You are on page 1of 31
Section: E0200

Section:

E0200

Title:

Compression

ENGINEERING DESIGN MANUAL

Revised:

2009-11-01

MAJOR DESIGN INSTALLATIONS

Table of Contents

  • 1. Scope....................................................................................................................................................

1

  • 2. Codes and Standards............................................................................................................................1

  • 3. Site Selection.........................................................................................................................................1 Site

  • 4. Layout.............................................................................................................................................

2

  • 5. Compressor Equipment.........................................................................................................................6 Gas

  • 6. Piping.............................................................................................................................................

6

  • 7. Valves and Fittings...............................................................................................................................14

  • 8. High-Pressure Vessels and Coolers....................................................................................................15

  • 9. Air Piping System and Design.............................................................................................................15

    • 10. Oil Systems and Design......................................................................................................................17

    • 11. Water Systems....................................................................................................................................18

    • 12. Air Intake and Exhaust Systems..........................................................................................................20

    • 13. Stress Analysis....................................................................................................................................21

    • 14. Pulsation Control.................................................................................................................................23

    • 15. Automation/Control..............................................................................................................................24

    • 16. Emergency Shutdown (ESD) - Station Shutdown and Blowdown.......................................................25

    • 17. Flame and Gas Detection....................................................................................................................26

    • 18. Engine Safety Devices........................................................................................................................28

    • 19. Strength and Leak Testing...................................................................................................................29

    • 20. Cathodic Protection.............................................................................................................................29

    • 21. Acoustic Noise.....................................................................................................................................29

    • 22. Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC) Requirements........................................................29

    • 23. Compressor Station Electrical Design Requirements..........................................................................30

    • 24. Compressor Station Structural Design................................................................................................30

    • 25. Regulatory and Permitting...................................................................................................................30

    • 26. Security................................................................................................................................................

31

  • 1. Scope This document defines the Company philosophy and minimum requirements for designing and installing new natural gas transmission compressor stations and associated station facilities. This standard shall apply to all new compressor stations, horsepower additions and associated station facilities. Whenever station modification projects require a design interface between existing facilities and new facilities, new facilities shall be designed in conformance with this standard. For operations and/or maintenance activities, refer to the Company O&M Manual.

  • 2. Codes and Standards

All compressor station designs shall conform to 49 CFR 192 - excepting those sections of other applicable codes that are more stringent in their requirements. Industry codes, standards and recommended practices mentioned within this document shall be incorporated by reference. Additionally, all compressor stations shall be designed and installed in conformance with:

ASME B31.8 – Gas Transmission and Distribution Piping Systems

All related and applicable Company standards

All other applicable state, regional and local codes and regulations

In addition, air piping, lube oil piping an hydraulic piping shall conform with ASME B31.3 Process Piping and water piping shall comply with ASME B31.1 Power Piping (as required by ASME B31.8 Section 843.[5]).

  • 3. Site Selection

Site pre-selection shall be based upon pipeline modeling. The Project Manager shall make final site selection.

In determining site selection, the Project Manager shall refer to Engineering Discipline E1200 – Civil and Structural Section 4 Site Development and consider:

Highlighting indicates revisions made as of the date on this standard.

Page 1 of 31

Section: E0200

Section:

E0200

Title:

Compression

ENGINEERING DESIGN MANUAL

Revised:

2009-11-01

MAJOR DESIGN INSTALLATIONS

Avoid locations/landmarks listed on or eligible for listing on the National Register of Historic Places, the National Register of Natural Landmarks, officially designated Wild and Scenic Rivers, officially designated parks, wetlands, scenic, recreational and/or threatened/endangered/wildlife lands.

  • 4. Site Layout

The Project Manager shall consider all requirements of equipment, location, environment, potential expansion, topography and applicable codes in determining the projected capacity, layout, design and physical requirements of the compressor station. Refer to Standard Drawings STD-V-1200-B005.1 – Structure Location Matrix Lighter-Than-Air Table and STD-V-1200-B005.2 – Structure Location Matrix Heavier-Than-Air Table for applicable standards.

  • 4.1. For bid development purposes (prior to completing a geotechnical survey), the seismic zone shall be determined from the latest edition of UBC and generic design constraints. The following set of generic design constraints shall be used for all preliminary designs and calculations:

Soil capacity load: 2,000 lbs/sq. ft.

Soil moisture content: 25%

Dry density: 70 lbs/cu. ft.

  • 4.2. Site Surveys and Investigations Site surveys and investigations shall be conducted to establish property lines, set monuments and benchmarks, establish a facility coordinate system, determine elevations, review topographic features of the area to be developed and to comply with federal, state and local regulations. The Project Manager shall consider property lines, the designated construction boundary and temporary work space requirements. The Project Manager shall also consider the need for and sequence of site surveys. Surveys may include, but are not limited to:

Topographic

Geotechnical

Archeological

Threatened and endangered species

Wetlands delineation

Noise

Future construction/development adjacent to site

Other surveys as required by the specific project

Topographic Survey

  • 4.2.1.1. A topographic survey shall be completed showing property legal

description, certified property plat/drawing, contour (elevation) lines, vegetation, structures, roads, drainage, FEMA-designated flood plains, overhead utilities, underground and aboveground facilities. All survey data shall be transmitted to the Company in an electronic format designated by the Project Manager. For formatting standards, refer to Engineering Discipline – Drafting and Redlines Section E1610 – General Drafting Standards.

  • 4.2.1.2. Contracted land surveyors must be licensed in the state where

the survey site is located.

  • 4.2.1.3. The boundary of topographical surveys shall extend 100-feet

beyond the property line. The survey contour intervals shall be one foot,

unless otherwise specified by the Project Manager.

Highlighting indicates revisions made as of the date on this standard.

Page 2 of 31

Section: E0200

Section:

E0200

Title:

Compression

ENGINEERING DESIGN MANUAL

Revised:

2009-11-01

MAJOR DESIGN INSTALLATIONS

  • 4.2.1.5. At a minimum, two monuments shall be established on site along

coordinate system. Monuments shall be set for horizontal and vertical control per Construction Standard C1002 – Survey Standards. Refer to Standard Drawing STD-V-1200-A050 – Permanent Benchmark, Marker & Sign Detail. Monuments shall be permanent and founded in a stable layer of soil.

Geotechnical surveys shall be completed for each new installation to determine site conditions. Geotechnical survey information shall be collected/reported to support:

Designing foundations for structures and machines

Establishing construction requirements (i.e. cut, fill and borrow)

Determining the need for soil modification(s)

Designing electrical systems (grounding and cathodic protection)

Other project-specific design requirements

  • 4.2.1.6. The Geotechnical survey report shall contain:

Other Surveys

A history and description of the soil in the area An investigation plan including graphic site depiction, bore logs, physical description, physical properties (water content, unit weight, strength, ground water, soil resistivity and in-situ measurements) A licensed professional engineer shall stamp the geotechnical survey report.

The Project Manager shall consider, in conjunction with EHS, the necessity for the following surveys:

Noise (pre-construction and post-construction)

Archaeological

Threatened and endangered species

Wetlands delineation

Compressor Station Coordinate System

A station coordinate system shall be established for new sites with grid lines running parallel to the major axes of the main compressor building. Location of the coordinate system origin shall be established N0+00-feet and E0+00-feet. Major gridlines shall be every 100-feet. At existing sites, the existing grid system shall be used and expanded as necessary.

  • 4.3. Site Plan A site plan shall be developed and approved using all surveys and investigations to determine site layout. For minimum spacing requirements for various buildings, equipment and other items typically installed at compressor stations and plants, refer to Standard Drawings STD-V- 1200-B005.1 – Structure Location Matrix Lighter-Than-Air Table and STD-V-1200-B005.2 – Structure Location Matrix Heavier-Than-Air Table. Spacing for items not listed in the drawing matrix shall be consistent with listed items of a similar nature. Listed minimum spacing may be exceeded when the Project Manager demonstrates the existence of unacceptable risks (resulting from a site-specific layout of facilities based on structure location minimum spacing). In developing a site plan, the Project Manager shall also consider requirements for construction work space, maintenance work space, potential of future expansion, modification or upgrades, equipment layout, facility accessibility and location of noise-attenuation screens and buffers where needed.

The Project Manager shall establish the critical equipment elevation (CEE) at four feet above 100-year floodplain or highest known flood water level.

Highlighting indicates revisions made as of the date on this standard.

Page 3 of 31

Section: E0200

Section:

E0200

Title:

Compression

ENGINEERING DESIGN MANUAL

Revised:

2009-11-01

MAJOR DESIGN INSTALLATIONS

In determining building, equipment and facility orientation, the Project Manager shall consider prevailing wind direction, local conditions, weather and other site-specific factors. For example, layouts/orientations that place coolers downwind of the building (allowing exhaust gases and building heat to circulate and reduce the cooling capacity of coolers) shall be avoided. The Project Manager shall also consider factors such as noise and odor and their impact on adjacent properties and residents.

4.4.

Drainage

Water drainage facilities design shall conform to federal, state and local regulations. Systems shall be designed and constructed for stormwater (including water management), sanitary water and process water sewers as required. Designs shall provide separation between storm and process water to ensure that the minimum quantity of process water is produced. Erosion control of disturbed areas shall be provided during and after construction.

Drainage plans shall be prepared that show the drainage areas impacted by the project, runoff information from all structures, expected discharge, runoff paths, conduits and channels, drainage devices and erosion control measures planned for the project. Temporary measures and permanent measures shall be presented separately. For construction erosion control, refer to Construction Standard C1260 - Environmental Requirements.

Drainage design for vegetated areas shall include shaping and directing flow to natural drainage channels. Contour grading shall be limited to augment natural drainage whenever possible. Natural drainage patterns shall be maintained at property lines. Culverts and other storm sewer piping shall be installed only where necessary to maintain surface access across drainage areas.

Stormwater Drainage

  • 4.4.1.1. Snowmelt and rainwater shall be routed to natural drainage

using piping or open ditches. The Project Manager shall consider a ten-year- intensity rainfall (with durations of 30 minutes to 24 hours) in determining conduit size, ditches and spacing of drainage systems from structures. Culverts shall be provided to carry this water under roads, walkways, etc.

  • 4.4.1.2. Each operating area shall be sloped 1/4% to 1/2%, except

around buildings where a slope of 4 inches (vertical) over 10 feet (horizontal) shall be provided. Various areas may be at different elevations/slope, provided slopes between areas are protected from erosion. Ditches shall have a minimum flow slope of 1/2%. Ditches shall also be designed with protection against the erosion potentials of ten-year-intensity rainfalls.

  • 4.4.1.3. Sumps and sump pumps shall be provided in basements or pits

as required. If used, drains shall be installed at or below the elevation of the

Sanitary Drainage

area to be protected.

  • 4.4.1.4. All gray and black water produced in the station shall be treated

as required by local code.

  • 4.4.1.5. Sanitary sewer lines shall be constructed of heavyweight PVC

tubing/pipe. Minimum size and slope shall be as required by local code and

constructed in conformance with local UPC code.

  • 4.4.1.6. Self-contained septic systems shall be designed to meet local

code and have a minimum capacity as directed by the Project Manager.

  • 4.4.1.7. Depth of cover shall be based on the frost line and shall be at a

minimum of two feet.

  • 4.4.1.8. Industrial waste and hydrocarbon liquid lines and sumps shall

not be connected to floor drains, storm and sanitary sewer lines or septic systems.

Highlighting indicates revisions made as of the date on this standard.

Page 4 of 31

Section: E0200

Section:

E0200

Title:

Compression

ENGINEERING DESIGN MANUAL

Revised:

2009-11-01

MAJOR DESIGN INSTALLATIONS

Sub-section 9 for sewers and drainage systems.

Process Water Drainage

4.4.1.10.

All buildings shall have provisions to remove process water from

basements, bottle and pipe trenches and pits. The drainage system shall be routed to a localized point where the contaminated water is collected and emptied by gravity or pump. The contaminated water shall be routed to a disposal service or treated in conformance with the discharge permit for the facility.

4.4.1.11.

All

lines

shall

be

equipped

with

clean-outs

located

at

the

beginning of the line and at any change in direction of the line unless a seal

box is provided.

 

4.4.1.12.

Industrial waste, hydrocarbon liquids, floor drains and sanitary

sewage shall not be discharged off company property unless subjected to purification processing prior to disposal in conformance with the discharge permit for the facility.

Compressor buildings shall be designed with sufficient size to allow major overhaul of engines, turbines, compressors, pumps, motors, etc. Buildings shall be designed for future extension of one end wall unless otherwise directed by the Project Manager. Refer to Engineering Discipline E1200 - Civil and Structural.

Bridge cranes and hoists shall be designed and laid out with open floor space on one side of the building to accommodate all major equipment/components. Refer to Engineering Discipline E1200 - Civil and Structural, Sub-section 18 – Cranes and Hoists.

Building and equipment foundations shall be designed in conformance with Engineering Discipline E1200 - Civil and Structural, Sub-section 14 - Reinforced Concrete, Foundations and Structures Design Requirements, including the following:

  • 4.7.1.1. Foundations for compressor units shall consist of individual

compressor blocks poured monolithically or blocks anchored to a mat or pile

cap.

  • 4.7.1.2. Foundation blocks, pads, etc, shall be designed with trenches to

allow piping, cable runs, etc, to be installed below the floor level to avoid

tripping hazards. The trenches shall be designed to allow for installing floor grading/deck plate at floor grade.

For areas designated for Class 1, Division 2, adequate ventilation shall be included to meet the requirements of API RP500, Section 6.3. The Project Manager shall also consider additional building ventilation to remove heat buildup produced by operating equipment.

Highlighting indicates revisions made as of the date on this standard.

Page 5 of 31

Section: E0200

Section:

E0200

Title:

Compression

ENGINEERING DESIGN MANUAL

Revised:

2009-11-01

MAJOR DESIGN INSTALLATIONS

4.10. Flammable and Combustible Liquid Storage

Atmospheric storage tanks for lubricating oils, cooling water, condensates, etc. shall be designed and fabricated in conformance with API 650 – Welded Steel Tanks for Oil Storage, API 12C – All-Welded Oil Storage Tanks and API 12F – Specification for Shop-Welded Tanks for Storage of Production Liquids. All storage tanks shall be installed above ground and spaced in conformance with 29 CF 1910.106(b)(2). Tanks shall be of steel construction, grounded and externally cathodically protected if required by design and intended service.

Tanks storing volatile organic carbons (VOCs) (i.e., pipeline liquids, drip, condensate, methanol, etc.) shall be designed to reduce emissions or recover vapors. Tanks shall be equipped with submerged fill mechanisms. Tanks containing VOCs shall be painted a light color to minimize heat buildup and thereby reduce emissions.

Tanks storing liquids that are environmentally sensitive, such as hydrocarbons, glycol, etc., shall be installed with a secondary containment system in conformance with 40 CFR 112. The secondary containment system shall use a liquid-containing dike or a tank that is double-walled, with a means of monitoring the space between the walls.

Prior to tank construction, a Spill Prevention Control and Countermeasure (SPCC) Plan shall be developed for site-specific design requirements in conformance with 40 CFR 112 and Company O&M Procedure 1203 – Oil Pollution and Spill Prevention, Control and Countermeasure Plan. A registered professional engineer (PE) must review and approve/certify all SPCC Plans.

All tanks constructed after July 23, 1984 shall comply with 40 CFR 60, subpart KB. Tanks between 250 bbls and 400 bbls shall be supported by a calculation sheet. Refer to Drawing (TBD - To be developed as needed in future). Tanks greater than 400 bbls are not allowed.

The Project Manager shall consider internally coating tanks applicable to the product usage and applying internal cathodic protection if warranted.

  • 5. Compressor Equipment

    • 5.1. General Requirements

Compressor unit sizing and selection shall be defined in the project Scope of Work.

For

specific

information

concerning

compressor

unit

design,

  • 6. Gas Piping

refer

to

-

Facilities shall be designed and installed in conformance with 49 CFR 192. Materials for pipe, valves and fittings shall conform to Company material specifications or material standards referenced within this document. In addition, all gas piping systems shall be welded in conformance with Company welding standards.

Highlighting indicates revisions made as of the date on this standard.

Page 6 of 31

Section: E0200

Section:

E0200

Title:

Compression

ENGINEERING DESIGN MANUAL

Revised:

2009-11-01

MAJOR DESIGN INSTALLATIONS

  • 6.1. Piping Design – General These rules shall apply to high-pressure gas piping (above 100 psig).

The station gas piping shall be designed to operate the mainline at MAOP. Design factors shall conform to 49 CFR 192.111. For determining design pressures, refer to Engineering Discipline E1100 - Mechanical. For high-pressure gas yard piping system design pressures and limits, refer to Typical Drawings TYP-C-0200-A045 – Typical Compressor Station Overpressure Protection Layout MAOP = 72% SMYS Class 1 Location, TYP-C-0200-A046 – Typical Compressor Station Overpressure Protection Layout Pipelines w/PHMSA Waiver and TYP-C-0200-A047 – Typical Compressor Station Overpressure Protection Layout Pipelines Operated Per 192.619C.

Piping shall be of welded and flanged construction. allowed only when less than 2 inches in diameter.

Above grade piping using screw-type fittings are Refer to Company welding standards for welding

requirements. Pipe shall conform to Engineering Discipline E1100 - Mechanical and all applicable Material

Specifications within the M8000-series. Piping two inches NPS and smaller shall conform to Schedule

  • 80 at a minimum. For pipe sizes 3 inches through 12 inches, a standard wall thickness is permitted. For

pipe sizes larger than 12 inches, a minimum wall thickness of 1/2 inch is required.

Gas piping shall be sized for a pressure drop of approximately 0.25 psig per 100 feet on main systems and 0.5 psig per 100 feet on auxiliary systems. This excludes bypasses where pressure drop is not critical. Velocity for buried pipe shall be limited to 200 feet per second. Velocity for above grade pipe shall be limited to 100 feet per second. Gas velocity shall be calculated at the project design parameters. The total pressure drop in the compressor suction, interstage or discharge piping system (including scrubbers, valves and related items but excluding coolers and any gas treating facilities) shall not exceed 3 psi per stage or system.

The Project Manager shall consider requirements for noise abatement. Requirements for future expansion may dictate initially lower velocities to accommodate future volume growth (within determined limits). A cost/benefit analysis shall be performed to optimize pipe diameter while keeping fuel use and noise abatement costs at acceptable levels.

All steel piping installed below grade shall be coated and of welded construction except where connecting to flanged valves. Below grade screw-type fittings are not allowed.

Clearance between piping and other below grade structures shall conform to 49 CFR 192.325. Depth of cover for buried lines shall conform to 49 CFR 192.327.

All below grade pipe shall be coated in conformance with Engineering Discipline E1300 - Corrosion and Coatings and applicable Material Specifications within the M8000-series.

All above grade pipe shall be coated in conformance with Engineering Discipline E1300 - Corrosion and Coatings and applicable Material Specifications within the M8000-series.

Where valves and fittings are to be installed as tie-ins to existing welded lines 6 inches in diameter and larger, pipe nipples shall be provided on each side of the valve or fittings to facilitate installation. Longer nipples shall be required where bracing is to be applied to the assembly.

Purge valve locations shall be identified during design and design shall take into account the sequence of testing and placing lines into service.

Where dead-end piping is unavoidable, vents and drains shall be installed and built in conformance with

  • 49 CFR 192.165.

Highlighting indicates revisions made as of the date on this standard.

Page 7 of 31

Section: E0200

Section:

E0200

Title:

Compression

ENGINEERING DESIGN MANUAL

Revised:

2009-11-01

MAJOR DESIGN INSTALLATIONS

  • 6.2. Station Connections

The Project Manager shall consider the necessity of installing scraper bars on station connections.

  • 6.3. Station Headers

The Project Manager shall consider the need for vents and drains to be installed on the end of headers.

Thermowells shall be installed in the suction and discharge headers.

  • 6.4. Unit Manifolds

Compressor manifolds shall be installed above ground unless approved otherwise by the Project Manager.

Combined stress and expansion stress calculations shall be documented for all compressor manifolds to verify that the predicted thermal, pressure, weight and other stresses conform to ASME B31.8 Section 833 - Combined Stress Calculations.

If interstage compressor piping is designed for a pressure different from the pressure design for the station itself, the Project Manager shall consider requirements for overpressure protection.

A pilot operated pressure relief valve shall be installed in the discharge line of each stage of a reciprocating compressor. Centrifugal compressors do not require discharge relief valves. This pressure relief valve shall be installed between the gas compressor and the unit discharge manifold valve or gas cooler if the cooler is between the compressor and the unit discharge manifold valve. The relieving ca- pacity shall be determined by the maximum flow possible during normal operation. Refer to Typical Drawing TYP-C-0200-A005 – Typical Station Connection. Refer to Engineering Discipline E1900 Overpressure Protection and Relieving Devices for more information on the relief valve requirements.

All compressor

units
units

shall have a pressure

sensing device

installed between the gas compressor and the

first discharge block valve or gas cooler if the cooler is between the compressor and the discharge valve.

This device shall shut down

the

unit

at

103%

or 104%

of

the pipeline

MAOP, depending on the

design/MAOP determination methodology utilized on the downstream pipeline(s)

Refer to Typical

Avoid cylinder supports and floor plates when installing thermometer wells in compressor discharge nozzles.

Each compressor shall have a fail-safe method for evacuating all gas from associated piping to atmospheric pressure. Vent systems shall be designed so that pressurized gas cannot be communicated to other compressor piping. Where this is unavoidable, a means of isolation must be provided for common systems for maintenance activities.

All compressor manifolds shall have at a minimum a one-inch manual blowoff valve (WE x SE ball valve) for verifying and completing blowdown during maintenance work.

Refer to Drawing (TBD - To be developed as needed in future) for typical reciprocating engine manifold blowdown system.

Refer to Drawing (TBD - To be developed as needed in future) for turbine compressor unit manifold (with bypass valve) fail-safe and interlock system.

Highlighting indicates revisions made as of the date on this standard.

Page 8 of 31

Section: E0200

Section:

E0200

Title:

Compression

ENGINEERING DESIGN MANUAL

Revised:

2009-11-01

MAJOR DESIGN INSTALLATIONS

Refer to Typical Drawing TYP-C-0200-A025 – Typical Blowdown Interlock System with Recycle or Surge Valve for turbine compressor unit (with recycle line) manifold valve, fail-safe and interlock system.

  • 6.5. Unit Piping - Reciprocating

Suction and discharge volume, pulsation and acoustical filter bottles shall be designed and fabricated in conformance with Engineering Discipline E1100 – Mechanical and Sub-section 14 - Pulsation Control (below).

Down-connected bottles shall be restrained by clamp and supported by shim block assemblies.

A strainer fitting assembly shall be installed on the suction piping upstream of the unit bypass valve A start-up strainer shall be installed prior to starting compression equipment and used during the commissioning phase. Start-up strainers shall be removable and of a cone type with square wire mesh fabric. The strainer (without the fabric) shall have a minimum of 200% flow area with 1/8-inch holes at 3/16-inch spacing and shall not have less than 100% flow area with the wire fabric unless the Project Manager approves an alternate configuration. Wire fabric shall be on the upstream side of the cone and of square mesh construction having a maximum 30-mesh opening.

A check valve with damper shall be installed in the discharge line of each multi-stage compressor.

  • 6.6. Unit Piping – Centrifugal

Centrifugal compressor gas piping system shall be designed to prevent/minimize forces on the compressor case mating flanges at all operating temperatures and pressure ranges. Flange force limits stated by the Manufacturer shall be used in all design and stress analysis calculations. Refer to Construction Standard C1200 - Mechanical Equipment Installation, Sub-section 4, Flanges. Forged steel anchor flanges and/or hold-down assemblies shall be designed and installed on station suction and discharge piping per applicable codes. The centrifugal compressor blowdown piping system shall conform to Manufacturer’s venting specifications to avoid damaging compressor equipment. Refer to Drawing (TBD - To be developed as needed in future) for typical piping and valve configurations.

Centrifugal compressors shall have a surge protection valve and piping sized to meet the Manufacturer’s specifications. The unit surge valve piping shall be designed to minimize the length of piping between the unit suction and discharge. In addition to the unit surge valve, the Project Manager shall consider a station recycle valve if unit gas cooling is not installed. The unit surge valve shall be a fail-open valve. The station recycle valve shall be a fail-closed valve.

  • 6.6.1.1. The Project Manager shall consider designing and selecting the

compressor in relation to starting the unit under pipeline conditions with high station differential pressure. Due to the long delay between unit start and compressor loading on electric driven units, the unit surge valve piping shall be designed to allow heat dissipation and minimize the heat effect on the compression cycle. Unit gas cooling may be required.

  • 6.6.1.2. Noise attenuation trim on unit surge valves and station recycle

valves requires Project Manager approval.

protection piping and valve configurations.

Each centrifugal compressor shall have a flow measurement device installed to facilitate compressor performance monitoring and surge control. The Project Manager may specify additional flow measuring devices.

A strainer fitting assembly shall be installed on the suction piping downstream of the unit bypass valve. A start-up strainer shall be installed prior to starting compression equipment and used during the commissioning phase. The strainer shall be removable and of a cone type with square wire mesh fabric. The strainer (without the fabric) shall have a minimum of 200% flow area with 1/8-inch holes at 3/16-inch

Highlighting indicates revisions made as of the date on this standard.

Page 9 of 31

Section: E0200

Section:

E0200

Title:

Compression

ENGINEERING DESIGN MANUAL

Revised:

2009-11-01

MAJOR DESIGN INSTALLATIONS

spacing and shall not have less than 100% flow area with the wire fabric, unless the Project Manager approves an alternate configuration. Wire fabric shall be on the upstream side of the cone and of square mesh construction having a maximum 30-mesh opening.

A check valve with damper shall be installed upstream of each centrifugal compressor’s unit discharge valve.

Centrifugal compressors with dry seals shall have an auxiliary high-pressure gas supply to allow filtered seal buffer gas when unit is not running.

  • 6.7. Bypass Piping

Station Bypass Piping

  • 6.7.1.1. All station suction sidegates shall be equipped with manual

bypass valves. The Project Manager shall size these valves based on the

station piping’s purging and pressurizing requirements.

  • 6.7.1.2. Station block valves shall be equipped with manual bypass and

blowdown valves and piping. Refer to Major Design Installation E0100 –

Pipelines (Onshore), Mainline Block Valves for mainline block valve setting and details.

Unit Bypass Piping

  • 6.7.1.3. Bypass valves and piping on reciprocating compressors shall be

sized to meet the equipment Manufacturer’s specifications. When Manufacturer’s specifications are not available, bypass valves for reciprocating units shall be at least half the size of the suction piping. If unit gas cooling is installed, bypass piping shall be connected to discharge piping downstream of gas cooling.

  • 6.7.1.4. Surge/recycle valves and piping on centrifugal compressors shall

be sized to meet the equipment Manufacturer’s specifications. If unit gas cooling is installed, bypass piping shall be connected to discharge piping downstream of gas cooling. Refer to Drawing (TBD - To be developed as needed in future).

High-Pressure Vessel Bypass Piping

Using manually operated bypass valves and piping on high-pressure vessels such as scrubbers, etc. shall depend on operating criteria and economics. In specifying manually operated bypass valves, the Project Manager shall consider the facilities’ use, maintenance time allocation, single or multiple unit configuration and plans for future expansion, etc. Filter separators may be installed with bypass piping only when bypass designs do not permit debris to build up against any normally closed valve.

  • 6.8. Blowdown Piping, Risers and Vents

Blowdown Systems

  • 6.8.1.1. Blowdown systems shall be designed so that pressurized gas

cannot be communicated to other compressor piping. Where this is unavoidable, a means of isolation must be provided for common systems for maintenance activities. The system shall be designed to prevent any liquid dispersion through the blowdown system.

  • 6.8.1.2. Blowdown stacks shall extend a minimum of 7-feet, 6-inches

above grade.

  • 6.8.1.3. Blowdown

stacks

shall

be

supported

in conformance with

Relief Valve and Vent Piping

Highlighting indicates revisions made as of the date on this standard.

Page 10 of 31

Section: E0200

Section:

E0200

Title:

Compression

ENGINEERING DESIGN MANUAL

Revised:

2009-11-01

MAJOR DESIGN INSTALLATIONS

Protection and Relieving Devices for more information on relief valve requirements.

  • 6.8.1.6. Vent valves shall be installed at terminations of gas piping to

permit purging the line of air prior to placing in service.

  • 6.8.1.7. Mechanical support of blowoff and relief valve riser systems shall

conform to requirements specified in Engineering Discipline E1100 – Mechanical. Riser braces shall conform to ASME B31.8, Section 834.5 and Engineering Discipline E1200 – Civil and Structural, Sub-section 15 - Pipe Support Design.

  • 6.9. Terminations in Piping Systems

When a valve is used at the open end of a line, a blind flange or plug shall be used to ensure complete closure. When a blind flange is used, it shall be drilled and tapped for a 3/4-inch extra heavy short nipple with a 3/4-inch ball valve and bull plug installed on it.

Termination of lines for future extensions shall conform to the following:

  • 6.9.1.1. Lines shall be terminated by using a maximum of 5-feet of

tangent pipe beyond the last fitting unless corrosive elements are present in the gas stream. Welding caps, swages, etc., that must be cut off prior to extending the run shall not be welded to fittings but to tangent pipe. (Refer to Engineering Discipline E1100 - Mechanical.)

  • 6.9.1.2. There shall be at least 18 inches of clearance between pipe

attachments and the location of a butt weld made to existing line. The stub

end shall be checked for resonant length. If corrosive elements are present, avoid stub ends.

  • 6.9.1.3. Flammable liquid and vent gas lines shall be terminated by using

a maximum of 5-feet of tangent pipe beyond the last fitting equal to the run

diameter. A flanged end closure shall be used wherever this line cannot be properly purged (removing liquid hydrocarbons). The blind flange shall be equipped with a purge connection.

  • 6.10. Fabrications – Piping Design

When standard fittings cannot be used, bends shall be constructed using segmentable factory forged elbows. Induction or field bends may be used when the Project Manager approves.

For induction bend specifications, refer to Material Specification M8750 - Induction Pipe Bends and Engineering Discipline E1100 - Mechanical. Refer to Material Specifications within the M8000-series for material and fabrication specifications applicable to induction bends, drawn nozzles, etc.

  • 6.11. Starting Gas Piping

Starting gas pressure shall conform to Manufacturer’s specifications.

Each turbine or reciprocating natural gas engine that requires high-pressure natural gas as a source of pressure to start shall have a starting gas piping system designed to meet the pressure and volume required for the starting gas system at the facility's lowest operating pressure range (suction pressure).

All starting gas vents shall be discharged to atmosphere outside the building. Flexible joints shall be used at the starting motor.

The starting system piping shall contain a manual, full-opening, locking block valve and a strainer located upstream of the regulator.

Highlighting indicates revisions made as of the date on this standard.

Page 11 of 31

Section: E0200

Section:

E0200

Title:

Compression

ENGINEERING DESIGN MANUAL

Revised:

2009-11-01

MAJOR DESIGN INSTALLATIONS

A relief valve shall be provided to protect the starter from over-pressuring the starter case. The relief valve vent line shall run independently of other vent lines to exit the building.

Spring loaded, quick opening, block-and-bleed valves (spring to close) shall be used to operate starter motor(s).

Lubricators, where applicable, shall have any glass or plastic strainer bulbs protected by a rupture safety guard.

Vent piping shall not be supported by the starter casing unless the Project Manager approves. Pipe runs shall be designed to avoid low spots that could increase risk of freeze-off. Drain valves shall be installed at lowest point in the starter piping. 6.12. Fuel Gas Systems Fuel gas systems shall conform to Engineering Standards Meter and Regulating Stations Sections E0405 through E0480.

Monitor operator pairs require relief valves for leakage (due to the small system volume downstream). The inlet and outlet gas pressure shall not exceed the pressure ratings of the regulator.

All compressor station fuel gas lines shall be provided with manual and automatic fuel shutoff valves located outside of any building. If a building is equipped with a fire detection system, the automatic fuel shutoff valve shall be operated by the fire detection system.

Compressor engine fuel lines shall be shut off and blown down when the compressor building emergency shutdown system is activated.

Domestic Fuel

 

6.12.1.1.

All fuel gas used for domestic purposes (i.e. heating, water

heaters, etc.) at a compressor station shall be odorized or monitored by gas

6.12.1.2.

Domestic fuel gas lines entering enclosed structures shall have a

domestic fuel service regulator equipped with mechanical and safety shutoff

within five feet of the structure.

6.12.1.3.

A domestic fuel gas supply piping system shall include:

Pressure regulator

Positive type meter

Regulated bypass

Relief valve (piped to a non-hazardous location)

Fuel Source

 

6.12.1.4.

Fuel gas shall be taken downstream of the station inlet filter on

the suction side of compressor.

6.12.1.5.

Emergency fuel shall be taken from multiple mainline sources.

6.12.1.6.

The emergency fuel supply shall automatically shut off outside

the fuel meter building when fire is detected inside the fuel meter building.

6.12.1.7.

When necessary, fuel gas shall be heated prior to regulation.

6.12.1.8.

A fuel supply system shall contain:

Highlighting indicates revisions made as of the date on this standard.

Page 12 of 31

Section: E0200

Section:

E0200

Title:

Compression

ENGINEERING DESIGN MANUAL

Revised:

2009-11-01

MAJOR DESIGN INSTALLATIONS

Manual, locking, full-open ball valve for isolation at the point of tie-in

Check valve to prevent backflow in both normal and emergency supply

lines ESD positive shutoff valve, fail-safe closed

Station fuel measurement

A “Y” strainer

Overpressure protection

Scrubber

  • 6.12.1.9. All regulators shall be designed with downstream connections for

pressure and temperature.

 

6.12.1.10.

Each fuel gas regulator shall have upstream and downstream

isolation valves and manual bypass valves.

 

6.12.1.11.

Fuel system emergency vent valve shall be a full-opening ball

valve with a fail-open spring actuator/pneumatic close.

 

6.12.1.12.

Fuel filter media and efficiency shall be selected based upon

engine combustion technology in use. Pre-chamber designs shall be configured in conformance with the engine Manufacturer’s recommendations. Full-opening ball valves shall be used on inlet, outlet and bypass lines. Filters shall be equipped with a DP gauge and full-open vent ball valves located within filter isolation valves.

Unit Fuel Piping

 

6.12.1.13.

Flow

measurement

with

a

minimum

±

2%

accuracy

for

performance monitoring and control shall be installed in fuel lines to each

engine.

6.12.1.14.

A manual full-open locking ball valve shall be installed for each

engine.

Station block valves shall be full-opening line size weld end trunnion-mounted ball valve equipped with gas, gas hydraulic or electric operator. Fittings (either drawn nozzles or tees) used for vent risers on each side of the block valve shall be designed with internal dimensions to accommodate smart pig passage. An above grade bypass pipe section shall be designed above the vent valves and sized the same as the vent riser pipe. Refer to Engineering Standard E0100 – Pipelines (Onshore), Mainline Block Valves and Typical Drawing TYP-P-0100-B120 – Typical 24” Mainline Block Valve Installation w/Bypass.

Station suction and discharge sidegate valves shall be full line size weld end trunnion-mounted ball valves equipped with gas, gas hydraulic or electric operators. Valves shall be installed underground.

Check valves shall be installed above ground. retarders.

Check valves 8-inches and larger shall include slam

Station vent valves shall have risers that extend a minimum of 7-feet, 6-inches above grade. The Project Manager shall consider requirements for silencers. Vent risers on systems without silencers and/or long vent line extensions shall include closure caps for non-venting ESD system tests. The closures shall include lockable hangers and safety bleeders.

Valve supports and/or thrust blocks shall be designed and installed in conformance with Engineering Discipline E1200 – Civil and Structural.

Highlighting indicates revisions made as of the date on this standard.

Page 13 of 31

Section: E0200

Section:

E0200

Title:

Compression

ENGINEERING DESIGN MANUAL

Revised:

2009-11-01

MAJOR DESIGN INSTALLATIONS

For reciprocating and centrifugal compressor installations, stroking gas for unit manifold valves shall be taken from the suction line between the suction valve and the gas compressor. When the compressor manifold piping is blown down, there shall be no stroking gas available to accidentally open or close a valve. Reciprocating compressors shall not be blown down after a normal stop.

Stroking gas for unit purge, pressurizing and unit vent valves shall be taken upstream of the unit suction valve.

The Project Manager shall consider the requirements for dehydration and/or filtration of stroking gas.

  • 7.5. Valve Operators Gas, gas hydraulic or electric type operators shall be used for all automated valves. Operators shall be sized to operate the associated valves using the following assumptions:

Power gas supply at the lowest possible design suction pressure for the station

Torque required to fully operate the valve with maximum expected differential and lowest ambient temperature based on valve Manufacturer’s specification for new valves, plus a design factor of 1.25

  • 9. Air Piping System and Design

    • 9.1. Air Piping

  • Code Requirements

    • 9.1.1.1. All air piping within gas compressing stations shall conform to

    ASME B31.8 – Gas Transmission and Distribution Piping Systems and ASME

    B31.3 Process Piping.

    • 9.1.1.2. All relief valves in compressed air service above 100 psig shall

    Piping Design - General

    be ASME Section VIII stamped.

    9.1.1.3.

    The

    air

    requirements.

    system

    capacity

    sizing

    shall

    be

    based

    on

    station

    • 9.1.1.4. All pipe and fittings used in compressed air service shall be steel

    or stainless steel (SS). For air system components (i.e. valves, coolers, air

    dryers, air compressors, etc.), brass, other zinc alloys and aluminum are acceptable.

    Highlighting indicates revisions made as of the date on this standard.

    Page 14 of 31

    Section: E0200

    Section:

    E0200

    Title:

    Compression

    ENGINEERING DESIGN MANUAL

    Revised:

    2009-11-01

    MAJOR DESIGN INSTALLATIONS

    • 9.1.1.5. Threaded fittings are only allowed in aboveground pipe.

    • 9.1.1.6. Air receivers shall be installed with isolation valves.

    • 9.1.1.7. The air system shall be designed

    with a minimum

    of two

    air

    compressor units to provide redundancy. Air compressor sizing shall be based on the air requirements of the station and the air system capacity.

    • 9.1.1.8. At least one air compressor shall be connected to the station

    essential power system, if available. (Essential power is supported by backup generator(s)).

    • 9.1.1.10. To protect air dryers, the layout design of all air compressor

    discharge piping and air cooler outlet piping shall be designed to allow complete separation of any fluids (such as lube oils, grease and condensed water). the Project Manager shall consider sloped piping, elevation changes, drip legs, vane type scrubbers and/or filter coalescers with automatic dump systems. Free liquid hydrocarbons shall never be allowed to create hazardous conditions by collecting in air dryer pre-filters, resin beds and/or post-filters.

    • 9.2. Starting Air

    The starting air system capacity (for stations using air for equipment starting) shall be based on the equipment starting air requirements, station starting requirements and storage vessel capacity

    A check valve shall be installed in the starting air line near each engine to prevent a backflow of fuel from the engine into the air piping system.

    Starting-air pressure shall conform to Manufacturer’s specifications. All starting air vents shall be discharged to atmosphere outside the building. Flexible joints shall be used at the starting motor. The starting system piping shall contain a manual, full-opening, locking block valve for isolation.

    Lubricators, where applicable, shall have any glass or plastic strainer bulbs protected by a rupture safety guard.

    Vent piping shall not be supported by the starter casing unless the Project Manager approves. Pipe runs shall be designed to avoid low spots that could result in freeze-off. Drain valves shall be installed at lowest point in the starter piping.

    • 9.3. Air Receivers

    Air receivers shall conform to 49 CFR 192.171 GPTC and Sub-section 8 – High-pressure Vessels and Coolers (above).

    Receivers shall be located to allow for unit inspections, including visual, ultrasonic, etc ..

    Receivers having a capacity greater than 200 gallons shall be specified inspection openings.

    with internal coating and

    A steel check valve shall be installed in the main air line on the immediate outlet side of the air receiver or receivers.

    • 9.4. Air Compressors

    Rotary air compressors shall be used unless the Project Manager specifies otherwise.

    The Project Manager shall consider requirements for air compressor controls, such as:

    Highlighting indicates revisions made as of the date on this standard.

    Page 15 of 31

    Section: E0200

    Section:

    E0200

    Title:

    Compression

    ENGINEERING DESIGN MANUAL

    Revised:

    2009-11-01

    MAJOR DESIGN INSTALLATIONS

    Oil level and temperature monitoring

    Air pressure and temperature monitoring

    Taps for performance monitoring

    Motor current

    Low or high supply voltage

    Running status

    Malfunction contact

    Remote start/stop

    Other site-specific parameters

    • 9.5. Air Dryers and Related Equipment

    The compressed air dryer shall be sized to dry 110% of the total output of the installed air compressor capacity to a dew point of -40° F.

    A heatless, multi-towered air dryer with down-flow design shall be used. Switching controls shall use in- bed dew point sensing.

    Filtration is required upstream and downstream of the dryer. Connections shall be installed upstream of the dryer to accommodate using portable air compressors.

    The Project Manager shall consider requirements for electric motor forced air fin coolers, to be installed after air dryers and sized to achieve 20° F approach temperature.

    The Project Manager shall consider requirements for backpressure regulators in the supply line, specifically for service air set at 10 psi higher than the supply pressure required for critical equipment.

    10.Oil Systems and Design

    10.1.

    Lube Oil Systems and Piping

     

    All lubricating oil piping within gas compressor stations shall be constructed in conformance with ASME B31.8 Gas Transmission and Distribution Piping Systems and ASME B31.3 Process Piping.

    A fail-close

    valve

    shall

    be installed

    on

    lube

    oil piping

    to

    each

    building

    to

    isolate

    the

    lube oil

    for fire

    protection.

    Carbon steel or stainless steel piping shall be used. Steel and SS flexible hose shall be used only where rigid steel piping is not practical. Refer to Construction Standard C1200 – Mechanical Equipment Installation, Sub-section 7 for Chemical Cleaning of Carbon Steel Lube Oil Piping.

    Threaded fittings are only permissible in aboveground pipe.

     

    Piping of any size in vibrating service shall be of welded or flanged construction; threaded fittings are not permitted in vibrating service.

    Oil piping design shall allow for system cleaning prior to placing it in service. The piping shall be arranged with vents at high points and the piping sloped to one point for draining. Gauge connections shall be provided to measure pressure drop across filters to indicate when cleaning is required.

    10.2.

    Lube Oil Coolers

     

    The piping and system capacity for all equipment oil cooling shall be designed to meet equipment Manufacturer specifications.

    10.3.

    Lube Oil Storage Tanks

     

    Storage tanks shall conform to Material Specifications M8490 – Shop Assembled Carbon Steel Pressure Vessel and M8495 - Shop Assembled Pressure Vessel for Less Critical Service. Refer to Sub-section 4.10 – Flammable and Combustible Liquid Storage (above).

    Highlighting indicates revisions made as of the date on this standard.

    Page 16 of 31

    Section: E0200

    Section:

    E0200

    Title:

    Compression

    ENGINEERING DESIGN MANUAL

    Revised:

    2009-11-01

    MAJOR DESIGN INSTALLATIONS

    Storage tanks shall be sized to accommodate the type of installed equipment, daily use rates, delivery tanker truckloads available for the area, etc. Lube oil storage tanks shall have vent, fill, outlet and drain nozzles, containment, grounding connections for off-loading, a gauging device and cathodic protection where required by design. A manual block valve shall be installed on the outlet of all storage tanks. The Project Manager shall consider oil heating requirements for locations operating in cold climates. An oil drain and/or transfer tank shall be installed, sized to drain the two largest installed engines. When required, blanket pressure used on lube oil storage or drain tanks shall be air.

    Tanks using blanket pressure shall be equipped with overpressure protection.

    When required, an elevated lube oil day tank (with vent, fill, outlet, drain nozzle(s) and gauging device) shall be installed in close proximity to the equipment.

    • 10.4. Hydraulic Oil Systems and Piping

    Hydraulic oil systems and piping shall be constructed in conformance with ASME B31.8, Gas Transmission and Distribution Piping Systems and ASME B31.3 Process Piping.

    Carbon steel or stainless steel piping shall be used. Steel and SS flexible hose shall be used only where rigid steel piping is not practical. Refer to Construction Standard C1200 – Mechanical Equipment Installation, Sub-section 7 for Chemical Cleaning of Carbon Steel Lube Oil Piping.

    Threaded fittings are permissible only in aboveground pipe.

    Piping in vibrating service of any size shall be of welded or flanged construction; threaded fittings are not permitted in vibrating service.

    Oil piping design shall allow for cleaning the system prior to placing it in service.

    The piping shall be arranged with vents at high points and the piping sloped to one point for draining. Using non-steel slipstream filters shall require fire check valves. Gauge connections shall be provided to measure pressure drop across filters to indicate when cleaning is required.

    • 10.5. Hydraulic Oil Tanks

    Storage tanks shall conform to Material Specifications M8490 – Shop Assembled Carbon Steel Pressure Vessel and M8495 - Shop Assembled Pressure Vessel for Less Critical Service. Refer to Sub-section 4.10 – Flammable and Combustible Liquid Storage (above). Oil storage/expansion tanks shall be sized to handle the volumetric changes experienced within the oil temperature range, equipment type and application. Hydraulic oil storage tanks shall have adequate vent, fill, outlet and drain nozzles and a gauging device. Expansion tanks shall be equipped with armored gauge glass and internal check gauge valves. A low-level switch for engine shutdown shall be located on the expansion tank below the cold oil level. A fire check block valve shall be installed on the outlet nozzle of all hydraulic-oil storage tanks. When required, blanket pressure on hydraulic tanks shall be air.

    Tanks using blanket pressure shall be equipped with overpressure protection.

    Highlighting indicates revisions made as of the date on this standard.

    Page 17 of 31

    Section: E0200

    Section:

    E0200

    Title:

    Compression

    ENGINEERING DESIGN MANUAL

    Revised:

    2009-11-01

    MAJOR DESIGN INSTALLATIONS

    11. Water Systems

    • 11.1. Water Piping - General

    All water piping within gas compressor stations shall be constructed in conformance with local building codes and the most recent edition of ASME B31.8, Gas Transmission and Distribution Piping Systems and ASME B31.1 Power Piping. Raw water piping (between water well and treating plant) and domestic treated water piping shall be:

    Threaded and coupled galvanized pipe above grade

    Schedule 80 PVC pipe below grade

    Piping other than that used in domestic services shall be steel or shall meet equipment Manufacturer’s specifications.

    Domestic service piping shall comply with UPC regulations.

    • 11.2. Cooling Water Systems

    The piping and system

    capacity for all equipment shall

    be designed

    to meet the Manufacturer’s

    specifications. Cooling water shall be cooled by means of dry fin tube aerial coolers.

    The Project Manager shall consider requirements for temperature-controlled bypass valves, automatic louvers, two-speed/variable speed drives and/or variable pitch fans.

    Methanol/water mixtures are not allowed as cooling fluids.

    • 11.3. Cooling System Tanks

    Storage tanks shall conform to Material Specifications M8490 – Shop Assembled Carbon Steel Pressure Vessel and M8495 - Shop Assembled Pressure Vessel for Less Critical Service. Refer to Sub-section 4.10 – Flammable and Combustible Liquid Storage (above).

    • 11.3.1.1. The design pressure for surge tanks shall exceed the maximum

    potential pump pressure. This mitigates the need for full capacity relief.

    • 11.3.1.2. Thermal relief valves (or open vents) are required on all cooling

    system tanks.

    The Project Manager shall consider requirements for storage and draining tanks for cooling fluid for reciprocating engines.

    • 11.4. Water Supply and Treatment

    The Project Manager shall review all new installations that require water well(s) and/or water treatment. Water well design/installation shall conform to all applicable regional, state and local code requirements.

    Water treatment designs, when applicable, shall ensure that available water pressures are adequate to match the pressure/flow rate characteristics of the treatment system.

    • 11.5. Hot Water Heating Systems

    All hot water piping within gas compressor stations shall be constructed in conformance with the ASME B31.3 - Process Piping and ASME B31.1 Power Piping. Steam systems are not allowed.

    When required, hot water systems shall consist of a natural gas fired boiler with dual pumps for redundancy, a hot water expansion tank and a control panel for automatic operation.

    The boiler, all piping, equipment, materials and fabrications installed between the

    boiler and the first valve shall be stamped to meet the ASME Boiler Code. Boiler fuel regulator vents and fuel and hot water relief valve vents shall be piped outside the building.

    Highlighting indicates revisions made as of the date on this standard.

    Page 18 of 31

    Section: E0200

    Section:

    E0200

    Title:

    Compression

    ENGINEERING DESIGN MANUAL

    Revised:

    2009-11-01

    MAJOR DESIGN INSTALLATIONS

    Steel piping shall be seamless Grade B.

    All hot water lines shall be insulated and covered with a protective jacket, as approved by the Project Manager.

    • 11.6. Sanitary and Storm Sewer Piping. Refer to Sub-section 4.4.5 – Sanitary Drainage (above) for additional information.

    12.Air Intake and Exhaust Systems

    • 12.1. Air Intake Systems

    Air intake lines shall be standard weight or lighter carbon steel or stainless steel with flanged connections. When carbon steel is used, appropriate corrosion resistant coatings shall be applied internally and externally. Weight shall be determined by structural limitations. Size shall be determined by Manufacturer's specification for pressure drop.

    Air filter selection shall be based upon engine requirements and atmospheric conditions prevailing at installation site.

    Pressure drop shall not exceed 5-inches of water column. Additionally, engine Manufacturer’s specifications shall be considered.

    Structural support shall be provided for air intake lines to engine.

    Expansion joints shall be installed

    where required. Elevated pipe runs within the building shall be designed to allow clear passage for crane/hoist travel.

    When required, air intake systems shall be equipped with noise abatement to achieve the noise control limits set forth by Scope of Work and permit requirements.

    A one-inch coupling shall be installed upstream and downstream of the turbocharger to measure the combined system pressure drop and allow for borescope inspection of the turbocharger blower impeller.

    A backfire relief valve shall be installed on reciprocated units; relief valve sizing shall be based on data supplied by the engine Manufacturer.

    • 12.2. Exhaust Systems

    Exhaust Lines

    • 12.2.1.1. Exhaust temperatures below 1000º F shall allow construction

    with standard weight or lighter, ASTM Spec A-106 carbon steel with flanged

    connections. Wall thickness shall be determined by structural limitations.

    • 12.2.1.2. Exhaust

    temperatures

    of

    1,000º

    F

    or

    higher

    shall

    require

    construction with ASTM Specification 304, 316 or 347 stainless steel.

    • 12.2.1.3. Flanges shall be slip-on light type with ANSI CL125 dimensions

    and drilling.

    • 12.2.1.4. Pressure drop shall not exceed 5 inches of water column.

    Additionally, engine Manufacturer’s specifications shall be considered. The design shall account for maximum exhaust temperature during both starting and running conditions.

    • 12.2.1.5. Structural support shall be provided for exhaust systems.

    Supports shall be designed to accommodate turbocharger removal for service

    and repair.

    • 12.2.1.6. Exhaust silencers shall be supported by a pivoted support or,

    when expansion joints are used, by a rigid support. Supports shall be

    arranged to permit disassembly without exhaust system collapse.

    Highlighting indicates revisions made as of the date on this standard.

    Page 19 of 31

    Section: E0200

    Section:

    E0200

    Title:

    Compression

    ENGINEERING DESIGN MANUAL

    Revised:

    2009-11-01

    MAJOR DESIGN INSTALLATIONS

    • 12.2.1.7. Expansion joints shall be installed where required to minimize

    thermal stresses in the exhaust system. Expansion joints upstream of turbochargers shall not have liners or other internals that could break loose and damage turbocharger, unless a strainer is installed.

    • 12.2.1.8. Exhaust silencers shall be designed to achieve the noise control

    limits set forth by Scope of Work and permit requirements.

    • 12.2.1.9. Exhaust lines inside a building shall be thermally insulated and

    jacketed with removable/reusable insulation blankets. When adding insulation over an exhaust line previously not insulated, the Project Manager shall ensure that the maximum exhaust temperature does not exceed the maximum operating temperatures specified above.

    Exhaust Layout

    • 12.2.1.10. Compressor engine and gas turbine exhaust heights shall

    comply with dispersion air modeling and as directed by the Project Manager in coordination with EHS. The location of exhaust piping and components shall be designed to minimize the effects of heat to the engine air intake.

    • 12.2.1.11. Location

    and

    sizing

    of

    exhaust

    test

    ports

    and

    service

    connections shall support emissions testing per 40 CFR 60, Method 1 as outlined below and as approved by the Project Manager, EHS and permit requirements:

    • 12.2.1.12. Exhaust systems with catalysts shall include sampling ports both

    upstream and downstream of the catalyst. Refer to Typical Drawings TYP-C-

    • 12.2.1.13. Unless otherwise specified, port installation on exhaust stacks

    having a circular cross-section shall include two XH carbon steel 2- or 3-inch 3,000# couplings or weldolets, flush mounted in the stack wall, 90º apart. Compatibly sized bull plugs shall be installed when the connections are not in use. A 3/4-inch 3,000# coupling with bull plug shall be installed 12 inches downstream of the 2- or 3-inch couplings and at a 45º angle from each. A high temperature, anti-seize lubricant shall be applied to the threaded portion of the bull plugs prior to installation. Refer to Typical Drawing TYP-C-0200- A090 – Engine Sample Port Locations Catalyst & Exhaust Silencer Diameters 12” to 48”.

    • 12.2.1.14. For port installation on exhaust stacks having a rectangular

    cross-section, couplings shall be located as directed by the Project Manager

    and EHS.

    • 12.2.1.15. Exhaust layout shall be designed to provide at least 2.5

    diameters of straight duct, free of internals, silencers, turbochargers and of any recirculation, crossover or dilution air nozzles, both upstream and downstream of test couplings. Test coupling placement and straight duct shall be before any silencer and as low to the ground as possible to provided the safest access possible. The area outside of test couplings shall be free of obstructions for two diameters to allow probe insertion and removal.

    • 12.2.1.16. A one-inch 3,000# coupling shall be installed at the lowest point

    before the muffler for draining rainwater and condensation. A one-inch bull plug shall be installed when the connection is not in use. A high temperature, anti-seize lubricant shall be applied to the threaded portion of the bull plugs prior to installation.

    Highlighting indicates revisions made as of the date on this standard.

    Page 20 of 31

    Section: E0200

    Section:

    E0200

    Title:

    Compression

    ENGINEERING DESIGN MANUAL

    Revised:

    2009-11-01

    MAJOR DESIGN INSTALLATIONS

    • 12.2.1.17. For exhaust systems with catalysts, sampling ports shall be

    placed both downstream and upstream of the catalyst.

    13.Stress Analysis

    • 13.1. General All compressor systems requiring stress analysis shall be analyzed for stress prior to and after the analog or digital analysis is completed. These systems shall be analyzed even if they fall outside the temperature and size analysis parameters.

    • 13.2. Design Requirements

    All gas piping shall be reviewed for thermal stress. Prior to the stress analysis, Contractor shall submit the following to the Project Manager for approval:

    Method proposed to review and perform stress analysis

    Proposed software to be used (e.g. Triflex, Ceasar, etc.)

    Resumes/credentials of stress analysis personnel

    A Stress Analysis List containing at a minimum:

    o

    Piping or item number, material specifications, size, length and weights

    o

    Temperatures (operating and design)

    o

    Pressures (operating and design)

    o

    Type of service (cyclic or constant)

    o

    Content of piping

    o

    Insulation information

    Reasoning for performing analysis

    Each stress problem shall be identified by the piping line number or equipment item number. Thermal-, weight- and pressure-induced stresses shall be included in all calculations.

    • 13.3. Temperature Parameters

    Special considerations shall be given to piping that connects fixed equipment, especially compressors and coolers. Allowable flange loadings shall not be exceeded by thermal growth of connecting piping.

    • 13.4. Compressor Systems Requiring Analog and/or Digital Analysis

    The thermal stress analysis shall be coordinated with the pulsation stress analysis to ensure that final equipment and piping layout will meet the requirements of thermal and pulsation studies.

    Final piping stress analysis results shall be used to ensure:

    All piping-induced structural loads are incorporated into the structural steel and

    foundation designs All structural pipe loads are incorporated into the piping designs

    Stress analysis shall be considered for all pressure safety valve (PSV) piping that is:

    Connected directly to the vent header system

    Using a relieving medium of gas or hydrocarbon vapor

    Subject to a relieving pressure of 500 psi or greater

    Specifications for vessel/equipment nozzle allowable load requirements shall be those set forth by the equipment Manufacturer. This information must be received in writing from the Manufacturer/Supplier prior to stress analysis.

    The Project Manager shall consider equipment deflection due to wind. Wind loading as specifically applied to piping shall not be considered a load condition.

    Highlighting indicates revisions made as of the date on this standard.

    Page 21 of 31

    Section: E0200

    Section:

    E0200

    Title:

    Compression

    ENGINEERING DESIGN MANUAL

    Revised:

    2009-11-01

    MAJOR DESIGN INSTALLATIONS

    • 13.5. Documentation

    The contractor shall provide one electronic and three hard-copies of the following:

    Stress Analysis List

    All computerized and hand analysis and isometrics that failed test requirements

    All computerized and hand analysis and isometrics that passed test requirements

    All written recommendations and directives

    All recommended supports

    • 13.6. Warranties

    The Contractor shall warrant that the completed analysis meets performance and conditions as set forth in applicable codes and that the designs resulting from the data shall be acceptable for the intended service.

    In the event an analysis does not meet the thermal, pressure or material warranties, the Contractor shall immediately, at Contractor’s own expense, replace or modify the analyzed piping, equipment or item to meet the requirements.

    • 14. Pulsation Control

      • 14.1. General A pulsation design study shall be completed for any new reciprocating compressor installations or new configurations that have not been analyzed for pulsation and dynamic acoustical forces.

      • 14.2. Design Requirements

    The design study findings shall ensure that station design will:

    Minimize harmful acoustical responses to other components within the compressor

    station piping system or equipment Uniformly balance compressor cylinder loading

    Reduce effects of pulsation loading and loss of efficiency

    Minimize pressure drop within the piping system

    Pulsation effects on reciprocating compressor cylinders and associated piping configuration shall be determined by using a digital or analog pulsation simulation method. The Project Manager shall approve requirements and method used for pulsation studies.

    Pulsation volume bottles and orifice spacer rings may not be required in all cases. The diameter of the piping connected to a compressor cylinder shall be equal to the diameter of the connecting cylinder flange.

    Pulsation volume and filter bottle design shall be determined by the Manufacturer, proven by pulsation studies and shall not exceed the maximum specified pulsation levels demonstrated in the pulsation study. All proposed pulsation eliminating modifications shall be in strict compliance with the pulsation study and approved in writing by the Project Manager prior to implementation. Pulsation reducing tuning or modifications to a system may include one or more of the following:

    Adding bottles

    Adding acoustic filtering

    Variations of piping diameters and/or lengths

    Baffles and choke tubes within bottles

    Orifice plates

    Unequal pipe support spacing

    Pipe clamps, anchors or guides

    Highlighting indicates revisions made as of the date on this standard.

    Page 22 of 31

    Section: E0200

    Section:

    E0200

    Title:

    Compression

    ENGINEERING DESIGN MANUAL

    Revised:

    2009-11-01

    MAJOR DESIGN INSTALLATIONS

    Full-bore spacer rings shall be installed to provide room for the future installation of orifice plates. The Project Manager shall approve spacer ring locations.

    • 14.3. Skid-Mounted Units

    Gas piping, pulsation bottles orifice spacers and other pulsation control devices shall be installed as part of the compressor package for all skid-mounted units.

    If the pulsation simulation of the skid-mounted compressor shows that a coincidence of acoustical and mechanical natural frequencies exist in the system (as proposed by the Manufacturer/fabricator/packager), changes to the system shall be made and retested prior to release from the fabrication facilities.

    Rental compressors shall not be analyzed unless pulsation problems are evident after installation and initial operation. Rental companies shall ensure and provided documentation upon request that compressor, bottles and associated on-skid piping has been designed to function within maximum pulsation limits.

    15.Automation/Control

    • 15.1. Control Philosophy

    Transitions from pipeline to station piping shall be located in the station connection area.

    Each station block valve on the mainline shall be equipped with controls to operate as follows:

    • 15.1.1.1. For pneumatic controls, refer to Drawing (TBD - To be developed

    as needed in future).

    • 15.1.1.2. For electronic controls, refer to Drawing (TBD - To be developed

    as needed in future).

    • 15.1.1.3. The operating medium shall be dry air or filtered gas.

    • 15.1.1.4. The station block valve shall be designed to open automatically

    upon loss of differential pressure. The station block valve shall be opened when the station is not operating and when the discharge pressure is 18 psi ± 5 higher than the suction pressure or when suction pressure is 10 psi ± 5 above the discharge pressure. These values may be adjusted to optimize the site operations as determined by local and regional Company technical personnel.

    • 15.1.1.5. The station block valve

    shall

    be closed

    upon

    receipt

    of

    a

    command signal from station control system. Solenoid valves with 24 VDC coils shall operate the closing pilot of the valve operator.

    • 15.1.1.6. Each

    station

    block

    valve

    shall

    be

    equipped

    with

    a

    set

    of

    limit/proximity switches to indicate the position of the valve at each end of

    travel to the station control system.

     
    • 15.1.1.7. Each station block valve

    shall

    be equipped

    with

    a manual

    selector valve to provide a manual method of closing the block valve in the

    event of a failure of the station control system. Station suction and discharge sidegate valve controls

    • 15.1.1.8. Each valve shall open and close upon receipt of command from

    station control system. Solenoid valves with 24 VDC coils shall be used.

    • 15.1.1.9. Typically, station sidegate valves shall remain open except under

    emergency conditions of blowdown and line break detection.

    • 15.1.1.10. All station sidegate

    valves shall be connected to

    the station

    interlock system.

    • 15.1.1.11. The operating medium shall be filtered gas or air.

     

    Highlighting indicates revisions made as of the date on this standard.

     

    Page 23 of 31

    Section: E0200

    Section:

    E0200

    Title:

    Compression

    ENGINEERING DESIGN MANUAL

    Revised:

    2009-11-01

    MAJOR DESIGN INSTALLATIONS

    • 15.1.1.12. Each station sidegate valve

    shall be equipped with

    a

    set

    of

    limit/proximity switches to indicate the position of the valve at each end of

    travel to the station control system.

    16.Emergency Shutdown (ESD) - Station Shutdown and Blowdown

    • 16.1. General

    Each compressor station shall be provided with an emergency shutdown (ESD) system that can shut down all gas compressing equipment and all electrical facilities near gas headers and in the compressor building. When the ESD is activated, the station shall be isolated from the mainline and blown down. Electrical circuits supplying emergency power and lighting shall remain energized.

    • 16.1.1.1. Valves shall be sized to vent the station piping to 50 psig in three

    minutes or less.

    • 16.1.1.2. For upgrades or expansions to existing facilities, the ESD system

    shall match existing systems. For new installations, compressor stations shall

    have a pressure-up system.

    • 16.1.1.3. There shall be at least two control stations that:

    Conform to 49 CFR 192.167

    Are located outside the station gas area near the exit gates and not more than 500 feet from the limits of the station. (Gas areas include but are not limited to compressor buildings and manifold areas, meter and regulator buildings, aboveground high-pressure gas lines, station blowdown facilities, station block valve area and flammable liquid storage tanks.)

    • 16.1.1.4. The Project Manager shall consider requirements for additional

    control stations.

    • 16.2. ESD Reservoir and Power Gas

    Gas for operating the ESD system shall be supplied from outside the station discharge sidegates. A check valve shall be provided in the fill line to maintain gas pressure in case of leaks in the supply line. Emergency fuel shall be taken from multiple mainline sources.

    Station sidegate power/stroking gas shall be supplied from inside the station sidegates.

    • 16.2.1.1. If a power/stroking gas reservoir

    is installed,

    the

    supply to

    power/stroking gas reservoir shall be piped through an orifice to delay loss of

    power gas until all valves have stroked.

    • 16.2.1.2. The Project Manager shall determine if reservoirs are required

    and whether to install separate or combined ESD and/or power/stroking gas reservoirs.

    • 16.2.1.3. ESD reservoirs, when installed, shall have the capacity to permit

    filling the emergency shutdown system piping and operate all valves (drawing

    stroking gas from the piping) two times.

    • 16.2.1.4. Low-pressure alarms shall be installed to monitor reservoir

    Emergency Shutdown Control Stand for shutdown system.

    • 16.2.1.5. Interlocking controls shall

    be installed

    to ensure

    the station

    sidegate valves are closed prior to opening station blowdown valves.

    • 16.2.1.6. In stations that do not have valves directly connecting the

    discharge header to the suction header, the suction sidegate valves must

    close before suction blowdown valves open; the discharge sidegate valves must close before the discharge blowdown valves open. Refer to Typical

    Highlighting indicates revisions made as of the date on this standard.

    Page 24 of 31

    Section: E0200

    Section:

    E0200

    Title:

    Compression

    ENGINEERING DESIGN MANUAL

    Revised:

    2009-11-01

    MAJOR DESIGN INSTALLATIONS

    • 16.2.1.7. In stations with valves connected directly from the discharge

    header to the suction header (such as station recycle valves), all suction and

    discharge valves must close before opening suction or discharge blowdown valves. Refer to Typical Drawing TYP-C-0200-A030 – Typical Station Blowdown Interlock System w/o Recycle Valve.

    16.2.1.8.

    The

    ESD

    system

    blowdown system.

    shall

    activate

    the

    compressor

    building

    • 16.3. Station Shutdown (SSD) - No Blowdown The following conditions shall trigger a station shutdown:

    High liquid levels in scrubbers or separators (drip pot)

    High station discharge pressure

    High station discharge temperature

    High station differential pressure

    Line break detection

    • 17. Flame and Gas Detection

      • 17.1. Gas Detectors Gas detectors with high and low alarm set points shall be installed in all compressor buildings and in all turbine engine enclosures. The low set point shall be in conformance with Company O&M Procedure 550 – Testing Gas and Fire Detection Systems. This alarm shall provide a visual and audible warning inside the compressor building. To warn personnel approaching the compressor building, visual alarm(s) shall be installed outside the building or enclosure consisting of a minimum of two strobe lights, one each on opposite corners of the building, located so that at least one light is clearly visible from all building entrances. The high set points shall be in conformance with Company O&M Procedure 550 – Testing Gas and Fire Detection Systems. Where multiple compressor buildings are installed, gas detection in one building shall not affect operations in the others.

    Compressor Building Gas Detection Design Philosophy

    • 17.1.1.1. Low gas level detection in a compressor building shall issue an

    alarm and a callout. The alarm horn and strobe lights for the building shall be

    activated. All exhaust fan louvers shall automatically open and all fans automatically start.

    • 17.1.1.2. High gas level detection in a compressor building shall issue an

    alarm, issue a callout and trigger a compressor building blowdown. A shutdown command shall be issued to each unit in the affected building. After verifying that the unit suction and discharge valves are closed, the units shall be blown down. The fuel headers and starting gas headers shall be isolated and blown down. Fuel to building heaters shall be isolated. Power to the building shall be tripped after sufficient time to perform an orderly shutdown. The fire and gas detection system shall remain energized.

    Non-Hazardous Classified Building Gas Detection Design Philosophy

    • 17.1.1.3. Buildings with gas service shall have odorized gas or shall be

    equipped with a gas detection system.

    • 17.1.1.4. Buildings with boilers, large (>20 KW) generators or other high

    use gas fuel equipment shall be equipped with a gas detection system.

    Highlighting indicates revisions made as of the date on this standard.

    Page 25 of 31

    Section: E0200

    Section:

    E0200

    Title:

    Compression

    ENGINEERING DESIGN MANUAL

    Revised:

    2009-11-01

    MAJOR DESIGN INSTALLATIONS

     

    17.1.1.5.

    Low gas level detection in the building shall issue an alarm and a

     

    callout. The alarm horn and strobe lights for the building shall be activated.

     

    17.1.1.6.

    High gas level detection shall issue an alarm and a callout.

    All

     

    gas supplies to the building shall be shut off. Power to the building shall be

    tripped after sufficient time to perform an orderly shutdown. The fire and gas detection system shall remain energized.

    • 17.2. Fire Detection Equipment

     

    Fire detection equipment shall be installed in all compressor buildings, outdoor compressor units >1000 hp, fuel meter buildings, service/auxiliary buildings, control buildings, switchgear rooms, regenerator buildings and other critical areas as specified by the Project Manager.

     

    17.2.1.1.

    Types of Sensors

     

    Ultraviolet/Infrared (UV/IR) detectors provide earlier detection than

    thermal detectors. Cost is high and periodic maintenance is required. Thermal sensors offer economical detection. Reliability is high for non-

     

    clean air environments but fires may fully develop before activation. Smoke detectors provide earlier and more economical detection than

    thermal detectors but are more applicable to clean controlled environments.

    air and climate-

    17.2.1.2.

    Typical Sensor Applications

     
     

    Typical applications for various sensors are listed in the following table:

     

    Building

    Thermal

    Thermal

    UV/IR

    Smoke

     

    Office or Tech Shop

     

    X

    Switchgear, VFD or MCC

     

    X

    Generator-Engine

     

    X

    Compressor Building

    X

    X

    Meter-Regulator

    X

    X

    Control Room

     

    X

    Process Building

    X

    X

     

    Table E0200 / 17.2.1.2 Typical Fire Detection Devices

     
    • 17.3. Design Philosophy: (Fire Detection)

     

    Compressor Buildings

     

    17.3.1.1.

    Compressor buildings shall have UV/IR and thermal detectors.

    17.3.1.2.

    Fire detection by the UV/IR or thermal detector (e.g.,

    Fenwal/Kidde type) shall cause a fire alarm and issue a callout. A compressor building blowdown command shall be issued. When the unit suction and discharge valves are closed, the units shall be blown down. The fuel headers and starting gas headers shall be isolated and blown down. Fuel-to-building heaters shall be isolated. Power to the affected building shall be tripped after sufficient time to perform an orderly shutdown. The fire and gas detection system shall remain energized. A timer shall be activated and if the initial fire alarm is not responded to in a reasonable time, the station shall be blown down. Upon timer expiration, the station ESD shall isolate and blow down the entire station. If an additional fire detection device is activated after the building is blown down and while the timer is still active, a station ESD shall be activated.

    Highlighting indicates revisions made as of the date on this standard.

    Page 26 of 31

    Section: E0200

    Section:

    E0200

    Title:

    Compression

    ENGINEERING DESIGN MANUAL

    Revised:

    2009-11-01

    MAJOR DESIGN INSTALLATIONS

    • 17.3.1.3. Other Buildings

    Fire detected in the control room shall cause a fire alarm and issue a

    callout. Fire detected in the service/auxiliary building shall cause an alarm and

    issue a callout. All gas supplies to the building shall be shut off. Power to the building shall be tripped after sufficient time to perform an orderly shutdown. Fire detected in any other building using gas (i.e., office, welding shop or station warehouse) shall cause an alarm and issue a callout. All gas supplies to the building shall be shut off.

    18.Engine Safety Devices

    • 18.1. General All natural gas compressor units shall conform to 49 CFR 192.171 (GPTC) and applicable Engineering Standards - Equipment Specifications.

    • 18.2. Unit Control Each unit shall be individually controlled by its own electronic control panel. The control panel shall be responsible for all functions necessary to start, stop, control and protect the unit. The unit control panel shall incorporate both a remote mode and a local mode. In the remote mode, commands/set points for start, stop, load and unload shall be accepted from a supervisory control computer. In the local mode, an operator may enter commands/set points to start, stop, load and unload the unit at the unit control panel.

    • 18.3. Design Philosophy for Station Control Software Mainline compressor station control software can be divided into the following major functions: 1) alarm/status reporting, 2) gas control communications, 3) local data display, 4) normal station control, 5) normal unit control, 6) station override control, 7) unit override control, 8) operator controlled features and 9) data logging.

    The alarm/status reporting portion of the program shall create a printout on the local printer or a log on the local human-machine interface (HMI) screen whenever a change occurs. A number of alarms are of a serious nature and require immediate attention. When these alarms occur, a callout by the computer or the alarm-activating device shall be generated.

    The gas control communication system shall poll the remote station computers for analog data points and alarms. Gas Control can issue various commands to the remote station computers, which vary from station to station. Most stations include the pressure set point command, power limitation command, station start, station stop and issue callout commands.

    The program provides a number of online local data displays, which may be requested from the supervisory computer. Any screen may be printed out.

    The normal station control has four major control functions provided by the program, including: 1) station start, 2) station stop, 3) pressure set point control, and 4) power limitation control.

    The normal unit control routines perform five operations, including: 1) unit starts, 2) unit stops, 3) unit loading, 4) unit unloading and 5) ambient demand set point control.

    The station override control monitors the following: 1) emergency station blowdown, 2) fire, 3) line break, 4) valve failure, 5) high discharge pressure, 6) high station differential pressure, 7) high discharge gas temperature, 8) loss of critical data and 9) unit abnormal shutdown.

    The unit override control may monitor the following: 1) compressor valve efficiency, 2) over-torque, 3) torque compare, 4) kilowatt level, 5) discharge pressure and 6) differential pressure.

    There are a number of operator controlled features provided in each program, including: 1) operator mode selection, 2) operator check-in, 3) alarm reporting lockout, 4) local command entry, 5) alarm clear

    Highlighting indicates revisions made as of the date on this standard.

    Page 27 of 31

    Section: E0200

    Section:

    E0200

    Title:

    Compression

    ENGINEERING DESIGN MANUAL

    Revised:

    2009-11-01

    MAJOR DESIGN INSTALLATIONS

    directives, 6) station parameter change, 7) station log updating, 8) unit sequence number entry and 9) percent load limit entry. Operator entries are executable through a menu on the supervisory computer.

    Data logging shall be performed to store data. Three types of logs are typical: 1) historical trend log, 2) daily logs and 3) monthly logs.

    19.Strength and Leak Testing

    The list

    Type of service

    Start and end locations

    Pipe specifications

    Design pressures

    Test pressures

    Test duration

    20.Cathodic Protection

    Facilities shall be designed in conformance with 49 CFR 192 and Engineering Discipline E1300 – Corrosion and Coatings.

    21.Acoustic Noise

    • 21.1. All equipment and piping components shall be evaluated to determine the potential for noise generation.

    • 21.2. Engineering control methods and/or equipment or piping component design shall limit noise levels to 100 dBA or less, measured at a distance of three feet from the noise source.

    • 21.3. Warning signs requiring ear protection shall be posted at all areas where noise levels equal or exceed 85 dBA, in conformance with Company O&M Procedure 115 – Hearing Conservation.

    • 21.4. The Project Manager shall be notified of any equipment to be installed that will generate noise levels of 85 dBA or greater so that special hearing protection is made available for that area.

    22.Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC) Requirements

    • 22.1. Conformance Facilities shall be designed in conformance with UBC, IBC and ASHRAE.

    • 22.2. General Requirements

    The station control room and office space shall be climate-controlled.

    The Project Manager shall consider ambient temperatures and humidity to determine heating requirements for the compressor building.

    The Project Manager shall consider climate control with redundant systems for buildings containing variable frequency drives (VFD).

    Project Manager shall consider climate control requirements for all other buildings.

    23.Compressor Station Electrical Design Requirements

    All compressor station electrical facilities shall be designed and installed in conformance with Engineering Discipline E1000 – Electrical.

    Highlighting indicates revisions made as of the date on this standard.

    Page 28 of 31

    Section: E0200

    Section:

    E0200

    Title:

    Compression

    ENGINEERING DESIGN MANUAL

    Revised:

    2009-11-01

    MAJOR DESIGN INSTALLATIONS

    24.Compressor Station Structural Design

    24.1.

    General

    24.2.

    Foundation Design Requirements

    Unit/Building Foundations

    Soil studies shall be conducted to establish actual soil bearing pressure. Foundations for reciprocating compressor units shall be designed in conformance to the geotechnical survey. Foundations for reciprocating compressor units shall weigh at least four times as much as the machine and driver. Foundations for centrifugal compressor units shall weigh at least two times as much as the machine and driver.

    Anchor Bolts

     

    Compressor frame, cylinders and unit driver anchor bolts shall be of a canister type using centralizers and a shape design to transfer the tensile load of the stud into a lateral compression load in the foundation. Bolts shall be made with a minimum tensile strength material of 90,000 psi. Bolts made with rolled threads shall be used for 2-inch and larger diameters.

    Grout

     

    Refer to Construction Standard C1220 – Grouting, Sub-section 3.

    25. Regulatory and Permitting

    25.1.

    Emission Considerations

    All emission units shall be designed to operate in conformance with 40 CFR 50 through 40 CFR 81 and all applicable state and local air quality regulations.

    Common equipment requiring air permits includes internal combustion engines, turbines, boilers, fired reboilers, fired heaters, tanks, water vaporizers, air compressors, flares and incinerators. Blowdowns and fugitive sources, such as leakage from valves and flanges, may also require permitting. The Project Manager shall consult with the Environmental Permitting Department to:

    Determine when federal or state construction or operating air permits may be

    required Outline the project-related information required to support applications for required

    air permits Determine when emission control technologies may be required

    Applications for federal and state air permits shall be prepared and submitted by the Environmental Permitting Department.

    The Project Manager shall schedule air permit activities with the Environmental Permitting Department. In determining air permit schedules, the Project Manager shall consider implications of a potential extensive cycle of permit activities (typical construction air permit preparation activities and governmental agency review may take from six months to one year). Air permit activities that may take over one year include:

    Facilities with a net increase in emissions in non-attainment areas

    Facilities that will trigger prevention of significant deterioration (PSD) rules

    The Project Manager shall provide the following information to the Environmental Permitting Department:

    • 25.1.1.1. Facility Design Data

    Exhaust stack height (feet)

    Highlighting indicates revisions made as of the date on this standard.

    Page 29 of 31

    Section: E0200

    Section:

    E0200

    Title:

    Compression

    ENGINEERING DESIGN MANUAL

    Revised:

    2009-11-01

    MAJOR DESIGN INSTALLATIONS

    Exhaust stack diameter (feet or dimensions if rectangular)

    Exhaust gas velocity (actual feet per minute)

    Simple plot plan (showing height, width, length of each building and

    location of each emission source) Simple flow diagram (showing incoming and outgoing material)

    Location map (such as road, USGS or county map)

    25.1.1.2.

    Manufacturer Equipment Data (for each air pollutant emission

    source)

    Make and model numbers of equipment

    Site rated horsepower and/or BTU/hr

    Exhaust temperature

    Exhaust flow rate (actual feet per minute)

    NOx (ppm, lb/hr and ton/yr)

    CO (ppm, lb/hr and ton/yr)

    Non-methane hydrocarbons (ppm, lb/hr and ton/yr)

    26. Security

    • 26.1. Conformance Compressor station facilities shall conform to 49 CFR 192.163 Subpart D and the Company Facility Security Plan.

    • 26.2. General Requirements

    Fencing shall be established around the entire perimeter of the improved facility. Fences shall be anchored in concrete. Fences shall be at least six feet tall, plus a top guard of three-strand, outward- facing barbed wire. All gates, primary or secondary, shall be equipped for secure locking. Refer to Standard Drawing STD-V-1200-B015 – Cyclone Fence Details.

    The Project Manager shall take into consideration stray interference current from on-site cathodic protection groundbeds and provide strategically placed anodes or interference bonds with the cathodic protection system for all steel fencing.

    Secure doors and locks shall be installed on all buildings and storage areas. Panic-type doors shall be used in all Class I, Division 1 and 2 rated buildings.

    Lighting shall be installed on primary gates, main offices, control rooms and illuminating the facility’s critical components (e.g., manifolds, wellheads, compressors, pumps and valves).

    The Project Manager shall consider installing a camera system, intercom and/or alarm system to provide coverage of the facility’s critical components.

    Clearly visible “No Trespassing” signs shall be installed facing outward on each side at a minimum of 100- foot intervals on fences and gates along the entire facility perimeter. Wording for “No Trespassing” signs shall be as follows:

    NO TRESPASSING This property is patrolled and under 24-hour surveillance. Violators will be prosecuted under federal law.

    On visitor gates, the following shall be included:

    By entering this facility, all visitors consent to a search of their vehicles and property.

    Roads and gates shall be designed such that normal operations are possible (under elevated threat levels) with only one entry point into the facility for vehicles and personnel. Entry points shall be designed so that they are at least 90 feet from any critical equipment. Entry points shall also be designed to allow

    Highlighting indicates revisions made as of the date on this standard.

    Page 30 of 31

    Section: E0200

    Section:

    E0200

    Title:

    Compression

    ENGINEERING DESIGN MANUAL

    Revised:

    2009-11-01

    MAJOR DESIGN INSTALLATIONS

    vehicles entering the facility to be inspected without endangering critical equipment. All gates, primary or secondary, shall be equipped for secure locking.

    Highlighting indicates revisions made as of the date on this standard.

    Page 31 of 31