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Causes of water pollution

Agriculture runof - carrying fertilizers,

pesticides/insecticides/herbicides and other pollutants into water
bodies such as lakes, rivers, ponds). The usual efect of this type of
pollution consists in algae growing in afected water bodies. This is
a sign of increased nitrates and phosphates in water that could be
harmful for human health.
Storm water runof carrying various oils, petroleum
products and other contaminants from urban and rural areas
!ditches). These usually forms sheens on the water surface.
Leaking sewer lines may add trihalomethanes !such as
chloroform) as well as other contaminants into groundwater ending
up contaminating surface water, too. "ischarges of chlorinated
solvents from "ry #leaners to sewer lines are also a recognized
source of water pollution with these persistent and harmful
Mining activities mining activities involve crushing the
rock that usually contains many trace metals and sul$des. The left
material may easily generate sulfuric acid in the presence of
precipitation water. %lease, read more at &ining 'ites.
Foundries have direct emissions of metals !including (g,
%b, &n, )e, #r and other metals) and other particulate matter into
the air. %lease, read more at )oundry.
*ndustrial discharges may add signi$cant pollution to water
bodies, but are usually regulated today. %lease, read more
at *ndustrial 'ites.
Accidental leaks and spills associated with handling and
storage of chemicals may happen anytime and, although they are
usually contained soon after they occur, the risk of polluting surface
and groundwater e+ist. ,n e+ample are ship accidents such as
-++on .aldez disaster which spilled large amounts of petroleum
products into the ocean/
Intended/illegal discharges of waste while such
occurrences are less common today, they may still happen due to
the high cost of proper waste disposal/ illegal waste discharges into
water bodies were recorded all over the world/
Burning of fossil fuels the emitted ash particles usually
contain to+ic metals !such as ,s or %b). 0urning will also add a
series of o+ides including carbon dio+ide to air and respectively
water bodies.
ransportation even though %b has been banned in
gasoline in the 1.'. and many other countries, vehicle emissions
pollute the air with various tailpipe compounds !including sulfur and
nitrogen compounds, as well as carbon o+ides) that may end up in
water bodies via deposition with precipitation water.
Construction activities introduce a series of
contaminants into the ground that may eventually end up in
groundwater. %lease, read more at #onstruction 'ites.
!lastic materials/wastes in contact with water may
degrade slowly releasing harmful compounds for both human
health and ecosystem.
"isposal of personal care products and household
chemicals !including detergents and various cleaning solutions)
this is a serious problem since the releases to water are
unpredictable and hard if not impossible to control. *t is up to each
of us to minimize this contribution to water pollution by controlling
our consumption and disposal of such products as well as trying to
recycle as much as we can2
Improper disposal of car #atteries and other batteries
may add metals
Leaking land$lls may pollute the groundwater below the
land$ll with a large variety of contaminants !whatever is stored by
the land$ll).
Animal wastes contribute to the biological pollution of
water streams.
0asically, anything that can cause air or the soil pollution, may also
afect water bodies. %lease read more about ,ir %ollution
#auses and 'oil %ollution #auses.
#lean and plentiful water provides the foundation for prosperous
communities. 3e rely on clean water to survive, yet right now we
are heading towards a water crisis. #hanging climate patterns are
threatening lakes and rivers, and key sources that we tap for
drinking water are being overdrawn or tainted with pollution. 45"#
e+perts are helping to secure safe and su6cient water for people
and the environment by7
%romoting water e6ciency strategies to help decrease the
amount of water wasted/
%rotecting our water from pollution by defending the #lean
3ater ,ct and advocating for solutions like green infrastructure/
(elping prepare cities, counties and states for water-related
challenges they will face as a result of climate change/ and
-nsuring that waterways have enough water to support
vibrant a8uatic ecosystems.
%romoting 3ater -6ciency
"espite the many e+isting pressures on our water resources, there
are cost-efective solutions that will allow us to transform our
relationship with water. To address increasing water scarcity in
many places in the nation, 45"# is working to promote investments
and policies that increase water use e6ciency and decrease water
waste, such as7
,dopting sensible standards for e6cient appliances,
buildings, and irrigation/
'upporting cost-efective investments by utilities to help
customers save water/ and
*mproving pricing structures to save both water and money.
%rotecting #lean 3ater
"irty water is the world9s biggest health risk, and continues to
threaten both 8uality of life and public health in the 1nited 'tates.
3hen water from rain and melting snow runs of roofs and roads
into our rivers, it picks up to+ic chemicals, dirt, trash and disease-
carrying organisms along the way. &any of our water resources also
lack basic protections, making them vulnerable to pollution from
factory farms, industrial plants, and activities like fracking. This can
lead to drinking water contamination, habitat degradation
and beach closures. 45"# is working to protect our water from
pollution by7
"rawing on e+isting protections in the #lean 3ater ,ct, and
working to ensure that the law9s pollution control programs
apply to all important waterways, including headwater streams
and wetlands, which provide drinking water for ::; million
*mproving protections to reduce pollutants like bacteria and
viruses, which threaten ,mericans9 health and well being/ and
-stablishing new pollution limits for top problem areas, such
as sources of runof and sewage over<ows.
12 simple things you can do to reduce water pollution
3ater and #limate #hange
)rom more severe and fre8uent droughts to unprecedented
<ooding, many of the most profound and immediate impacts of
climate change will relate to water. &ore than one-third of all
counties in the lower => states will face higher risks of water
shortages by mid-century as a result of global warming. ?ther
impacts will include sea level rise, saltwater intrusion, harm to
$sheries and more fre8uent and intense storm events. To help
communities prepare, 45"# is creating tools that help the public
and government o6cials to better understand and anticipate the
water-related impacts of climate change at astate, county,
and city level. 3e also promote ways to reduce wasted
energyresulting from ine6cient water collection, treatment and
%reserving 3ater -cosystems
)ish, birds and wildlife depend on clean water, @ust as people do.
45"# works to protect and restore important waterways to ensure
that there is enough water <owing to keep these ecosystems intact
and functioning. *n the 'an )rancisco 0ay-"elta -- the largest
estuary on the west coast -- we are stopping unsustainable water
withdrawals that threaten endangered $sh species and their habitat
through a range of litigation tools. 3e are also continuing to restore
water <ows to #alifornia9s second largest river, the 'an Aoa8uin
5iver. Through implementation of the historic 'an Aoa8uin 5iver
5estoration 'ettlement, an agreement won after :> years of
litigation brought by a coalition of conservation and $shing groups,
and led by 45"#, the settlement will restore water <ows and
reintroduce salmon to the 'an Aoa8uin.
#auses and -fects of 3ater %ollution
3ater pollution has been seriously afecting the life of humans,
plants as well as animals. The eco-system of rivers, streams, lakes,
seas and oceans is also getting deteriorated due to the
contamination of water, through various sources. This condition also
leads to the outbreak of numerous diseases, ma@ority of them being
lethal and contagious. (owever, before going about $nding a
solution to the problem, we need to look into its underlying causes.
*n the following lines, we have provided information on the causes
and harmful efects of water pollution. Bo through them and then
decide on your course of action.
Sources of %ater !ollution
"umping of industrial wastes, containing heavy metals,
harmful chemicals, by-products, organic to+ins and oils, into the
nearby source of water is one of the visible causes of water
,nother cause for the contamination of water is the
improper disposal of human and animal wastes.
-Cuents from factories, re$neries, in@ection wells and
sewage treatment plants are dumped into urban water
supplies, leading to water pollution.
, number of pollutants, both harmful and poisonous, enter
the groundwater systems through rain water.
The residue of agricultural practices, including fertilizers and
pesticides, are some of the ma@or sources of water pollution.
1ntreated pollutants are drained into the nearest water
body, such as stream, lake or harbor, causing water pollution.
,nother ma@or source of water pollution comprises of organic
farm wastes. 3hen farm land, treated with pesticides and
fertilizers, is irrigated, the e+cess nitrogen and poisons get
mi+ed into the water supply, thereby contaminating it.
%athogens, sediments and chemical pollutants are other
sources of water pollution.
The corporeal wastes produced by humans and farmed
organisms pollute rivers, lakes, oceans and other surface
&armful 'fects of %ater !ollution
, number of waterborne diseases are produced by the
pathogens present in polluted water, afecting humans and
animals alike.
%ollution afects the chemistry of water. The pollutants,
including to+ic chemicals, can alter the acidity, conductivity and
temperature of water.
%olluted municipal water supplies are found to pose a threat
to the health of people using them.
,s per the records, about :=DDD people perish or incur
various communicable diseases due to the consumption of
contaminated drinking water.
The concentration of bacteria and viruses in polluted water
causes increase in solids suspended in the water body, which,
in turn, leads to health problems.
&arine life becomes deteriorated due to water pollution.
Eethal killing of $sh and a8uatic plants in rivers, oceans and
seas is an afterefect of water contamination only.
"iseases afecting the heart, poor circulation of blood and
the nervous system and ailments like skin lesion, cholera and
diarrhea are often linked to the harmful efects of water
#arcinogenic pollutants found in polluted water might cause
,lteration in the chromosomal makeup of the future
generation is foreseen, as a result of water pollution.
"ischarges from power stations reduce the availability of
o+ygen in the water body, in which they are dumped.
The <ora and fauna of rivers, sea and oceans is adversely
afected by water pollution.
'fects on 'cos(stem
:) 0esides inorganic nutrient input, with the in<ow of waste water,
decomposition of organic wastes, plant nutrients such as nitrates
and phosphates takes place. This promotes the growth of o+ygen
consuming algae !algal bloom), especially the blue-green algae. The
growth of o+ygen consuming algae, which deo+ygenates water
killing $sh and other animals is referred to as eutrophication.
F) ,ddition of o+ygen not su6cient to support life.
G) ,ddition of non-degradable broad-spectrum pesticides, which
cause mass destruction of agnatic life.
=) ,ddition of oil destroys life by reducing o+ygen and catching $ne,
destroying ecosystem.
0iological o+ygen demand or 0?" stands for the amount of o+ygen
regained by the microorganism of polluted water to complete the
decomposition of organic matter present in the water. The term is
usually used to know the amount of o+ygen consumed. (igher in
the amount of o+ygen consumed, higher is the degree of organic
pollutants. 0?" is e+pressed in milligrams of ?F per litre of water. ,
weak organic waste has a 0?" less then :HDD mg/ litre, a strong
one has higher than this. , survey of the river Iamuna recorded
0?" of FDDD at "elhi, JDDD at &athura and :F,DDD at ,gra.
'hifts in biodiversity of animals and plants in polluted
*mbalance in host - parasite relations in the ecosystem and
changes in food - webs and food chains.
*mbalances in microbial population and efects due to such
"epositions of deleterious chemicals in soil leading to loss of
soil fertility.

'fects on Animal &ealth

Earge scale death of a8uatic and terrestrial animals
5educed reproduction rate
*ncreased incidence of diseases
*mbalances created in secondary food chains
,ccumulation of bio accumulative and non-biodegradable pollutants
in animal bodies.
'ome organ chlorine pesticides !like ""T, 0(#, -ndrin) are known
for bio accumulative and biomagni$able characters.
*t is a concept wherein pesticides are not sub@ected to disintegration
and e+cretion from animal/human body.
Bio magni$cation
"ue to bio accumulative characters, these pollutants pass through
the food chain and food web. 3hile passing through the organisms,
the concentration of pollutants gets increased. This is called bio
magni$cations. )or e.g., D.H ppm ""T in grasses gets magni$ed to
Fppm in sheep. *t may be magni$ed to :D ppm in human beings
who eat such polluted mutton.
'ome organ chlorine pesticides cause health hazards like
impotence, cancerous tumors beyond a threshold limit of
'fects on &uman &ealth
*ncreased incidence of tumors, ulcers due to nitrate pollution.
*ncreased incidence of skin disorders due to contact with
*ncreased incidence of constipation, diarrhea and infections
to intestine.
"angerous efects on growing fetus in pregnant women.
#oncentration of pollutants due to bioaccumulative
pesticides. through secondary and tertiary food chain in case
of non - vegetarians.
'till births, abortions and birth of deformed children.
90lue baby9 disease caused by methane globinemia - which
results in asphy+ia !reduced ?F supply).
5educed activity of immune system.
Eoss of memory power and reduced mental sharpness.
3ater borne diseases like @aundice, hepatitis, gasteroenteritis
will be more prevalent due to water pollution.
5educed bone development and muscular development.
5educed male fertility.
'hifts in physiological cycles of human body.
Improvement of %ater )ualit(
3ater pollution cannot be altogether checked, but measures can be
taken to reduce it.
These one as follows7
a* !rimar( treatment
*n this method mechanical screening and sedimentation of un-
dissolved solids in raw sewage is done. 0ut it fails to remove any
dissolved substance from water.
#* Secondar( treatment
'ewage treated in primary treatment is brought in contact with
o+ygen and aerobic micro-organisms. They break down the organic
matter into harmless materials as #?F and (F?. )urther, chlorination
is done to reduce the bacteria. *t may be further treated to tertiary
level zero measures are adopted for secondary treatment. They are
!i) Trickling $lter method !ii) ,ctivated sludge process.
i* rickling $lter method
*n this case sewage water passes through a thick bed of gravel
stones so that bacteria consume most of the organic matter.
ii* Activated sludge process
(ere the sewage water is pumped into an aeration tank. The tank
contains sludge consisting of bacteria and algae. The bacteria are
able to decompose most of the organic matter and algae produces
o+ygen to promote the growth of these decomposers.
c* Advanced water treatment or temporar( treatment
)inally in the third step, salts like nitrates and phosphates are
removed by precipitation techni8ue.
+everse osmosis
0y this techni8ue sewage water can he converted into fairly clean
drinking water.
%hat is water pollution,
3ater pollution is the
contamination of water bodies
!e.g. lakes, rivers, oceans, a8uifers and groundwater), very often by
human activities.
%ater pollution occurs when pollutants are discharged directly
or indirectly into water bodies without ade8uate treatment to
remove harmful compounds.
3ater covers over ;DK of the -arthLs surface. *t is a very important
resource for people and the environment. 3ater pollution afects
drinking water, rivers, lakes and oceans all over the world. 3ater
pollution is the second most imperative environmental concern
along with air pollution.
An( change or modi$cation in the ph(sical- chemical and
#iological properties of water that will have a detrimental
conse.uence on living things is water pollution/
Eakes, rivers, oceans and groundwaterLs are afected by pollution
every now and then. Today we shall learn all about water pollution
and what you can do about it. 5eady...M
(pes of water pollution,
3ater comes from many sources. This means they can be polluted
in many scenarios. Eet9s see a few types of water pollution7
0/ 1utrients !ollution
'ome wastewater, fertilizers and sewage contain high levels of
nutrients. *f they end up in water bodies, they encourage algae and
weed growth in the water. This will make the water undrinkable, and
even clog $lters. Too much algae will also use up all the o+ygen in
the water, and other water organisms in the water will die out of
o+ygen from starvation.
2/ Surface water pollution
'urface water includes natural water found on the earth9s surface,
like rivers, lakes, lagoons and oceans. ,ny kind of activity that
pollutes these surface waters can be called surface water pollution.
3/ 45(gen "epleting
3ater bodies have micro-organisms. These include aerobic and
anaerobic organisms. 3hen to much biodegradable matter !things
that easily decay) end up in water, it encourages more
microorganism growth, and they use up more o+ygen in the water.
*f o+ygen is depleted, aerobic organisms die, and anaerobic
organism grow more to produce harmful to+ins such as ammonia
and sul$des.
6/ 7round water pollution
3hen humans apply pesticides
and chemicals to soils, they are
washed deep into the ground by
rain water. This gets to
underground water.
This means when we dig wells
and bore holes to get water from
underground, it needs to be
checked for ground water
8/ Micro#iological
*n many communities in the world, people drink untreated water
!straight from a river or stream). 'ometimes there is natural
pollution caused by microorganisms like viruses, bacteria and
protozoa. This natural pollution can cause $shes and other water
life to die. They can also cause serious illness to humans who drink
from such waters. This is called microbiological pollution.
9/ Suspended Matter
'ome pollutants !substances, particles and chemicals) do not easily
dissolve in water. This kind of material is called particulate matter.
'ome suspended pollutants later settle under the water body. This
can harm and even kill a8uatic life that live at the <oor of water
:/ Chemical %ater !ollution
&any industries and farmers work with chemicals that end up in
water. These include chemicals that are used to control weeds,
insects and pests. &etals and solvents from industries can pollute
water bodies. These are poisonous to many forms of a8uatic life
and may slow their development, make them infertile and kill them.
;/ 4il Spillage
?il spills usually have only a localized efect on wildlife but can
spread for miles. The oil can cause the death of many $sh and stick
to the feathers of seabirds causing them to lose the ability to <y.
"o you remember the 0% ?il spill in FD:DM !5ead about it here) ?ver
:,DDD animals !birds, turtles, mammals) were reported dead,
including many already on the endangered species list. ?f the
animals afected by the spill that are still alive only about NK have
been reported cleaned, but many biologists and other scientists
predict they will die too from the stress caused by the pollution.
Causes of water pollution,
Sewage and waste water
-very day, we cook, do laundry,
<ush the toilet, wash our cars,
shower and do many things that
use water. Think about how we
use water in schools, hospitals
and public places.
3here do you think all the water,
li8uid waste, toilet and urine end
upM *n many developed communities, all this water and soluble
waste !called sewage) is treated, cleaned and dumped into the sea.
-ven though they are treated, they are never the same as fresh
water. #lick below to see how sewage is treated7
*n some un-developed countries, the sewage is not treated, but
8uickly dumped into the sea or water bodies. This is .-5I
dangerous because they contaminate the environment and water
bodies and bring many deadly diseases to us.
Septic anks
-very domestic !home) toilet is connected to septic tank usually
located outside the house. -ach time poop is <ushed down the
toilet, it goes into this tank, where the solid part is separated from
the li8uid part. 0iological processes are used to break down the
solids and the li8uid is usually drained out into a land drainage
system. )rom this stage, it can escape into the soil and nearly water
4cean and marine dumping
,gain, think of the rubbish we all
make each day. %aper waste, food
waste, plastic, rubber, metallic
and aluminum waste. *n some
countries, there are deposited
into the sea. ,ll these waste types
take time to decompose.
-+ample, it is know that paper
takes about N weeks, aluminum takes about FDD years and glass
takes even more. 3hen these end up in the sea, they harm sea
animals and cause a lot of deaths
Industrial waste
*ndustries also cause huge water pollution with their activities.
These come from7
Asbestos This pollutant cancer-causing properties. 3hen inhaled,
it can cause illnesses such as asbestosis and many types of cancer.
Lead and Mercury These are metallic elements and can cause
environmental and health problems for humans and animals. *t is
even more poisonous. *t is usually very hard to clean it up from the
environment once it get into it because it in non-biodegradable.
Nitrates & Phosphates These are found in fertilizers, are often
washed from the soils to nearby water bodies. They can cause
eutrophication, which can be very problematic to marine
Sulfur This is a non-metallic substance that is harmful for marine
Oils ?ils forms a thick layer on the water surface because they do
not dissolve in water. This can stop marine plants receiving enough
light for photosynthesis. *t is also harmful for $sh and marine birds.
, classic e+ample is the 0% oil spill in FD:F with killed thousands of
animalLs species.
4il !ollution
5outine shipping, run-ofs and dumping of oils on the ocean
surfaces happen every day. ?il spills make up about :FK of the oil
that enters the ocean. ?il spills cause ma@or problems, and can be
e+tremely harmful to local marine wildlife such as $sh, birds and
sea otters and other a8uatic life. 0ecause oil does not dissolve, it
stays on the water surface and sufocates $sh. ?il also gets caught
in the feathers of sea birds stopping them from <ying. 'ome
animals die as a result.
<nderground storage and tu#e leakages/
&any li8uid products !petroleum products) are stored in metal and
steel tubes underground. ?ther sewage systems run in
underground tubes. ?vertime, they rust and begin to leak. *f that
happens, they contaminate the soils and the li8uids in them end up
in many nearby water bodies.
,tmospheric deposition is the pollution of water bodies caused by
air pollution. -ach time the air is polluted with sulfur dio+ide and
nitrogen o+ide, they mi+ with water particles in the air and form a
to+ic substance. This falls as acid rain to the ground, and gets
washed into water bodies. The result is that, water bodies also get
contaminated and this afects animals and water organisms.
Important facts of water pollution/
=DK of ,mericaLs rivers and
=NK of ,mericaLs lakes are too
polluted for $shing, swimming, or
a8uatic life.
:.F trillion gallons of untreated
sewage, storm water, and
industrial waste are discharged
into 1' waters annually.
%olluted drinking waters are a
problem for about half of the
worldLs population. -ach year there are about FHD million cases of
water-based diseases, resulting in roughly H to :D million deaths.
*n FD:D, there was a huge oil spill in ,merica by 0%. ?f the =DD
miles of Eouisiana coast, appro+imately :FH miles have been
polluted by the oil spill. ?ver :,DDD animals !birds, turtles,
mammals) have been reported dead, including many already on the
endangered species list. ?f the animals afected by the spill that are
still alive only about NK have been reported cleaned, but many
biologists and other scientists predict they will die too. *n 4ovember
FD:F, 0% agreed a settlement with the 1' government worth
O=.Hbn, including a O:.FNbn criminal $ne.
*n ,pril FD:D, The Transocean ?il 5ig e+ploded, killing ::
workers. The disaster also damaged the Bulf of &e+ico coast
causing one of the biggest environmental disasters in 1' history. *n
Aanuary FD:G, the company paid O=DDm !PF=>m) in criminal
penalties and a O:bn civil $ne after pleading guilty to violating the
#lean 3ater ,ct.
*n developing countries, ;D percent of industrial wastes are
dumped untreated into waters where they pollute the usable water
Source: WWAP
(ow the world uses freshwater7
Q about ;D percent for irrigation
Q about FF percent for industry
Q about > percent for domestic use
Source: World Water Assessment Programme (WWAP)
F;K of the urban population in the developing world does not
have piped water in their homes.
Source: UNS!"
, lack of safe water and sanitation in cities leads to
cholera, malaria and diarrhea.
'fects of water pollution/
Iou will notice in the previous pages that water pollution is very
harmful to humans, animals and water life. The efects can be
catastrophic, depending on the kind of chemicals, concentrations of
the pollutants and where there are polluted. 0elow, we shall see a
summary of the efects of water pollution. (Make sure you see
the factsheet page for some ery unfortunate incidents of
!ater pollution in recent time"
The efects of water pollution are varied and depend on what
chemicals are dumped and in what locations.
&any water bodies near urban areas !cities and towns) are highly
polluted. This is the result of both garbage dumped by individuals
and dangerous chemicals legally or illegally dumped by
manufacturing industries, health centers, schools and market
The main problem caused by water pollution is that it kills life
that depends on these water bodies. "ead $sh, crabs, birds and sea
gulls, dolphins, and many other animals often wind up on beaches,
killed by pollutants in their habitat !living environment).
%ollution disrupts the natural food chain as well. %ollutants such
as lead and cadmium are eaten by tiny animals. Eater, these
animals are consumed by $sh and shell$sh, and the food chain
continues to be disrupted at all higher levels.
-ventually, humans are afected by this process as well. %eople
can get diseases such as hepatitis by eating seafood that has been
poisoned. *n any poor nations, there is always outbreak of cholera
and diseases as a result of poor drinking water treatment from
contaminated waters.
-cosystems !the interaction of living things in a place, depending
on each other for life) can be severely changed or destroyed by
water pollution. &any areas are now being afected by careless
human pollution, and this pollution is coming back to hurt humans
in many ways.
#an you think of some other efects that water pollution is having in
your areaM
!revention of water pollution/
"ealing with water pollution is something that everyone !including
governments and local councils) needs to get involved with. (ere
are a few things you can do to help. Eearning about the issue !like
you are doing) is the greatest and most important step to take.
(ere are a few more7
=ou can help
4ever throw rubbish away anyhow. ,lways look for the correct
waste bin. *f there is none around, please take it home and put it in
your trash can. This includes places like the beach, riverside and
water bodies.Eearn more about waste disposal here.
1se water wisely. "o not keep the tap running when not in use.
,lso, you can reduce the amount of water you use in washing and
bathing. *f we all do this, we can signi$cantly prevent water
shortages and reduces the amount of dirty water that needs
"o not throw chemicals, oils, paints and medicines down the sink
drain, or the toilet. *n many cities, your local environment o6ce can
help with the dispoasl of medicines and chemicals. 'peak to them
0uy more environmentally safe cleaning li8uids for the use at
home and other public places. They are less dangerous to the
*f you use chemicals and pesticides for your gardens and farms,
be mindful not to overuse pesticides and fertilisers. This will prevent
runofs of the material into nearby water sources. 'tart looking at
options ofcomposting and using organic manure instead.
*f you live close to a water
body, try to plants lots of trees
and <owers around your home, so
that when it rains, chemicals from
your home does not easily drain
into the water.
7overnments- local councils
and laws
&any governments have very
strict laws that help minimize water pollution. These laws are
usually directed to industries, hospitals, schools and market areas
on how to dispose, treat and manage sewage. "o you know the
laws in your countryM This is the time to $nd out.
*n many developed cities, waste or sewage treatment is very
e6cient, and designed to minimse pollution of water bodies. #lick
here to see an e+ample of how a good sewage !wastewater)
treatment works.
There are also lots of organizations and groups that help educate
people on the dangers of water pollution. *t is always great to @oin
these groups, because they regularly encourage other members of
their communities to have a better attitude towards water.