHBeji
u6-
JiuH pflA npHMepoB. He gave
quite a number
of
examples. B
paAe cjiy^aeB axo xaK. In a num-
ber
of
cases it is so.
<> BbiTb b nepBbix pnA^x. To be
in the forefront.
PHAOM adv.
1. nearby. MaraawH naxoAHxcH pa-
AOM. The shop i9 nearby.
2. by. Gxofixb phaom c CpaxoM. To
stand by one's brother.
C, c
C prep.
I. -i-gen.
1. otf, from. BsHXb KHwry c dojikh.
To take a book
off
the shelf.
2. from. Bepnyxbcfl c paSoxbi. To
come back from work.
3. from. C yxpa ao Benepa. From
morning till evening. G pannax
Jiex. From one's early years.
4. from. IlepeBecxH c pyccKoro
H3HKa Ha (J)paHHy3CKHH. To
translate
from Russian into
French.
II. -[- instr.
1. with. HejiOBCK c nopx(|)eJieM. A
man with a brief-case. Bpax g
cecxpoH. The brother and the
sister. ToBopMXb c ApysbHMH. To
speak to one's friends. Bcxp6-
xHXbCH c xoBapHni;aMH. To miet
one's friends.
2. with, and. K6$e c mojiokom. Cof-
fee and milk.
3. with. Pa66xaxb c yAOBOJibcxBHCM.
To work with pleasure. GMOxpexb
4)H;ibM c HHxepecoM. To see a
film with interest.
CAJ^
m., prepos. b caAy & o caAe; pi.
caAu garden
JI^OM cxoflJi B caAy. The house stood
in a garden. (PpyKXOBUH caA- An
orchard. BoxaHH4ecKHH caA-
Botan-
ical garden.
<> AcTCKHH caA.yl
kindergarten.
CAlJ^flTBCH, -Htycb, -AwnifcCH, -ahxch
imp.
K
y A
a? &
+
inf. I p.
cecxb,
CHAly. -emb, -yx, past ceJi, -a, -o, -h
1. to sit down. CaAWTbCH na cxyji.
To sit down on a chair. Gecxb 3a
cxoji. To sit down to table.
CA5K 125 CBE
2. to get on, in. CaflHTbcn b noes^,
B aBTOModHJib. To get on a train,
in a motor-car.
3. to set (to work). GecxB sa pa66-
Ty. To set to work.
4. to set. CojiHi^e caAHTca. The sun
is setting.
CAHCAlTb, -H),^ -eniB, -k)t koto?
HTO? Ky^a? imp.
I
p. nocaAWTb,
nocajKy, nocaAHoiB, nocaAHx
1. to put, to place. IIocaAaTb dth-
ny
B KJiexKy. To put the bird
into a cage.
2. to plant. GajKaxb i^Bexti. To
plant flowers.
CAJIAT m.
1. lettuce. GBe?KHH caJiax. Fresh
lettuce.
2. salad. CaJiax h3 orypi^oB, h3 no-
MHAopoB. A cucumber salad, a
tomato salad.
CAJI<DET|KA /.,
gen. pi. -ok napkin
Hacxan caJi^exKa. A clean napkin.
ByMawnaH caJi^exKa. A paper nap-
kin. IIoJibaoBaxBca caJi$exK0H. To
use a napkin.
CAM, caMa, caMO, caMH pron.
1. myself, yourself, himself, herself,
itself, ourselves, yourselves, them-
selves. He HaAO MHe noMoraxb, a
caM Bce CAeJiaio. Don't help me,
ril do everything myself.
2. myself, yourself, himself, her-
self, itself, ourselves, your-
selves, themselves. Oh caM roBO-
pHJi o5 3X0M. He himself told
me that.
CAMOJ],HTEJIbHOCTI> /., no pi.
amateur talent activities
XyAOJKecxBeHHaH caMOAenxeJib-
Hocxb. Amateur theatricals. Be^ep
caMOAeaxeJibHOCXH. An amateur
concert.
'CAMOJIET m. aeroplane
Jlexexb na caMOJiexe. To go by air.
PeaKXHBHBiH caMOJiex. A jet plane.
CAMOOBCJiyaCHBAHHE neut. self-
service
CaMoo6cjiyHtHBaHHe b cxojioboh.
Self-service in a cafeteria. MaraaHH
caMOo6cJiyH<HBaHHH. A self-service
shop.
CAMOCTOHTEJlbHIblfl, -an, -oe,
-He; adv. caMocxoaxejibHO indepen-
dent, self-dependent
CaMOCxoflxeJibHafl pa66xa. Inde-
pendent work. GaMOcxoaxeJibHHH ^e-
JiOBCK. A self-dependent person.
}KHXb caMOCxoflxeJibHO. To live in-
dependently. Oh caMOcxoHxeJibHO
Hsy^aex pyccKHH hbhk. He studies
Russian by himself.
CAMIblfl, -aa, -oe, -He pron.
1. the very. 3xo KHiira, Koxopyio
XH HCKaJi?
^a, 3X0 xa caMaa
KHHra.
"/5
this the book you
were looking
for?" "Yes, that's
the very book."
2. very. Maraaan naxoAHXca b ca-
MOM KOHue yjiHHH. The shop is
at the very end
of
the street, fl
3Haji 3X0 c caMOro naqaJia. /
knew it from the very start.
3. most. CaMHH xopomna. The
best. GaMBiii KpaCHBHH ropo^.
The most beautiful city.
'
<> B caMOM ACJie, oh npae. As a
matter
of fact, he is right. Mm
AyMEJiH, OH 66jieH, a na eaMOM
ACJie OH SAopoB. We thought he
was ill, but in fact he is all right.
CAXAP m. sugar
KnjiorpaMM caxapa. A kilogramme
of
sugar, ^an c caxapoM. Tea with
sugar.
CBOPHHK m. collection
GGopuHK cxaxeH. A collection
of
articles.
CBAjUbBA /.,
gen. pi. CBaAeS wed-
ding
Becejiaa CBaA^Sa. A merry wedding.
Bhxb Ha CBaAbSe. To be present at
a wedding. ilpasAHOBaxb cBaAb6y.
To celebrate one's wedding.
<> J^o cBaAb6bi saHfiiBCT (proverb).
It'll have healed before your wed-
ding.
CBAPflTb see BAPflTb
CBE3K|Hfl, -aa, -ee, -ne, short forni
CBejK, cBewa, CBe>K|e, -h; adv. cBemo
1. fresh. GBe>Kee mfico. Fresh meat.
CBe>KHe HBexH. Fresh flowers.
GBemne ApyKXH. Fresh fruit.
GBe>KHe OBO^^H. Fresh vegeta-
bles.
2. fresh. Gbcjkhh BoSAyx. Fresh air.
Ha CBeHteM BOSAyxe. In the fresh
air.
3. cool. GBeJKee yxpo. A cool morn-
ing.
I
predic. impers. GerOAHH
CBewoI It's cool today/
CBE
126 CBH
4. fresh. Cb^jkhg raaexH. Fresh
newspapers.
<^ BpaTbCH 3a paSoTy co ceeHcnMii
CHnaMH. To tackle the work with
renewed strength.
CBEPKA|Tb, 1st & 2nd pers. not used,
3rd pers. -ex, -K)t imp.
/
p. CBepK-
hIvtl, 7s/ & 2nd pers. not used,
3rd pers. -ex, -yx to flash, to
sparkle
B He6e CBepKHyjia mojihhh. Light-
ning flashed in the sky. Mope csep-
KaJio. The sea was sparkling.
CBEPKH^Tb see CBEPKATb
CBEPXy adv,
1. oxKyfla? from ahove. Ceepxy
ynfiji KaMeHb. A stone fell from
above. CMOxpexfc csepxy bhh3.
To look down.
2. Tjie? on the surface. JKnp njia-
Baex CBepxy. Fat floats on the
surface.
CBETi m., no pi.
1. light. CojiHGHHUH CBex. Sun-
light.
2. light. Samemy cBex. To switch on
the light. IIoracHXB cbbx. To
switch
off
the light. IIocMOxpexL
Ha CBex. To look (at something)
against the light. Hnxaxb npn
CBexe jiaMDH. To read by lamp-
light.
< yqeHbe

cbbt, a Heyqenbe

TbMa (proverb). Cf. He that ne-


glects learning in his youth, loses
the past and is dead
for the
fu-
ture.
CBET2 m., no pi. world
riyxeniecxBHe BOKpyr csexa. A jour-
ney round the world.
CBETflTb, 1st & 2nd pers. not used,
3rd pers. CBexHX, CBexflX
CojiHixe flpKO CBexMX. The sun is
shining brightly.
CBl^TJl|bIfl[, -an, -oe, -He; adv. CBexjio
1. light. GBexjian KOMHaxa. A light
room.
I
predic. impers. Ha yjiHii;e
CBexjio. It is light in the street.
2. light. Cbcxjiuh kocxiom. A light
suit.
3.
fig. lucid. CBexjiHH yM, CBexjiaa
roJiOBa. A lucid mind.
CBHA'^HHE neut. appointment, meet-
ing
Haxh Ha CBHfldHHe. To go to keep
an appointment. HasH^HHXb CBHAd-
HHe. To make an appointment.
<> flo
CBnAaHnn! Good-bye/
J^o
CKoporo cbma^hhh! See you soon/
CBOBO^A
/.
1. only sing, freedom. BopbCa 3a CBO-
66fly.
Struggle for freedom. 3aB0e-
Baxb CBoGoAy. To win freedom.
2. freedom. CBo66;;a cjiosa. The
freedom
of
speech. CBo66;^a ne-
qaxH. Freedom
of
press.
CBOBO^Hlblfl, -an, -oe, -He, short
form cBo66;teH, CBo66AH|a, -o, -h;
adv. CBo66flHO
1. free. CBo66flHHH Hapo;^. A free
people.
2. only complete form free of charge.
Cbo66ahhh bxoa. Free admis-
sion.
3. adv. fluently. H CBo66flHO roBopi^
no-anrjiBHCKH. / speak English
fluently.
4. vacant. CBo66AHoe Mecxo. A va-
cant seat. 3to Mecxo CBoSoflHO?
Is this seat vacant?
5. free. CBoSoAHoe BpeMH. Free time.
CeroflHfl BeqepoM a CBo66AeH.
/ am free tonight.
CBOB, CEOH, CBoe, cboh pron. one's
(own)
fl HAy K CBoeMy xoeapHmy. / am
going to my friend's. Oh naACJi
cboh kocxiom. He put on his suit.
H npocHJi xoBapnnia npHnecxH mhb
CBOK) KHHry. I asked my friend to
bring me his book.
CBOflCTBO neut. property
CBflSATb see CBH3bIBATb
CBH3bIBA|Tb, -K>, -emb, -rox imp,
Koro? Hxo? c KCMPcqe m?/
p. cBflsaxb.cBHHty.cBHHcemb, CBHmyr
1. to tie together. CBHsaxb OAny
BepeBKy c ApyroH. To tie one
rope to another.
2.
fig. to involve. 3xo CBHsano c
6ojibmHMH xpyAHOCxflMH. This
involves great difficulties.
CBfl3b
/.
1. tie. VKpenjiflxb cbhsh c napoAa-
MH Bcex cxpaH. To strengthen
the ties with the peoples
of
alt
countries.
2. communication. Tejierpd^nan
CBHBb. Telegraph communication.
3. connection.
<> B CBH3H C TeM, <ITO... In
cro
127 CEP
I
connection with... B cbhsh c 9thm...
In this connection...
CrOPfiTb see TOPETB
C;^A|BATb, -K), -eiuL, -K)T imp. hto?/
p. CflQTL, CflHM, Cflanib, CflaCT,
c;iaAHM, cflaflHTe, cffaAyx, past
Cflaji, -a, cflajijo, -h
1. to return. CASTb KHHry b 6h6-
jiHOTeKy. To return the book to
the library.
2. to let. CflaBaib flany,
KOMHaiy.
To let a summer cottage, a room.
3. to take. CAaBaib aKsaMenH. To
take examinations.
CJ^ATb see C^ABATB
CJ^AHA /.,
no pi. change
Ilojiy^HTb cflaiy.
To get some
change.
Jlaxb 10 KoneeK ca^hh. To
give 10 copecks change.
CflEJTATb see flEJIATB
C;^EPH^ATL see JJElHCATb, 2
CEBH pron., no ncm.\ gen., ace. ccCh,
dat., prepos. ce6e, instr. co66h
myself, yourself, himself, herself,
itself; ourselves, yourselves, them-
selves
IlpHrjiacHTb K ce6e ^omoh. To in-
vite to one's place. B ;aop6ry h
BBHJi c co66h MbiJio, nojioTeni^e
H syCnyio meiKy. / took soap, a
towel, and a toothbrush with me on
my trip. PaGoTaTb
y
ce6fl flOMa.
To
work at home.
-<> HHTaxb npo ceCn. To read to
oneself. Buhtb h3 ccGh. To be
beside oneself. UpiiiiTH b ce6fl. To
come to one's senses.
CEBEP m., no pi.
i. north. CaMOJiex jieTHT na cesep.
The plane is flying northward.
K ceBepy ox Her6-JiH6o. North
of
some place.
2. north. JKbxb na ceBepe. To live
in the North.
CBEPH|blfl, -an, -oe, -He north(ern)
CeBepHUH Bexep. A north wind.
CeBepHUH nojiioc. The North Pole.
CEPOOTH [-bo-] adv. today
GeroAHH Syaex ao>kjii>- ^^ ^Hl fc^^n
today. CeroAHH yxpoM. This morn-
ing. CeroflHH BeqepoM. Tonight.
CErOAHflmillHfl, -Ra, -ee, -He to-
day's
CeroAHflmHflfl rasexa. Today's news-
paper.
CEJ^10B[, -an, -6e, -He, short form ce^,
ce^a, ce^H
1. grey. CeflHe bojioch. Grey hair.
2. grey-haired. CeAOH cxapHK. A
grey-haired old man.
CEHHAC arfy.
1. now. CeHH^c h qyBcxByio ce6fl
xopomo. Now I feel well. Cen-
^ac HAex ypoK. A lesson is in
progress now.
2. right now. H cenqac npH^y.
I'll come right now Gen^ac me
HAH ciOAa!

CeHHac! ''Come
here at once/" "Just a mo-
ment/"
CEKPETAP|b m., gen. -A secretary
CEK^HAA /. second
^Be ceKyHAH, naxb ceKyHA. Two
seconds, five seconds.
<^
Chio CBKyHAy! Just a moment/
CEJlO neut., pi. cejia village
CEJlbCKlHfl, -an, -oe, -He country,
village
CejibCKafl MecxHOCXb, Country local-
ity. CejibCKan }KH3Hb. Country life.
CejibCKHH Bpan. A country doctor.
<> CejibCKoe xo3flHCTBO. Agricul-
ture.
CEMbH
/.,
pi. ceMbH, ceMen family
^pyjKHaH ceMbH. A united family.
y MCHH 6ojTbmafl ceMba. / have a
large family.
CEHTUBPIb m., gen. -A September
3aBxpa Dflxoe ceHxaCpji. Tomorrow
is the
fifth of
September. B cen-
Xfl6pe
y
nac enie xenjio. It is still
warm in September in our parts.
CEPAEHHiblH, -an, -oe, -ne, short
form cepAeqeH, cepAeHH|a, -o, -h;
adv. cepAeqno cordial
IlepeAaxb cepAennHH npHBex. To
give one's warmest regards. CepAeH-
HHH npneM, cepAeHHan oScxanoBKa.
A cordial reception, a cordial at-
mosphere.
CEP;i;flT|blfl, -an, -oe, -ne, short form
cepAHX, -a, -o, -h; adv. cepAHXo
angry
CepAHXHH qeJiOBCK. An angry per-
son. H cepAHX na nero. / am angry
with him. CepAHXHH BarJiHA- An
angry look.
CEPJ^flTbCH, cepjKycb, cepAHmbCH,
cepAHxcH imp. h a k o r 6?
Ha mo?
I p.
paccepAHXBCfl,
CEP 128 CHJI
paccepwycb, paccep/iHinbCfl, pac-
cepAHTCfl to be angry
He cep^HCbl Don't be angry! Maxb
paccep;(HJiacb na cwHa aa ono3Aa-
HHe. The mother was angry with
her son for being late.
CPOT|E
neut., pi. -a, cepAei^, cepA^aM,
etc.
1. heart. V nero dojibHoe cep^i^e.
He has a bad heart.
2. fig.
heart. Oh aaMeqaieJibHtiH
qejiOBeK,
y
nero aojioxoe cepAi;e.
He is a wonderful man, he has a
heart
of
gold.
<> IIosApaBJiflTb OT Bcero cepAUA'
To congratulate with all one's heart.
FoBopHTb OT HHCToro cepwa. To
speak from the bottom
of
one's
heart. V mbhh ee jicwht k oTOMy
cepnue. / have no liking
for
this.
CEPEA0HA /. middle
CepeAHHa Kpyra. The centre
of
a
circle. B cepeAwne Jieca. In the
middle
of
the forest. GepeAHHa Jie-
Ta. The middle
of
the summer.
CP|bIfl, -an, -08, -He grey
GepuH KOCTioM. A grey suit (cos-
tume). Cepue rjiaaa. Grey eyes.
CEPbE3H|bIfl, -an, -oe, -He, short
form cepheaen, cepbe3H|a, -o, -h;
adu. cepbeano
1. serious. GepbesHHH HeJioeeK. A
serious person.
2. serious. GepbeBHan Knnra. A se-
rious book. GepbesHaa MysHKa.
Serious music. GepbliauHH paa-
roBop. A serious talk. Gepbeauo
3a,"yMaTbrH. To think seriously.
3. serious. Gepbeaeoe nojioweHHe. A
serious situation. GepbcanaH 6o-
Jieaub. A serious illness.
CECTPA
/.,
pi cecipw, cecxep, cecxpaM,
etc.
1. sister. Gxapraafl cecxpa. Elder
(eldest) sister. MJiaAmaa cecxpa.
Younger (youngest) sister. Poa-
HaH cecxpa. A sister. /],BOi6poAHaH
cecxpa. A cousin.
2. nurse. MeAHmiHCKaH cecxpa. A
(hospital) nurse.
CECTb see CAAflTbCH
CE|HTb, -K), -euib, -lox imp. q x o?/
p. noce|flXb, -K), -emb, -lox to sow
GcHXb omeHHqy, KyKypyay. To
sow wheat, maize.
CaeE^b see aCEHb
C3AflH
1. adv. behind. Oh men csaAH. He
was walking behind.
2. prep. -{-gen. behind. GaaAH AOMa
6hji caA.
There was a garden be-
hind the house, fl chacji caaAH
mo(J)epa. / was sitting behind the
driver.
CHIflETb, -my, -Anmb, -ahx
imp.
TAB?
1. to sit. GiiAGTb HaAHBane, na cxy-
Jie. To sit on the divan, on a chair.
2. to stay. I^eJiHH A^Hb oh CHAeji
OAHH. He stayed at home alone
the whole day.
<> CiiAexb Ha raee y Kor6-jift6o.
To be on somebody's hands. CBflfitb
CJio<a pyKu. To sit idle.
CflJIA /.
1. strength. HejioBeK 6ojibm6H $h-
3HiecK0H CHjiH. A man
of
great
physical strength.
2. power. GiiJia cjioBa. The power
of
the word. CnJia npHBUiKH. Force
of
habit.
3. usu. pi. forces. BoopymeHHHe ch-
JIH. The armed forces. Ghjih mh-
pa H nporpecca. The forces of
peace and progress.
4. force. CHJia xfiwecxn. Force
of
gravity.
<> EeHcaxb nao Bcex cn;i. To run
as fast as one can. J^eJiaxb qTO-
jih6o qepea CHJiy. To force one-
self to do something, fl ne b
CHJiax CAGJiaTb 3T0. / am unable
to do that. 3to CBUine mohx chji.
This is beyond my powers. Mhc 6to
He noA CHJiy. this is beyond my
powers. 3to b Hamiix CHJiax. We
are able to do that.
GflJIbH|blfl, -an, -oe, -He, short form
CHJiea, CHJIbHa, CHJIbHO, CHJIbHH;
adv. CHJIbHO
1. strong, powerful. Cwnbuuu qejioj
BeK. A strong man. Ghjii>hhh
BapHB. A powerful
explosion.
GHJibHO yAapHXb.
To hit a heavy
blow.
I
fig.
Ero penb npoHSsejia Ha
MCHH cHJibHoe BncHaxJieHHe.
His
speech made a strong
impression
on me. Y Hero CHJibnaa bojih.
He is a man
of
strong will.
2. loud, severe. GnJibHHH myM. A
loud noise. GnJibHHH Mopos. Se-
vere frost.
CHH 129 cKy
I
CflHintt, -Hfl, -ee, -He blue
CHHee Mope. Blue sea. CnHne rjia-
3a. Blue eyes.
CHPOTA m. &
/.,
pi. CHpoTH orphan
Oh ocxajicfl cnpoTon. He became
an orphan.
<> KpyrjiWH CBpTa. A complete
orphan.
CKA3ATb see TOBOPflTb
CKA3|KA
/.,
gen. pi. -ok fairy-tale
Hap6ji;HBie CKasKH. Folk tales.
CKAMElflKA
/.,
gen. pi. -bk bench
CuAeTb na CKaMCHKe. To sit on a
bench.
CKATEPT|B
/.,
gen. pi. -m table-
cloth
BeJiaH CKaTepiB. A white table-
cloth. riocTejiHTb CKaxepTB, To
spread a table-cloth. Gtoji noKpHT
KpacHBOH CKaxepTbio. The table is
covered with a beautiful table-cloth.
CKBEP m. public garden
B CKsepe nrpajin ji;eTH. Children
were playing in the public garden.
CKB03b prep, -j- ace. through
CKBOSb jiHCTBy 6biJio BHAHO He6o.
The sky was visible through the
fo-
liage.
<> CMOTpeTb Ha ^TO-JIHSo CKBOSb
najibi^bi. To close one's eyes to
something.
CK0JIb3K|Hfl, -an, -oe, -ne; adv.
CKOJibSKO slippery
GKOJibSKHH noji. A slippery floor.
\predic. impers. Ha yjiHn,e cKOJibSKO.
It is slippery outside.
CKOJIbKO how much, how many
GKOJibKO qeJiOBBK npHffljio? How
many people have come? GKOJibKO
CTOHT 3Ta KHiira? How much is this
book? GKOJibKO BpeMeHH? What time
is it? GKOJibKO BaM Jiex? How old
are you? ITocMOTpHTe, CKOJibKO
3Aecb KpacHBWX i^BeTOB! Look what
a lot
of
beautiful flowers there are
here!
<> GKOJibKO rOJIOB, CTOJIbKO yMOB.
As many men, as many minds.
CKOPEE
1. comp.
of
adv. cKopo
2. adv. rather, sooner. Oh CKopee
yMpeT, ^eM npnanaeT cbok)
oiiiH6KyI He will rather die than
admit his mistake!
<0' CKopee Bcero axo thk. Most
likely it is true.
94002
CKOPO adv., comp. CKopee soon
GKopo HacxynHT Becna. Spring
will come soon. H. CKopo npn^y.
I'll come soon. npHxo^H CKopee!
Come sooner! KaK moh^ho CKopee.
As soon as you can.
CKOPOCTb
/. speed
Exaxb c SojibmoH CKopocxbio. To
drive at a high speed.
CKOPlblfl, -an, -oe, -He
1. fast. GKopHH noesji,. A fast train.
GKopaH noMomb. First aid.
2. soon. ^0
CKopoH Bcxpe^n! See
you soon!
J\o
CKoporo cBHflaHHfl!
See you soon!
CKPflniKA
/.,
gen. pi. -ok violin
Hrpaxb na CKpiiUKe. To play the
violin.
CKPOMHIbia, -an, -oe, -He; adv.
CKpOMHO
1. modest. Ckpomhhh qeJiOBCK. A
modest person. GKpoMUO Becxii
ce6H. To behave modestly.
2. moderate. GKpoMHbie ycnexii.
Moderate success.
CKPbIBA|Tb, -K), -erab, -lox imp.
nxo? ox Koro? ox Her 6?/
p.
CKpHxb, CKpolK), -emb, -K)X to
conceal
GKpHBaxb BsrJiHAH. To conceal
one's views. Oh CKptiBaex, hxo nii-
mex cxHXii. He conceals the fact
that he writes poetry.
CKPblBAITbCH, -locb, -embcH, -ioxch
imp. r
A
e? ox k o r 6?
/
p. CKpnxb-
cfl, cKp6|iocb, -embcfl, -ioxch
1. only imp. to hide. GKpHBaxbCfl
ox noJiHUiHH. To hide from the
police.
2. to escape. IIpecxynHHK ckplijich.
The criminal escaped.
3. to disappear. IIoesA ckplijich
BAaJiH. The train disappeared in
the distance. HejiOBeK CKpuJiCH
3a yrJiOM. The man disappeared
round the corner.
CKPblTb see CKPblBATb
CKPb'ITbCfl see CKPblBATbCIl
CKYHAITb, -K), -emb, -lox imp. no
K M y? no H e M y? to miss, to
be lonesome
GKynaxb no poAHxeJiHM. To miss
one's parents. GKynaxb no ]x6uy.
To be homesick.
cKy 130 CJIO
CKS'HHiblfl, -an, -oe, -He, short form
CKynen, cKy^Ha, CKy^Hlo, -h; adv.
CKy^HO
1. dull. CKyqHHH nejioBeK. A dull
man.
2. boring. CKyiHHU paaroBop. A
boring conversation.
3. adv., predic. impers. (to be) bored.
Mne CKyHHO. / am bored.
CJlAB|Llfl, -an, -oe, -we, short form
cjia6, cjiaSa, cjia6|o, -h; adv. cJia6o
1. weak. GJiaSHH nejiOBeK. A weak
person. CJiaStiH y^ap. A feeble
blow. GjiaSoe cep^iie. A weak
heart.
2. fig.
weak. Cjia6aH bojih. A weak
will. CjiaSma xapaKxep. A weak
character.
<> 3to ero cjiaSoe mccto. It's his
weak point. CjiaSaa uaj^emjia.
A feeble hope.
CJIABA /.,
no pi. fame; glory
FpoMKan cjiaea. Great fame. K Heiny
npHiujia CJiaea. He has become
fa-
mous. GJiaea noKopHTejiHM KOCMOcal
Glory to the conquerors
of Space!
CJIABH|LIB[, -afl, -oe, -He fine, nice
Oh cJiaBHHH napenb. He is a fine
fellow.
CJIA^KIHH, -an, -oe, -ne, short form
cjiaAOK, cjia^Ka, cjiaj];K|o, -h; adv.
cjiaflKo; comp. cjiarqe sweet
CJiaAKoe hSjioko. A sweet apple.
CJiaAKHH Han. Sweet tea.
\ fig. GJiajt-
KaH yjiLiGKa. A sweet smile.
CJIEBA adv.
{cf.
HAJIEBO,
2)
to (on)
the left
GjieBa

OKHO, cnpaBa

;iBepb. On
the left is a window, on the right
is a door. CJieBa ot MenH CH^eji
MOH CTapHH j^pyr. On my left sat
an old friend
of
mine.
CJIEJ^ m., pi. cjieAH
1. track. GjieflH na enery. Tracks
on the snow. H^th no cjie;^aM.
To follow in the tracks.
2. gen. -a trace. Cjiej^H KpacKH.
Traces
of
paint.
3. fig.
trace. CJie^H bohhh. The
traces
of
the war.
<> OcTHBHTb cjie^. To leave a
trace. Hc^eanyTb 6e3 CJiefla. To dis-
appear without leaving a trace.
CJIE|/^flTb, -JKy, -j^Hinb,
-aht imp.
3a KCM? 3a HCM?
1. to follow. GjieflHTb 3a ABHeHHeM
cnyxHHKa. To follow the move-
ment
of a satellite.
2. to have an eye (on). GJieflHTb
3a HOBHHKaMH jiHTepaxypH. To
have an eye on the latest publi-
cations.
3. to watch. Cjie^HTb 3a sparoM.
To watch the enemy.
CJifiAOBATEJIBHO conj. therefore,
consequently
A paBHO B, cjiejtoBaxejibHO B paB-
h6 A. A equals B, therefore B
equals A.
CJIEJ^yiOimHfl, -an, -ee, -ne next
B cjiejtyioniHH paa. Next time. Ha
cJie/tyioniiHH ;i;eHb. On the next day.
CJIE3A
/.,
pi. cJiesH, cjies, cJie3aM
etc.
1. t^r. no ee Jiimy xeKJin cjiesH.
Tears were streaming down her
face.
2. pi. tears. ToBopiiTb cKB03b cJiesH.
To speak through tears.
<> OGmaho AG cjie3. It is enough
to make one cry. CMeflTbCH
flo
cjiea. To laugh until one cries.
GjiesaMH ropH) ho rioMOHcenii*
(proverb). Cf. It's no use crying
over spilt milk.
CJIEniOfl, -afl, -oe, -ue blind
CJienoH MaJibHHK. A blind boy.
CJlflmKOM adv. too
Th noemb cjiiimKOM rpoMKO. You
are singing too loud.
<> 3to (ywx) cjiumKOM! That's
really too much!
CJIOBAP|b m., gen. -A dictionary, vo-
cabulary
AHPJio-pyccKHH cJiOBapb. An Eng-
lish-Russian dictionary. Op^orpa-
^uqecKHH cjiOBapb. A spelling die-
tionary. Tojikobhh cjiOBapb. An
explanatory dictionary.
CJIOBIO neut., pi. -a
1. word. T^JiHHHoe cjiobo. A long
word. Xopomne cjioBa. Good
words.
2. speech. CBoSoAa cjiOBa. Freedom
of
speech.
3. only sing, remark. 3aKJii0HHTejib-
Hoe CJIOBO. Concluding remarks.
npcAOCTaBHTb CJIOBO. To give
the floor.
4. only sing. word. C^epjKaTb cjio-
bo. To keep one's word, ^aib
CJIO 131 CME
^ecTHoe CJIO BO. To give one's
word
of
honour.
5- word. PoMaHC na cjiosa Ilyin-
KHHa. Romance, words by Push-
kin.
<> Ho cJioBaM 6paTa. According to
one's brother, PaccKaaaxb cbo-
HMH cjiOBaMH. To tell in one's own
words. BepHTb Ha cjiobo... To
take somebody's word for...
CflCJiaTb no nocjieAHeMy cjio-
ey HayKH h tcxhhkh. To do
something according to the last
word in science and technology.
B jiByx cjiOBax. In a nutshell.
CJlOHCHIblfl, -an, -oe, -ho, short form
cJiojKGH, cjiojKHa, cji65Kh|o, -h; adv.
cjiomno
1. complex. CJiojKHaH Mamima. A
complex machine.
2. complicated. CjiojKHaa aafla^ia.
A complicated task. CjiojKHafl
oScTanoBKa. Difficult situation.
Bee 9T0 oieHb cjiojkho. This is
all very complicated.
CJIOMATB see JIOMATb
CJIOMATBCH see JIOMATBCH
CJIOH m., gen. -a elephant
CJiyjKAIlilHfl m., gen. -ero employee
CJiyjKflTb, cJiyjKy, cjiymnmb, cjiy-
JKax imp.
1. KOMy? neMy? to serve. GJiy-
HtHTb Hapo^y. To serve one's
people. CJiyJKHTb flejiy MHpa. To
serve the cause
of
peace.
2. r
fl
e? K e M? to serve, to work.
CJiyjKHTb B apMHH. To serve in
the army. CJiyJKHTb b 6aHKe. To
work in a bank. CJiyjKHTb 3ko-
HOMHCTOM. To work as an econ-
omist.
3. q e M? to be. GJiyjKiiTb npHMe-
poM AJiH flpypHX.
To be an
example for others.
CJiyx m. hearing
y pe6eHKa xopomnn cjiyx. The
child has a good ear. MysMKaJib-
HHH cjiyx. A good ear for music.
CJI^HAfl m. incident
GJiyHaii h3 h^hshh. An incident
from life.
<> HecqacTHbiH cjiy^afi. An acci-
dent. Ha BCflKHH cjiy^aii a aa-
HHcaji ero aflpec. / wrote down
his address just in case. B ot-
nejibHbix cJiy^aHx aro bo3m6h<-
9*
HO. In some cases it is possible.
B TOM cjiyiae, ecjin h 3a6o-
JieK), SBOHHTe MHO flOMOH. In
case I fall ill, ring me up at
home. IIh b kocm cjiy^iae. On
no account.
CJiy^AflHIBlfl, -an. -oe, -Me; adv.
cjiy^aHHo accidental
CJiy^aHHaa oraH6Ka. A slip, a for-
tuitous mistake. CJiy^^aiiHO Bcxpe-
THTbCii. To meet by accident.
CJiyHAlTbCH, 1st & 2nd pers. not
used, 3rd pers. -excH, -iotch imp.
c K e M?//). cJiyq|HTLCH, 1st & 2nd
pers. not used, 3rd pers. -htch,
-axcfl to happen
Hto cjiyqHJiocb? What's happened?
Go MHOH cjiyHHJiocb Hec^acTbe. /
have had a misfortune.
CJiyHflTbCH see CJiyHATbCfl
CJiyiHAITb, -K), -enib, -k)t imp. ko-
to? ^TO?
1. to listen. BEHMaTCJibHO cjiymaxb
MysHKy. To listen to music at-
tentively.
2. to attend. CJiymaxb jicki^hh
(Kypc JieKn;Hii). To attend lec-
tures (a course
of
lectures).
3.: H cjiymaio! Hallo/ Yes!
CJI^fflAITbCH, -K)Cb, -embCH, -iotch
imp. Koro? n e r 6?
/
/?. nocjiy-
ma|TbCH, -locb, -embCH, -iotch to
obey
Pe6eH0K He cjiymaexcH Maxepn.
The child won't obey his mother.
nocjiyraaficfl Menal Listen to me!
Do as I tell you!
CJIIiinilATb, -y, -Hmb, -ax imp. ko-
to? q X 0? K 6 M? o q e m?/
p. ycjiMmlaxb, -y, -iimb, -ax
'
1. to hear. Hjioxo cjibimaxb. To
hear badly. H cjiwmy xe6a. /
can hear you.
2. to hear. Mw cJiLimaJiii o6 axoH
HOBocxH. We heard about that
news. Mh cJibimaJiH, ^xo oh npn-
ACT 3aBxpa. We heard that he
would come tomorrow.
CJIb'IfflHO Koro? HTO? predic.
impers. (it is) heard
Mne He cjitimno xeSn. / can't hear
you. S^ecb xopomo cJiHrnno. One
can hear well here.
CMEJIIblH, -an, -oe, -ue, short form
CMCJi, cMeJia, CMeJi|o, -bi; adv. CMe'jio
1. brave. Gmcjimh HeJiOBCK. A brave
CME 132
CHH
man. J^eHCTBOsaTb CMeJio. To act
bravely.
2. jig. bold. CvieJioe pemeHHe. A
hold decision. GMeJiaH Hflea. A
hold idea.
CMGHA /.
1. succession. CMena ahh h hohh.
Succession
of
day and night.
2.
fig.
successors. J^exH
name
CMena. Children are our succes-
sors.
3. shift. y^HTbCH B nepByio cmc-
Hy. To go to school in the first
shift. PaSoiaTb b ^tHeBnyio CMe-
Hy. To work in the day shift.
0> npHHTH Ha CMGHy KOMy-JIH5o.
To succeed (relieve) somebody.
CMEPTb
/.,
pi. CMepxH, CMepieH,
CMepTHM, etc. death
<^ IlacTb cMepTbH) repofl. To die
the death
of
a hero. 3to Bonpoe
HCHSHH II cMepTH. This is a
question
of life and death. Ha-
floecTb
a6
cMopTH. To bore to
death.
CMEX
m., no pi. laughter
TpoMKHH CMex. Loud laughter.
<> IIOAHflTb Ha CMBX K0r6-JIH50.
To make fun of
somebody.
CMEinH|Ofl[, -an, -6e, -we, short form
CMemoH, CMemnla, -6, -u; adv.
CMeniHO
1. funny. CMemnoH paccKaa. A fun-
ny story.
2. ridiculous. On 6hji CMemon. He
was ridiculous.
3. predic. impers. (it is) funny.
Mee CMeniHO. It makes me laugh.
CMEIIlTbCH, -K)Cb, -embCH, -iotch
imp. HaflKCM? naff
hgm? to
laugh
Bee rpoMKO CMeaJincb. Everybody
laughed loudly. H cmchjich Ha;^ CJio-
BaMH 6paTa. / laughed at my broth-
er's words.
CMOTP^Tb, CMOxpio, CMOTpnnib, cm6t-
pHT imp. qxo? or na KoroPna
H T 6? BO H T 6?
/
/). nocMOTpeTb,
nOCMOTpK), nOCMOipHUIb, nOCM6TpHT
1. to look. GMOTpexb na TOBapnma.
To look at a friend. GMOTp^Tb
B OKHO. To look out
of
the win-
dow.
2. to see. CMOxpeib $HJibM. To see
a film. GMOxpeTb cneKX^KJib. To
see a performance.
3. only imper. to look out. GMOxpn-
(xe), He ono3aaH(xe)l Look out,
don't you be late!
0- CMOTpexb CBbicoKa na Koro-jiA-
6o. To look down on somebody.
CMOTpexb cKBOSb Hajibi^bi (na ht6-
jih6o). To close one's eyes (to some-
thing).
CMOHb see MO^b
CMYTflTbCH see (MYU\kThCR
CMymAlTbCH, -Focb, -embCH, -roxcH
imp.
/p. CMylxjHXbCH, -mycb, -XHUib-
CH, -xflxcfl to be embarrassed
Oh B;;pyr oneHb CMyxHJicH, noKpac-
HeJi. He was suddenly quite embar-
rassed and flushed.
CMblCJI m., no pi. meaning, sense
noHHXb CMMCJi co5mxhh. To under-
stand^ the meaning
of
events. B
nojiHOM CMucjie cjiosa. In the true
sense
of
the word. B np^MOM (ne-
peHOCHOM) CMMCJie. In the literal
(figurative) sense. B axoM Hex
CMHCJia. There's no sense in that.
Hex CMWcJia h^xh xy;^a. There is no
sense in going there.
CHAHAJIA adv.
1. at first. GHa^aJia h c
xpyfl6M
noHHxMaJi pyccKyio penb. At first
I understood spoken Russian
with difficulty.
2. from the beginning. IToBxopHxe
CHa^aJia. Repeat from the he-
ginning. Hnxanxe cnanaJia! Read
from the beginning!
CHEF m., prepos. o cnere & b, na
cnery snow
GHJibHHH CHer. Heavy snow. Kpy-
roM Bce B cnery. All around is
covered with snow. Ha cnery 6ujni
BHAHM cjieflu 3BepeH. There were
tracks
of
animals on the snow. Hjsj&T
CHer. It is snowing. HaSt CHJibHHfi
CHer. It is snowing hard.
CHflSy adv. o X K
y A
a? from below
GMOxpexb CHHsy Bsepx. To look
upward.
CHHMA|Tb, -TO, -emb, -lox imp. ko-
r 6? H X 0?/p.
CHHXb, CHHMy, CHH-
Merab, cHHMyx, past chhji, -a,
CHHJllO, -H
1. to take (from). GfTflXb KHnry c
noJiKH. To take a book from the
shelf. GHHXb najibxo c BemaJiKH.
To take one's coat from
the peg.
2. to take off. GnflXb manny.
CHO 133
COB
nepHaTKH, Cotkhkh. To take
off
one's hat, gloves, boots.
3. to shoot. ChHTB KHHO$HJIbM. To
shoot a film.
CHObA adv. again
CnoBa npHmJia 3HMa. Winter came
again.
CHHTb see CHHMATb
COBAKA
/
dog
COBHPA|Tb, -K), -emb, -iot imp. ko-
to? mo?
/
p. co6paTb, co6ep|y,
-emb, -yx, past coSpaJi, co6pajia,
co6paJiIo, -H
1. to collect. Co6paTb Bemn b ;i;o-
pory. To collect one's things
for
a journey. Co6paTb jnoAeii. To
assemble people.
2. to gather. CoSpaxb ypojKaii. To
gather in the crop.
3. imp. to collect, CoSnpaTb
KHHiH, MapKH. To Collect books,
stamps. GoSpaib KOJUieKUiiio,
6H6JiH0TeKy. To make a collec-
tion, a library.
4. to put together. CoCpaxb Moxop,
MamHHy. To put together an
engine, a machine.
COBHPAlTtCH, -locb, -embCH. -ioxch
imp.
I
p. co6paxbCH, co6ep|ycb,
-erabcfl, -yxcH, past co6pIajica,
-ajiacb, -Jiocb, -jiHCb
1. to gather. y^acxHiiKH KOH$e-
peHn,HH co6paJiHCb b saJie. Those
taking part in the conference
gathered in the hall. CoSnpaiox-
CH xyHH. Clouds are gathering.
2. to decide, to intend. Mh co-
6pajiHCb noHXH na BbicxaBKy. We
decided to go to the exhibition.
COBPAHHE neut.
1. meeting. TopHtecxBennoe co6pa-
HHe. A ceremonial meeting.
Ha-
th Ha co6paHHe. To go to a
meeting. HpHcyxcxBOBaxb na
co6paHHH. To be present at a
meeting.
CoSpaHne coctohxch bo
BxopHHK. The meeting takes
place on Tuesday.
2. collection. Go6paHHe coHHHeHHH.
A collection
of
works.
COBPATB see COBHPATB
COBPATBCH see COBMPATBCH
COBCTBEHHOCTB
/.,
no pi. property
rocyAapcxBCHHafl codcxBeHHOcxb.
State property. Hacxnan coCcxBen-
Hocxb. Private property. JiHHHaH
coScxBCHHOCXb. Personal property.
G66cxBeHHOCXb Ha scmjik). Owner-
ship
of
land.
COBCTBEHHIblfl, -an, oe, -ho
1. own. C66cTBeHHHH AOM. One's
own house.
2. self-. HyBCXBO coScxBCHHoro
ao-
cxoHHCXBa. Self-respect.
COBb'ITHE neut. event
HcxopH^ecKoe coCmxhc. An histor-
ic event. MejKAynapoAHoe coShxhg.
An international event. B MHpe npo-
HCXOAHX BaJKHLie co6hthh. Impor-
tant events are taking place in the
world.
COBEPmAlTb, -K), -emb, -lox imp.
Hxo?//?. coBepmlHxb, -y, -nmb,
-ax to perform, to accomplish
GoBepmnxb noABnr. To accomplish
a feat.
GoBepmnxb nyxemecxBHe.
To make a journey. CoBcpmnxb
noesAKy no cxpane. To tour a coun-
try. GoBepmnxb npecxynjieHHO.
To commit a crime.
COBEPmflTb see COBEPlHATb
COBECTb /.,
no pi. conscience
HHCxaH coBecxb. A clear conscience.
^^ Ho coBecTu roBopfl. Honestly
(speaking).
COBET^ m. advice
Oxen; a^Ji coBex CHny. The father
gave his son a piece
of
advice. L(eH-
HLiH coBex. Valuable advice. Bjiaro-
Aapaxb 3a coBex. To thank for
ad-
vice. OSpaxHXbCH aa coBexoM k cne-
n,HaJiHCxy. To turn to a specialist
for
advice. En He HyjKHbi Bamn co-
Bexbil She doesn't need your advice/
C0BET2 m. council, Soviet
BepxoBHHU GoBex CGCP.
The Su-
preme Soviet
of
the USSB. CoBex
MHHHCxpoB.T/ie Council of
Ministers.
COBET|OBATb, -yio, -yemb, -yiOT
imp. K M y? + i^f- I P-
nocoBe-
x|0Baxb, -yio, -yemb.'-yiox to advise
GoBexyio BaM npo^Hxaxb axy khh-
ry. / advise you to read this book.
COBETIOBATbCH,
-yiocb,
-yembca,
-yioxcH imp. c KeM?/p.
nocoBe-
xIoBaxbCF, -yiocb, -yembCH,
-yioxcH
to ask advice
GOBeXOBaXbCH c pOAHTeJIHMH.
To
ask advice from
one's parents.
COBETCKIHtt, -an, -oe, -ne
1. Soviet. GoBexcKaa
BJiacxb.
Soviet
power. CoBexcKoe
npaBHxeJibCXBO.
COB 134
C03
The Soviet Government. Co-
BexcKHH CoK)3. The Soviet
Union.
2. Soviet. GoBexcKHe aaBOflU. Soviet
plants. GoBexcKHe cneii;HaJiHC-
Tti. Soviet specialists. GoBex-
CKafl HayKB. Soviet science.
COBEII^AHHE neut. conference
GoBemaene rjiaB npaBHxejiBcxB. A
conference of
the heads
of
States.
y^acxBOBaxb b coBemaeHH. To take
part in a conference. IIpHcyxcxBO-
BaxB ua coBentaHHH. To be present
at a conference.
COBPATb see BPATb
COBPEMEHHlblfl, -an, -oe, -He mod-
ern
CoBpeMeHHoe ncKyccxBO. Modern
art. GoBpeMeHHaa xexHHKa. Mod-
ern technology. GoBpeMeHHEin npo-
MwmjiGHHHH ropoA- A modern in-
dustrial city.
COBCEM adv.
1. quite. Oh cobcgm MaJieHLKHH. He
is quite small.
2. in negative constructions not at all.
Th cobcgm He yMeenib njiasaxb.
You cannot swim at all.
C0BX03 m. state farm
HepeAOBOH coBxoa. A foremost state-
farm. /^HpeKxop coBxoaa. The
director
of
a state farm.
COrJiACEH, corjiacH|a, -o, -h short
adj.
1. na ^x6? ready, fl corjiacen
exaxb BMecxe. / am ready to go
with you. Oh corJiacen na Bce.
He is ready for anything.
2. c K e M? c H e M? agreeable, fl
corJiacen c BaMH. / agree with
you. Mh He corjiacHu c xbohm
MHOHHeM. We don't agree with
your opinion. H corjiacna. /
agree.
COrjIACflTbCH see COrJIAfflAXbC/I
COrJlAinA|TbCfl, -locb, -embcfl, -roxcH
imp. c KeM? c hom? &-}- inf./
p. corJialCHXbCfl, -raycb, -cnmbCH,
-CflXCfl
1. to agree. Oh corJiaciiJiCH bu-
noJiHHXb 3xy pa66xy. He agreed
to do that work.
2. to agree. GorJiacHXbCH c xoBa-
pnmeM. To agree with a friend.
GorjiacHXbCH c upejiJiomeBUQM.
To agree to a proposal, fl
corjiacHjicfl c xeM, hxo oh cKasaJi
MHe. / agreed with what he told
me.
COrJIAIIIEHHE neut. agreement
ToproBoe corJiameHHe. A trade
agreement. 3aKJiK)qHXb corjiaraeHHe
c ApyrHMH cxpanaMH. To conclude
an agreement with other countries.
^ IIpQUTH K corjiameHHio. To
come to an agreement.
COrPETb see TPETb
CO/HEPHCAHHE neut., no pi. contents
PaccKaaaxb coAep?KaHHe KHnrn. To
tell the contents
of
a book.
COEAHHaXb see COEAHHflTb
COEJ^HHfi[TbCfl see COEAHHUTbCH
COEAHHUlTb, -K), -emb, -lox imp.
Hxo? c TCM?//?. coeAHH|iixb, -i6,
-limfe -fix
1. to connect, to link. Goe;^HHHXb
ABa ropo^a HteJieanoH floporoH.
To connect two cities by a rail-
way.
2. to combine. Goe^HHtixb xeopHio
c npaKXHKOH. To combine theo-
ry with practice.
COEAHHIIlTbCfl, 1st & 2nd pers.
not used, 3rd pers. -excH, -loxcfl
imp.
I
p. coeAHH|iixbCH, 1st & 2nd
pers. not used, 3rd pers. -hxch,
-HXCH to join together, to unite
ApMHH coeAHHHJiHCb Ha paccsexB.
The armies joined together at dawn.
HpoJiexapHH Bcex cxpan, cogah-
HHHxecb! Workers
of
the world,
unite!
C03Ji;A|BATb, -K), -emb, -rox imp.
n X o?/p. coa^axb, cosAaM, cosAamb,
C03Aacx, C03AaAHM, co3AaAHTe, co-
3AaAyT,
past coaAaJi, co3AaJia, c6-
8AaJi|o, -n to create
Co3Aaxb HOByio xeopHFO. To create
a new theory. Co3Aaxb xoporane
ycJiOBHH jj,Jifi pa66xH[. To provide
good conditions for
work.
C03/^AIBATbCH, 1st & 2nd pers. not
used, 3rd pers. -excfl, -loxcfl imp.
/
p. co3AaxbCfl, 1st & 2nd pers. not
used, 3rd pers. C03AacxcH, co3Aa-
Ayxcfl to be created
Go3Aai6xcH HOBbie njiaHH. New
plans are created. Go3AaJi6cb cepbea-
Hoe noJiOHtCHHe. A serious situa-
tion has been created.
C03J^ATb see C03AABATb
COS^ATbCH see C03^ABATbCH
03 135 COP
C03HAHHE neut.
1. consciousness. noTepaxb coana-
HHe. To lose consciousness. Bhtl
6e3 cosnaHHH. To be unconscious.
2. philos. consciousness. Bhthc
onpeAeJiaex cosHaHne. Being
determines consciousness.
3. understanding, sense. GosHaHHe
AOJira. Sense
of
duty.
C03HATEJIbH|blfl, -an, -oe, -He;
adv. cosHaxejibHo
1. conscientious. CosHaiejibHoe ot-
HonieHHe k paSoxe. A conscientious
attitude to one's work. Goana-
xejibHHH qejiOBeK. A conscien-
tious person.
2. deliberate. Oh CAeJiaji axo co-
3HaxejibHo. He did it deliberate-
ly-
COflTia see CXOJSj/lTh^
COflxnCb see CXOJSfiJhCH
COJIJ^AT
m., gen. pi. cojiAax soldier
CMeJiHH cojiflax. A courageous sol-
dier. OxpH;^ cojTAax. A detachment
of
soldiers.
COJlEHIblfl, -an, -oe, -He
1. salt. CojieuHH cyn. Salt soup.
2. salted. Cojienbie orypuH. Salted
cucumbers.
COJinaAPHOCTb /.,
only sing, soli-
darity
CojiHflapHOCXb xpyAflni;HXCH Bcex
cxpau. Solidarity
of
the workers
of
the world.
COJIHEHHlMfl, -an, oe, -ne
1. sun, solar. CoJiHe^HHH CBex.
Sunlight. ConneHHaH cncxeMa.
The solar system. GoJineqHoe
aaxMenne. An eclipse
of
the sun.
2. sunny. CoJiHennHH A^Hb. A sun-
ny day.
COJlHUjE [coH^e] neut.
1. Sun. Ox BcMJiH jio CojiHua
CXO HHXbAeCHX MHJIJIHOHOB KHJIO-
MexpoB. It's 150 million kilome-
tres from the Earth to the Sun.
2. sun. GojiHue CBexnx apKO. The
sun is shining brightly.
3. sun. JleJKaxb na cojiHue. To lie
in the sun.
COJIB
/.
1. only sing. salt. Xjie5 c coJibio.
Bread and salt.
2. salt. GoJiH KaJibUHH. Calcium
salts.
^
Xjie6-C0Jib. Bread and sa\t
(symbol of hosj)itality). Bcxpe-
qaxfa xjieSoM-cojibH). To welcome
somebody with bread and salt.
B HeM 3Aecb cojib? What's the
point?
COMHEBA|TbCH, -locb, -embCH, -roxcH
imp. B K M? B H e M? to doubt
GoMHeBaxbCH b ycnexe. To doubt
one's success. He coMHCBaxbCH b
fl;pyre.
Not to doubt one's friend.
Mh He coMHeBaeMCH, hxo bh bhhoji-
HHxe 3xy 3a;^aqy. We have no doubt
that you will carry out this task.
COH m., gen. cna
1. only sing, sleep. Oh cnnx Kpen-
khm chom. He is fast asleep. Oh
yjiH5aJiCH bo one. He smiled in
his sleep.
2. dream. H BHfl;eji bo one cBoero
xoBapH^^a. / dreamt
of
my
friend. Euy cnnjiHCb xopomHe
chh. He had pleasant dreams.
COOBmAlTb, -K), -emb, -lox imp.
H X 0? K O M
y?
O K 6 M? O
^eM?//>. coo6ni;|HXb, -y, -limb, -ax
to report
G006ffliHXb HOBOCXH ;^py3bHM. To
tell the news to one's friends. Tase-
XH coo6n;aK)x o6 ycnemnoM bhhoji-
HeuHH njiana. The newspapers re-
port the successful fulfilment of
the
plan. Ho paAHO coo6m,iijiH, hxo
HainH cnopxcMCHH Bbicxynnjin yc-
nemno. The radio reported that our
sportsmen had achieved good suc-
COOBmEHHE neut.
1. announcement, communication
BaJKHoe cooSmenne. An impor-
tant announcement (communica-
tion). ^eJiaxb cooCmenne. To
make an announcement.
2. communication. ITyxn coo6n^e-
HHH. Ways of
communication.
IIpHMoe coo6n;eHHe. A through
service.
COOBmflTb see COOBmAXb
COnPOTHBJIEHHE neut., no pi. resist-
ance
0Ka3axb conpoxEBjienne npoxHB-
HHKy. To
offer
resistance to the
enemy.
COPEBHOBAHHE neut., no pi.
1. emulation.
2. competition. GnopxHBHHe copeB-
HOBaHHH. Sports competition.
COP 136 coq
CopeBHOBaHHH no jiHHaM. Skiing
competition. VHacTBOBaTL b co-
peBHOBaHHHX. To take part in a
competition.
COPEBHIOBATBCH, -yrocB, -yemb-
Cfl, -yiOTCH imp. c k e m? c q e m?
to emulate, to compete
Ham saBofl copeBHyeicH c coce^-
HHM npe^npHHTHeM. Our plant com-
petes with a nearby enterprise.
COCE/^ m., pi. -H, -en neighbour
J^pyH{HHe coceAH. Friendly neigh-
bours.
COCEJ^HIHfl, -HH, -ee, -ne neigh-
bouring, adjoining
CoceAHHH KOMHaxa. An adjoining
room. CoceflHHe j^epeBHH. Neigh-
bouring villages.
COCHA
/.,
pi. cocHW, cocen pine-tree
BwcoKaH cocea. A tall pine-tree.
<> 3a6jiyAHTbCH b xpex cocHax
(proverb). Cf. To lose one's way in
broad daylight.
COCTAB m. composition
CocxaB KOMaH;;u. The composition
of
a team.
<> J^eJierai^HH b cocTaae dhth
qejiOBCK. A five-member delegation.
COCTABHTb see COCTABJiHTb
COCTABJlUlTb, -K), -emt, -k)t imp.
VlT 07
/
p. COCTalBHTb, -BJIH), -BHmb,
-BHT
1. to make (up). CocxaBHTb enncoK
yqaCTHHKOB. To make a list
of
participants. CocTaBHTb Kaxajior
KHHr. To make a book cata-
logue.
2. to form. CocxaBHXb onpe^eJieH-
Hoe MHCHHe. To form a definite
opinion.
<> CocxaBHTb KOMnaHHIO KOMy-Jlfl-
6o (colloq.). To keep somebody com-
pany
COCTOHHHE neut., no pi.
1. condition. SKonoMimecKoe cocxo-
HHHe cxpanu. The economic
situation in a country. BojibHOH
B XHJKCJiOM cocxOHHHH. The pa-
tient is in a critical condition.
GocxoflHHe ^eji. The state
of af-
fairs.
2. fortune. Kpynnoe cocxoAHHe,
A large fortune.
^
H He B cocTOHHHH npo^ojiHcaTb
pasroBop. / am unable to con-
tinue our conversation.
COCTOlHTb, 1st & 2nd pers. not used,
3rd pers. -hx, -ax imp.
1. H 3 K o r 6? H 3 H e r 6? to con-
sist. OpneCTp COCXOHX H3 H3-
BecxHHX MysHKanxoB. The or-
chestra consists
of
well-known
musicians.
2. B HCM? to consist in. SaAaqa
COCXOHX B XOM, hx66h 6wcxpo
OBJia^exb nepe^oBUMH Mexo^aMH.
The task is to quickly master
progressive methods.
COCTOlHTbCa, 1st & 2nd pers. not
used, 3rd pers. -hxch, -hxch p. to
take place
CoSpaHHe cocxoHJiocb b sajie. The
meeting took place in the hall. JleK-
n,Hfl He COCXOHXCH H3-3a 6oJie3HH
JieKxopa. The lecture will not take
plac^ owing to the lecturer's illness.
COCymECTBOBAHHE neut., no pi.
co-existence
MiipHoe cocy^^ecxBOBaHHe. Peace-
ful
co-existence.
COCHHTATb see C^HXATb, 1
C0T|HH
/.,
gen. pi. -en hundred
CoxHH JiiOACH npnmJiH na njio-
n5aAb. Hundreds
of
people came to
the square. Tpn coxhh py6;ieH.
Three hundred roubles.
COXPAHflTbCH see COXPAHHTbCH
COXPAHHlTbCfl, 1st & 2nd pers. not
used, 3rd pers. -exCH, -ioxch imp.f
p. coxpanlnxbCfl, 1st & 2nd pers. not
used, 3rd pers. -hxch, -hxch
1. to be preserved. Cxapan Kapxii-
Ha xopomo coxpannjiacb. The
old picture was well preserved.
H6jiokh xopomo coxpannjiHCb b
HffliHKe. The apples had kept
well in the box.
2. to survive. HeKOxopwe cxapwe
o6HqaH coxpaniijiHCb ^o nanrax
AHCH. Some old customs have
survived up to our time.
C0l|HAJlfl3M m., no pi. socialism
CO^HAJlHCTfiHECK|Hfl, -an,] -oe,
-He
1. socialist. CoiinajiHCXH^ecKaH pe-
BOJiK>n;HH. The socialist revolu-
tion. Coi^HajiHCXHHecKHe cxpaHH.
The socialist countries.
2. socialist. ConinajiHcxHiecKoe ox-
HomeHHe k xpy^y. A socialist at-
titude to work.
COI^ 137 cno
COIi;HAJIBH|blfl, -an, -oe, -He
1. social. Coi^HajibHoe nojioweHHe.
Social status.
2. social. Coi^HaJiBHan peB0Jii6i;HH.
A social revolution. CoanaJitHHe
ped[)6pMH. Social reforms.
COHHHEHHE neut.
1. work. EoJiHoe coSpanne co^h-
HGHHH A. G. EyniKHHa. The
complete works
of
A. S. Pushkin.
2. composition. CoHnneHHe o TBop-
HecTse IlymKHHa. A composi-
tion on Pushkin's works. HanH-
caTfc co^HHeHHG Ha AaHHyio
TBMy. To write a composition
on a given subject.
COI03 m.
1. union. Coiob paConnx h Kpec-
TbHH. The union
of
workers and
peasants.
2. alliance. BoennHH coioa. A mili-
tary alliance.
3. union. G0163 CoBexcKHX CoijHa-
JiHCTHHecKHX Pecny6jiHK. The
Union
of
Soviet Socialist Re-
publics.
4. union. IIpo^eccHOHajiBHHH cok)3.
A trade union.
CnAjIjbHH
/.,
gen. pi. -en bedroom
CnACA|Tb, -K), -emb, -iot imp. ko-
to? HTO? OT Koro? OT Hcro?
or KOMy? HTO?/jD. cnaclTH, -y,
-emb, -yx, past cnac, -Jia, -J16, -jih
to save
Bpaq cnac JKHSHb SojibHOMy. The
doctor saved the patient's life.
CnACAlTbCH, -locb, -embCH, -iotch
imp. OT Koro? or Her
6?/
p.
cnac|THCb, -ycb, -embca, -yxcH,
past cnac|cH, -Jiacb, -jiocb, -jincb
to save oneself, to escape
JlexqHK e^Ba cnaccH ot CMepxH.
The flyer barely escaped death.
JKniejiH cnacajiHCb ot sparoB b Jie-
cy. The inhabitants
fled from the
enemy to the forest.
CHACflBO thank you
CoacnSo 3a nncbMO. Thank you
for
the letter. CnacH6o 3a coseT. Thank
you for your advice. BoJibmoe cna-
ch6oI Thank you very much indeed!
CHACTfl see CHACAXb
CHACTfiCb see CHACATbCH
CIIATb, cnJiK), cnnmb, cuht, past
cnaji, -a, cnan|o, -h imp. to sleep
CnaTb BCK) HO^b. To sleep the whole
night. KpeuKO cnaTb. To sleep
soundly.
<> Oh cnaji, KaK y5HTbiH. He slept
like a log.
CHEKTAKJIb m. show
HnxepecHWH cneKTaKJib. An inter-
estXng show. TejieBHSHOHHHH cneK-
TaKJib. A television show. CneK-
TaKJib BoJibmoro TeaTpa. A Bolshoi
Theatre show. ITpHcyTCTBOBaTb na
cneKTaKJie. To be present at a show.
CHETb see HETb
CnEIi;HAJIbHOCTb
/. profession,
speciality
HyjKHaa cnennaJibHOCTb. A neces-
sary profession. PejiKaa cnennajib-
HOCTb. A rare profession. On no-
cnemnajibHOCTH unyKenep. He is an
engineer by profession.
CHEUiHAjIbHiblfl, -an, -oe,-ue;adv.
cnennaJibHO
1. special. CnennaJibHaH oji,emjia.
Special clothes.
2. professional. CnennaJibnoe 06-
pa30BaHHe. Professional training.
3. special. Oh c;i;ejiaJi aio cue-
i;HaJibHO AJiH MeHH. He did that
specially for me.
CIIEiniflTb, -y, -Hmb, -aT imp. k
y a
a>
&
+
inf.
1. to hurry. CnemHTb j^OMon. To-
hurry home. On cnemiiJi nanii-
caTb poAHTejiflM cBOHx BnenaT-
JieHHHx. He was in a hurry to-
write to his parents about his
impressions.
2. to gain, to be fast, ^acbi cne-
maT na 5 Mnnyx. The clock is^
5 minutes fast.
CIIHHA
/., ace. cmrny; pi. cnMHM back
JlejKaTb na cnnne. To lie on one's^
back. Oh ctohji cnnnoH k HaM. He
stood with his back to us. y;].ap b
cnnny. A stab in the back.
CnflClOK m., gen. -Ka list
Chhcok y^eHUKOB. A list
of
the
pupils. GocTaBHTb CHHCOK. To make
a list.
CnflqiKA
f.,
gen. pi. -en match
SaJKGHb cHH^Ky. To light a match.
Kop66Ka CHHHeK. A box of
mat-
Cn0K(3flH|bin, -aH, -oe, -He, short
form CHOKoen, cnoKOHHla, -o, -h;
adv. CHOKOHHO
1. quiet. CnoKOHHafl peKa. A quiet
cno 138 CPA
river. GTOflXb chokohho. To
stand quietly. Ghahtg cookohho!
Sit still/
2. serene, tranquil. CnoKOHnaH
yjinSKa. A serene smile. Gno-
KOHHafl 5KH3HI.. A quiet life.
CnoKOHHHH HeJiOBeK. A calm
person. GnoKOHHHH xapaKiep.
An even temper.
<> CnoKOUHOii Hoqa! Good night/
CnOP|HTb, -K), -Hmb, -HT imp. o
KOM? O HGM? C KeU?
/
p. UO-
CnOplHTb, -K), -HinB, -HT to afguc
GnopHTb c TOBapnn^eM o KHitre. To
have an argument with a friend
about a book.
CnOPT m., no pi. sport
JIhjkhuh cnopx. Skiing. Bmjxa.
cnopTa. Kinds
of
sport. SannMaxb-
CH cnopxoM. To go in
for sport.
CnOPTflBHILlH, -an, -oe, -He sports
CnopxHBHaH njioma^Ka. A sports
ground. GnopxHBHbiH kocxiom. A
sports costume. GnopxHBHbie copeB-
HOBaHHH. Sports competitions.
CnOCOB m. way, method
Gn6co6 npnroxoBJieHHH jieKapcxBa.
The method
of making up a medicine.
HaHj^Hxe KaK6u-HJi6yjih cnocoS
BcxpexHXbCH c HHM. Find a way
of
meeting him.
CnOCOBHOCTb
/. K ^eMy?
1. ability. IlocJie panenHH oh no-
xepHJi cnocoSnocxb jjEPiraxbCH.
After being wounded he lost t/ie
ability to move.
2. usu. pi. aptitude. Y nero 6oJib-
miie chocoShocxh k MaxeMaxHKe.
He has a great aptitude
for
mathematics
.
CnOCOBHILIfl, -an, -oe, -He capable
CoocoShhh lOHOina. A capable
youth.
CnPABA adv.
{cf.
HAHPABO,
2) on
(to) the right
MoH cxyji cxoHx cnpaBa. My chair
is on the right. CnpaBa ox jioua.
HaxoAHXCH KHHOxeaxp. To the right
of the house is a cinema.
CnPABEAJIfiBlLlfl, -an, -oe, He,
short form cnpaBejjJiHB, -a, -o, -h;
adv. cnpaBe;^jiHBO just
GnpaBe/lJiHBHH nejiOBeK. A just
person. CnpaBe^JinBoe pemenHe. A
just decision. Ilocxynaxb cnpaBe;^-
JiHBO. To act justly.
CnPAfflHBAITb, -K), -emb, -k)t imp.
Koro? KOM? He m?/
p. cnpocHXb, cnpomy, cnpocnmb,
cnpocHX to ask
y^Hxejib cnpocHJi yqennKa. The
teacher asked a pupil, CnpamnBaxb
o s^opoBbe. To ask after somebody's
health.
CnPOCflTb see CnPAmHBATb
CnPHTATb see HPHTATb
CnPHTATbCH see HPHTATbCH
CnyCKA|TbCH, -locb, -embCH, -k)xch
im,p. Ky^a? oxKy^a?/
p. cnyc-
xHTbCH, cnymycb, cnycxHmbcn,
cnycxHxcH to descend
CnycxHXbCH c ropn. To descend
from the mountain. CnycxHXbCH no
jiecxHHue c xpexbero axaJKa na nep-
BHH. To go downstairs from the
secoftd floor to the ground floor.
GnycKaxbCH na JiH(|)xe. To go down
in the lift.
CnyCTflTbCil see CnYCKATbCH
CnyXHHK m.
1. companion, fellow-traveller. Moh
cnyxHHK 6hji BpanoM. My com-
panion was a doctor.
2. satellite. Jlyna

cnyxnnK 3eM-
JiH. The Moon is the Earth's sat-
ellite. HcKyccxBeHHHH cnyxHHK.
An artificial satellite. Sanycxnxb
cnyxHHK. To launch a satellite.
Ehbccxh cnyxHHK na opGnxy.
To put a satellite in orbit. Ha-
6Jii0AeHHe 3a cnyxHHKOM. Track-
ing a satellite.
CPABHEHHE neut.
1. comparing. CpaBHenne flByx
HBJieHHH, flByx JiK);teH. Compar-
ing two phenomena y two people.
2. simile. Jlnxepaxypnoe cpaBne-
nne. A simile.
<> Ho cpaBHeHHio... c KeM? c
HeM? Compared with.,. Ho cpas-
HeHOIO C TCM, qTO fl BH^eJI
paHbme, ropoj]^ oqeeb naMeHHJiCH.
Compared with what I saw before,
the city has changed a lot.
CPABHHBA|Tb, -ro, -emb, -rox imp.
Koro? qTO?cKeM?CHeM?/
p.
CpaBH|HXb, -K), -Hmb, -HT
1. to compare. CpaBHHXb itn^pH.
To compare figures. CpaBHHXb
flBa HBJieHHH. To compare two
phenomena
.
CPA
139 CTA
2. to compare. CpasHHTb noBepx-
HOCTb BOJXU C aepKBJIOM. To
compare the surface of
the water
to a mirror.
CPABHflTb see CPABHHBATb
CPAsy adv. immediately
Oh cpaay noHHJi. He understood
immediately. Mh ymjiH cpasy no-
cjie o6ejs,8L. We left
immediately
af-
ter dinner.
CPEj^A^M pl- cpe^Bi, cpen, cpe;taM, etc.
1. medium. BosAymnaH cpe^a. Air
medium.
2. only sing, surroundings. OKpy-
JKaK)I^aflcpeJ^a.
Surroundings. Oh
BocHHTLiBaJicH B paSoHeH cpe;te.
He was brought up in work-
ing-class surroundings.
CPEAA2 /.,
ace. cpefly; pl. cpeflH,
cpeA, cpe^aM, etc. Wednesday
Cer6;^HH cpe^a. Today is Wednes-
day. JleKDiHH HHTaiOTCfl HO cpeAaM.
Lectures are delivered on Wednes-
days. B cpe^y npHJieTHT nama
cnopxHBHafl flejierauHH. Our sports
delegation arrives on Wednesday.
CFE^Vi. prep.
-\-
gen.
1. in the middle of. ^om ctohji
cpefl;H Jieca. The house was in
the middle of
the forest. Cpeji;H
HOHH paB^ajiCfl 3boh6k. A bell
rang in the middle
of
the night.
2. among. CpeAH CTy/neHiOB 6hji
MOH
flpyr.
Among the students
was my friend. PaSoxa cpe^H
MOJio^ejKH. Work among youth.
CPAH|Hfl, -Hfl, -ee, -ho
1. middle. Gpej^nee okho. The mid-
dle window.
2. medium. ^eJioseK cpeAuero poc-
xa. A person
of
medium height.
3. fig.
average. Cpe/^nne cnoc66-
HOCXH. Average abilities.
<> CpeAHHH mKOJia.^ Secondary
school. nojiy^HTb cpe^Hee o5pa-
soBaHHe. To get secondary edu-
>cation. Gpe^Hne BSKa. The Mid-
dle Ages.
CPEACTBO neut.
1. means. GpeflcxBa nponsBOACXBa.
The means
of
production. Gpejt-
cTBa nepeji;BHjKeHHfl. Means
of
transportation.
2. method; remedy. HoBHe cpe^-
cxBa jie^eHHH Sojicshh. New
methods
of
treating a disease.
3x0 e;^HHCXBeHHoe cpe;^cxBol This
is the only remedy!
CPOK m. time
G^ejiaxb pa66xy b cpOK. To do the
work in time. Bee cpoKH npomjin.
All time limits have passed.
CPOHHIblH, -an, -oe, -tie; adv. cpoq-
HO urgent
GpoHHoe coo6n];eHHe. An urgent
communication. Yexaxb no cpoHHO-
My AGJiy- To go away on urgent
business. GpoHHO yexaxb. To leave
at once. Gpo^Haa xejierpaMMa. An
urgent telegram.
CCOPIHTbCH, -locb, -nmbCH, -hxch
imp. C KBM?
/
p. noccoplHXbCH,
-locb, -nmbcfl, -HXCH to quarrel
He HaAO ccdpnxbCH. You shouldn't
quarrel. IIoccopHXbCH c xoBapnmeM.
To quarrel with a friend.
CTA|BHTb, -BJiK), -BHmb, -bhx imp.
Koro? Hxo? Kyjia? /p. nocxal-
BHXb, -BJIK), -BHmb, -BHX
1. to put. GxaBHXb cxaKan na cxoji.
To put a glass on the table. Ho-
cxaBHXb uBexu b BOjiy.
To put
flowers in water. IIocxaBHXb khh-
rn Ha Mecxo. To put the books
in their place.
2. to give. GxaBHXb oxMexny. To
give a mark.
3. to make. GxaBHxb ohmxh. To
make experiments.
4. to set. IIocxaBHXb saAany nepej^
KOJiJiCKXHBOM. To set a task be-
fore a collective.
5. to stage. GxaBHXb nbecy. To
stage a play.
<^ IIocTaBHTb peKopA- To set up
a record. CxaBHTb p,MarH03. To
diagnose. CxaBHTb ycjiOBiia ko-
My-JiH6o. To lay down terms to
somebody. IIocTaBHTb Kor6-JiH5o
B TpyflHoe nojiOHeHiie. To place
somebody in an embarrassing situ-
ation.
CTAJJHOH
m. stadium
HoBHH cxa^HOH. A new stadium,
GopeBHOBaHHH cocxoaxcH Ha cxa-
AHOHe. The competition will take
place at the stadium.
CTAKAH m. glass
HncxbiH cxaKaH. A clean glass. Gxa-
Kan MOJiOKa. A glass
of
milk.
CTAJib /. steel
Rom H3 cxaJiH. A knife made
of
CTA 140 CTH
steel. BapHTb ciaJib. To found
steel.
CTAJlbHlOfl, -an, -6e, -ue
1. steel. CTaJibHOH nom. A steel
knife.
2. steel(y). CiaJifcHOH i;BeT. Steel
colour.
3. fig-:
CTajiBHan bojih. Cf. An iron
will.
CTAHOBflTbCfl, cxaHOBJiiocb, ciaHo-
BHnibCH, CXaHOBHTCfl imp. KCM?
K a K li M?
/
p. cxalTb, -ny, -nemb,
-Hyx
1. to stand. Cxaxb
y
ABepen, cxaxb
K ;;BepflM, cxaxb k cxanKy. To
stand at the entrance, to take up
a position near the door, to take
one's place at the lathe.
2. only p. to stop. Hacw cxaJiH. The
clock has stopped.
3. to become. Oh cxaji HnmenepoM.
He became an engineer. Ilorona
craHOBHjiacb xojioahoh . The
weather was getting cold. CxaJio
xeMHO. It became dark.
4. only p. 4- inf. to start. Mh cxa-
JiH nexb. We started singing.
5. only p. to become (of). Hxo c hhm
cxaJio noxoM? What became
of
him afterwards?
<> Bo qxo 6bi TO HH cxajio. By
all means.
CTAH|OK m., gen. -Ka machine-tool,
lathe
ToKapHHH cxanoK. A lathe. Pa66-
xaxb Ha HOBOM cxaHKe. To work at
a new machine-tool.
CTAHI^Hfl
/.
1. station. Cxani^Hfl Mexpo. An
underground station. >KAciTb na
cxaHHHH. To wait at a station.
2. exchange. Tejie^oHuafl cxanr^HH
A telephone exchange.
CTAPAjTbCH, -K)cb, -embCfl, -ioxch
imp. -{-inf./p. nocxapa|xbCH, -locb,
-embCH, -IOXCH
1. to try. y Hero ne Bcer^a Bce
xopomo noJiy^aexcH, xoxh oh
OHCHb exapaexcH. He doesn't
always succeed in everything,
though he tries hard.
2. to try. Oh cxapaJicn bheojihexb
pa66xy b cpoK. He tried to do
the work in time.
CTAPflK m., gen. -a old man
CTAPOCTb
/.,
no pi. old age
FJiyGoKaH cxapocxb. Extreme
old
age. B cxapocxH. In one's old age.
B cxapocxH OH cxaji hjioxo cjih-
maxb. -4s he grew old, his hearing
became poor.
CTAPyXA /. old woman
CTAPffllHfl, -an, -ee, -ne
1. elder, eldest. Moh cxapman ce-
cxpa

BpaH. My elder (eldest)


sister is a doctor. Y hhx xpa
cwna. CxapmHH paSoxaex na aa-
Bo^e, cpeflHHH yqnxcH b mKO-
Jie, a MJiaAHiHH xo^hx b
jibt-
CKHH
caA. They have three sons.
The eldest works at a plant, the
middle one goes to school and the
youngest goes to the kindergarten,
2. senior. Cxapmufi HayHHwii co-
xpyflHHK. A senior research asso-
4tiate.
CTAPjblfl, -an, -oe, -He, short form
cxap, cxapa, cxapjo, -li
1. old. CxapuH tiejioBCK. An old
person. Osa oqenb cxapa. She
is very old. Cxapoe ^epeBO. An
old tree.
2. old. Cxapoe najibxo. An old
overcoat
.
3. old. CxapuH jipyr. ylw oZd friend.
4. old. CxapuH oSwHaH. An old
custom
.
CTATb see CTAHOBflTbCfl
CTAT|b}l
/.,
gen. pi. -en article
FaaexHaH cxaxbrf. A newspaper ar-
ticle. HanHcaxb cxaxbio. To write
an article.
CTEKJIO neut., pi. cxeKJia, cxeKOJi.
cxeKJiaM, etc.
1. glass. npoapa^Hoe ctckjio. Trans-
parent glass.
2. pane. Pa36Hxb cxckjio b okhb.
To break a window-pane.
CTEKJiHHHIblfl, -an, -oe, -we glass
CxeKJiHHHaH flBepb.
A glass door.
CTEHA /., ace. cxeHy, pi. cxenu^
cxcH, cxenaM, etc. wall
CTEPETb see CTHPAXbi
CTHPA|Tbi, -K). -emb, -lox imp.
Hxo? H e M?
/
j5). cxepexb, coxp|y^
-erab, -yx, past cxep, -Jia, -Jio, -jih
to wipe off, to rub off, to erase
CxHpaxb xprinKOH c flocKi'r. To
clean the blackboard with a duster.
Cxepexb nujib co cxojia. To dust
the table. Cxepexb HanifcaHHoe. To
erase what has been written.
CTH
141 CTP
<> CxepeTb c aaqa aeMjiH ito-jih-
60. To raze something to the
ground
.
CTHPAlTb'', -K), -emb, -iot, imp.
HTO? n&VL>lp.
BMCTHpa|Tb, -K),
-emb, -K)T to wash
BHCTHpaTb 6ejibe. To wash the lin-
en. PyKaMH cTHpaxb xpyjiHO. IV
s
difficult
to do the washing by hand.
CTHXfl pi. poetry
Gthxh nyniKHHa. Pushkin's poetry.
C56pHHK CTHXOB. A Collection of
poetry. YnHTb cthxh HanaycTb. To
learn poetry by heart.
CTHXOTBOPEHHE
neut. poem
CTHXOTBOpeHHe MaHKOBCKOrO. A
poem by Mayakovsky. JlnpHHecKoe
CTHXOTBOpeHHe. A lyrical poem.
CTOlHTb,
1st & 2nd pers. not used,
3rd pers. -ht, -ht imp.
1. to cost. Kmira ctoht 5 pyGjiefl.
The book costs 5 roubles. BnjieT
ctoht jjp'poTO. The ticket is ex-
pensive.
2. impers. is worth. He ctoht mchh
6jiaroAapHTb . There's nothing to
thank me for. 3to ctoht hocmo-
TpeTb! It is worth seeing!
0 Hrpa He ctoht cBei (proverb).
The game is not worth the
candle.
CTOJI m., gen. -a table
GecTb 3a CTOJI. To sit down to
table. GH;^eTb 3a ctojiom. To sit at
the table. BcraTb H3-3a CTOJia. To
rise from the table. niiCbMeHHbiH
CTOJI. A desk.
CTOJItmA /.
capital (city)
JI^peBHHH cTOJiHD;a. The ancient cap-
ital. riapHJK

CTOjiHHa (DpaHn,HH.
Paris is the capital
of
France.
CTOJIOBIAfl
/.,
gen. -oh
1. dining-room. S^ecb
y
nac cto-
jiOBafl, a HanpaBO
^Bepb b
KyxHH). This is our dining-room
and on the right is the door to
the kitchen.
2. dining-hall, canteen. CTyAenqec-
Kan CTOJiOBan. A students' canteen.
CTOJILKO adv.
1. SO many, so much. CKOJibKO
jiiOAeH, cTOJibKO xapaKTepoB. Gf.
So many people, so many minds.
2. such a lot. Oh ctojibko c/^ejiajil
He's done such a lot!
CTOPOHA /., ace. CTopony; pi. cto-
poHH, CTopoH, cTopoHaM, etc . side
HpaBafl CTopoHa. The right-hand
side. G JieBOH CTOpoHM. From the
left-hand side. Ha fl;pyr6H CTopoHe
yjiHUiH. On the opposite side
of
the
street. Go Bcex cTOpOH. On all sides.
CTO|HTb, -16, -limb, -HT imp. r
J^
e?
1. to stand. HejioBeK ctoht
y
ok-
Ha. The man is standing at the
window.
2. to stand, to be (situated). Gtoji
CTOHT B KOMHare. The table stands
in the room.
J^om ctohji Ha 6e-
pery peKH. The house stood on
the riverbank. HapHJK ctoht na
Gene. Paris is situated on the
Seine.
3. to be. Gtoht xopoman noro^a.
The weather is fine.
4. to face. Eepe;]; HaMH ctoht Ba>K-
Hbie npoSJieMW. Important prob-
lems face us.
5. to stand (still). HacH ctoht. The
watch has stopped. Hoes^ ctoht.
The train is standing still.
<> CTOflTb BO rjiase qero-JiHSo. To
be at the head
of
something.
CTOHTb
y
BJiacTH. To be in power.
CTPAHA
/.,
pi. CTpaHH
1. land. Mofl po/tnaH cTpana. My
native land. K>muhie CTpaHH.
Southern lands.
2. country. CTpanti JlaTimcKOH
AMepHKH. The countries
of
Lat-
in America.
<> CxpaHbi CBeTa. The cardinal
points.
CTPAHfll^A /.
page
B KHHie 100 CTpaHiin;. There are
100 pages in the book.
<> Ha cTpaHiin,ax
HjypnaJia. In the
columns of
the magazine.
CTPAHHlblfl, -aH, -oe, -ue; adv.
CTpaHHO strange
GTpaHHaa ^nrypa. A strange figure.
GTpaHHHH B3rJiflA- ^
strange
look. 3to OHeub cTpanno. It is
very strange.
CTPAX m. fear
J\^omdiTh OT CTpaxa. To quake with
fear.
CTPAmHlblfl, -an, -oe, -He; adv.
CTpamHO
1. terrible. GTparanafl HCTopHH. A
terrible story.
CTP 142
cyM
2. colloq. awful. CTpamnafl 6oJib.
An awful pain. 3x0 cxpamno
HHxepecHOl JVs awfully inter-
esting!
3. adv.^ predic. impers. (to be) af-
raid. Mne cxpaiiiHO. / am afraid.
CTPEJlHlTb, -K), -emb, -k)x imp. b
K r 6? BO H X 6? to shoot
Cxpejiflxb B ^eJlb. To shoot at a
target .
CTPEIMflTbCfl, -MJiiocb, -MHmbcH,
-MHXCH imp. K KOMy? KHGMy?
&
-f-
i/?/. to strive
CxpeMHXbCH K uejiii, k CBo66^e.
To strive to achieve one's goal, to
strive for freedom. CTpeMHXbCH no-
6eAHXb. To strive to win.
CTPfllHbCH, -rycb, -H^enibCH, -ryxcH,
past cxpiircH, cxpHrjijacb, -ocb,
-HCb imp. /p. nocxpiil^bCH, -rycb,
-jKCfflbCH, -ryxcfl, past nocxpiircH,
nocxpnrjilacb, -ocb, -iicb to have
one's hair cut
CxpiWbCH B napHKMaxepcKOH. To
have one's hair cut at a barber's.
CTPOriHfl, -aH, -oe, -ne, short form
cxpor, cxpora, cxp6r|o, -h; adv.
cxporo
1. strict, severe. Cxpornn yqiixejib.
A strict teacher. Oieu, cxporo
nocMOxpeji Ha Cbma. The father
looked severely at his son. Cxpo-
rim roJioc. A severe tone
of voice.
2. fig.
strict. Cxporne npasHjia.
Strict rules.
CTPOflTEJlLCTBO neut.
1. construction. CxpoiixejibcxBO sa-
BOAOB H $a6pHK. The construc-
tion
of
plants and factories.
KyjibxypHoe cxpoHxejibcxBO.
Cultural construction.
2. building. PaSoxaxb na cxpoH-
xejibcxBe. To be engaged in build-
ing.
CTPOIHTb, -JO, -Hinb, -hx imp. qxo?
/
p.
nOCXp6|HXb, -K), -Mfflb, -HX
1. to build. CxpoHXb ;^0M. To build
a house. CxpoHXb jKejieanyio
AO-
pory. To build a railway.
2.
fig.
to build. Cxponxb KOMMy-
HH3M. To build communism.
CTPOfl m., no pi. system
rocyflapcxBeHHHH cxpoH. A state
system. Kojixoshhm cxpoH. The
collective-farm system.
CXy^EHT m. student
Cxy;;eHx 5-ro Kypca. A
fifth-year
student.
CXyjI m., pi cxyjibH, cxyjibCB
chair
Cecxb Ha cxyji. To sit down on a
chair.
CXyHIATb, -y, -Hmb, -fix imp. bo
Hxo? no HCMy? ^eM?//?. no-
cxyq|axb, -y, -nnib, -ax
Cxy^axb B OKHO. To knock at the
window. Gxy^axb KyjiaKOM no cxo-
Jiy. To bang one's fist on the table.
CTtlAHO predic. impers. (to be>
ashamed
Mne cxH/^HO. / am ashamed.
Cxij;t-
HO 3a xoBapnn^a. To be ashamed
of
a friend. Cxm^ho nepe^
ApyabHMH.
To be ashamed to
face one's friends.
CxLi/^HO cJiymaxb axn cjioBa. /
am athamed to hear such words.
CyBBOTA /. Saturday
B^ cy566Ty 6biji nnxepecHbiH koh-
nepx. There was an interesting con-
cert on Saturday.
Cyj\ m., gen. -a
1. law-court.
2. trial.
Cy^flTb, cymy, cyAHmb, cy^Hx imp^
K r 6? ^i X 6?
1. to judge. Mh cyj^HM no xoMy^
^xo BiTj^ejin. We judge front
what we saw.
2. to try. Cy^HTb npecxynnnKa^
'
To try a criminal.
3. to referee. Cy;^iixb ^yxSojibnyio
Bcxpe^y. To referee a footbalf
match.
<> CyAH no TOMy, qxc... Judging
from what...
Cy^bBA
/.,
pi. cyjs,h6u, cy^eC for-
tune, fate
J^yMaxb o cyAb6e Hapo^a. To think
of
the fate of
the people. Cyjijb6st
MOHx flpysen. The fortunes of my
friends.
Cy/^bH m., pi. cyffbH,^ cyACH
1. judge. CnpaBeAJiHBHH cy^bH. A
just judge. HapoAHHH cyAbH.
A people's judge.
2. referee. CnopxHBHHH cyAbH. A
referee, on umpire. x
CyMfiTb see yMEXb
CyM|KA
/.,
gen. pi. -ok bag
KomaLBAR cyMKa. A leather bag.
CyMKa jxJiH. npoAyKxoB. A shop'
ping-bag.
cyn 143 CHH
cyn m., pi. -H soup
Phcobmh cyn. Rice soup. TapejiKa
cyna. A plate
of
soup.
CyPOB|Llfl, -an, -oe, -iie, short form
cypoB, -a, -o, -h; adv. cypoBO
1. stern, GypoBUH nejiOBeK. A
stern person.
2. rugged. GypoBan npHpo^a. Rug-
ged countryside.
3. rigorous. CypoBan h<h3hl. A
rigorous life.
CyTjKH no sing., gen. -ok day, 24 hours
Exaxb n;eJiHe cyxKH. To be driving
the whole day.
J\b6q
cyxoK Two days.
CyXIOfl, -aH, -6e, -ne, adv. cyxo;
comp. cyme
1. dry. Bhtph pyKH, ohh aoji>khh
6htl cyxHMH. Wipe your hands,
they must he dry. Gyxan o;^e}KJ^;a.
Dry clothes. Gyxoii Bos^yx. Dry
air.
2. dry. Gyxan KOMnaxa. A dry
room. Gyxaa aeMJin. Dry earth.
3. fig. dried-up. Gyxon qejioseK.
A dried-up person. On cyxo no-
B^opoBaJiCfl. He greeted (some-
body) coldly.
<> Cyxoe BHHO. Dry wine.
CymECTB|OBATb, -yio, -yemt, -yiOT
imp. to exist
>KH3Hb na 3eMJie cyni;ecTByeT mho-
rne mhjijihohli jict. Life has exist-
ed on Earth for many millions
of
years. GymecTBycT necKOJibKO bh-
AOB ynpaJKHeHHH. There are several
kinds
of
exercises.
COOTOrPAOflPOBATb see <DOTO-
rPAOHPOBATb
CXBATflTb see XBATATbi
CXOJl,flTbi, cxoJKy, cxoAHniB, cx6;^ht
imp.
/p. coHTH,
coHflly,
-enib, -yx,
past comejT, coniJi|a, -6, -h
1. to go down. GxoAHTb no Jieci-
HHn,e. To go downstairs.
2. to get off. Bbi cxoAHTe na cjie-
;^yion];eH ocxanoBKe? Are you
getting
off
at the next stop?
<^ CoHTH c yMa. To go out
of
one's
mind
.
CXOJ^flTb^, cxojKy, cxoAHHib, cxo/^ht
p. Ky J18L? &.-}-inf. to go to some
place and return
Gxofl;HTb B MarasHH. To go to the
shop (and return). Gxo/^htb nory-
JiHTb. To go for a walk.
CKOJlfLThCR, 1st & 2nd pers. sing,
not used, 3rd pers. cxoflHXCH, cxo-
;i;htch imp.
/
p. coHTHCb, 1st & 2nd
pers. not used, 3rd pers. couffjeicfi,
coHAyxcH, past comejicH, conijilacb,
-OCb, -HCL
l.to come together. Gonxncb b
aaJie. To gather in the hall.
KOJIOHHLI J^CMOHCXpanXOB co-
mJiHCb Ha nji6ni;aAH. Columns
of
demonstrants converged in the
square.
2. to suit one another. Ohii co-
mjiHCb xapaKxepaMH. They suit-
ed one another.
cii;eha
/.
'
1. stage. Oh Btimeji na cmeny. He
came on to the stage.
2. scene. HuxepecHaH criena b
cncKxaKJie. An interesting scene
in a play.
<> CoHTH CO cuieHbi. To leave the
stage.
CHACTJlflBlblfl [n;acjiHBHH], -an,
-oe, -He, short form c^acxjiHB, -a,
-0, -h; adv. CHacxjiHBO
1. happy. GnacxJiiiBaH HH3Hb. A
happy life. G^acxJiHBbm qejio-
BeK. A happy man. Kan a cnacx-
jihbI How happy I am!
2. lucky. Th cnacxjiHBHH! You're
lucky/
<> CiacTJiHBoro nyxii! A happy
journey!
C^ACTbE [n;acxbe] neut., no pi.
1. happiness. Bojibmoe cnacxbe.
Great happiness. >Kejiaio BaM
CHacxbHl / wish you happiness!
2. good luck.
<> r^e cqacTbe, xaai h pa;^ocTI>
(proverb). Where there is happi-
ness, there is joy.
CHHTA|Tb [n^Hxaxb], -lo, -emb, -rox
imp.
1. K OrO? HX 0?/p.
COCHHXa|xb, -K3,
-emb, -lox to count. Gocqnxaxb
go cxa. To count to one hundred.
G^Hxaxb no nopH^Ky. To count
in the order in which things are.
Gqnxaxb js^eHhrn. To count
money.
2. KOrO? HXO? KCM? qcM? to
consider, to think. H c^nxaJi
Te6n CBOHM flpyroM. I considered
you to be my friend. Gnnxaio,
Hxo XH nocxyuHJi npaBHJibHO.
cmH
144 TAJI
/ think you acted in the
right way.
CfflHTb see mWTh
CT>E33 m. congress
IlapTHHHUH CLean. A party con-
gress.
G-LesA npo$coK)30B. A trade-
union congress.
CT>3lOTTb, -Hy, -flHnib, -^ht
p.
K
y
a? &
+ inf. (cf . E3J^HTb) to
go to some place and return
C'besjxiiTh B flpyroH ropo/i;. To go
to another town (and come back).
CtesAHTb OT;;oxHyTb. To go on a
holiday.
CT>E3H{A|Tb, -K), -emB, -iot imp.
Kyfla? OTKyrja?
/ p. ctexaTb,
Cbe^ly, -euib, -yx to go (come)
down
C-bexaxb c ropw. To go (come) down
the hill.
CT>E33KAlTLCH, 1st & 2nd pers. sing,
not used, 3rd pers. -excH, -iotch
imp.
I
p. cbexaxbCH, 1st & 2nd pers.
sing, not used, 3rd pers. cbe^IeTCH,
-yxcH to come together, to gather
K Beqepy HanajiH cbeantaxbCH ro-
CTH. Towards evening the guests
began to arrive.
CTbECTb see ECTb^
CTbEXATb see CT)E35KATb
CT>EXATbCH see CT>E3^ATbCH
CbirPATb see HrPATb
CblH m., pi. cwHOBbH, cbiHOBeH son
GiaprnHH CbiH. The eldest (elder)
son. MjiaAfflHH chh. The youngest
(younger) son.
CblP m., pi. -u cheese
ByTep5p6;i; c CbipoM. A cheese sand-
wich.
CbIP|(3fl, -aH, -6e, -He; adv. cbipo
1. damp. GbipaH seMJiH. Damp
earth. CwpoH Boajtyx. Damp air.
CbipaH KOMHaxa. A damp room.
I
predic. impers. B^ecb oienb
CHpo. It is very damp here.
2. raw, unboiled. Gmpoe mhco.
Raw meat. Cupoe mojioko. Un-
boiled milk.
I>IT|bIfi, -an, -oe, -tie, short form
CHx, CHxa, CMx|o, -u replete
H cux. / am full.
CIO^A adv. Ky^a? here
H npnmeji cio^a yxpoM. / came
here in the morning.
T, T
TABAK m., gen. -a tobacco
KpenKHH xa6aK. Strong tobacco.
Kypnxb xa6aK. To smoke tobacco.
TABJIfl^A /. table
TaSjiHi^a yMHOJKeHHH. The multi-
plication table. TaSjiHqa BHHrpH-
raeH. The list
of
winning numbers.
TAflHA /. mystery
TaHHH npapoAbi. Mysteries
of
na-
ture. Xpanrixb b xaHne. To keep
secret. /l^epjKaxb b xanne. To keep
(something) secret.
TAK adv.
1. as. ^ejiaxb xaK, KaK nyjKHO.
To do as one should. Mm xaK me
ji;0B6jibHH noea^KOH, nan h bh.
I^e
are as pleased with the trip
as you are.
2. so. Oh xaK mhofo xo;^^TJI, ^xo
ycxaJi. He walked so much that
he got tired.
3. as part
of
compound conj. xaK
KaK as, xaK hxo so,
<> H xaK aaJiee. And so on. TaK
cKasaxb. So to speak. TaK naabiea-
eMbiM. So-called. Tan ce6e. So-so.
TaK H 6biTb. Let it be so. He xaK
jiH? Is it not so?
TAKHCE adv. also
Mkl xamKC 6biJiH flOBOJibHH. We
were also pleased.
TAKlOfl, -an, -6e, -He pron.
1. such. TaKOH Beqep h
6yAy
noM-
HHXb jiOJLTO. I'll remember such
an evening for a long time.
2. so. CerojiiHH xaKan xopoman no-
^6;^a! Today the weather is so
good!
3. the same as. Oh KynnJi xaKyio
me KHHry, KaK h xh. He bought
the same book as you did.
*0^
B
TaKOM cjiyqae. In this case.
TaKHM 66pa3M. In this way.
Ht# TaKoe? What's that?
TAKCfiL neut., indecl. taxi
JlePKOBoe xaKCH. A taxi-cab. Exaxb
na xaKCH. To go by taxi. HaM uymno
B3HXb xaKCH. We should take a taxi.
BM3Baxb xaKCH no jenei^oiiy. To
call a taxi by telephone.
TAJIAHT m. talent, gift
y Hero SoJibmoH xaJianx. He is very
gifted.
TAJl 145 TEM
TAJlAHTJIHBIblfl, -aH, -oe, -He tal-
ented, gifted
TajiaHTJiHBLiH yqeHHH, nHcaxejib.
A gifted scientist, writer. TaJiaHT-
jiHBaH paSoxa, KHHra. A work, book
of
great talent.
TAM adu. r
a
e? there
TaM HtHBex MOH OTei^. My father
lives there. TaM, r^e a poAHJiCH,
cymecTByex MHoro nnxepecHtix
oSHHaeB. Where I was born, there
exist many interesting customs.
TAH|EI^ m., gen. -Ei;a dance
BHCxpHH xaneii;. A quick dance.
HcnoJiHHXb HaponHUH xanen;. To
perform a folk dance. Eocemaxb
nmojiy xaHn;eB. To attend a dancing
school.
TAHmEBATb, -yro, -yenib, -yiox
imp. H X 0? to dance
TanneBaxb Bajibc. To dance a waltz.
TanneBaxb c AeByuiKon. To dance
with a girl.
TAPEJIIKA
/.,
gen. pi. -ok plate
FJiySoKafl xapejina. A soup plate.
MeJiKan xapeJiKa. A flat plate. Ecxb
H3 xapeJiKH. To eat
from a plate.
TAmflTb, xan^y, xan;Hnib, xan^ax imp.
1. Koro? Hxo? to carry. Tan^nxb
MemoK. To carry a sack.
2. H X 0? p. Bbixan^Inxb, -y, -nmb,
-ax to pull out. Bbixamnxb rBosAb
H3 cxeHH. To pull a nail out
of
the wall.
TA|HTB, 1st & 2nd pers. not used, 3rd
pers. -ex, -lox imp.
/p. pacxa|HXb,
1st & 2nd pers. not used, 3rd pers.
-ex, -lox
1. to thaw. Gner xaex. The snow is
thawing.
2. only imp.,
fig.
to dwindle, to
waste away. Sanacw xaiox. The
supplies are dwindling. BojibHOH
xaex na rjiaaax. You can see the
sick man waste away.
TBEPAIblfl, -an, -oe, -He, short form
xBepfl, xBepua, xsepAlo, -h; adv.
XBCpflO
1. solid. TBepAoe xejio. A solid
substance.
2. hard. TBepjtan seMJiH. Hard
ground.
3.
fig.
firm, sound. TBep^He sna-
HHH. Sound knowledge. IIpHHHXb
xBepAoe pemenHe. To take a
firm decision.
104002
TBOfl, xBOfl, xBoe, xboh pron. your(s)
TBOPHECTBO neut., no pi. creative
work
TBopqecxBO niojioxoBa. Sholokhov's
works. Pacnsex xBopqecxBa. The
height
of
one's creative activity. Ha-
poAHoe XBopqecxBO. The creative
work
of
the people.
TEATP m. theatre
Teaxp onepH h 6ajiexa. A theatre
of
opera and ballet. /],paMaxHHecKHH
xeaxp. A play-house. CMOxpexb b
xeaxpe noByio nbecy. To see a new
play at a theatre. Xo^nxb b xeaxp.
To go to the theatre.
TEJIEBflSOP m. television set
^
CMOxpexb nepezj;aqy no xeneBnaopy.
To watch a television programme.
BKJIIOqHXb (BHKJIIO^IHXb) XeJICBHSOp.
To turn on
(off)
television.
TEJIEPPAMMA
/. telegram
CpoqnaH xejierpaMMa. An urgent
telegram. Ilocjiaxb (flaxb) xejierpaM-
My. To send a telegram.
TEJIErPA<D m., no pi. telegraph-
office
LteHxpaJibHHH xejierpa^. The central
telegraph-office. H^th na Tejierpa(|).
To go to the telegraph-office. Pa66-
xaxb na xejierpa(|)e. To work at a
telegraph-office.
TEJIEOOH m. telephone
HoMep xejie{|)6Ha. A telephone num-
ber. MejKAyropOAHHH xejie(|)6H. A
trunk line. FoBopnxb no xejie^ony.
To speak over the telephone.
<> Te;ie4)6H-aBTOMaT. A public te-
lephone.
TJI|0 neut., pi. -a
1. substance. Tbep^oe xeJio. A so-
lid substance. H^itflKoe xejio. A
liquid substance.
2. body. HacxH xejia. Parts
of
the
body.
TEMA
/. subject, theme
TeMa ypoKa. The subject (theme)
of
a lesson. TeMa ^OKJiaAa. The sub-
ject
of
a report.
TfiMHIblfl, -an, -oe, -ne, adv. xcmho
1. dark. TeMnan KOMHaxa. A dark
room.
I
predic. impers. Ha yjinne
xeMHO. It is dark outside.
2. dark. Tcmehh kocxiom. A dark
suit. TeMHHe bojioch. Dark hair.
TeMHHe FJiasa. Dark eyes.
TEM 146 TEH
3. fig-
dark. TeMHwe chjih. Dark
forces.
TEMn m. tempo, speed, rate
BucTptiH TeMH. A quick tempo
TeMn pe^H. The tempo (speed)
of
speech. TeMnu pasBHTHH 3KOh6mh
KH. The rate
of
economic development
TEMHEPATS^PA /.
1. temperature. TeMnepaxypa boah
The temperature
of
water. Hawe
pHTb TeMnepaxypy. To take a
temperature.
2. temperature. V Hero BucoKan
TeMnepaxypa. He has a high
temperature.
||
colloq. high tem-
perature, fever. Y peSeuna TeM-
nepaxypa. The child has a fever.
TEHb
/.,
prepos. b Tenii shade; shad-
ow.
Tenb ox Aepesa. The shade
of
a
tree. CnAexb b xenii. To sit in the
shade. On Gohjich coScxBeHHoii xe-
Hii. He was afraid of
his own shadow.
TEOPHH /.
theory
HayHHaa xeopnH. A scientific theory.
Maynaxb xeopuio. To study a
theory. CoeAHHHXb xeopnio c npan-
XHKOH. To combine theory with prac-
tice.
TEDEPb adv. now
Tenepb oh >KHBex b Ch6hph, a
panbuie paSoxaji b MocKse. Now he
lives in Siberia, but before he worked
in Moscow.
TEnJl|blH, -an, -oe, -He, short form
xeneji, xenJija, -6, -u; adv. xenno
1. warm. Tenjian KOMnaxa. A warm
room. TenjibiH Boaayx. Warm
air. PasBe axo ropHMHH cyn? Oh
qyxb xenjiuH. Do you call this
hot soup? It is hardly warm.
Tenjioe naJibxo. A warm coat.
|
predic. impers. (is) warm. Mne
xenjio. / feel warm. SA^Cb xenjio.
It is warm here.
2.
fig.
warm, cordial. TenjiLie qyB-
cxBa. Warm feelings. Ohh xenJio
npocxHJiMCb c rocxHMH. They
said good-bye to their guests cor-
dially.
TEPIIEJlflBlblfl, -an, -oe, -we, short
form xepnejiHB, -a, -o, -u; adv. xep-
nejiHBo patient
TepnejiHBUH yqrixejib. A patient
teacher. TepneJiHBO oS-LHCHnxb. To
explain patiently.
TEPHlTb, -K), -emb, -lox imp. Koro?
mo?/p. noxepH|xb, -lo, -emb, -lox
1. to lose. IIoxepHXb cyMKy. To lose
one's bag.
2.
fig.
to lose. Teprixb Apyra. To
lose a friend. Tepnxb HaAewAy.
To lose hope. Tepnxb cjiyx. To
lose one's hearing. Tepnxb BpeMH.
To waste time.
<> Tepaxb roJioey. To lose one's
head. Bbi He BHAeJiH axy KapxH-
Hy? Hex? Bbi HHqero ne noxe-
pfljiH. ''Have you seen this pic-
ture? No? You have missed
nothing."
TECHjblfl, -an, -oe, -He, snort form
xecen, xecna, xecH|o, -h; adv. xecHO
1. cramped. TecHan KBapxnpa. A
cramped flat.
\
predic. impers.
3Aecb xecHO. There is no room here.
2. tight. TecHHe Goxpihkh. Tight
shoes. PySamna Mne xecna. The
shirt is too tight for me.
3. close. BHTb XeCHO CBHSaHHHM
c kcm-jihSo. To be closely con-
nected with somebody.
TETPAJ^b /. copy-book
Tojicxafl xexpaAb. A thick copy-book.
ToHKafl xexpaAb. A thin copy-book.
06maH xexpaAt- A thick, general-
purpose copy-book. TexpaAfc b jih-
HeiiKy. A lined copy-book. Ilncaxb
B xexpaAH. To write in a copy-book.
TETH /. aunt
TEXHHKA /.,
no pi.
1. technique, technology. HepeAO-
BaH xexHHKa. Advanced technol-
ogy. OBJiaAexb xexHHKOH. To
master technique.
2. technique. TexHHKa nrpn na
CKpuuKe. The technique
of
play-
ing the violin.
TEXHflHECKIHfl, -an, -oe, -ne
1. technical. TexHHHecKHH nporpecc.
Technical progress.
2. technical. TexHHnecKHH hhcth-
xyx. A technical institute.
3. technical. TexKHHecKan pa66xa.
Technical work.
TEHEHHE neut. current, stream
HnjKHee xe^eHHe peKH. The lower
reaches
of
the river.
O
Iljmixb no TeneHHio (npoxHB
TeHeHHfl). To go with (against) the
stream.
TEH 147 TOH
TElHb,
1st & 2nd pers. not used, 3rd
pers. -HGT, -KyT, past tgk, TeK|Jia,
-Jio, -JiH imp.
1. to flow, to stream. Pena tghgt.
The river flows. Ho JIH^y ee
TGKJiH CJiesH. Tears were streaming
down her cheeks.
2. fig. to fly by. BpeMH leneT ne-
saMeTHO. Time goes by imper-
ceptibly.
TflXlUfl, -an, -oe, -ne, s/iori /orm
Tiix, THxa, THxlo, -Hj ac?y. THXO;
comp. THiiie
1. soft, Thxhh roJioc. A soft voice.
Thxo neTb. To smg 5o/fZi/. Tobo-
pH THme! Don't speak so loud}
2. quiet. Tixoe yxpo. A quiet morn-
ing.
3. quiet. Thxhh peSeuoK. A quiet
child.
THmHHA /.,
no pi. silence
IloJTHaH THniHHa. Complete silence.
Hapymaxb THmHHy. To break the
silence. CxofiJia MepTBan THmHua.
It was dead silent.
TKAHb /. fabric
niepCTHHaa TKanb. A woollen fabric.
TO particle then
EcjiH SyAST BpeMH, to h npnAy.
//
/ have time I'll come.
TO... TO conj. now... now
To TM roBopiifflb OAHo, TO ;i;pyr6e,

KaK me Mue Te6e BepnTb? Now


you say one thing, now another,
how am I to believe you?
TOBAP m.
1. ware. npoMbimjienHbie TOBapH.
Industrial wares.
2. usu. pi. goods. ToBapH mnpoKO-
ro noTpeSJieHHH. Consumer goods.
TOBAPHm m.
1. friend. BepHMH TOBapnn^. A true
friend.
2. used in addressing people: ToBa-
pnm IleTpoBa! Comrade Petroval
ToBapnn^ Bojikob! Comrade Vol-
kovl
TO^J^A
adv.
1. then. Pfle tm 6hji b nrojie?

fl
6hji Torfl,a b ^pyroM ropo^e.
''Where were you in July?"
"/
was then in another town."
2. then. Th ne anaenib axoro?
Torji;a bosbmh KHHry h npoHH-
xaHl ''You don't know that? Then
take the book and read it!"
10*
3. then. Kor^a npOHHTaio KHHry,
Tor^a OT;;aM ee xeSe. When I
have read the book I'll give it
back to you.
TO ECTb conj. that is (to say)
Cen^ac Mapx. H Bepnycb b HiOHe,
to ecTb Hepea
flsa MecHn;a. Now it
is March. I'll come back in June,
that is in two months.
TOmE adv. also
H TOJKC ^pH;^y na Be^ep. I'll also
come to the evening-party. H tojkb
ycTaJi. / am also tired. Th ne x6-
qemb 3Toro? H TOJKe. "You don't
wanl that? Neither do I."
TOJinA
/.,
pi. TOJiDLi crowd
Tojina JiioAeH. A crowd
of
people.
TOJICTlblfl, -an, -oe, -He, short form
TOJiCT, TOJicTa, t6jict|o, -h; comp.
TOJin^e
1. thick. TojicTaH miTKa. A thick
thread. ToJicxaa KHitra. A thick
book.
2. fat. TojicxHH neJiOBCK.
^
/ai man.
TOJlbKO
1. adv. only. B KOMHaxe xojibKO
oji,EH cxyji. There is only one
chair in the room. Oh npnexaJi
xoJibKO BHepa. He came only
yesterday.
2. conj. only, fl corjiacen, xoJibKO
He cenqac. / agree, only not now.
3. particle only. TojibKO 6h yexaxbl
/ wish only to go away! H 3a-
HCM xojibKO OH CAeJiaJi axo? Why
on earth did he do that?
4. as part
of
compound conj . a) TOJib-
Ko qxo just. Oh xojibKO hxo npn-
meji. He has just come, b) KaK
TOJlbKO the moment, Kan xoJibKO
Mbi BomjiH B 3aji,,.. The moment
we entered the hall...
TOH m. tone
BpajKAeSuHH xoh. A hostile tone.
FOBOpHXb ^.pyjKecKHM XOHOM. To
speak in a friendly tone.
TOHKIHfl, -aa, -oe, -ne, short form
xoHOK, xoHKa, x6hk|o, -h; adv.
xoHKo; comp. xoHbme
1. thin. ToHKaa xexpaAt. A thin
copy-book. ToHKoe jtepeBO.
A thin
tree. ToHKHe SpoBH. Fine eye-
brows. ToHKO Hapeaaxb CHp. To
cut the cheese thin.
2. thin. ToHKHH roJioc. A thin
voice.
TOH 148
TPA
3. delicate, keen. Tohkhh BKyc. A
delicate taste. Tohkhh cjiyx. A
keen ear.
4. fine. Kojibno tohkoh paGoTU. A
ring
of fine workmanship.
^ Tfle
TOHKo, TaM H peeTCfl (prov-
erb). Gf. The strength
of
a chain
is determined by, its weakest link.
TOHHA
/
ton
BecoM B 500 TOHH. 500 tons in
weight .
TOHS'Tb, TOHy, TOHeuib, Tonyx imp.
i. p.
noTOuyTb, noTOHy, noxoHemb,
noTOHyx to sink. KopaSjib no-
Tonyji. The ship has sunk.
2 p.
yTOHyxb, yxony, yxoneinb,
yxonyx to get drowned. MaJib-
^hk yxonyji b pene. The boy got
drowned in the river.
3. no p.
to sink. MexaJiJi xonex b
BO^e. Metal sink<i in water.
TOPrOBJIfl /. trade
BHeniHHH xoproBJifl. Foreign trade.
BHyxpeHHHH xoproBJiH Home trade.
ToproBJiH OBomaMH. The vegetable
trade. PaasHBaTb xoproBJiio. To de-
velop trade.
TOPHCECTBEHHIblfl, -an, -oe, -He;
adv. xop>KecxBtMiHO
1. festive. Top>KecxBeHHUH flenb.
A festive day.
2. solemn.
Top>KecxBeHHbiH xoh.
A solemn tone.
TOPOnflTbCH, xoponjiiocb, xoponnmb-
Cfl, xopoiiflxcH imp. to hurry
ToponHXbCH B xeaxp. To hurry to
the theatre.
TOT pron.
1. that. Tox flOM.
That house. B xox
;^eHb. (On) that day.
2. other. Ha xoh cxopone. On the
other side. Ha x6m 6epery. On
the other bank.
3.: Mm yBepenH b xom, hxo...
We are sure that... fl cnpouiy
y
xoro, Kxo SHaex. I'll ask some-
body who knows.
4. that. 9x0 xox flOM?
Is that the
house? 3x0 xa Ben5b? Is that the
thing? 3x0 ne xa Bemb!
This is
not the thing! 3xo cobccm He x6!
-..
It is not that at all!
-^H t6t h flpyroH.
Both {one and
the other). Hh tot hh ffpyroii.
Neither {one nor the other). Tot
Hce, TOT me caMwii. The same
one, the very same one. B Ty
3Ke MHHyT^. That very moment.
Oaho h to Hce. The (very) same
thing.
Jlejio b tom, mto... The
thing is that... Mne He
flo Toro.
I've other things to attend to.
H TOMy noA6(>Hoe (h t. n.). And
so on (etc.).
5. as part
of
compound conj.: BMecxo
xoro, qx66H instead
of; xeM He
Menee nevertheless; nocjie xoro
KaK after, following;
flo xoro
KaK, ^epe;^ xeM KaK before; ne-
CMOxpH Ha x6, Hxo in spite
of
the
fact that; b xo BpeMH KaK while
TOHIKA
/.,
gen. pi. -bk point, full stop
IlocxaBHXb xoHKy. To put a full
stop.
<> Toqna c aacHTOH. A semi-
colons ToHKa apeHHfl. One's point
of
view. C Moefi toikh speHHH. From
my standpoint.
TOHHIblfl, -an, -oe, -ue, short form
xoHeH, xo^ma, x6hh|o, -h; adv.
x64H0
1. exact. ToHHtiH nepeBOjt. -^n
exact translation. Tohuo anaxb.
To know for certain. To^Hbie na-
CM. A good time-keeping watch.
ToMHoe BpeMH. The exact time.
2. punctual. Tohhhh HejiOBen. A
punctual man.
<> ToHHbie HayKH. The exact sciences.
TPABA
/.,
pi. xpaBbi
1. grass. Bejienaa xpaBa. Green
grass. BucoKafl xpaBa. Tall
grass.
2. only pi. herbs. JleKapcxBeHHue
xpaBU. Medicinal herbs.
TPAKTOP m., pi. xpaKxopa, xpaKxo-
poB & xpanxopti, xpaKxopoB tractor
TPAMBAfl m. tram
^BaAnaTb mecxoH xpaMBan. A num-
ber 26 tram. i:xaxb na xpaMBae. To
go by tram. Gecxb na xpaMBafi. To
take a tram. Cohxh c xpaMBan. To
get
off
the tram.
TPAHCnOPT m., no pi. transport
ropoflCKoii xpaHcnopx. City trans-
port. Bhaw xpaHCHopxa. Kinds
of
transport.
TPA|THTb. -Hy, -XHmb, -xhx imp.
qxo? na h x 6?/p. HCxpa|XHXb,
-qy, -XHmb, -xax to spend
TpaxHXb jxeuhTR na nnxaHHe. To
spend money on food. HcxpaxHXb
TPE 149 Tpy
MHoro AGHer. To spend much money.
Oh TpaTHT MHoro BpeMeHH na ;^o-
pory. He spends a lot
of
time trav-
elling.
TPEBIOBATb, -yio, -yemi,, -yrox
imp. q T o? or q e r 6?
y
k o r 6?
OT Kor6? +
qT66H or J^inf.f
p.
noTpe6|oBaTb, -yio, -yemb, -yioT
1. to demand. H Tpe6yio cjioea. /
demand the right to he heard.
y^HTeJib TpeSosaji, ^toSh mh
^ejiajiH flOMaraHHe saAannH. The
teacher demanded that we should
do our home-task.
2. to take. Bxa pa66Ta TpeCyex mho-
ro BpeMeHH. This work takes a
lot
of
time.
TPEBOHCHIblfl, -an, -oe, -He, short
form TpesoH^eH, xpeBOH^Hla, -o, -ti;
adv. xpeBOJKHO
1. anxious. TpeBOJKHUH bsfjih;;.
An anxious look.
2. alarming. TpenoHtHoe hojiojkc-
HHe. An alarming situation. Tpe-
Bomuoe BpeMH. An uneasy time.
TpeBOJKHHe hobocxh. Alarming
news.
TP(3rA|Tb, -10, -emb, -lox imp. ko-
to? Hxo? neu^/p. xpoHlyxb, -y,
-emb, -yx (momentaneous action) &
noxp6ra|xb, -lo, -emb, -lox
1. to touch. SKCHOHaxM B Myaee
HejTb3H xporaxb pvKaMH. The
exhibits in the museum should
not be touched. EMy xoxejiocb
noxporaxb Kawflyio Bem;b. He
wanted to touch every thing.
2. p.
only xpoHyxb
fig.
to move.
3x0 ero ne xpdraex. It doesn't
move him. MeHH axo oqeub xpo-
Hyjio. It moved me deeply.
3. p. only xponyxb to touch. He
xporaHxe erol Leave him alone/
TPOE num. three
Tpoe cxyAeHxoB. Three students.
y Hero xpoe ^exen. He has three
children. Hac 6mjio xpoe. There
were three
of
us. Hpomjio xpoe
cyxoK. Three days had passed.
TPOJIJlEflByC m. trolleybus
nfixbiH xpojiJieH6yc. A number 5
trolleybus. OcxanoBKa xpojiJienCyca.
A trolleybus stop. Exaxb na xpoji-
JieH6yce. To go by trolleybus. Cecxb
Ha xpoJiJienGyc. To take a trolley-
bus. GoHXH c xpojiJienCyca. To get
off
the trolleybus.
TPOHyXb see TPOPATb
TPyBA
/.,
pi. xpy6H
1. tube. ripoHBBOAcxBO xpy6. Pro-
duction
of
tubes.
2. chimney. SaBOffCKaH xpy6a. A
factory chimney. Tpy6a flOMa.
The chimney
of
a house.
3. trumpet. Hrpaxb na xpy6e. To
play (to blow) the trumpet.
TP>^B|KA
/.,
gen. pi. -ok pipe
KypHXb xpyoKV. To smoke a pipe.
TPyft
m., gen. -a
i.nopl. work; labour. yMCXBeHHHH
xpyfl.
Brain work. OHSHHecKHH
xpyff.
Manual work.
2. difficulty. Oh c xpy^oM Bcxaji.
He stood up with difficulty. Oh
BHyHHJi 3X0 6e3 xpyfla.
He
learned it without any difficulty.
3. work. HayHHHH
xpyA-
A scien-
tific work.
TpyflU
Ferejia. The
works by Hegel.
TPyjIiflTbCH, xpyjKycb, xpyflnmbCH,
xpy;i;HXCfl imp. to work
JIaSopaxopHH xpyfl;HxcH Ha;^ peme-
HHeM axon aa/^aiH. The laboratory
works at solving this problem.
TP5^ja,H|blfl, -an, -oe, -ue, short form
xpyJ^eH, xpjrj^na, xpyAH|o, -h; adv.
xpy^HO
1. difficult. TpyAHbiH sKaaMen. A
difficult examination. Tpy^noe
3a;^aHHe. A difficult task. HaM
xpyAHO HOHHXb Bac. It is diffi-
cult for us to understand you.
3xa KHifra xpyAua ;i;jih Bac. This
book is too difficult for you.
2. difficult, hard. Tpy^Hafl o6cxa-
HOBKa. A difficult situation.
TpyAHoe BpeMH. A hard time.
TPy/^GBlOn, -aa, -oe, -Lie
1. working, labour. Tpyj^OBoe boc-
HHxaHHe. Labour education.
2. working. Tpyj^oBan MOjiOAejKb.
Working youth.
3. hard-earned. Tpy^OBwe ;;eHbrH.
Hard-earned money.
4. working. TpyAOBOH jj,eHh. The
working day.
<> TpyflOBMe pesepBbi. Labour-re-
serves.
TPyJ^HI^|HflCfl m., gen. -erocfl
worker
Tpy/^flmnecH Bcex cxpan. The workers
TPy 150 T5IH
of
the world. CoBexH aenyTaxoB
TpyflHmHXCH. Soviets
of
workers*
deputies.
TPyC m. coward
Oh OKaaaJiCH TpycoM. He turned
out to be a coward.
TPyCb'I no sing, shorts
CnopxcMeHm 6hjih b KpacHux Man-
Kax H nepHLix xpycax. The sports-
men wore red jerseys and black
shorts.
TP)ln|KA
/.,
gen. pi. -ok rag, duster
CxHpaTb ntiJib xpflnKOH. To remove
dust with a rag. Mhxb noji xpfln-
KOH. To wash the floor with a rag.
Xy/HA
adv. K
y A
a? there
Box MarasHH, ho mm xy^a ne noH-
flCM.
Here is the shop, but we shall
not go there. KaK ^oexaxb 30 H,eH-
xpa?

Ty^a m6h{ho exaxb na Mex-


p6.
''How can I get to the centre?"

''You can get there by the under-


ground." Bh Hflexe He xy^a. You are
not going the right way.
TYMAH m. mist, fog
yxpeHHHH XyMan. A morning mist.
FycxoH xyMan. A dense
fog.
Ha
yjiHiie ceroj^HH xyMan. It is
foggy
outside today.
TyniOK, -an, -6e, -Lie
1. blunt. TynoH ho>k. A blunt
knife.
2. not pointed. Tynon hocok 60-
xiiHKa. A rounded toe-cap.
3. fig. meaningless. TynoH bsfjih;;.
A meaningless look.
4. fig. dull. Tynoii yqeuHK. A dull
pupil, a dunce.
5. fig. dull. Tynafl 6ojib. A dull
pain.
TyPflCT m. tourist, hiker
TypncxM xoahjih b jiexHHii noxoA.
The hikers went on a summer walk-
ing tour. HHOcxpauHLie xypncxM.
Foreign tourists.
TYT adv. r

e? (colloq.) here
Tyx cxoHx cxoji, a xaM

AHBan.
There is a table here, and a divan
over there.
T^OJIH pi., gen. pi. xy$ejib; sing.
xy(|)JiH
/. shoes
KoHtanwe xy^JiH. Leather shoes.
Ty$JiH na bhcokom (hhskom) Ka6-
jiyKe. High-(low-)heeled shoes. ]\o-
MamHHe xy(|)jni. Slippers.
1. cloud. HepHwe xyqn. Black
clouds. HnsKHe xyqn. Low clouds.
2. fig. cloud. TyHH hujih. Clouds
of
dust.
TbI pron., gen., ace. xeSfl, dat. xe6e,
instr. xo66h, prepos. o xe6e you
Th moh
Jtpyr. You are my friend.
Hxo XH AeJiaemb cennac? What are
you doing now?
<> BbiTfa Ha TM c kcm-jihSo. To
thee-and-thou somebody.
TblJl m., prepos. b xHJiy; pi. xhjim
rear
TbiJi H (|)poHx. The rear and the
front. PaSoxaxb b XHJiy. I'o work
on the home front.
TK)PbMA
/.,
pi. xiopbMH, xfopeM,
xiopbMaM, etc. prison
riocannxb b xiopbMy. To put into
prison. BpocHxb B xiopbMy. To fling
into prison. Gn^exb b xiopbMe. To
be in prison.
THiKEJIlblH, -an,^ -oe^ -He, short
form
xflJKeji, xfl>KOJi|a, -6, -h; adv. xh-
jKeJio
1. heavy. Tflwejibm hh^iik. A heavy
box.
I
predic. impers. Te6e xh/KC-
J16 necxH 3X0X qeMOfl;aH. It is
difficult for you to carry that
suit-case.
2.
fig.
hard, difficult. TajKejian
pa66xa. Hard work. TflJKeJiaH
JKH3Hb. A hard life. TflJKejioe
sa^aHHe. A difficult task. V He-
ro 6biJia xflJKeJiaH MOJio^ocxb. He
had a hard youth. Y nero xflJKe-
jiHH xapaKxep. He is a difficult
person. CoBepmnxb xflJKejioe npe-
cxynjieHHe. To commit a heinous
crime. Tfl>KejiaH SojiesHb. A grave
illness. TflweJiafl onepauHH. A se-
rious operation. TflJKejioe qyBcxBO.
A hard feeling. Tajkcjimh ^eub. A
hard day.
|
predic. impers. Mho
xfl?KeJi6 BcnoMHuaxb 06 axoM. It
is painful for me to recollect that.
<> y nee Tnmeno na flyme. She
has misgivings. TflHceJiafl npo-
MumjieHHOCTb. The heavy in-
dustry.
THHyXb, XHuy, xflnemb, xHHyx imp.
k r 6? mo?
/p.
noxHHyxb, no-
xHHy, noxHHemb, noxHuyx
1. to pull. Oh noxHHyji oxi^a 3a
151
VBE
pyKaB. He pulled his father's
sleeve.
2. colloq.,
fig.
to draw out. He thhh,
paccKaawBaH SucTpee. Don't
draw it out, say it quickly.
<> TflH.VTb c OTBeTOM. To delay
one's answer.
y,
y
y prep, -j- gen.
1. by. Ctoji ctoht
y
OKHa. The
table is by the window.
2. at. H ?KHBy
y
6paTa. / live at
my brother's.
3. from, fl ysHaji
y
Moero y^HTejia
MHoro HHTepecHoro. / learned a
lot
of
interesting things from my
teacher. MoH TOBapniii; bshji
y
MGHH MOio KHHry. My friend has
borrowed a book from me.
4.: y nee 6ojiht rojiosa. She has a
headache.
5.: y MGHH eCTb 3T0T jKypHaJi. /
have got that magazine. Y Tosa-
pHma 6ojibmaH ceMbH. My friend
has a large family.
yBE^flTb see YBEIiKJliiTh
yBEJ^flTbCH see yBE5KAATbCH
yBE3KAA|Tb, -K), -emb, -kdt imp.
Koro? B HGM? & -^ inf./p. y6e-
fllHTb, 1st pers. sing, not used, -Hmb,
-HT to convince, to persuade
Ham HHJKeHep y6e;^Hji nac b
npaBHjibHOCTH cBoero npoeKxa.
Our engineer has convinced us
of
the correctness
of
his project.
Mh y5e/^HJiH TOBapuma nocxy-
DHTb B HHCTHTyT. We persuaded
our friend to enter an institute.
yBEHC^AITbCH, -locb, -enibca, -lox-
Cfl imp. B qeM?/ p. ySeflliixbCfl,
1st pers. sing, not used, -nmbcfl,
-HxcH to get convinced
y6efl;HXbCH b BepnocxH Apyra. To
get convinced
of
one's friend's loyal-
ty. Mm ySe^HJiHCb. b xom, hxo 3xo
mpdiBjxa.. We got convinced that it
was true.
yBHBAlTb, -K), -emb, -lox imp. k o r 6?
Hxo?/p. ySifxb, y6h\K), -emb, -lox
1. to kill. y6HXb BOJiKa h3 py>KbH.
To kill a wolf with a gun.
y6HTb HOJKOM. To kill with a
knife.
2.
fig.
to kill. HsBecxne o CMepxH
Cbina ySbex ee. The news
of
her
son's death will kill her.
<> XoTb ySeii, ne sHaio. / couldn't
tell you to save my life.
yBHPAlTb, -K>, -emb, -lox imp. ^ x o?/
p.
ySpaxb, ySeply, -emb, -yx, past
ySpaJi, -a, y6paji|o, -h
1. to remove. ySpaxb xexpa^H
. CO cxoJia. To take the copy-books
from the desk.
2. to put away. ySpaxb KHHrn b
mKa(|). To put away books in
a bookcase.
3. to gather (in). ySpaxb ypoHtan.
To gather (in) the crops.
4. to tidy up. ySpaxb KOMHaxy.
To tidy up the room. y5paxb
nocxejib. To make the bed.
yBflTb see yBHBATb
yBPATb see yBHPATb
yBA5KA|Tb, -K), -emb, -lox imp. ko-
to? H X 0? 3 a H X 6? to respect
ycaJKaxb poAHxejien. To respect
one's parents. ysaJKaxb xoeapHma
3a CMejiocxb. To respect one's friend
for his bravery. Mbi ji;oji>khli yea-
jKaxb Apyr Apyra. We must respect
one another.
yBA5KEHHE neut., no pi. respect^
nojibsoBaxbCH yBameHiieM xoBapn-
mew.. To be held in respect by one's
friends. H cj];eJiaJi 3X0 hb yBaJKeuHH
K Apyry-
/ did that out
of
respect
for my friend.
yBEJlfl^HBAlTb, -K), -emb, -lox imp.
qxo?/p. yBejiHH|HXb, -y, -nmb, -ax
1. to increase. yBejiiiHHXb BwnycK
XKanen. To increase the output
of
fabrics.
2. to raise. yBCJiHHHXb 3apa6oxHyio
nJiaxy. To raise one's salary
(wages)
.
yBEJIflHHBA|TbCH, 1st & 2nd pers.
not used, 3rd pers. -excfl, -loxcfl
imp.
I
p. yBeJiH^lHXbCH, 1st & 2nd
pers. not used, 3rd pers. -hxch, -ax-
es to increase, to grow
KojiHHecxBo cxyAenxoB yBeJiHHH-
Baexcfl. The number
of
students is
growing.
yBEJiflHHTb see yBEJIflHHBATb
yBEJlfl^HTbCH see yBEJlflHH-
BATbCfl
VBE 152
VAO
yBEPEHHIblfl, -an, -oe, -He; adv.
ysepeHHO
1. part., short form j^Bepen, yse-
peH|a, -0, -w sure, certain.
yBepeHHHe b no6e;ie, mli npo-
;iOJDKajiH 6opb6y. Certain
of
victory, we continued the fight.
Mu yBepcHM b nameH no6efle.
We are sure
of
our victory. H
yBepen b tom, hto oh npaB. / am
sure he is right.
2. used as adj., short form yBe-
pen, yBepen
I
Ha, -no, -nw confi-
dent, sure. ynepennHe flencTBHH.
Confident actions. Ero flBHJKe-
HHH 6mjih dwcTpH H yBcpen-
HU. His actions were quick and
sure. On roBopnJi yBepenno
(adv.). He spoke confidently.
yBfl/^ETb see BflJUETb
yBJIEKA|TbCH, -locb, -embcn, -K)TCfl
imp. KeM? qeM?/ p. yBJie|HbCH,
-Kycb, -qembCH, -KyxcH, past yB-
JICKCH, yBJieKlJiaCb, -JlOCb, -JTHCb to
be carried away, to be keen (on
doing something)
yBJieKBTbCH cnopTOM, paGoTOH. To
go in for sports, to be carried away
with one's work.
^rOJI m., gen. yrJia, prepos. b yrjiy
1. corner. yroJi j^OMa. The corner
of
a house. CxoflTb na yrJiy ymi-
nti. To stand at the corner
of
the
street. CnAexb b yrJiy KOMnaxH.
To sit in the corner
of
the room.
2. an^le. noflyrji6M45(c6poKnHXb
rpajtycoB). At an angle
of
45.
<0> XoflHTb H3 yrjia b yroji. To
walk up and down the room, yroji
speHHA. A point
of
view. Ils-sa
yrjia. From round the corner.
yrOJIb m., gen. yrjiH coal
KaMenHMH yroJib. Coal. ^oSHBaxb
yrojib. To mine coal. yBe-nHHHBaxb
;to6uHy yrjin. To increase the coal
output.
yrocTiiTb see yromAxb
yromA|Tb, -K), -emb, -iot imp. ko-
to? ^eM?
/
p. yrolcxHXb, -^^y,
-cxHmb, -cxHT to treat
yrocxHXb xoBapHn;a ^aeM. To treat
one's friend to tea.
y;^A|BATbCH, 1st & 2nd pers. not
used, 3rd pers. -excH, -loxcfl imp./
p. y^axbCH, 1st & 2nd pers. not used.
3rd pers. yflacxcfl, yAa;^yxcfl, past
yAa|JiCH, -jiacb, -jiocb, -jiHCb
1. to be a success. Onux y^ajiCH.
The experiment was a success.
2. impers. k o m
y?
-f-
if^f- to man-
age. Mne y;taji6cb npnexaxb na
BOKsan BOBpeMH. / managed to
come to the station in time. HaM
He yAaJiocb nonacxb na BHCxaB-
Ky. We didn't manage to get to
the exhibition.
y^AP m.
1. blow, clap. CnjibHUH y^ap. A
strong blow, y^ap rpoMa. A clap
of
thunder.
2.
fig.
blow. 9x0 ;^Jifl Hero XHJKejiMH
Vflap.
This is a hard blow to him.
<0 BwTb B yffape.
To be at one's
best.
yAAPHTb see yj^APHXb
yAAPEnrbCH see yJ^APHTbCH
y^APHHK m. shock-worker
yj^apHHK KOMMyHHcxnqecKoro xpy-
Jta.
A shock-worker
of
communist
labour.
yj^APH|Tb, -K), -emb, -lox imp. ko-
to? H e M? no H e M y? B H X 6?/
p. yMplHTb, -K), -nmb, -hx to
strike, to hit, to kick
y^apEXb HoroH B
flBepb.
To kick
at the door. y;;apHXb koto-jihCo
pyKOH no njieny. To strike somebody
on the shoulder.
y^APHlTbCH, -locb, -embCH, -ioxch
imp. o6o Hxo? ^eM?/p. y^a-
plHXbCH, -K)Cb, -nmbCH, -HXCH
to strike oneself, to hit oneself
H y/^apHJICH pyKoii o Kpaii cxojia.
/ knocked my hand against the edge
of the table.
y^ATbCH see yJ^ABATbCH
yAHBflTbCfl see yj5HBJlHTbCH
yflRBJlHlTbCH,
-locb, -erabcfl, -loxcfl
imp. KOMy? HeMy?//?. yAH|BHXb-
CH, -BJiiocb, -BHmbCH, -BHXCH to be
surprised
H yflHBHJiCH ero cjiOBaM. / was
surprised at his words.
yj^OBH|blfl, -an, -oe, -ue, short form
yAoSen, yfloSnla,
-o, -u; adv. y^odHO
1. comfortable. Yjx66uoe Kpecjio.
A comfortable chair. On y^oSHO
CHjieJi B Kpecjie. He sat comfort-
ably in an armchair.
|
predic.
impers. (it is) comfortable. Sflecb
oneHb yfl66Hopa66xaxb.
It is very
yflo 153 yjiH
comfortable to work here. BaM
YAoSho CH;^eTb? Are you sitting
comfortably?
2. predic. impers. (it is) con-
venient. yA66HO JIH rOBOpHTL
06 3T0M? Isn't it awkward to
speak about that?
YAOBOJIbCTBHE neut. pleasure
Konnepx aocTaenji Mne 6ojii.m6e
yfliOBOJiLCTBHe. / enjoyed the concert
very much. H cjiyraan neena c yjj,o-
BOJibCTBHeM. / listened to the sing-
er with pleasure.
yE3H{A|Tb, -K), -eniL, -K)t imp./
p. yexaxb,
ye^ly,
-emb, -yx to go
away
Vexaxb 0XJ^Hxaxb. To go on one's
holiday. Vexaxb h3 ropoAa b aepes-
HK). To go from town to the country.
06hhho oh yesjKaex na pa66xy
pano yxpoM. He usually goes
to work early in the morning.
B npomjiOM ro^y h KHKy^a ne
yesHtaJi h3 ^OMa. Last year I didn't
go away anywhere.
YEXATb see YESHCATb
y^ particle emphasising the meaning
of the word to which it refers really
OneHb yjK njioxo oh c^ejiaji 9x0.
He really did that very badly. Th
ym He roBopn CMy 06 axoM. Don't
you tell him about that.
y^E adv. already
H yme ^Hxan axy KHPiry. / have
already read that book. Yme nopa
HflXH AOMOH. It's already time to go
home. MoH chh yjKe BspocJibiH.
My son is already grown-up.
SjiKRH m. supper
XoJiOflHLiH fmuR. A cold supper.
C-becxb yH^HH. To eat one's supper.
IIpHroxoBHXb yjKHH. To cook one's
supper.
BeceflOBaxb aa ymnuoM.
To talk at supper. CeroAHfl na yjKHH
pH6a. There is fish for supper to-
day, nocjie ywHHa. After supper.
yaCHHAITb, -JO, -emb, -rox imp./
p. noyjKHHa|xb, -10, -emb, -lox to
have supper
BKycHO noyHHaxb. To have a tasty
supper.
SSEJl m., gen. ysjia
1. knot. KpeuKHH yaeji. A tight knot.
3aBfl3axb yaeji. To tie a knot.
2.
fig.
knot, yaeji npoxEBope^HH.
A knot
of contradictions.
ySKIHfl, -an, -oe, -ne, short form
y30K, ysKa, y3K|o, -n; comp. yjKe
1. narrow. ysKan yjinna. A nar-
row street. VsKHe SpioKH. Nar-
row trousers. BpiOKH nyjKHO c^e-
Jiaxb yme. The trousers must be
made narrower.
2. fig. narrow, particular. y3KaH
cnennaJibHOCXb. A narrow speci-
ality. y3KHe HHxepecH. Narrow
interests.
3. only short form ysoK, ysKa,
-6, -H too tight. 3x0 njiaxbe ya-
k6 mhc. This dress is too tight
for me.
y3HA|BATb, -K), -emb, -lox imp./
p. y3Ha|xb, -K), -emb, -lox
1. Koro? Hxo? to recognise. H
cpa3y y3HaJi cbok) yjinqy. / rec-
ognised my street at once.
2. HXO? O KOM? o qeM? to
learn, yanaxb HHxepecnyio h6-
Bocxb. To learn interesting news.
Ox Hero MM ysnajiH o nocjie^-
HHX co6biXHflx. We learned the
latest events from him. y3Haxb
MHoro HHxepecHoro. To learn a
lot
of
interesting things.
3. to know. Co BpeMencM mh
y3HaJiH ero Jiyqme. Later we got
to know him better.
y3HATb see ySHABATb
yfiTfl see yXOaflTb
yKPACHTb see yKPAfflATb
yKPACTb see KPACTb
yKPAmAlTb, -K), -emb, -lox imp.
^xo? HeM?
/
p. yKpa|cHXb, -my,
-cnmb, -CHX
1. to deck. yKpamaxb ropo^ (|)jia-
raMH. To deck a town with flags.
2. to decorate. Llsexti ynpamaiox
KOMHaxy. Flowers decorate a room.
yKPEnflTb see yKPEHJlHTb
yKPEHJlHlTb, -H), -emb,^ -lox imp.
Hxo? qeM?//7. yKpe|nHXb, -njiio,
-nnmb, -nnx
1. to fortify. yKpenjifixb ropo^. To
fortify a town.
2.
fig. to strengthen. VKpennxb
BAOpOBbe. To strengthen one's
health, ynpenjinxb flpywecxBen-
Hbie CBH3H. To strengthen friend-
ly ties.
^JIHI^A
/.
1. street. TjiaBnan yjinna. The
main street. H muBy na yjiHn,e
yjiy 154 VMbl
ropbKOro. / live in Gorky Street.
Hath no yjiHi^e. To go along the
street.
2. outside. Bhhth na ynnqy. To
go out. Ha yjiHii,e xojiOAnee, HeM
flOMa. It's colder outside than in-
side.
yjiynniAlTb, -ro, -emb. -rox imp.
1T0?/ p. yjiyHin|HTb, -y, -nmb, -ax
to improve
yjiyquiaxb >KH3Hb Hapo^a. To im-
prove the people's life. yjiyqmaTb
yCJiOBHH pa66TLi. To improve working
conditions.
yjiyHfflA|TbCH, 1st & 2nd pers. not
used, 3rd pers. -exCH, -iotch imp.
/p.
yjiyqinlHTbCH, 1st & 2nd pers. not
used, 3rd pers. -htch, -axcfl to im-
prove
Moe s^opoBbe yjiynrnHjiocb. My
health has improved. OTHoraeHHH
uemjiY 3THMH CTpanaMH yjiynmaiOT-
CH. The relations between these coun-
tries are improving.
yjiyHfflHTb see yjiyqiHATb
yjiynmHTbCH see yjiyqiHATbCH
yjIbIBA|TbCH, -locb, -embcH, -iotch
imp. K M y? HeMy?/p. (momen-
taneous action) yjibi6HlyTbCH, -ycb,
-embCH, -yTCfl to smile
yjibi6HyTbCH
Apyry.
To smile to a
friend.
yjII>IB|KA
/.,
gen. pi. -ok smile
PaAOCTHaH yjibi6Ka. A joyous smile.
FoBopHTb c yjitiSKOH. To say with
a smile. CMOTpexb na peSeHKa c
JiacKOBOH yjitiSKOH. To look at a
child with a kind smile.
yjIblBHyXbCH see yjIblBAXbCH
yM m.
1. no pi. intellect, mind, intel-
ligence. rjiySoKHii yM. A pro-
found intellect. HejioBeK 6ojib-
moro yMa. A man
of
great in-
telligence.
2. intellect. Jlyqmne yMw nejioee-
necTBa. The greatest intellects
of
mankind.
<0^ C^oxaTb B yMe. To count men-
tally. Mne npHmjio Ha yw. It
occurred to me. J^eJiaxb ito-jih-
6o c yMOM. To do something clev-
erly. BosbMHCb 3a yM. Be reason-
able. CoHTH c yMa. To go mad.
BbiTb 6e3 yMa ox Kor6-JiH6o.
To dote on somebody. Bbixb ce6e
Ha yMe. To know which side one's
bread is buttered on. Ym xopomo,
a flea jiyime (proverb). Gf. Two
heads are better than one.
yMEHbmAlTbj -K), -emb, -lox imp.
Hxo?/ p. yMeHbm|HTb, -y, -nmb, -ax
to lessen, to reduce
yMenbrnnxb AaBJienne. To lessen
the pressure. yMCHbmHTb CKopoCTb.
To reduce the speed. yMeubmHTb
KOJiHHecTBo paGoMHX. To cut down
the number
of workers.
yMEHbfflA|TbCH, 1st & 2nd pers.
not used, 3rd pers. -eTCH, -iotch
imp.
/p. yMeHbin|HTbCH, 1st & 2nd
pers. not used, 3rd pers. -htch,
-axcH to lessen, to decrease
J]|aBjieHHe yMenbmHJiocb. The pres-
sure has decreased. PaccToauHe Me>K-
Ay
qjiMH SmcTpo yMeubmaJiocb. The
distance between us was fast growing
shorter.
yMEHbinHTb see yMEHbinATb
yMEHbfflHTbCH see yMEHblHATb-
CH
yMEPETb see yMHPATb
yME|Tb, -K), -emb, -iot imp. usu.
-f
imp. inf.)p. cyMe|Tb, -lo, -emb, -iot
-f-
p. inf. to be able, can
H yMeio HHxaTb. / can read. Oh
yMeeT nrpaTb b TeuHHC. He can
play tennis. Ona cyMejia AoSnTbCH
yBaH^euHH. She succeeded in winning
respect.
yMHPA|Tb, -K), -emb, -k>t
^
imp.f
p.
yMepcTb,
yMply, -emb, -yT, past
yMep, yMepjia, yMepji|o, -h
1. to die. yMepeTb b 6oi6. To die
in battle. yMepeTb ot rojio^a.
To die
of
hunger.
2. fig. to die. 3th n^en ne yMpyT.
These ideas are immortal.
<> yMHpaxb CO cMexy. To die
of
laughing. yMnpaxb c roJiOAy (fig.).
To be starving.
yMHiblH, -an, -oe, -we, short form
yMCH, yMHa, yMH|6, -h; adv. yMHo
clever
yMHHH HeJioseK. A clever person.
Oh yMCH. He is clever. Oh bcji ce-
6h yMHo. He behaved cleverly.
yMbIBA|Tb, -K), -emb, -lox imp. ko-
r 6? H X o? He m?//?. yMuxb, yMolio,
-emb, -IOT to wash
yMUBaTb jihi;6 xojioahoh boaoh.
VMbl 155 ycji
To wash one's face with cold water.
VMHEaTB pe6eHKa. To wash a child.
yMblBAlTbCH, -locb, -enibCH, -iotch
imp. ^eM?/p. yMHTbCfl, yMoIiocb,
-embCfl, -IOTCH to wash
yMHBaxbCfl TenjiOH bo;i;6h. To wash
with warm water. yMbiBaTbCH c mh-
JiOM. To wash with soap.
yMKlTbCfl see yMblBATbCH
yHHBEPMAr m. department store
U[eHTpaJibHHH yHHBepMar. The cen-
tral department store. Kynnxb najib-
t6 b yHHBepMare. To buy an over-
coat at a department store.
yHHBEPCHTET m.
1. university. Mockobckhh rocy-
j^apcTBeHHHH yHHBepcHxeT. Mos-
cow State University. yqHXbCH
B yHHBepcHxeTe. To study at a
university
.
2, university. yuHBepcHTeT Kyjib-
xypH. A university
of
culture.
yHHHTOHCAlTb, -K), -euib, -lox imp.
Koro? qxo? ^.Qu>|p. ynnnxo-
H{|HXb, -y, -HDib, -ax to destroy
yHHHx6>KHXb BpajKecKyio apMHK).
To wipe out the enemy army.
yHHHT05KHTb see yHHHTOHCATb
ynACTb see HA^ATb
ynOTPEBHTb see ynOTPEBJDlTb
ynOTPEBJiHiTb, -H), -euib, -lox imp.
mo?/p. ynoxpe|6HXb, -6jii6, -6Hmb,
-6hx to use
ynoxpeSjiflXb nocjioBHi^bi b penn.
To use proverbs when speaking.
ynoxpeSjiHXb HOBbie cjiOBa. To use
new words.
ynPABJlUlTb, -K), -enib, -lox imp.
K e M? H e M?
1. to drive. ynpaBjiHXb MamnHofi.
To drive a motor-car.
2. to govern. ynpaBjiHxb cxpanoH.
To govern a country.
ynPAHCHEHHE neut. exercise
JlerKoe ynpa^KnenHe. An easy exer-
cise.
TpyjtHoe ynpamneHHe. A dif-
ficult exercise. C^eJiaxb ynpaJKne-
HHe. To do an exercise.
ynPHMlbia, -an, -oe, -ue, short
form ynpHM, -a, -0, -h; adv. ynpH-
MO stubborn
ynpHMMH qejiOBCK. A stubborn per-
son. Oh oHCHb ynpHM. He is very
stubborn.
>^POB|EHb m
,
gen. -hh
1. level. ypoBCHb h{h;^kocxh b
KOJiSe. The level
of
the liquid in
a flask.
2. fig. standard, level. ypoBenb
MKH3HH Hapo^a. The living stan-
dard
of
the people. KyjibxypHHH
ypOBeub. The level
of
culture.
yP05KAB[ m. harvest
BoraxbiH ypomafi. A rich harvest.
Co6paxb ypojKan. To gather in the
harvest.
yPOK m.
1. lesson. HnxepecHMH ypoK. An
interesting lesson. BHXb na ypo-
Ke. To be at a lesson. Ono3-
^axb Ha ypoK. To be late for a
lesson. ypoK pyccKOro HSHKa.
A Russian lesson.
2. lesson, homework. Buymnh
ypoK. To learn one's lesson. C^e-
jiaxb ypoKH. To do one's home-
work.
3.
fig.
lesson. Ilycxb axo Cy^ex
BaM ypoKOM. Let that be a lesson
to you.
yCflJlHBAlTb, -K), -emb, -lox imp.
Hxo?/p. ycHJi|Hxb, -K), -nmb, -hx
to strengthen
ycHJiHTb 3HCij,HnjiHHy. To strength-
en discipline. ycHJiHXb Ha6jiio;;e-
HHe. To intensify observation.
yCflJIHBAITbCH, Jst & 2nd pers. not
used, 3rd pers. -excH, -ioxch imp./
p. ycHJilHXbCH, 1st & 2nd pers. not
used, 3rd pers. -hxch, -hxch to in-
crease
niyM ycHjiHJiCfl. The noise was grow-
ing louder.
yCflJlHTb see yCflJIHBATb
yCflJIHTbCH see yCflJIHBATbCH
yCJiOBHE neut.
1. data, condition. IIoHaxb ycjio-
BHe sa/ta^H.
To understand the
data
of
a problem. 3x0 rjiaBHoe
ycJiOBHe ycnexa. This is the
chief
condition for
success.
2. only pi. conditions. npHpo^Hbie
ycjTOBHH. Natural surroundings.
ycjiOBHH JKH3HH. Living condi-
tions. Pa66xaxb b xawejibix yc-
JiOBHflX. To work under difficult
conditions. Coa^axb HopMajibume
ycJiOBHH ji;jiH paSoxu. To provide
normal conditions for
work.
<> B TaKHX (3THX) yCJlOBHflX...
Under such (these) conditions.
yCJIb'IfflATb see CJlKimATb
yen 156 yxo
yCHEBAlTb, -K), -ensh, -K)t imp.
-|- inf./ p. ycnelTb, -lo, -einb, -K)t
usu.-\-p. inf.
1. to have enough time (to do
something). Oh ycneji npo^HTaxb
KHHry B cpOK. He managed to
finish the book in time. Oh ycneji
npHHTH K ywHHy. He was in
time for supper.
2.: He ycnejin mh Buexaib h3
ropofla, KaK nomeji jio>Kjs,h.
Hardly had we left the town when
it began raining.
3. only imp.: 3tot CTyaeHT He
ycneBaeT no $H3HKe. This stu-
dent is backward in physics.
yCHETb see yCHEBATb
ycnPiX m. success
^o6HTbCfl ycnexa b paSoxe, To
achieve success in one's work. CnoK-
TaKJib HMCJi 6oJibm6H ycnex. The
performance was a great success.
JKeJiaio BaM ycnexoBl / wish you
success!
ycnOKAHBAITb, -H), -emb, -iot imp.
KOTO?
/
p. ycnoKolHTb, -10, -nmb,
-HT to calm, to reassure
VcnoKOHTb 6ojibH6ro. To reassure
the patient. YcnoKOHTb HepBH. To
calm one's nerves.
ycnOKAHBA|TbCH, -locb, -embCH,
-lOTCH imp.
/p. ycnoKOlHTbCfl, -locb,
-nmbCH, -HTCfl
1. to quieten, to become calm. Pe-
6eH0K ycnoKOHjiCH. The child has
quietened. Mope ycnOKOHJiocb.
The sea became calm.
2. to soothe, to abate. Bojib ycno-
KOHJiacb. The pain has abated.
3. to rest. He ycnoKaiiBaTbca na
AOCTHrnyTOM. Not to rest on
one's achievements.
ycnOKOHTb see ycnOKAHBATb
yCnOKOHTbCH see YCnOKAH-
BATbCH
yCTAlBATb, -10, -emb, -rox imp.
+
inf. /p. ycTa|Tb, -ny, -nemb, -Hyx
to get tired
Bqepa h oqenb ycxaJi. / got very
tired yesterday. Vcxaxb ox cnopa.
To get tired
of
arguing. Vcxaxb
xanneBaxb. To get tired
of
dancing.
yCTAJI|bIfl, -an, -oe, -He; adu. ycxa-
Jio tired
VcxajiLiH ^eJiOBeK. A tired person.
ycxaJiHH BsrJiHfl. A tired look.
ycxajioe JiHn6. A haggard
face. Oh
BMrjiflfleji ycxajio. He looked tired.
yCTATb see yCTABAXb
yCTH|bIfl, -an, -oe, -ue; adv. ycTHO
oral
ycxHHH aKaaMCH. An oral examina-
tion. ycxHoe aaHBjienne. An oral
statement. OxBenaxb ycxHO. To
answer orally.
yCTPAHBA|Tb, -K), -emb, -lox imp.
qxo?/p. ycxpolHXb, -10, -nmb, -ht
1. to arrange. Ycxponxb Konqepx.
To arrange a concert. ycxpoHXb
Be^ep. To arrange an evening'
party.
2. Koro? colloq. to suit. MeHH 6x0
He ycxpaHBaex. That doesn't
suit me.
yCTPOHTb see yCTPAHBATb
yCKl, ^ing. yc used rarely mous-
tache(s)
Jl|jiHHHLie ycH. A long moustache.
HocHXb ycti. To wear a moustache.
yXOHyTb see TOHyXb
yXPEHHIHfl, -nn, -ee, -ne morning
yxpcHHee c6jiHn;e. The morning sun.
yxpeHHHH nporyjiKa. A morning
stroll.
yXPO neut., dat. pi. no yxpaM morn-
ing
Csemee yxpo. A cool morning. C ca-
MOro yxpa. From early in the morn-
ing. Hnxaxb KHiiry ao
yxpa. To
read the book till morning. B 7 Ha-
coB yxpa. At 7 o'clock in the morn-
ing.
yXPOM adv. in the morning
BcxaBaxb pano yxpoM. To get up
early in the morning. 3aBxpa yx-
poM MH Bce pemHM. We'll settle
everything tomorrow morning.
yXiDr m.r
gen. -a iron
FopHHHH yxior. A hot iron. Fji^*
^HXb yxioroM. To iron (to press).
yxo neut., pi. ymn, ymen ear
BojibHHe ymn. Bad ears.
<> CKasaTb Ha yxo. To whisper
into somebody's ear. He BepHTb
CBOHM ymaM. Not to believe one's
ears. Ho ymii BJiio5HTbCfl b Koro-
JiA6o. To be head over heels in love
with somebody.
yXOJ^flXb, yxoHty, yxoanrab, yxo-
flHX
imp./p. yHXH,
VHAJy,
^
-emb,
-yx, past ymeji, ymji|a, -6, -h to go
away, to leave
yxy 157 <1>AK
Oh
KynHJi KHHry h yraeji h3 Mara-
SHHa. He bought the hook and left
the shop. Bee ynijiii na 9KCKypcHH).
Everybody has gone on an excursion.
^
Oh yraeJi c tojioboh b paSoxy.
He is up to his eyes in work.
yxy^niAlTb, -lo, -emb, -lOT imp.
HTO?
/
p.
yxy^niHTb,
yxyAmly,
-nmb, -ax to make worse
yxy^niHTb CBoe nojiOHCCHHe. To
make one's situation worse.
yxyAfflAITbCH,
1st & 2nd pers. not
used, 3rd pers. -ctch, -iotch imp./
p.
yxyj^m|HTbCfl, 1st & 2nd pers.
not used, 3rd pers. -htch, -axca to
deteriorate, to become worse
IIojioJKeHHe B CTpaee yxyamnjiocb.
The situation in the country has
deteriorated. SflopoBbe 6oJibH6ro
yxyjimHJiocb. The patient's health
has become worse.
yx^AfflHTb see yxyAmAxb
yX^AniHTbCfl see yxyAoiATbCH
ynACTBIOBATb, -yio, -yemb, -yioT
imp. B H e M? to take part
ynaCTBOBaxb b copeBHOBaHHHX. To
take part in competitions
.
yHACTHE neut., no pi. b qeM?
participation
ripHHjixb yqacxne b KOHn,epxe. To
take part in a concert.
yHACTHHK m. participant
ynACTlOK m., gen. -Ka
1. section. JIbchoh ynacxoK. A sec-
tion
of
a forest.
2. sector. Ba>KHHH ynacxoK pa66-
XM. An important sector
of
work.
3. district. HsSHpaxejibHHH y^a-
cxoK. An electoral district.
yHEBHHK m. text-book
yqeSHHK pyccKoro asuKa. A Rus-
sian text-book. yneSHHK aJth xex-
HH^ecKHx HHCXHxyxoB. A text-book
for technical institutes.
yHKBHlbin, -aH, -oe, -ue school,
academic
yneGHWH rOA A school (academic)
year. YqeGnoe nocoSne. An aid to
study, a teaching aid.
yHEHflK m., gen. -a
1. pupil. yqeHHK cpeAHen raKOJiH.
A secondary-school pupil.
2. pupil, disciple. ynemiK snaMe-
HHxoro npo|)eccopa. The famous
professor's pupil.
yHEH|bItt, -an, -oe, -He
1. scientific, academic. YHCHaH
cxeneHb. An academic degree.
2. used as n. scientist. HsBecxHbiH
y^eHHH. A well-known scientist.
ynflTEJIIb m., pi. -n teacher
y^Hxejib (|)H3HKH. A physics teach-
er. Pa66xaxb yqnxejieM b mKOJie,
To work as a schoolmaster. Cxaxb
y^HxejieM. To become a teacher.
ynflTb,
yqy,
yHHmb, y^ax imp.
1. p. Bbiyq|HXb, -y, -nmb, -ax h x o?
to learn. YqHXb ypoK. To learn
one's lesson. Bwy^nxb cxhxoxbo-
penne. To learn a poem.
2. p. HayHHXb, Hayqy, Haynnmb,
Haynax ^ e m y? &-}-inf.^ to
teach. yHHXb nnxaxb h nncaxb.
To teach to read and to write.
y^nxb pyccKOMy asHKy. To
teach Russian.
ynflTbCH, yqycb, ynnmbCH, yqaxcH
imp. H e M y? &
-f-
inf./p. nayqiixb-
CH, Hayqycb, Hay^HiiibCH, nayHaxca
1. to learn, to study. Yraxb-
Cfl njiasaxb. To learn to swim.
ynnxbCH pyccKOMy asLiKy. To
study Russian.
2. no
p. to study. Moh 6pax
y^Hxca B yHHBepcHxexe. My
brother studies at the university.
<^ BeK HCHBH

BBK yqHCfa (prov-


erb). Ci. Live and learn.
yiDTHIblH, -aa, -oe, -bie; adv. yiox-
HO cosy, comfortable
yioxaaa KOMHaxa. A cosy room.
Sjiecb OMeub yioxno. It is very com-
fortable here.
OABPHKA /. factory
TeKCXHJibHaa (J)a6pHKa.
A textile
factory. PaSoxaxb aa ^aSpane. To
work at a factory.
OAKT m. fact
^eHCXBHxejibBbiH (|)aKX. A real fact.
OaKXbi roBopax o xom, axo oh 6iiia
npaB. The facts show that he was
right.
OAKyjIbTET m. faculty, department
cDhjioc6(|)CKHH ^anyabxex. The phi-
losophy department, yqaxbca aa
XHMHaecKOM (|)aKyabxexe. To study
at the chemistry department. Ilocxy-
<I>AM 158
XAP
HHTb Ha $H3HqeCKHH ^aKyJILT^T.
To enter the physics department.
OAMflJIHH /. (sur)name
cDaMHJiHH cxyj^eHxa. The student's
name. KaK Baiua 4>aMHJiHH? What's
your name? Moh $aMHJiHH HfiaHOB.
My name is Icanov.
OEBPAJI|b m., gen. -a February
B (JeBpaJie ^acio 6i>iBaioT Mexejin.
In February there are often snow-
storms. SaBxpa nrixoe (^esipaJiH. To-
morrow is the
fifth of
February.
Oh yeawaex BOCbMoro (|)eBpaJiH. He
leaves on the eighth
of
February.
onry^PA /.
1. figure. CxpoHHan (^nrypa. A
slender form. Y ne'e xoponian
(|)Hrypa. She has a good figure.
2. figure. FeoMexpHHecKan
(fnrypa.
A geometrical figure.
OflSHKA /. physics
EpoGjiGMH $i]3HKH. The problems
of physics. 3aHHMaxtca 4>h3hkoh.
To study physics. JIckuhh no (|)h-
BHKe. Lectures on physics. fljiepHaa
(|)H3HKa. Nuclear physics.
<DH3flHECK|Hn, -afl, -oe, -ne
1. physical. (DH3HqecKafl cvtna. Phys-
ical strength. 3aHHMaxbCH ^u-
3HHecKHM
xpyfliOM.
To do physi-
cal work.
2. physics. OHSHHecKHii $aKyjib-
xex. The physics department.
OH3KyjIbT5^PA /. {= (J)H3HHec-
Kaa Ky-^Lxypa) physical culture
SauHMaxbCH (|)H3KyJitxypoH. To go
in for physical culture. 3aHflXHH
no $H3KyjiBxype. Physical culture
lessons.
OHJIbM m. film
Hayqno-nonyjiHpHHH ^hjilm. A
popular science film. J^OKyMenxaJib-
HMH (J)HJibM. A documentary film.
Xy;;6>KecxBeHHbiH $HJibM. A feature
film.
OJIAP m. flag
Focy/^apcxBeHHHH $Jiar, The nation-
al flag.
OJIOT m. fleet
BoeHHO-MopcKOii (|)Jiox. The navy.
ToproBHH $Jiox. The merchant ma-
rine. BoBAyniHbiH $jiox. The air fleet.
OOHTAH m.
1. fountain. Ha njion^aAH 6uji (|)oh-
xaH. There was a fountain in the
square.
2. gusher. He^xHHOH
^OHxaH. An
oil-gusher.
oOpma /.
1. shape. Cxoji KpyrjroH (|)6pMH.
A round table. npe^Mex HMeex
(|)6pMy uiapa. The object has the
shape
of a ball.
2. form. CoaepwaHHe n $6pMa.
The content and the form.
3. uniform. BocHHan $opMa. Mili-
tary uniform.
<> BbiTb B 4>6pMe. To be in good
form. EbiTb He b ^^^pMe. Not
to be in good form.
OOPTOHIKA
/., gen. pi. -eu fortochka
(a small hinged window pane used
for ventilation)
OxKptixb ^opxoqKy. To open the
fortochka. Cnaxb npn oxKpbixoH
$6ptt)HKe. To sleep with the
for-
tochka open.
OOTOAnnAPAT m. camera
CHHMaxb ^oxoannapaxoM. To pho-
tograph.
OOTOrPAcDflPlOBATb, -yio, -yemb,
-yiox imp. k o r 6? h x o?
/
p. c$o-
xorpa$Hp|OBaxb, -yio, -yemb, -yioT
to photograph
(Doxorpa^npoBaxb peSeHKa. To pho-
tograph a child.
OPOHT m., pl.^ -LI front
Haxh Ha ^poHX. To go to the front.
CpajKaxbCH Ha (|)p6Hxe. To be fight-
ing at the front.
OP5^KTbI otzZt/ pi. fruit
CBmne ^pyKXbi. Fresh fruit. Uo-
Kynaxb $pyKXH b MarasHHe. To buy
fruit at a shop.
OYTBOJI m. football
Hrpaxb B (|)yx66ji. To play football.
CopeBHOBauHH no $yx66jiy. Foot-
ball competitions.
X, X
XAJIAT m. overalls
FaSoHHH xajiax. Overalls. KynaJib-
HLiH xaJiax. A bath-robe. J^OM&ni-
HHH xajiax. A dressing-gown.
XAPAKTEP m.
1. character. CHJibHWH xapaKxep.
A strong character. TBepflWH xa-
paKxep. A strong character. Bo-
jieB6H xapaKxep. A strong-willed
XBA 159 XOJl
person. HepxH xapaKxepa. Traits
of
character.
2. nature. XapaKxep mgcthocth.
The nature
of
the country.
XBAJIfiTb, xBajiK), xBaJiHinb, XBajiHx
imp. Koro? hto? 3a hto?/
p. noxBajiHTb, noxBajiio, noxBa-
jiHmb, noxBajiHT to praise
XBajiHTb yqeHHKa sa xopomnH ot-
Bex. To praise a pupil for his good
answer. XBaJiiixb hobmh cxanoK.
To praise a new machine-tool.
XBATAiTb^, -K), -enib, -lox imp. ko-
to? Hxo?//>. cxBaxHXb, cxBany,
cxBaxnmb, cxBaxHx to seize
Oh cxBaxHJi mchh 3a pyny. He
seized my hand.
XBATAlTb^, -ex, past -jio impers.,
imp.
I
p. XBaxHXL, XBaxHx, past
XBaxHJio to have enough
Mm xBaxHX BpeMenn cj;ejiaxb ypoKU.
They'll have enough time to do their
lessons. EMy ne XBaxaex BpeMenu
xopomo yqnxb ypoKH. He has no
time to learn his lessons well.
<> 3Toro
emie hg XBaxaJio! As
if
we didn't have enough trouble with-
out that!
XBATflTb see XBATATb^
XBOCT m., gen. -a tail
XHMflHECKIHH, -an, -oe, -ne
1. chemical. XnMHqecKHH aJieMenx.
A chemical element.
2. chemistry, chemical. XfiMH^e-
CKHH ^aKyjibxex. The chemistry
department. XnMitqecKaH JiaSo-
paxopHH. A chemical laboratory.
XflMHH /. chemistry
HeopraHuqecKaa xhmhh. Inorganic
chemistry. OpramiqecKafl xhmhh.
Organic chemistry. Hsyiiaxb xhmhk).
To study chemistry.
XflTPlbin, -aH, -oe, -He
1. cunning, crafty. XnxpbiH nejio-
BeK. A cunning person. XHxpLie
rjia3a. Crafty eyes. Xnxpan
yjibiSKa. A cunning smile.
2. fig. tricky. XiixpHH Bonpoc. A
tricky question.
XJIEB m.
1. no pi. bread. BejiMii xJie6. White
bread. ^epHHH XJie6. Brown
bread. CBeJKHH xJie6. Fresh
bread. MarKHH xjieG. Soft bread.
HepcxBHH xjie6. Stale bread.
2. pi. xjieSbi, gen. pi. xJie6oB loaf.
KpyrJiHH xjie6. A round
loaf.
3. pi. xJie6a, gen. pi. xjieSoB corn.
ySopKa xJie66B. The corn har-
vest.
XJIOniOK m., gen. -Ka cotton
XOJl,flTb, xojKy, xo^Hmb, xoji^fiT imp.
(cf. CX0AHTb2)
1. to walk. On AOJiro xo^hji no
KOMuaxe. He walked about the
room for a long time.
2. to go. ^exH xdjiiiT B mKOJiy.
Children go to school. Ohh Macxo
xoztHX B rocxH. They often go
visiting. Ka}Kji;yio cy656xy cxy-
^enxLi xojifiT na Benepa. Every
Saturday the students go to eve-
ning-parties.
3. to wear. Oh Bcerji;a xo/^hx b nep-
HOM KOcxiOMe. He always wears
a black suit.
<> Xo^HTb neiiiKOM. To go on foot.
X03I1HH m., pi. xoBflGBa, xosaeB
1. host. Xo3flHH flOMa. The master
of
the house. Xobhhh npurJiacHJi
rocxen k cxoJiy. The host asked
the guests to take their places at
table.
2. owner, master. XoaanH yca^b-
6li, $a6pHKH. The owner of an
estate, factory.
\\ fig.
Xo3HHH
CBoero BpeMeuH. The master
of
one's time. Xo3hhh cboch cy;i,b-
6li. The master
of
one's own
destiny.
X03HHCTB0 neut.
1. no pi. economy. CouHaJiHCXH^ec-
Koe xo3flHCXBO. Socialist econo-
my. Hap6;i;Hoe xoshhcxbo. Na-
tional economy. CeJibCKoe X03flH-
CXBO. Agriculture.
2. farm. KojineKXHBHoe xobhh-
CXBO. A collective farm. Uepej^o-
Boe X03fjHCXB0. A progressive
farm. OxcxaJioe xoshhcxbo. A
backward farm.
XOJIOAflJIbHHK m. refrigerator
JI^OCTdiRh MaCJIO H3 XOJIOAHJIbHHKa!
Get the butter out
of
the refrigera-
tor/
XOJIOJi;Hlblfl. -an, -oe, -He, short
form xojiOAen, xojioahsI, x6jioah|o,
-Bi; adv. xoJioAHO
1. cold. XoJiOAHHH Bexep. A cold
wind. XoJio/iHHH ^an. Cold tea.
2.
fig. cold. XojioAHHH oxBex. A
XOP 160 UBE
cold answer. XoJionHLie OTHOrae-
HHH. Cold relations. Xojioahlih
BsrJiHA- A cold look. Oh OTBe-
THJi x6jio;tHO. He answered coldly.
\predic. impers. Ha yjiHU,e 6hjio
xoJioflHO. It was cold outside.
0- IIOJIHTHKa XOJIOAHOH BOHHU.
Cold war policy.
XOPOIIIIHfl, -an, -ee, -ne, short form
xopoui, -a, -6, -h; adv. xopomo;
comp. jiyHme
(q.
v.) good
XopomaH noro^a. Fine weather. Xo-
poiuee HacTpoeHHG. A good mood.
XopouiHH roJTOc. A good voice. Xopo-
lUHH OTBGT. A good auswer. Xopomo
HrpaTL B maxMaxH. To play chess
well. 3to ohghl xopomo. It is very
good.\predic. impers. Xopomo 6uno
3a ropoflOMl It was good in the
country! Xopomo 6ti noexaxb 3a
ropofl!
It would be good to go to
the country!
<> Bcero xoporaero! All the best!
XOTETb, xoMy, xoqemb, xonex, xothm,
XOTHTG, xoTHT imp. ^ B T 6? or-\-
inf./p.
3axoTeTb, 3axoqy, 3ax6-
Hcmb, saxoHGT, saxoTiiM, aaxoTHxe,
aaxoxHx to want
Oh xoxeji bhagxl gg. He wanted to
see her. PgGgbok xotgji KOfl(|)GX.
The child wanted some sweets. H
xony, Hxoobi xbi npnmGji cevojjjaa.
BGHGpoM. / want you to come to-
night.
XOTETbCH impers. xo^Gxcfl imp.
KOMy? Horo? or
-f
^^/- //>
saxoxGXbCH, 3ax6qGxcfl to want
Mhg xohgxch noiixH b xcaxp. / want
to go to the theatre. Mhg xohgxch
nnxb. / am. thirsty. Euf xoxGJiocb
CKOpGG noHXH K HGH. He wanted to
go to her as soon as possible.
XOTH (XOTb) conj. though
IlyXGraGCXBGHHHKH flBHHyJIHCb B
nyxb, xoxH 6mjio xgmho. The trav-
ellers started on their journey though
it was dark.
XPABP|WBf, -an, -og, -wg; adv. xpa6-
po bravG
XpafipbiH coJinax. A brave soldier.
XpaSpbiH nocxynoK. A brave ac-
tion. XpaSpo cpajKaxbCH. To fight
bravely.
XPAH|flTb, -10, -Hfflb, -Hx imp. hxo?
1. to keep. XpaHHXb Macjio b
xoJiOflHJiLHHKe. To keep butter in
a refrigerator.
2. to kGGp. XpaHHXb nncbMa
flpy-
ra. To keep one's friend's let-
ters. XpaHHXb B naMflXH 66pa3
MaxGpn. To keep the image
of
one's mother in one's memory.
XyaOHCECTBEHHIblfl, -an. -og, -ue
artistic
XyAOHtGCXBGHHOG npOH3BGAGHHG. A
work
of
art. XyflOHtGcxBGHHaH jih-
xGpaxypa. Fiction. Xy;^6>KGCXBGH-
HMH $HJibM. A feature film.
<^ XyAOHcecTBCHHafl caMonenTejib-
HOCTb. Amateur theatricals.
XYAOHCHHK m.
1. artist, painter. TajiaHXjiHBbiH
xyflOJKHHK. A gifted artist.
2. mastGF. XyAOHtHHK cjiona. A
fnaster
of
elocution.
XyjXlOU, -aH, -06, -HG thin
XyAOH pgSghok. a thin child.
X^5KE comp.
of
adj. nJioxoH & adv.
njioxo
1. worsG, not so good. IIoroAa
CGroAHH xywG, qGM BHGpa. To-
day the weather is not so good
as it was yesterday.
2. worsG. Oh qyBcxBycx CG6fl xy-
5KG, tiGM BHGpa. He feels worse
than he did yesterday.
I|AP|b m., gen. -A
1. tsar. PyccKHH i;apb. Tlie Rus-
sian Tsar.
2. king. I^apb sBGpcH. The king
of
animals. Hapb
nxHi5. The king
of
birds.
<0> Hpii qape Topoxe. In olden
times. Be3 i^apa e rojioee. None
too clever.
I^BElCTft, -xy, -xeuib, -xyx, past nBeji,
nBGJi|a, -6, -H imp to blossom
I^BGxex CHpGHb. The lilacs are in
blossom. BHmHH ijBexex. The cherry-
trees are in blossom.
I^BET m., pl.-& colour
KaKoro nBexa Bamc naJibxo? What
colour is your coat? ITajibxo ceporo
itBGxa. A grey coat. IlJiaxbH npKHX
nBGxoB. Gay-coloured dresses.
I^BETII|Ofl, -an, -6e, -hg colourGd
I4BGXHMe KapaHAaran.
Coloured
UBE 161 HAfl
pencils. I^BexHOH $H''iI'M. A colour
film.
<0> I^BeTHwe MexaJiaw. Non-ferrous
metals.
I^BET|OK m.y gen. -Ka; pi. i;BeTM,
itBexoB flower
^yuiHCTtie i^BexLi. Sweet-smelling
flowers. BHpamHBaxb u,bctli. To
grow flowers. Ona npnuiJia c ubct-
KOM B BOJiocax. She came with a
flower in her hair.
I^EJIHHA /. virgin soil
IIoAHHMaTB i;ejiHHy. To plough
virgin lands. OcBaHBaiL i],ejiHHy.
To bring virgin lands under the
plough.
I^EJI|OBATL, -yio, -yeiub, -yrox imp.
Koro? ^T0?//7. noqejiloBaxB, -yio,
-yemfc, -yiox to kiss
l^ejiOBaxb peSeHKa. To kiss a child.
non;ejiOBaxB MaxB. To kiss the moth-
er.
U,EJIlOBATbCH,
-yrocB, -yeiuBCH,
-yioxcfl imp. c k e M?/p. noinejilo-
BaxBCfl, -yiocB, -yeniBCH, -yiorcH to
kiss one another
KpenKO noi;ejiOBaxBCfl c ^pyroM.
To kiss one's friend affectionately.
I^l^JIIWfl, -an, -oe, -tie, short form
i;en, ^eJIa, EteJi|o, -u
1. unbroken. CxaKan ynaJi, ho oc-
xaJiCH ii;eJiBiM. The glass fell,
but it did not break.
2. only complete form whole. Oh
EBinnji uiejiBiH KyBniHH BOj\bi. He
drank the whole jug
of
water.
<0> I^eji II HeepeAHM. Safe and
sound.
^EJlb
/.
1. target. CxpejiHXB b i^cjib. To
shoot at a target.
2. objective. IIocxaBHXB ce6e n;ejiBio.
To set oneself as an objective.
J^ocxHHB CBOGH neJiH. To achieve
one's objective. ^oShxbch hcjih.
To succeed in one's aim. LJejiB
WH3HH. One's object in life.
<> C uejibio, B i^ejiflx.,. With the
object
of...
I^EHA /., ace. ri;eHy; pi. u,eHU
1. price. BucoKaH D;eHa. A high
price. HiisKHG n;eHBi. Low prices.
IJ[eHa KOCxioMa. The price
of
a suit. noBMinaxB nieHBi na
npOAyKXBi. To raise prices
of
food-stuffs. CHHH^axB i;eHBi Ha
114002
o;i;e>Kfly. To cut the prices
of
clothes. noBMuieHHe ii,eH na 10%
(npoi;eHxoB). A 10 per cent
price rise. CnHmeHHe i;eH na
20% (^po^eHXOB). A 20 per cent
price cut.
2.
fig. value.
<> JIio56ii u,eH6M. At any price.
I^EHTP m.
1. centre. I^enxp ropo^a. The centre
of
the city (town). B D;eHxpe
ropoAa. In the centre
of
the town.
2. centre. PaHOHHBin i^enxp. The
centre
of a region. npoMBimjieH-
HBie ueHxpM cxpauBi. The in-
dustrial centres of the country.
L(eHxp HayKH. A scientific centre.
<0> I^enxp TawecTii, The centre
of
gravity.
Il.EHTPAJIbHlI>lfl[, -an, -oe, -Bie cen-
tral
L(eHxpaJiBHBiH xejierpa(|). The cen-
tral telegraph
office. I^eHxpaJiBHMO
rasexu. Central newspapers. I][eHX-
paJiBHLie yjiHU.Bi. Central streets.
I^EIIb
/.,
prepos. o nenn & na uenH
1. chain. Co6aKa na ncum. The
dog is on a chain.
2.
fig.
chain. LJenn rop. Chains
of
mountains.
I^EPKOBb
/.,
gen. i;epKBH; pi. nepK-
BH, itepKBen, uepKBaM, etc. church
CxapHHHaH i;epKOBB. An old church.
I^EX m., prepos. b n;exy & o (b)
nexe; pi. n.exa (work)shop
Ha^aJiBHHK uexa. A shop foreman.
Pa66xaxB b n;exy (n.exe). To work
at a shop.
I^HPK m. circus
EoHxii B unpK. To go to the cir-
cus. B uHpKe Shjio MHoro napofly.
There were many people at the cir-
cus.
IJ,0a)PA /. figure
Pe6eH0K yqujiCH nncaxB nn^pM.
The child was learning to write
fig-
H, 1
^lAfl m.
1. tea. rpysHHCKHH qafi. Georgian
tea. riHXb Han. To drink tea.
HaniKa Han. A cup
of
tea. Kp^n-
KHH qan. Strong tea. TKaj^Knii
Han. Weak tea.
MAft 162 MEP
2. tea. BeceAOBaxL 3a iaeM. To
talk over tea.
<> npiujiacHTb iia laiDKy ian. To
ask to tea.
HAflHHK m. teapot; teakettle
HAC m., gen. naca & iaca (with car-
dinal num.), prepos. o ^lace, b iace
& B... Macy; pi. -w hour
KoTopuii qac? What time is it?
B Mac jiufi. At one o'clock in the
afternoon. B iieTBepxoM nacy. Be-
tween 3 and 4 o'clock. Hepea ABa
Haca. In two hours. Ono3ji,aTb Ha
^ac. To be an hour late. Tpn ^aca
iipojiexejiH HeaaMexHO. Three hours
flew
by without anyone noticing it.
<> HacM niiK. The rush hours.
B A66pbiH iae! Good luck!
HACTHlblK,
-an, -oe, -ue
1. particular. MacxHtiii cjiyqafl.
A particular case. HacxiiuH bo-
npoc. A particular question.
2. private. HacxuaH coGcxBeuHOcxb.
Private property.
4ACT0 adv., comp. ^ame (q.v.) often
Hacxo Bcxpe^axb ^icjioBeKa. To meet
a person often. Macxo xofliixb b
xeaxp. To go to the theatre often.
Hacxo Gojiexb. To be often ill.
HACT|b /.,
gen. pi. -efi
1. part. Hacxb MauiiinH. A part
of
a machine. BoJibinaH nacxb
AOMa 6unai aannxa cxojiOBoii.
Most of
the house was occupied
by a dining-hall. Hacxb Jno^eH
ynijia c coBpanHH. Some people
left the meeting.
2. part. HepBafl ^lacxb poMana. The
first part
of
the novel.
3. part. MacxH CBexa. Parts
of
the
world.
MACtl pi., no sing, timepiece
Pyniiue Hacti. A wrist watch. Gxeii-
Hbie Macbi. A wall clock. Macw ciie-
luaxiia 5 MHnyx. The clock is 5 min-
utes fast.
Hacbi oxcxaiox ua 3 mh-
uyxw.
The clock is 3 minutes slow.
Hacbi HAYT
xopomo. The clock keeps
good time. Hacbi ocxaiiOBHJiHCb. The
clock has stopped. Hacbi cxohx. The
clock doesn't go.
HAUIIKA /.,
gen. pi. -ck cup
^aHHaH
qaiHKa. A teacup. Ko^efi-
uaH HamKa.
A coffee cup. Bwuhtb
nauiKy ^aio. To drink a cup of
tea.
HAIU,E comp.
of
adv. qacTO oftener
PaHbuie xbi xoAHJi ko mhc
qame.
You used to come and see me oftener.
fl name xeSji xowy b khho. / go
to the cinema oftener than you do.
^lEfl, HbH, ibe, ^bH pron. whose
Heu bTO cjiOBapb? Whose dictionary
is it? Hbn &X0 xexpa^B? Whose
copy-book is this? Hbe bro nepo?
Whose pen is this? HbH ^xo KHMra?
Whose books are these?
HEfl-TO, HbH-xo, ibe-xo, qbii-xo pron.
somebody's
fl no omiiGKC b3Hji neii-xo nopx-
(|)ejib. / took somebody's brief-case
by mistake.
MEJIOBEK m., pi. jiioah, JHOacm, jiio-
AHM, jnoAbMii, o jiioAflx man, person
CboGoahum iiejiOBeK. A free person.
XopjimHH ^lejiOBeK. A good person.
llac Gbijio HHXb iiejiOBCK. There
were five of
us.
O
Mojiojs,6ime:iOBeK. A young man.
MEJI0BE4ECK|Hfl, -an, -oe, -ne
1. human. HejiOBenecKoe 66mecxBO.
Human society.
2. humane, kind. HejiOBeqecKoe
oxHomeHne. Humane attitude.
MEJIOBEHECTBO neut. mankind
MEM conj. than
Bpax cxapmc, "icm cecxpa. The
brother is older than the sister. On
npnmeji nosAuee, ieM B^epa. He
came later than yesterday.
<> MeM paHbme, tgm jiymne. The
earlier, the better.
HEMOj[^AH m. suit-case, trunk
MEMIIHOH m. champion
MeMnnon no maxMaxaM. A chess
champion. MeMnnoH no njiaBannio.
A swimming champion.
MEPE3 prep.
+
ace.
1. across. ITepeiixH qepe3 njiouiaAfc.
To cross a square, riepenjiijxb
Mepea peny. To swim across a
river.
2. over. Epbirnyxb qepea aaSop.
To jump over a fence.
3. through. Bjieaxb ^lepea okho. To
climb through the window. Haxh
qepea Jiec. To go through the
wood.
4. in. Oini Bepnyjmcb qepea MecHi;.
They returned a month later.
Mepea xpii aha oh yexaji. He
left in three days.
MEP
163 HTO
5. every other.... ripHHHMaTB lie-
KapcTBO qepea qac. To take med-
icine every other hour. Xoamtl
Kyaa-jiHSo Hepe3 aghb. To go
somewhere every other day.
HEPHflJIA pi., no sing, ink
HepHtie HepHHJia. Black ink. IlHcaTij
HepHHjiaMH. To write in ink.
qfiPHlBIfl, -an, -oe, -ue black
^epHBie BOJiocM. Black hair.
<0> HepHbiM xjie5. Brown bread.
Hepnafl HKpa. Black caviare. Hep-
Hwii K64>e. Black coffee.
4EPT m., pi. ijepxH, qepxeH devil
OIIocjiaTb K qepxy. To send to hell.
HepT B03bMH! The deuce take it!
HepT c hhm! Let him go to hell!
HEPTA /.
1. line. npoBecTii nepTy. To draw
a line.
2. boundary. Hepxa ropoAa. The
city (town) boundary.
3. trait, ^epibi xapaKxepa. Traits
of
character.
<> Hepxbi JiHU,a. Features.
HECTHlblH, -an, -oe, -ue, short form
^lecxeH, necxHa, ^lecxHlo, -li; adv.
HecxHO honest
HecxHfciH HeJiOBeK. An honest per-
son. HecxHLie rjiaaa. Honest eyes.
nocxynnxb ^lecxHO. To act hon-
estly.
<> J^aTb HecTHoe cjiobo. To give
one's word
of
honour.
HETBEPO num. four
MexBepo flpyaen. Four friends. II
x
GbiJio MexBepo. There were four of
them.
METBEPT|b
/.,
gen. pi. -en
1. quarter. MexBepxb H6jiOKa. A
quarter of an apple.
2. quarter. ^exBepxb naca. A quar-
ter
of
an hour. Bea ^exBepxH
nflXb. It is a quarter to five.
Ceii^ac nexBepxb mecxoro. It is
a quarter past five.
HHHflTb, HHHio, imHHUib, HHHHx imp.
4X0?
I p. noqHHHxb, oomhhk), no-
iiHHHuib, noTOHHx to mend
XIoHHHHXb nacw. To mend a watch.
^Inmrxb nocKit. To mend socks.
HHCJIO neut., pi. qiicjia, qiiceji, hhc-
jiaM, etc.
1 number. I^eJioe hhcjio. A whole
number. Bojibmoe qncJio jno^eH.
A large number
of
people. Bbixb
11*
B qncjie apyaen. To be among
one's friends.
2. date. KaKoe cero^HH qncjio?
What is the date today? B nepBWx
qncJiax Mapxa. Early in March.
<> B TOM iiicjie... Including...
Hfl|CTHTb,
-my,
-cxnmb, -cxhx imp.
H T 0?
II
e M?
1. p.
noHH|cxHxb,
-my,
-cxHmb,
-CXHX to clean. Hhcxhxb syGbi
mexKoii. To clean one's teeth
with a toothbrush. ^iicxHXb 6o-
XHHKH. To clean one's boots.
2. p. OHH|cxHXb, -n];y, -cxnmb, -cxhx
to peel. HncxHXb KapxomKy.
To peel potatoes. OnHCXHXb aneJib-
CHH^ To peel an orange.
HHCT|bIH, -an, -oe, -He, short
form
HHcx, HHCxa, 4Hcx|o, -m; adv. qiicxo;
comp. mime
1. clean. ^hicxaH BO^a. Clean wa-
ter. Hncxbie pyKH. Clean hands.
Hncxan py5amKa. A clean shirt.
2. pure. Hiicxoe sojioxo. Pure gold.
Mncxan mepcxb. Pure wool.
3.
fig.
clear. HncxaH coBecxb. Clear
conscience. FoBopiixb na ihcxom
pyccKOM H3HKe. To speak good
Russian. Gji,eJiaxb noAsipOK ox
uiicxoro
cepAU;a. To give a pre-
sent without any ulterior motives.
HHTAjTb, -K), -emb, -lox iinp. q x o?/
p. npoHHxa|xb, -K), -emb, -lox
1. to read, ^nxaxb rasexy. To read
a newspaper. Hnxaxb HymKHHa.
To read Pushkin. Hnxaxb BCJiyx.
To read aloud. Hnxaxb npo ce-
6h. To read to oneself.
2. to deliver. Hnxaxb JieKi^Hio.
To deliver a lecture.
HJIEH m. member
^Ijien ccMbii. A member
of
the
fa-
tuity. Hjien napxHH. A member
of
a party, ^jichm npaBiixeJibcxBa.
Members
of the government.
HTEHHE fieut.
1. reading. Knura ajih hxcuhh. A
reader, a reading book.
2. reading. ^OMamnee Hxenne.
Home-reading.
HTO^ [mxo] pron., gen. qero [hhboI,
dat. ^CMy, ace. qxo, instr. ^om,
prepos. o ]eM what
Mxo ACJiaxb? What is to be done?
Mxo OH CKasaJi? What did he say?
'leM OH AyMaex? What is he
HTO 164 UIAP
thinking about? H CKaaaJi, mo jiytAaJi.
I said what I thought.
<> Hto ^o 3a Bemb? What sort
of
thing is that?
HTO^ [uiTo] conj. that
fl AyMajia, *iTO 3X0 HHiepecHO. /
thought it would be interesting.
HTOBW [uiToeti] conj.
1. in order (to) or rendered by the
inf. Ht66u xopomo SHaxb HawK,
HaAO MHoro saHHMaTtcfl. To
know a language well one must
study a lot. Oh BCxaJi oieHL pa-
HO, ht66h He OHosAaxb. He got
up very early in order not to be
late.
2. that. Bee jiioah na seMJie xoxht,
m66u He 6wjio bohhw. All the
people in the world wish that
there should be no war. BaM npo-
CHJiH nepeAaxb, qx66M bu npn-
mjiH saBxpa. They asked me to
tell you to come tomorrow.
HTO-HHBS^^B [mxo-] pron., gen. ne-
r6-HH6yAb [qHBO-] , dat.neMy-HJi6yji,h,
ace. HXo-HH6yflb,
instr. iieM-HHSyAt,
prepos. qeM-HH6yAi> something
PaccKajKH MHe HT6-iiu6y}ib. Tell me
something.
HTO-TO [fflxo-] pron., gen. qoro-xo
[qHBO-], dat. qeMy-xo, ace. hx6-xo,
instr. qeM-xo, prepos. o qcM-xo
something
Hx6-xo ynaJio b coceAHea KOMHaxe.
Something fell in the adjoining
room.
HS^BCTBO [qycxBa] neut. feeling
HcHbixaxb rjiySoKoe qyBcxBO pa-
flOcxH.
To feel great joy. HyBCXBo
coJiHAapHOCXH. A feeling of
solidar-
ity.
-H^BCTBIOBATb [qycxBasaxb], -yio,
-yemb, -yiox imp. q x o?/p. noqVBCx-
BlOBaxb, -yio, -yemb, -yiox to feel
HyBCXBOBaxb 6ojib. To feel a pain.
rioqyBcxBOBaxb rojiOA- To feel
hungry. HyscxBOBaxb rJiyGoKoe
yBawcHHe. To have profound re-
spect.
<> KaK Bbi ceSfl qyacTsyeTe? How
do you feel? R qyBCTByio ce6^
njioxo (xopomo). / feel bad (all
HyAfiCHlMH,
-an, -oe, -ue, short
form qyAeccH, qyaecHla, -o, -m;
adv. qyA^CHO wonderful
^yAecHan AenymKa. A wonderful
girl. MyAeceaH norOAa. Wonderful
weather, fl qyAecHO ce6H qyBcxByio.
/ feel fine.
Hym\OVl, -an, -6e, -ne
1. somebody else's. Hymoik nopx-
^Jib. Somebody else's brief-case.
2. strange. Hymoii qeJiOB^K. A
strange man.
3. foreign. ^yjKafl seMJiH. A for-
eign land.
MYJIOK m., gen. qyjiKa; pi. qyjiKH,
qyjioK, qyjiKaM, etc. stocking
HpocxLie qyjiKH. Ordinary stock-
ings. niepcxflHbie qyjiKH. Woollen
stockings. KanponoBbie qyjiKH. Kap-
ron stockings.
HyXb adv. nearly, scarcely
Oh qyxb He onosAaJi na noesA. He
wasMiearly late for his train. Oh
roBopHJi qyxb cibimno. He spoke
scarcely audibly.
^YTh'HSTb adv. nearly, a little bit
fl qyxb-qyxb ne ynaJi. / nearly
fell. ToBopii qyxb-qyxb rpoMqe.
Speak a little louder.
m, m
IIIAr m., gen. mara & mara (with
cardinal num.); pi. marn
1. step. ninpoKHH mar. A long
step.
2. fig.
step. 3x0 hobmh mar bhc-
peA-
This is a new step forward.
<> Ham AOM HaxoAHTCH b AByx
marax ot ocTaeoBKH TpaMsan.
Our house is a few
steps away
from a tram stop. Ha Ka<AOM
mary BCTpeqaJiHCb MarasHHU.
There were shops at every step.
lIlAniKA /.,
gen. pi. -ok cap
MexoBaH manKa. A fur cap. Ho-
ciixb manKy. To wear a cap. Xo-
AHXb 6e3 manKH. To go without a
cap.
niAP m., pi. -M
1. sphere, l^enxp mapa. The centre
of
a sphere. PaAHyc mapa. The
radius of
a sphere.
2. globe. SeMHOH map. The terres-
trial globe. BoaAyniHHH map.
A balloon.
niAPO m. scarf
TenjiMH map$. A warm scarf.
UJAX 165 UIVM
llIAXMATbl pi., no sing, chess
Hrpaxb B maxMaxH. To play chess.
HeMnHOH MHpa no maxMaxaM. The
world chess champion.
fflAXTA /. mine, pit
yrojibnaa maxxa. A coal mine.
^o5HBaxB yrojib b raaxxe. To mine
coal in a pit.
lUEJIK m., pi. uienKa silk
IlJiaxbe H3 mejiKa. A dress made
of
silk. HaxypaJibHHH mejiK. Natu-
ral silk. HcKyccxBeHHMH mejiK.
Artificial silk.
lUEjIKOBIbin, -an, -oe, -me silk
inejiKOBMH njiaxoK. A silk scarf.
niejiKOBaa pySaniKa. A silk shirt.
inEnOTOM adv. in a whisper
ToBopiixb menoxoM. To speak in a
whisker.
niEIITATb, menqy, menqenib, nien-
qyx imp. qxo? KOMy?/p. npo-
raenxaxb, npomenny, npomennemb,
nporaenqyx to whisper
FyGbi ee hx6-xo menxaJin. Her lips
were whispering something. Oh npo-
menxaJi hobocxb na yxo cocefl;y.
He whispered the news into his
neighbour's ear.
mEPCTb /.,
no pi.
1. hair (of an animal). J^jinHHan
mepcxb. Long hair.
2. wool. FpySaH mepcxb. Coarse
wool.
3. wool. KocxioM H3 HHCXOH mep-
cxH. A suit
of
pure wool.
niepcxb Ha njiaxbe. A length
of
woollen material for a dress.
fflEPCTHHIOfl, -an, -6e, -we woollen
niepcxHHMe HOCKH. Woollen socks.
niepcxHHoe Hjiaxbe. A woollen
dress.
inH /. neck
Jl^JiHHHaH mefl. A long neck. Toh-
KaH mefl.^ thin neck. Howixb 6y-
CH Ha raee. To wear beads around
one's neck.
<0> CHrtexb Ha raee
y
poJ^HTeJIeH.
To be on one's parents' hands.
niHPOKIHfl, -aa, -oe, -ne, short form
mnpoK, -a, -6, -h; adv. mnpoKo;
comp. ffliipe
1. broad, wide. IIlHpoKaH pcKa.
A wide river. ElnpoKHH none.
A broad belt.
H xo^y, hx66li
i66Ka 6HJia mnpe. / want the
skirt wider.
124002
2. fig. ninpoKHe bosmojkhocxh.
Great possibilities. DlHpoKaH na-
xypa. A generous person.
3. only short form too wide. IlJiaxbe
MHe mnpoKO b noHce. The dress
is too large in the waist for me.
niHTb, mb|io, -emb, -lox, imper. men
imp. Hxo? KOMy? HeMy?
/ p.
cmnxb, cofflb|i6, -emb, -lox to sew,
to make
niHXb njiaxbe j^jia Aonepii. To
make a dress for one's daughter.
Cranxb KOCXIOM b axeJibe. To have
a costume made at a dressmaker's.
inKAO m., prepos. b mKa(|)y & o
mKa(|)e; pi. mKa^ti
Khhjkhhh mKa$. A bookcase. Khh-
ra cxoHX b mna^y na noJiKe. The
book is on a shelf in the bookcase.
IlJiaxHHOH raKa$. A wardrobe. He-
cropaeMBiii mKa(|). A safe.
mKOJIA
/.
1. school. yqnxbCH b mKOJie. To
go to school. Hocxynnxb b mKO-
Jiy. To enter school. OKonqiixb
mKOJiy. To finish school.
2.
fig. school. Oh npomeji xopo-
myio mKOJiy jkhbhh. Life has
been a good school to him.
<> Ha^iajibHaa raKOJia. A primary
school.
CpeflHHH raKOJia. A sec-
ondary school. Bbicman mKojia.
A higher school. MysbiKa.ibHafl
mKojia. A musical school. IIIko-
Jia-HHTepnaT. A boarding-school.
mJIIInA /. hat
BeceHHHfl mJiana. A spring hat.
niJiana c mnpoKHMH nojiaMH. A
wide-brimmed hat.
inOCCE neut., indecl. highway
Exaxb no mnpoKOMy mocce. To
drive along a wide highway. Bji;0Jib
mocce pacxyx nepeBba. There are
trees on both sides
of
the highway
inOOfiP m. chauffeur, driver
Dlo^ep xaKCH. A taxi-driver.
milHOH m. spy
mxyKA /. piece, thing
10 mxyK nannpoc. 10 cigarettes.
fflYM m.
1. noise, sound. Mh ycnHmajm
CHJibHHH rayM. We heard a loud
noise. UlyM AOat^a. The sound
of
rain.
2.
fig. row. IIOAHFixb myM BOKpyr
uiyM 166 3J1E
co6uTHH. To raise a hue and
cry over an event.
myiMETb, -MJiK), -MHmb, -MAT imp.
to make a noise
Mope rayMHT. The sea is noisy.
J\eTU myMHT. The children are mak-
ing a noise.
inyXfiTb, my^y, myTHinb, myxHT
imp. /p. norayTHTb, nomy^y, no-
myTHmb, norayxHT
l/to joke. fflyxHTb c flpysbHMH.
To joke with one's friends.
2. Hafl
KeM? to joke. IQyTHTb
Hafl
pacceflHHHM TOBapHmeM. To
joke at an absent-minded friend.
III^TIKA /.,
gen. pi. -ok joke
OcxpoyMHan myxKa. A witty joke.
3Jiafl myxKa. A malicious joke.
-0 GKasaTb b myxKy. To say (some-
thing) in jest.
n^,
m
mE^PIBIfl, -aa, -oe, -He
1. generous. IHe;tpHH xosahh. A
generous host. I^e;^poe ceipjme.
A generous heart.
2. fig. lavish, rich, meapan npn-
p6fl;a.
Lavish nature. JH^ejiipuu
ypojKan. A rich harvest.
mEKA /., ace. n;eKy; pi. h^Skh, ntCK,
meKaM, etc. cheek
mT|KA /.,
gen. pi. -ok brush
3y6Hafl n;exKa. A toothbrush. IHex-
Ka fl;jifl o^ejKAM. Clothes-brush. Ca-
nownan niexKa. A shoe-brush. Hric-
XHXb mexKOH xy(|)JiH. To clean
one's shoes with a brush.
3, a
3K3AMEH m. examination
TpyflHHH aKsaMen. A difficult
examination. JTerKHH aKsaMen. An
easy examination. FocyflapcxBeHnHH
SKSaMeH. A State examination.
CflaBaxb (cAaxb) aKsaMCH. To take
(pass) an examination. HpOBajiHTb-
CH Ha 3K3aMeHe. To fail in an
examination.
3KOH0MHKA /. no pi. economics
SKOHOMHKa CeJIbCKOrO XOSHHCXSa.
The economics
of agriculture.
3KOH0MHH /.
no pi.
1. economy. Bkohomhh aneprHH.
The economy
of energy. Co6jik)-
flaxb 3KOh6mhk). To observe econ-
omy.
2. economy. IIojiHXHHecKafl 3koh6-
MHH. Political economy.
3KPAH m. screen
3KpaH xejieBHSopa. The screen
of a
T.V. set. 3KpaH b KHHoaaJie. The
screen in a cinema. niHpoKHH aK-
paH. A wide screen Ha aKpanax
KHHOxeaxpoB fleMOHCxpHpyexcfl h6-
BHH $HJibM. A new film is on at
the cinemas.
3KCKyPCHH /. excursion
BaropoflHaH aKCKypcHH. An outing
to the country. 3KCKypcHH b My-
aen. An excursion to a museum.
Exaxb na SKCKypcHio. To go on an
excursion.
3KCKyPCOB(3;^ m. excursion guide
3KCnEJ]iflUiHH /. expedition
HaynuaH aKcncAHUHH. A scientific
expedition. dKcnejuaixiifi na CeBep-
HHH n6jiH)C. An expedition to the
North Pole. y^acxBOBaxb b aKcne-
flHUHH. To take part in an expedi-
tion.
3KCnJiyATflP|0BATb, -yK), -yemb,
-yiox Koro? imp.
1. to exploit. 3KcnjiyaxHpoBaxb
paSoHHX. To exploit workers.
2. to make full use of. 3Kcnjiya-
XHpoBaxb xexHHKy. To make
full use
of
technique.
3JIEKTPflqECKlHfl, -an, -oe, -Me
electric(al)
3JieKxpHHecKHH xoK. Electric cur-
rent. 3JieKxpHqecKHH CBex. Electric
light. 3jieKxpHHecKaH jiaMooHKa.
An electric bulb. SJiCKxpiiqecKHH
yxior. An electric iron. SjieKxpH-
necKHH HaHHHK. An electric teaket-
tle.
3JIEKTP0CTAHI^HH /. electric pow-
er station
Kpynnan aJieKxpocxannHH. A large
electric power station. Ilycxiixb h6-
ByK) aJieKxpocxanuHK). To put a
new electric power station into oper-
ation. SjieKxpocxanuHH aaex tok.
The electric power station is now
giving power.
3JIEMF.HT m.
1. element. IlepiiOflHqecKaH
CHCxe-
Ma aJieMCHTOB. The periodic sys-
tem
of
elements.
SHE
167
5IBJI
2. element. B cxaxBe ecxi. sjieMen-
TU KpHTHKH. There are elements
of
criticism in the article.
3. element.
IIporpeccHBHtie ajie-
MCHTH 66n;eCTBa. The progres-
sive elements
of
society.
3HEPrfi[HHILlfl [3H9-], -an, -oe, -He
energetic
SneprHHHHH qeJiOBeK. An energetic
person. 3HeprHHHue abhjkchhh.
Energetic movements. SHeprn^HaH
nox6;^Ka. A wilful gait.
3HEPrHH [9H3-] /.
1. energy. BneprHH bo
ah.
The
energy of
water.
2. energy. Pa66TaTL c Gojibmon
aHeprnen. To work with great
energy.
3TA;K m., gen. -a floor, storey
H{HTb Ha nepBOM axame. To live on
the ground floor. ExopOH sxaHi. The
first floor. JIJOM
b 7 axaJKCH. A sev-
en-storeyed house.
9T0 see STOT
5TOT, 3Ta, 3T0, axH pron.
1. this. 9tot
flOM.
This house.
3to okho. This window. 3tot y^e-
HHK HacTO onaBAHBaex. This pu-
pil is often late.
2. that. B axoT js,enh mh bcc co-
Spajihcb
y
Hero. On that day we
all gathered at his place.
3. 3T0 neut. it; this, these;
that, those. 3xo cxoji. This is
a table. 3x0 cxyjibfl. These
are chairs. 3x0 Snjia OHa.
That was she. 3x0 6hjio ^aBHO.
That was a long time ago. Kxo
xo?

3x0 MOH 6pax. "Who is


that?" "It's my brother." Hxo
xo xaKoe?
"
What's that?" 3xo
yneSHHK?

Hex, 3xo cjioBapB.


"Is it a text-book?" "No, it
is a dictionary." ^^6 ^xo 3a
HeJiOBeK? What sort
of
person
is he? Hxo ^xo 3a Benut? What
sort
of
thing is that? Men ^xo
CXOJI?

3x0 CXOJI HBanoBa.
"Whose desk is it?" "It's Iva-
nov's desk." Kxo xaM?

3xo h.
"Who is there?" "It's me."
H), H)
H)B|KA
/.,
gen. pi. -ok skirt
OHa 6HJia B mnpoKOH K)6Ke. She
wore a wide skirt.
12*
lOr m., no pi.
1. south. Oh nomeji npHMO na lor.
He went straight south.
2. south. Ox^Hxaxb na lore. To
have one's holidays in the south.
EoexaxB na lor. To go to the
south.
iDHCHjBIfl, -an, -oe, -ne south(ern)
IOjkhhh Bexep. A southern wind.
KDjkhhh hojiioc. The South Pole.
K)MOP m., no pi. humour
Hmcxb HyBcxBO lOMopa. To have a
sense
of humour.
FaccKasHBaxt c
lOMopOM. To tell with humour.
lOHOCTB
/., no pi. youth
CnacxjiiiBaH lOHOcxb. Happy youth.
B lOHOcxH OH MCHxaJi cxaxb apxHc-
XOM. In his youth he dreamt
of
becoming an actor.
K)HOIII|A m., gen. pi. -en a youth
CMeJiHH lOHOma. A brave youth.
KpacHBHH lOHoma. A handsome
youth.
I0H|LIQ, -an, -oe, -ne young
lOHHe ro^H OH npoBCJi b Hxajinn.
He spent his youth in Italy. KDnaa
AesymKa. A young girl.
fl, a
H pron., gen., ace. Mena, dat., prepos.
MHe, instr. mhoh I
Mena ne 6hjio aoms Bnepa Beqe-
poM. / was not at home last night.
Kxo 3X0?

3x0 a. "Who is it?"


"It's me." fl H^y b xeaxp; xh hoh-
^emb BMecxe co mhoh? I'm going
to the theatre; will you go with
me? Mae CKynno. / am bored.
Mne xojiOAHO. / am cold. Th
BCxpexHfflb Mena? Will you meet
me? IIpHXOAH KO MHe ceroAHfll
Come to see me today!
HBJI0K|0 neut., pi. hSjioket, aSJiOK
apple
BojibfflOH ypojKaH hSjiok. a rich
harvest
of
apples.
HBKlThCR see HBJlHTbCH
HBJIEHHE neut. phenomenon
iIBJlH|TBCH, -locb, -embca, -loxca
imp.
I
p. HBHXbca, aBJiiocb, aBnmb-
ca, aBaxca
1. to come, to turn up. Oh hosaho
HBHjica aa JieKunio. He turned
up late for the lecture.
51 ro 168 JIIUH
2. only imp. IlyinKHH HBnaexcH
BejiHKHM pyccKHM n03T0M. Push-
kin is a great Russian poet.
HrO^A /. berry
Co6npaTb rpH6u h HroAM. To gath-
er mushrooms and berries. HrOAU
KJiySHHKH. Strawberries. BKycHan
ca^OBafl HroAa. A tasty cultivated
berry. BapeHLe H3 Atoji,. Jam made
from berries.
fiJ\FOneut.,pl. HApa, H^ep, H^paM, etc.
nucleus
flApo aTOMa. The nucleus
of
the
atom. flApo KJiexKH. The nucleus
of
a cell.
H3I1[K m., gen. -a
1. tongue. noKaaaxb h3mk. To
show one's tongue.
2. language. Hayqaxb HuocxpaHHUH
H3LIK. To study a foreign lan-
guage. BjiaAeXb HeCKOJILKHMH
HHOCXpaHHMMH fl3LIKaMH. To
know several foreign languages.
<> J^epHcaTb H3faJK aa aySawH. To
keep a still tongue in one's head.
HauTH 66n^HH hsuk c Kew-jiH-
6o. To speak a common language
with somebody.
HflU[0 neut., pi. HHqa, fli'in; egg
KypHHHe HHqa. Hen's eggs.
<> Hhujo BCMHTKy. A soft-boiled
egg. Ran,6 EKpyxyio. A hard-boiled
egg. Hhuo b MeraoqeK. A well-
boiled egg. Hiii^a Kypimy He yqax
(proverb). Cf. Don't teach *your
grandmother to suck eggs.
HHBAP|b m., gen. -h January
HoHL B HHBape. A night in Janu-
ary. IlepBoe HHBapH. The first
of
January.
HPKinfl, -an, -oe, -ne, short form
flpoK, HpKa, HpK|o, -h; adv. apKo;
comp. Hpqe
1. bright. flpKHH CBex. A bright
light.
2. bright. HpKne KpaCKH. Bright
colours.
3. fig.
striking, brilliant. HpKHH
npHMep. A striking example.
HpKHH xajianx. A brilliant tal-
ent.
HCHIblQ, -aH, -08, -He, short form
HCCH, HCHa, hch|o, -h; adv. hcho
1. clear, fine. Hcnoe neSo. A clear
sj^y. HcHWH jj^BRh. A fine day.
2.
fig. lucid. HcHLiH yM. A lucid
mind. Hcnaa Mt^c.^b. A clear
thought. 3xox Bonpoc Mae Hcen.
This question is clear to me.
BaM 3X0 HCHO? Is that clear to
you? Oh roBopnx 6ieHb hcho.
He speaks very clearly.
HmHK m.
1. box. Hh;hk h6jiok. A box
of
apples. HmHK c KOHcepBaMH.
A box
of
preserves.
2. drawer. flmHK nncbMeHHoro
cxojia. A drawer
of
a desk.
3. box. IloqxoBbiH HmnK. A post-
box.
SUPPLEMENT
THEMATIC GROUPS OF WORDS
Names of Nationalities, of People inhabiting Various Countries
and Continents, Geographical Names and corresponding Adjectives
aBCTpaJiHeij Australian (man), aecTpa-
jiHHKa Australian (woman), aBCxpa-
jiHHrtH Australians, ABCxpaJiHA
Australia; aBCTpaJiHHCKHH Austra-
lian
aBCxpHen; Austrian (man), aBCTpwHKa
Austrian (woman), aBCTpHHiiH Aus-
trians, ABCTpna Austria; aBCTpHH-
CKHH Austrian
asHaT Asian (man), asnaTKa Asian
(woman), asnaxLi Asians, Abhh
Asia; asHaxcKHH Asian
ajiSanei; Albanian (man),
aJi6aHKa Al-
banian (woman),
aJi6ABnu Albanians
,
Aji6aHHH Albania;
aji6aHCKHH Alba-
nian
aJiWHpert Algerian (man), ajiwHpKa
Algerian (woman),
aJiH^Hpmj Alge-
rians, AjiJKHp Algeria;
ajiH^HpCKHH
Algerian
aMepHKaHen American (man), aMepn-
KaHKa American (woman), aMepn-
KaHii;ti Americans, AMepHKa Amer-
ica; aMepHKancKHH American
aHrjiHHaHHH Englishman, aHrJimaHKa
Englishwoman, aHrjimane English,
AnrjiHH England; aHrJiHHCKHH Eng-
lish
apa6 Arab (man),
CKHH Arab
apa6Li Arabs; apa6-
apreHTHHen Argentinean (man), apreH-
THHKa Argentinean (woman), apree-
THHiiLi Argentineans, ApresTHHa
Argentine; aprsHTHHCKHH Argentine
a^TRHen Afghan (man), a^raHKa
Af-
ghan (woman), a^raHn;Li Afghans,
A^raHHCiaH Afghanistan; a^ran-
CKHH Afghan
a^pHKaHGD; African (rnan), a$pHKaHKa
African (woman), a^pHKaHn;i>i
Af-
ricans, A(|)pHKa Africa; a(|>pHKaH-
CKHH African
6ejibriiert Belgian (man), 6ejisrHHKa
Belgian (woman), 6ejiBrHHi];i>i Bel-
gians, BeJibrHH Belgium; SejifcriiH-
CKHH Belgian
Gnp-MaHeu; Burmese (man), 6HpMaHKa
Burmese (woman), 6HpMaHii;ti Bur-
mese, BitpMa Burma; SHpMancKHH
Burm ese
6ojirapHH Bulgarian (man), 6oJirapKa
Bulgarian (woman), 5oJirapH Bul-
garians,
BojirapHH Bulgaria; 6oji-
rapcKHH Bulgarian
6oJiHBHeii;
Bolivian (man), 6ojTHBiiHKa
Bolivian
(woman), 6oJiHBHHn;ti Bo-
livians,
BojiHBHfl Bolivia; 6ojiHBiiH-
CKHH
Bolivian
6pa3HJien; Brazilian (man), 6pa3HjiLii;Ei
Brazilians,
BpasHJiHfl Brazil; 6pa-
3HJIBCKHH Brazilian
Bajuiiiei^ Welshman, BaJijiHHKa Welsh-
woman,
BajiJiHHi^H Welsh, Yajitc
Wales; BajiJiHHCKHH Welsh
Beerp Hungarian (man), BenrepKa
Hungarian (woman), BGHrpH Hun-
^
The feminine forms of a number of nouns denoting nationality
either do not exist or are not used in the literary language.
170
garians, BenrpHfl Hungary; Benrep-
CKHH Hungarian
BGHecyajien;
Venezuelan (man), Bene-
cyaJiKa
Venezuelan
(woman). Bene-
cy3Jn>ii;i>i
Venezuelans, BeHecyaJia
Venezuela;
BCHecyaJibCKHH Venezu-
elan
BbeTHaMe^
Vietnamese (man), Bbex-
HaMKa
Vietnamese
(woman), blgt-
HaMi^w
Vietnamese, BtexHaM Viet-
nam;
BbeTHaMCKHH
Vietnamese
raneu
Ghanean
(man), raHKa Ghanean
(woman), rani^H
Ghaneans, Tana
Ghana;
rancKHH
Ghanean
TBaTeManen;
Guatemalan (man), rBaxe-
MaJibii;w
Guatemalans, FBaTeMaJia
Guatemala;
rBaxeMaJibCKHH Guate-
malan
rBHHeen;
Guinean, rsHHeHiiiLi Guineans,
rBHHGH
Guinea; rEHHencKHH Guinean
repMaHHH
Germany; repMancKHH
German {see HeMen;)
roJiJiaHflei;
Dutchman, ronjiaH^Ka
Dutchwoman, rojiJiaHj^qbi DutcK
ToJiJiaHAHH
Holland; rojiJiaHACKHH
Dutch
rpeK Greek (man), rpeqaHKa Greek
(woman), rpeKH Greeks, Fpei^HH
Greece; rpe^ecKHH Greek
flanaHHH
Dane (man), aaxHaHKa
Dane
(woman), flaxHaHe
Danes, J^annH
Denmark; ;;axcKHH Danish
GBpea Jew, espeHKa Jewess, eBpen
Jews; GBpeHCKHH Jewish
eBponeen; European (man), eBponennibi
Europeans, EBpona Europe; eBpo-
neficKHH European
erHnxflHHH Egyptian (man), ernnxae-
Ka Egyptian (woman), ernnxHHe
Egyptians, Eranex Egypt; ernnex-
CKHH Egyptian
HHflHeix Indian (man), HHAnaHKa In-
dian (woman), nH^Hnii;bi Indians,
Hhahh India; hhahhckhh Indian
HHA0He3He^ Indonesian (man), hh^o-
HesHHKa Indonesian (woman), hh-
ji;0He3HHi;u Indonesians, Hn^OHesHH
Indonesia; HHflOHesHHCKHH Indone-
HopaaHen; Jordanian (man), Hopj^aHii,Hi
Jordanians, MopJ^aHHH Jordan;
HopAancKHH Jordanian
HpaKeix Iraqi (man), HpaKiibi Iraqis,
IlpaK Iraq; HpaKCKHH Iraq
HpaHen; Persian (man), npaHKa Per-
sian (woman), HpaHn;bi Persians,
UpaH Persia (Iran); npancKHM
Persian (Iranian)
HpjiaHAei; Irishman, npjidHAKa Irish-
woman, HpJIaH;^^w Irish, HpjiaHAHH
Ireland, HpjiaH;i;cKHH Irish
ncJiaH^eiii Icelander (man) ncjiAHjiKa
Icelander (woman), HCJiaH3ii;bi Ice-
landers, HcjiaHAHfl Iceland; HCJiaHjt-
CKHH Iceland
Hcnaneit Spaniard, HcnaHKa Spanish
(woman), HcnaHLtM Spanish, Hcna-
HHH Spain; HcnancKHH Spanish
HxaJibHHeri Italian (man), nxaJibHHKa
Italian (woman), HxajibaHn;H Ital-
ians, HxaJiHH Italy; HxaJibHHCKHH
Italian
HeMGHeit Yemeni, HeMeHn;Li Yemeni,
HeMGH Yemen; HeMeHCKHH Yemeni
KaM6oAMtHen; Cambodian, KaMSo^JKHH-
n,u Cambodians, KaM56fl;Ha
Cambo-
dia; KaM5oAHHCKHH Cambodian
KanaAen; Canadian (man), KaHa^Ka Ca-
nadian (woman), KaH^Aii;bi Cana-
dians, KaHa^a Canada; KanaACKHH
Canadian
KHnpnox Cypriot, KHnpHOXM Cypriots,
Knnp Cyprus; KHnpcKHH Cyprian
KHxaen; Chinese (man), KHxaaHKa Chi-
nese (woman), KHxaHqu Chinese,
KnxaH China; KHxancKHH Chinese
KOJiyMSnen; Colombian (man), KOJiyM-
6hhi];h Colombians, KojiyMSnH Co-
lombia; K0JiyM6HHCKHH Colombian
KOHrojieaen; Congolese (man), Konro-
Jieaqw Congolese, Konro The Congo;
KOHroJieacKHH Congolese
KOpeen Korean (man), KopeaHKa Ko-
rean (woman), KopeH^H Koreans,
Kopea Korea; KOpencKHH Korean
KyoHHeq Cuban (man),
Ky6HHKa
Cu-
ban (woman), Ky6HHi|iii Cubans,
Ky6a Cuba; Ky6HHCKHH Cuban
171
JiaoTHHHH Laotian (man), JiaoxHHKa
Laotian (woman), JiaoxHHe & Jiaoc-
n;H Laotians, JIaoc Laos; JiaoxflH-
CKHH & jiaoccKHH Laotian
JiaTHHoaMepHKanen; Latin American
(man), jiaTHHoaMepHKaHKa Latin
American (woman), jiaTHHoaMepn-
KaHii;H Latin Americans, JlaTHBCKan
AMepHKa Latin America; JiaTHHO-
aMepHKancKHH Latin American
jiHBaHeii Lebanese, jmsaHi^iJ Lebanese,
JlHBan The Lebanon; jiHBaecKHH
Lebanese
jiHBHeix Libian, jihbhhiih Libians, JIh-
BHH Libia; jihbhhckhh Libian
MaJiaei^ Malayan (man), MaJiaHKa Ma-
layan (woman), MaJianiiiH Malayans,
MaJiaHH Malaya; MaJiaicKHH Ma-
layan
MRJiHen; Mali (man), MaJiHHKa Mali
(woman), MajiHHii;H Malis, MaJiH
Mali; MajiHHCKHH Mali
MaJibram Malagasi, MaJibramn Mala-
gasi; MajibramcKHH Malagasi
MapoKKanen; Moroccan (man), MapOK-
KaHKa Moroccan (woman), MapoK-
KaniiM
Moroccans, MapoKKO Moroc-
co; MapoKKancKHH Moroccan
MeKCHKanen Mexican (man), mgkch-
KaHKa Mexican (woman), mgkch-
KaniiH
Mexicans, MeKCHKa Mexico;
MCKCHKaHCKHH Mexican
MonroJi Mongolian (man), MonroJiKa
Mongolian (woman), MonronH Mon-
golians, MoHroJiHfl Mongolia; moh-
roJibCKHH Mongolian
Herp Negro (man), nerpHTHHKa Ne-
gro {woman), nerpM Negroes; nerpn-
THHCKHH Negro
HeMGii German, neMKa German (woman),
neMiiH Germans; neMGiIKHH German
HenaJiert Nepalese, nenaJibi^H Nepa-
lese, HenaJi Nepal; nenaJibCKHH
Nepal
enrepneii Nigerian, nnrepHnqH Nige-
rians, HnrepHH Nigeria; nnrepHH-
CKHH Nigerian
HOBOsejiaH/jen; New Zealander (man),
HOBoaejianziKa New Zealander (wom-
an), HOB03ejiaH;5i^iii New Zealand-
ers, HoBan Sejian^HH New Zea-
land; HOBoaeJiaHACKHH New Zealand
HopBGJKei; Norwegian (man), nopBrnna
Norwegian (woman), HopBmitH
Norwegians, HopBernn Norway;
HOpBGHCCKHH Norwegian
naKHCTanen; Pakistani, naKHCxaHUiH
Pakistanis, IlaKHCxaH Pakistan;
naKHCxancKHH Pakistani
oanaMitH Panamanians, IlaFaMa Pana-
ma; nanaMCKHH Panamanian
nepyanen; Peruvian (man), nepyaHKa
Peruvian (woman), nepyanrtbi Peru-
vians, riepy Peru; nepyancKHH Pe-
ruvian
noJiaK Pole (man), noJiLKa Pole (wom-
an), noJiHKH Poles, EojiBma Po-
land; noJiBCKHH Polish
nopxyraJien; Portuguese (man), iiopxy-
raJiKa Portuguese (woman), nopxy-
raJibii;H Portuguese, nopxyraJiHH
Portugal; nopxyraJibCKHH Portu-
guese
pyMHH Rumanian (man), pyMHHKa
Rumanian (woman), pyMHHLi Ru-
manians, PyMHHHH Rumania;
py-
MMHCKHH Rumanian
pyccKHH Russian (man), pyccKBH Rus-
sian {woman), pyccKHe Russians,
PoccHH Russia; pyccKHH Russian
ceHeraJiei5 Senegalese, ceeeraJibiiBi Se-
negalese, CeneraJi Senegal; cene-
raJibCKHH Senegalese
cep6 Serbian (man), cepSna Serbian
(woman), cep6H Serbs, CepSzH
Serbia; cep6cKHH Serbian
CHpneix Syrian (man), cHpnaKa Syrian
(woman), CHpHHn,H Syrians, CnpHH
Syria; cnpHHCKHn Syrian
cjiOBaK Slovak (man), CJiOBa^Ka Slo-
vak (woman), cnoBaKH
Slovaks,
CjioBaKHH Slovakia; cjiOBai;KHH
Slovak
coMaJiHGi^ Somali (man), coMaJiHHKa
Somali (woman), coMaJiHHiiiH
So-
malis, GoMaJiH Somaliland; coMa-
jiHHCKHH Somali
cyAaHGi; Sudanese (man), cy^aHKa Su-
danese (woman), cyAanqH
Suda-
172
nese, CyABH The Sudan; cy;^aHCKHM
Sudanese
TaHJiaH;;ei; Thai, TaHJiaHAUH Thais,
TaHJIaH;^ Thailand; TaHJidn/tCKHii
Thai
Torojieaeq Togolese, lorojieartH Togo-
lese, Toro Togo; ToroJieacKHH To-
golese
TyHHcei; Tunisian (man), xyHHCKa Tu-
nisian (woman), TyHHcn;M Tunisi-
ans, TyHHC Tunis; xyHHccKHH Tu-
nisian
TypoK Turk (man), xyp^aHKa Turk
(woman), xypKH Turks, TypmiH
Turkey; TypertKHH Turkish
yKpaHHeu Ukrainian (man)^ yKpaiiH-
Ka Ukrainian (woman), yKpaHHii;i>i
Ukrainians, VKpaHHa The Ukraine;
yKpaHHCKHH Ukrainian
ypyrBaei^ Uruguayan (man), ypyrBafi-
i^u Uruguayans, YpyrBaH Uruguay;
ypyrnaHCKHH Uruguayan
yajibcnw Welsh, VajiBc Wales; yajiBc-
KHH Welsh
^HJiHnnHHen; Filipino, ^HJiHnnHHrtu
Filipinos; (DnJiHnnHHH The Philip-
pines
$HHH Finn (man), $HHKa Finn (wom-
an), $HHHH Finns, (PHHJIflHJtllH
Finland; ^JHHCkhh Finnish
4>paHn;y3 Frenchman,
^panniyweHKa
Frenchwoman,
^panaysu French,
OpaHi^Hfl France; $paHii;y3CKHH
French
xopsaT Croat (man), xopsaTKa Croat
(woman), xopeaTLi Croats, Xopsa-
THH Croatia; xopeaTCKHH Croatian
peHJiOHert Ceylonese (man), ri;eHJi6HKa
Ceylonese (woman), ii;eHJi6HixiJ Ceylo-
nese, L[eHJi6H Ceylon; iienjiOHCKHH
Ceylonese
qex Czech (man), neniKa Czech (wom-
an), HexH Czechs; HexHH Czechia;
^eracKHH Czech
miJiueij, Chilian (man), qnjiHHKa Chil-
ian (woman), qEjiHHi^ti Chilians,
Hhjih Chile; ^hjimhckhh Chilian
mBGHixapeii Swiss (man), mBeniiSpKa
Swiss (woman),
mBeHn;api;iJ Swiss;
niBeHnapHH Switzerland; mBeHrtap-
CKHH Swiss
TUBeji, Swede (man), raBeflKB Swede
(woman),
msejiu Swedes, inBen.HH
Sweden;
mBeflCKHH Swedish
moTJiaH^eii Scotsman,
moxJiaHflKa
Scotswoman, moxJiaHfln.H Scots,
nioxjiaHflHH Scotland;
moxjianflCKHH
Scotch
a^Hon Ethiopian (man), a^nonKa Ethi-
opian (woman), afj^uonu Ethiopi-
ans, S^HODHH Ethiopia; a^noncKHH
Ethiopian
lorocjiaBH Yugoslavs, lOrocJiaBHH Yu-
goslavia; lorocJiaBCKHH Yugoslav
fiuoBeii, Japanese (man), HUOBKa. Japa-
nese (woman), fln6Hn,L] Japanese,
HnoimH Japan; hdohckhh Japa-
nese
NUMERALS
1 OAHH, OAHa, oAHo; nepBJbiH, -an,
-oe, -we first
2 Asa, flee; BxopIOH, -an, -6e, -we
second
3 Tpii; TpexluH, -bn, -be, -bH third
4 qexwpe; qexBepxIwii, -an, -oe, -we
fourth
5 nHXb; nflx|wii, -an, -oe, -we fifth
6 mecTb; mecxlou, -an, -oe, -we
sixth
7 ceMb; ceffbMjoH, -an, -oe, -we sev-
enth
8 BOceMb; BocbM|6u, -an, -oe, -we
eighth
9 AeBHXb; AeBflx|wii. -an, -oe, -we
ninth
10 necflXb; AecflTlwii, -an, -oe, -we
tenth
11 oAHHHaAi;aTb; o^iiHHaAuaxIwJf,
-an, -oe, -we eleventh
12 ABenamaTb; ffBenaAi^axIwu, -an,
-oe, -we twelfth
13 xpiiHaAi;aTb; TpnHaAaax|wu, -a
a,
-oe, -we thirteenth
14 qexbipHajwaTb; qexwpHaAuax|wu,
-afl, -oe, -we fourteenth
15 nflXH^Ai^axb; nHTHaAuaT|wu, -an,
-oe, -we fifteenth
16 mecxHajwaxb; niecxHaAuax|wii,
-an, -oe, -we sixteenth
17 ceMHaAqaxb; ceMHafluax|wM, -aa,
-oe, -we seventeenth
173
18 BOceMHaAuaTb; BOceMHaAi^aT|ijii,
-an, -oe, -we eighteenth
19 fleBflTHawaxb; j^eBHTuajmaiTlhiu
,
-an, -oe, -we nineteenth
20 flBawaxb; ABa;maT|wH, -an, -oe,
-we twentieth
21 ABa^aaTb oahh; ABa^i^aTb nep-
b|wh, -an, -oe, -we twenty-first
30 TpHAuaTb; TpemaT|wH, -aa, -oe,
-we thirtieth
40 copoK; copoKOBJOH, -an, -oe, -we
fortieth
50 HHTbAecHT; nflTHAecT|wH, -a
a,
-oe, -we fiftieth
60 mecTbAecHx; mecTHffecaTlwfi,
-aa, -oe, -we sixtieth
70 ceMbflecax; ceMHffecHTJwfi , -aa,
-oe, -we seventieth
80 BoceMbflecax; BOCbMHAecaTlwfi,
-aa, -oe, -we eightieth
90 AeBaaocTo; fleBaHOCTlwii, -aa,
-oe, -we ninetieth
100 cTo; coTlbiH, -aa, -oe, -we one
hundredth
101 CTO OAHH, CTO o^aa, cto o^ho;
CTO nepBlwii, -aa, -oe, -we one
hundred and first
110 CTO AecaTb; cto AecaTlwa, -aa,
-oe, -we one hundred and tenth
200 flaecTH; Byxc6T|wH, -aa, -oe,
-we two hundredth
300 TpHCTa; TpexcoTlwa, -aa, -oe,
-we three hundredth
400 qeTwpecTa; qeTwpexcoTlwH, -a
a,
-oe, -we four hundredth
500 naTbcoT; naTHc6T|WM, -aa, -oe,
-we five hundredth
600 raecTbcoT; raecTncoTlwa, -aa,
-oe, -we six hundredth
700 ceMbcoT; ccmhcotIwh, -aa, -oe,
-we seven hundredth
800 BoceMbcoT; BocbMHCOTlwii , -aa,
-oe, -we ei^ht hundredth
900 fleBaTbcoT; flesaTHCOTlwii, -aa,
-oe, -we nine hundredth
1000 Twcaqa; TwcaqHlwil, -aa, -oe,
-we thousandth
1961 Tbicaqa ^eaaTbcoT raecTb^ecaT
oahh; Tbicana aeaaTbcoT raecTb-
flecaT nepalwH, -aa, -oe, -we one
thousand nine hundred and sixty-
first
lOOOO aecaTb Twcaq; flecaTHTwcaq-
H|biH, -aa, -oe, -we ten thousandth
1000000 mhjijihoh; mhjijihohhIwh,
-aa, -oe, -we millionth
1000000000 Maanaap^; MHJijraapA-
h|wh, -aa, -oe, -we milliardth
DAYS OF THE WEEK, MONTHS,
SEASONS, TIME-UNITS
Days
of
the Week
noHeAejibHHK m. Monday
BTopHBK m. Tuesday
cpe^a
/.,
pi. cpeAH Wednesday
qcTBepr m., gen. nexBepra Thursday
naTHHi^a /. Friday
cy666Ta
/. Saturday
BOCKpeccHbe neut. Sunday
Months
aHBapb m., gen. HEBapa January
(j[)eBpajib m., gen. (|)eBpajiH February
MapT m. March
anpejib m. April
Mail m. May
uiOHb m. June
iiiojib m. July
aarycT m. August
ceHTa5pb m., gen. ceHTflSpa Septem-
ber
oKTaSpb m., gen. OKTaSpn October
Hoa6pb m., gen. HoaSpfl November
AeKa6pb m., gen. ;^eKa6pH December
Seasons
Bocaa /. spring
jiCTO neut. summer
ocenb /. autumn
3HMa /. winter
Time-Units
ceKyH^a /. second
MHHyTH /. minute
qac m., pi. ^acw, Hacob hour
rofl
m., prepos. b ro^y & o r6ji,e; gen.
pi. Jiex year
BCK m., pi. BeKa century
COLOURS
5eji|wH, -aa, -oe, -we white
rojiySloii, -aa, -oe, -we light-blue
;ejiT|bm, -aa, -oe, -we yellow
3eJieH|biH, -aa, -oe, -we green
KpacHJWH, -aa, -oe, -we red
KopH*iHeB|wii, -aa, -oe, -we brown
.ihji6b|wh, -aa, -oe, -we lilac
opaHH<eB|biii, -aa, -oe, -we orange
posoBlwii, -aa, -oe, -we pink
chh|hu, -aa, -ee, -ae blue
174
ceplbiu, -afl, -oe, -we grey
cBex.ilwH, -an, -oe, -we light
TeMHJbiii, -aa, -oe, -we dark
^HO.ieTOBlwii, -an, -oe, -we violet
qepHlwu, -an, -oe, -we black
PARTS OF THE BODY
rojioea /., ace. roJiOBy, pi. rojiOBti,
roJiOB, roaoBaM, etc. head
niea /. neck
njieio neut., pi. hjichh shoulder
rpyffb /.,
prepos. Ha rpy/tii chest
cnHHa /., ace. cnnny, pi. cnHHti back
6oK m., pi. ooKa side
{hb6t m., gen. H^HBOxa stomach
pyKa/., aec. pyKy, pi. pyKHhand, arm
.laAOHb /. palm
jioKOTb m., gen. jiokth, gen. pi. jiok-
xefi elbow
KyjiaK m., gen. KyjiaKa fist
Hora /., aec. Hory, pi. hofh foot, leg
KOJieHO neut., pi. KOJienn knee
najieu m., gen. naJibqa finger, toe
HoroTfa m., gen. hofth, gen. pi. Hor-
xefi nail
cepAue neut., pi. cep^na heart
jierKoe neut., pi. JierKne lung
HtejiyAOK m., gen. jKeJiy^Ka stomach
BOJiocbi pi., gen. pi. BOJioc hair
yxo neut., pi. ymn, ymen ear
jio6 m., gen. jT6a forehead
HOC m., pi. Hocu nose
rjias m., pi. rJiasa eye
6poBb
/.,
gen. pi. 6poBeH eyebrow
pecHHaa /. eyelash
ii],eKa
/.,
pi. msKH cheek
poT m., gen. pxa mouth
ry5a /., pi. rySu lip
3y5
m., gen. pi. aySoB tooth
BHCOK m., gen. BHCKa temple
H3biK m., gen. flawKa tongue
noA^opoAOK m., gen. ^o;^5op6^Ka chin
yc m., pi. ycM moustache
saTbijiOK m., gen. aaxMJiKa back [of
the head
6opoAa /.,
ace. Sopo^y, pi- Sopo^M,
6op6;t
beard
TRAITS OF CHARACTER AND
MAN'S QUALITIES
aKKypaTH|wii, -aa, -oe, -we painstak-
ing
aKTHBH|wu, -an, -oe, -we active
6ecnoK6HH|biif, -aa, -oe, -we restless
66ap|wh, -aa, -oe, -we cheerful
BeH<jiHB|wH, -aa, -oe, -we polite
Beceji|wUv -aa, -oe, -we gay
BHHMaTe;ibH|wu, -aa, -oe, -we atten-
tive
reHHajibH|wH, -aa, -oe, -we of genius
rnyn|biH, -aa, -oe, -we stupid
ro^AlWH, -aa, -oe, -we proud
rpy6|wii, -aa, -oe, -we rude, coarse
A65p|wH, -aa, -oe, -we kind
H<aAH|wu, -aa, -oe, -we stingy
HiecTOKlHH, -aa, -oe, -ae cruel
3a56TJiHB|biM, -aa, -oe, -we solicitous
3aAyM4HB|biM, -aa, -oe, -we thought-
ful
HCKpeHH|nu, -aa, -ee, -ae frank, sin-
cere
jiacKOBlwii, -aa, -oe, -we affectionate
.i>khb|wh, -aa, -oe, -we untruthful
.ierK0Mi6cJieHH|biu, -aa, -oe, -we
light-headed
jieHUB|wu, -aa, -oe, -we lazy
jiobkIhh, -aa, -oe, -ae adroit
jiio6onwTH|wu, -aa, -oe, -we curious
jiH)5o3HaTejibH|biH, -aa, -oe, -we in-
quisitive
MyApluU) -aa, -oe, -we wise
MyaecTBeHHlbiii, -aa, -oe, -we coura-
geous
HacTOuqHBlwM, -aa, -oe, -we persis-
tent
He(H|wu, -aa, -oe, -we gentle
nepBHlwu, -aa, -oe, -we nervous
ocTopoHCHlwH, -aa, -oe, -we careful
ocxpoyMHlwif, -aa, -oe, -we witty
npaBAHB|biM, -aa, -oe, -we truthful
po5K|nH, -aa, -oe, -ae timid
pacceaHHlwif, -aa, -oe, -we absent-
minded
caMOJiio6HB|wu. -aa, -oe, -we touchy
caMoyBepeHH|wii, -aa, -oe, -we self-
opinionated
cepbe3H|wii, -aa, -oe, -we serious
cKpoMHiwH, -aa, -oe, -we modest
CMeji|wa, -aa, -oe, -we courageous
cnoKOHH|WH, -aa, -oe, -we quiet,
calm
cnoc66HlwH, -aa, -oe, -we capable
cnpaBeAJiHBlwif, -aa, -oe, -we just
cTapaTejibH|wH, -an, -oe, -we assid-
uous
CTpaHH|wH, -aa, -oe, -we strange, queer
CTp6r|HH, -aa, -oe, -ae exacting,
strict
cypoBlwa, -aa,
-oe, -we severe
TajiaHTjiHB|wH, -aa, -oe, -we talented
175
TpycJiHB|MH, -aa, -oe, -we cowardly
yMHJbiH, -afl, -oe, -we clever
ynpflMlwii, -aa, -oe, -we stubborn
xHTplwH, -aa, -oe, -we sly, cunning
xpa6p|wH, -aa, -oe, -we brave
qecTH|wH, -aa, -oe, -we honest
n^e^plwii, -aa, -oe, -we generous
3HeprHqH|wii, -aa, -oe, -we energetic
THE FAMILY
poAHTejin pL, gen. poanxejieH parents
oxen; m., gen. OTii;a father
AiaTb
/.,
gen., dat., prepos. Maxepn,
instr. Maxepbio; pi. Maxepn, Maxe-
pen, MaxepaM, etc. mother
CWH m., pi. CHHOBbfl, CHHOBeH SOU
J^oqfa /.,
gen., dat., prepos. flonepn,
instr. j^OHeptio; pi. j^onepn, jj^o^e-
peH, AonepflM, floqepLMH daughter
6paT m., pi. 6paxi.a, Spaxbee brother
cecxpa
/., pi. cecxpH, cecxep, ce-
cxpaM, etc. sister
poacTBeHHHKH pi. relatives
AeAymKa m., gen. pi. j^efl;ynieK grand-
father
6a6yinKa
/.,
gen. pi. 6a6ymeK grand-
mother
BHyK m. grandson
BHyqKa
/., gen. pi. BHyqeK grand-
daughter
AH^a m. uncle
Texa
/. aunt
njieMaHHHK m. nephew
njieMaHHHu;a /. niece
j^Boiopo^HWH 6paT m. cousin
;^Boi6poAHaa cecTpa /. cousin
CLOTHES, FOOTWEAR,
LINEN
najibTo neut., indecl. overcoat
iny6a
/. fur coat
njiam m., gen. njian^a raincoat
KocTioM m. suit, costume
6pi6Kn no sing, trousers
Tpycw no sing, shorts
HHAHcaK m., gen. nH^JKaKa jacket, coat
p^amKa
/., gen. pi. pySameK shirt
rajicTyK m. tie
CBHTep m. sweater, pull-over
AHceMnep m. jumper
nncaMa
/. pyjamas
xajiax m.
dressing-gown,
housecoat
HOCKH pi., sing. HOCOK m., gen. nocKa
socks
mjiana /. hat
manKa
/.,
gen. pi. manoK cap
map4) rn. scarf
nepqaxKH pi., gen. nepnaxOK; sing.
nepnaxKa /. gloves
njiaxfae neut. dress
loGKa
/.,
gen. pi. k)6ok skirt
6jiy3Ka
/.,
gen. pi. 6Jiy30K blouse
K64)xa /.
jacket
KaKex m. jacket
qyjiKH pi., gen. HyjioK; sing. qyjioK
m., gen. qyjiKa stockings
6oxHHKn pi., gen. 6oxhhok; sing. 60-
XHHOK m., gen. ooxHHKa boots
xy^jiH pi., gen. pi. ly^eJih', sing.
xy(|)jifl /. shoes
rajioran pi., sing, rajioraa /. galoshes
66xw pi. overshoes
6ocoH6CKn pi., gen. OoconoJKeK; sing.
6ocoH6>KKa /. sandals
xano!KH pi., gen. xano^eK; sing, xa-
no^Ka /. slippers
canoru pi., gen. cauor; sing, cauor m.,
gen. canora riding boots, high-
boots
BaJieHKH pi., gen. BaJienoK; sing. Ba-
jiBHOK m., gen. BaJieHKa felt boots
BopoxHHK m., gen. BopoxHHKa collar
pyKaB m., gen. pynaBa, pi. pyKasa
sleeve
noac m., pi. noaca belt
KapMaH m. pocket
nyroBHE^a /.
button
maj-poK m., gen. mnypKa lace, shoe-
lace
npaHCKa /.,
gen. pi. npaJKen buckle
ofleajio neut. blanket, quilt
cKaxepxb
/.,
gen. pi. CKaxepxen table-
cloth
caji(J)exKa /.,
gen. pi. caji$exoK nap-
kin
noj^OAeajibHHK m. quilt cover
noAymKa /.,
gen. pi. noAymeK
pillow,
cushion
npocxbma /.,
pL npocxHHH,
npo-
cxuHb, npocxHuaM bedsheet
H^BOJioqKa /.,
gen. pi.
HaBOJio^eK
pillow-case
nojioxeaqe neut., gen. pi.
noJioxeneq
towel
njiaxoR m., gen. njiaxKa
scarf;
hocob6h njiaxoK
handkerchief
6ejibe neut., no pi.
underwear;
linen
HHWHee 5eabe underwear
176
ARTICLES OF TOILET
MbiJio neut., no pi. soap
sy^Hfiifl nacTa /. toothpaste
KpeM AJiH 6pHTbH shaving cream
aySeoii nopomoK m., gen. nopomKa
toothpowder
rySeaH noMana lipstick
iqeTKa /., gen. pi. mexoK brush;
1. sy^H^fl lueTKa toothbrush,
2. n^eTKa ajih bgjioc (oAeHC^bi,
65yBH) hairbrush (clothes-brush,
shoe-brush)
paciecKa colloq. /.,
gen. pi. pac^ecoK
comb
sepKajio neut., pi. sepKaJia, aepnaji
looking-glass
6pHTBa /.
razor
AyxH no sing., gen. jiyxoB perfume
OAeKOJiOH m. eau-de-Cologne
nyApa /. powder
KpeM m. cream
THE HOUSE AND ITS PARTS
flOM 771., pi. jiOMB. house
sAaene
neut. building
noMeiueBBe
neut. premises
dTa< m., gen. aiaJKa floor, storey
noff'beaff
m. entrance
KBapTHpa /. flat
KopHAop m. passage
KOMHaTa /. room
3aji m. hall
Ka6HHeT m. study
KyxHfl
/.,
gen. pi. KyxoHb kitchen
cnajibHH
/.,
gen. pi. cnaJien bedroom
CTOJioeaH /. dining-room
BaHHan /. bathroom
GajiKOB m. balcony
Kpuma /. roof
Tpy6a /., pi. Tpy6H chimney
jiB^T m. lift
jiecTBBua /. staircase
BepBJia no sing, railings
jspeph /.,
gen. pi. aBepen door
OKBO neut., pi. OKHa, okoh, OKHaM
window
noji m., prepos. na nojiy, pi. noJiu
floor
BOTOJioK m., gen. noTOJiKd ceiling
CTBBa /.,
ace. CTeey, pi. cxenH wall
noAOKOBBBK m. window-sill
saMOK m., gen. saMKa lock, padlock
KJiioq m., gen. KJiio^a key
FURNITURE
CTOJi m., gen. CTOJia table
CTyji m., pi. ciyjibfl chair
mKa^) m., prepos. b mKa(|)y & o mKa-
$e, pi. mKa(|)u cupboard, wardrobe
KBBHCBbifl mKa4> m. bookcase
6y4>eT m. buffet, dresser
cepBaBT m. sideboard
ABBdB m. divan
KpecJio neut., gen. pi. Kpeceji armchair
KpoBaTb
/. bed
TyMGoqKa
/.,
gen. pi. TyM6oHeK bed-
side table
BemajiKa
/.,
gen. pi. BemaJiOK hanger
PLATES, DISHES, ETC.
Tape*iK^/., gen. pi. Tape.iOK plate
cxaKaH m. glass, tumbler
MamKa
/.,
gen. pi. ^jameK cup
6jii6Aii;e neut., gen. pi. 6JlK)^,e^ saucer
BBJiKa
/.,
gen. pi. bhjiok fork
.lOWKa
/.,
gen. pi. jiojkck spoon
Boa m., gen. noma, knife
KacTpiojifl /. sauce-pan
cKOBopoAa
/.,
pi. CKOBopoAU frying-
pan
no^BOC m. tray
qaiiBBK m. teapot, teakettle
KpyHCKa
/.,
gen. pi. Kpy?KeK mug
KyBIDBB m. jug
6aBKa
/.,
gen. pi. 6aH0K jar
6yTbijiKa
/.,
gen. pi. 6yTUJiOK bottle
Baaa /. vase
rpa(bBB m. carafe
6oKaji m. wine-glass
pioMKa
/.,
gen. pi, pioMOK liqueur
glass
FOOD-STUFFS
xjie6 m. bread
Macjio neut., no pi.: c.iBBO^Boe M&cno
butter, pacTBTSJibBoe mScjio oil
HBiio neut., pi. flHua, Ann egg
cwp m., pi. CHpH cheese
cjiHBKH pi. cream
CMeT^aa /.,
no pi. sour cream
TBop6r m., no pi. cottage cheese
Ke4)Bp m., no pi. kefir
MOJioKo neut., no pi. milk
MHCO neut., no pi. meat
pwSa /. fish
KOBcepBu pi. preserves
177
K0Ji6aca /. sausage
rop^HE^a /.
mustard
nepeu
m., gen. nepi;a pepper
cojib /.,
no pi. salt
Kpyna /.,
pi. KpyuH groats
caxap m., no pi. sugar
KOH(feTa /. sweet
neneHbe neiit., no pi. pastry, biscuits
BapeHbe neut. jam
moKOjiaA rn., no pi. chocolate
Meff
m., no pi. honey
MopoHteHoe neut., gen. MopojKenoro,
no pi. ice-cream
nnpoHCHoe neut., gen. nnpo^KHoro, pi.
nHpojKHHB fancy cake
BHHO neut., pi. BHHa wine
BO^Ka /. vodka
Dishes
a)'BaHerpeT m. Russian salad
HKpa /., no pi. caviare
cejib;5fa
/.,
gen. pi. cejibj^en herring
cajiaT m. salad
b) SyjibOH m. broth
cyn m., pi. cynbi soup
miH pi., no sing, n^en,
maM, ni;aMn,
(o) ntax cabbage soup
6opa^ m., gen. 6opina borsch
(beetroot soup)
paccojibHHK m. soup with pickled
cucumbers, capers, etc.
Jianma
/.,
no pi. noodle soup
c) 6H4)raTeKc m. beefsteak
ryjiHra m. goulash
KOTJiexa /. rissole, cutlet
poMmTeKc.m. rumpsteak
neneHKa /.,
no pi. liver
cupHHKH pi. cottage-cheese pan-
cakes
niHHqeJib m. schnitzel
HH^Hnqa [-mn-] /. fried eggs
d) MaKapoHbi pi. macaroni
Kama /.
cereal pudding
pnc m., no pi. rice
e) KaKao neut. indecl. cocoa
K64)e m., indecl. coffee
qaii m., no pi. tea
KOMnoT m. stewed fruit
KHcejib m., gen. KHcejia thin (fruit)
jelly
Fruit, Berries, Vegetables
aGpHKoc m. apricot
ananac m. pineapple
aneJibCHH m. orange
5aHaH m. banana
rpyma /. pear
jiHMOH m. lemon
MaH^apHH m. tangerine
nepcHK m. peach
h6jioko neut., pi. hSjiokh, gen. a6jiOK
apple
BHHorpan ^' grapes
MopKOBb
/.,
no pi. carrots
orypeu; m., gen. oryprta cucumber
noMHAop m. tomato
BHmHH
/.,
gen. pi. EHmen cherry
KJiySHHKa
/.,
no pi. strawberries
cjiHBa /. plum
qeperanfl
/.,
gen. pi. qepemeu sweet
cherry
ap6y3 m. water-melon
AbiHH /. melon
repox m., no pi. peas
KanycTa /., no pi. cabbage
KapTO^JCJib m., no pi. potatoes
jiyK m., no pi. onion(s)
CBeKJia /.,
no pi. beetroot
pe^HC m., no pi. radishes
peAHCKa /.,
colloq. radishes
(j)ac6jib /., no pi. French beans
PLANTS
Trees
6epe3a /. birch
Ay6
m., pi. Ay6M, -6b oak
e.ib /. fir-tree
HBa /. willow
Kejq) m. cedar
KJieH m. maple
ocHHa /. aspen
najibMa
/. palm
cocHa /., pi. cocuH, cocen pine-tree
Flowers
acTpa /. aster
BacHJieK m., gen. BacHJibKa corn-
flower
JiaHj^um m. lily-of-the-valley
MaK m. poppy
HesaGyAKa /.,
gen. pi. ueaaSyAOK
forget-me-not
<|)najiKa
/.,
gen. pi. ^naJiOK violet
poMamKa
/.,
gen. pi. poMamcK daisy
poaa /. rose
178
Cereals
KyKypyaa /.,
no pi. maize
OBec m., gen. OBca oats
nmeHHqa /., no pi. wheat
po>Kb
/.,
gen. pjKH, no pi. rye
pHC m., no pi. rice
ANIMALS AND BIRDS
Wild Animals
BOJiK m., gen. pi. bojikob wolf
ea m., gen. ema hedgehog
sajui m., gen. 3aH^a hare
KpoKOAHJi m. crocodile
jieB m., gen. jibsa lion
jinca
/., pi. jmcH fox
MeABe^b m. bear
o6e3bflHa /. monkey, ape
CJiOH m., gen. cjiona elephant
THrp m. tiger
qepenaxa /. tortoise
Domestic Animals
BepGjiiOA ni. camel
BOJi m., gen. BOJia ox
Koaa
/., pi. Koati goat
KopoBa /. cow
KomKa
/.,
gen. pi. KomeK cat
Jioma^b
/.,
gen. pi. Jioma^eH horse
OBqa
/.,
pL OBnH, ouen sheep
oceji m., gen. ocjia donkey
co6aRa /. dog
CBHHbfl
/.,
pi. CBHHbH, CBHHeH pig
Bopo6eH m., gen
Bopona /. crow
Birds
Bopo6bH sparrow
rojiySb m., gen. pi. roJiyGen pigeon,
dove
rycb m., gen. pi. rycei goose
BHAioK m., gen. HHfliOKa turkey
K^pni^a
/., pi. KypH hen
jieoeAb m., gen. pi. jie6efleH swan
opeji m., gen. opjia eagle
nonyran m. parrot
naBJiHH m. pea-cock
cTpayc m. ostrich
yxKa
/.,
gen. pi. yxoK duck
CHEMICAL ELEMENTS
aaoT m. nitrogen
ajiiOMHHHH m. aluminium
6poM m. bromine
BOAopoA m. hydrogen
rejiHH m. helium
HceJieso neut. iron
SOJIOTO neut. gold
HOff m. iodine
Kajinii m. potassium
cepa /. sulphur
cepe6p6 neut. silver
CTponqHH m. strontium
CBHHeu, m., gen. CBHHua lead
KHCJiopoA m. oxygen
MBflb /. copper
HaTpnii m. sodium
HHKejib m. nickel
ojiOBO neut. tin
paAHH m. radium
pryrb /. mercury
yrjiepoff m. carbon
ypan m. uranium
4>6c4op m. phosphorus
xjiop m. chlorine
Printed in the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics

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UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO LIBRARY
Anpilogova, B. G.
Essential Russian-English
dictionary
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