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School bullying is a type of bullying that occurs in an educational setting.

Bullying can be physical, sexual,

verbal, or emotional in nature.
School bullying may be more specifically defined as an unwelcome behavior among school aged children that
involves a real or perceived power imbalance. In order to be considered bullying, the behavior must be repeated
(or potentially repeated) and aggressive, and must include
A difference in power: Kids who bully use their physical strength or popularity to control or harm others.
Repetition: happening more than once or have the potential to happen more than once.
The long term effects of school bullying are numerous, and can include sensitivity, anxiety, and depression.
Recent statistics suggest that the majority of students will experience bullying at some point in their academic
careers. In the early 21st century, increasing attention has been given to the importance of teachers and parents
understanding and recognizing the signs of bullying (among both bullies and victims), and being equipped with
strategies and tools to address school bullying.

Bullying is a common occurrence in most schools. According to the American Psychological Association,
approximately "40% to 80% of school-age children experience bullying at some point during their school
Regardless of the grade level, socioeconomic environment, gender, religion, or sexual orientation,
bullying can happen to anyone. However, various studies point out that students from lower socio-economic
backgrounds are more bullied than students from higher socio-economic backgrounds.
Most children
experience bullying at some point in their academic careers. The following is a list of statistics that illustrate the
severity of bullying within classrooms:

2040% of bullying victims actually report being bullied
70% of secondary school students experience bullying in school
712% of bullies are habitual and pose a serious threat
23% of 9th graders have carried a weapon to school recently

515% of students are constantly bullied
27% of students are bullied because of their refusal to engage in common sexual practices
25% of students encourage bullying if not given proper education and support in anti-bullying techniques

At least 1 in 3 adolescent students in Canada have reported being bullied recently

47% of Canadian parents report having a child victim of bullying

The rate of discrimination experienced among students who identify as Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Trans-
identified, Two-Spirited, Queer or Questioning (LGBTQ) is three times higher than heterosexual youth

The most common form of cyber-bullying involved receiving threatening or aggressive e-mails or instant
messages, reported by 73% of victims

This was a survey conducted by the NICHD and were the results on what students did in a school. "The children
were asked to complete a questionnaire during a class period that asked how often they either bullied other
students, or were the target of bullying behavior. A total of 10.6 percent of the children replied that they had
'sometimes' bullied other children, a response category defined as 'moderate' bullying. An additional 8.8 percent
said they had bullied others once a week or more, defined as 'frequent' bullying. Similarly, 8.5 percent said they
had been targets of moderate bullying, and 8.4 percent said they were bullied frequently. Out of all the students,
13 percent said they had engaged in moderate or frequent bullying of others, while 10.6 percent said they had
been bullied either moderately or frequently. Some students-6.3 percent-had both bullied others and been
bullied themselves. In all, 29 percent of the students who responded to the survey had been involved in some
aspect of bullying, either as a bully, as the target of bullying, or both."
According to Tara Kuther, associate
professor of psychology at Western Connecticut State University, "...bullying gets so much more sophisticated
and subtle in high school. It's more relational. It becomes more difficult for teens to know when to intervene,
whereas with younger kids bullying is more physical and therefore more clear cut".

Because of the low numbers of students who actually report incidents of bullying, teachers need to have a certain
level of awareness that will thwart any potential problems. This awareness starts with understanding bullying.
Types of school bullying include[edit]
See also: Physical abuse

A female bully, portrayed in the 1917 silent film Rebecca of Sunnybrook Farm.
Physical bullying is any unwanted physical contact between the bully and the victim. This is one of the most
easily identifiable forms of bullying. Examples include:

inappropriate touching
school pranks
use of available objects as weapons
See also: Psychological abuse
Emotional bullying is any form of bullying that causes damage to a victims psyche and/or emotional well-being.
Examples include:

spreading malicious rumors about people
keeping certain people out of a "group"
getting certain people to "gang up" on others (this also could be considered physical bullying)
making fun of certain people
ignoring people on purpose the silent treatment, also known as 'Sending to Coventry'
pretending the victim is non-existent
saying hurtful sentences (also a form of verbal bullying)

See also: Verbal abuse
Verbal bullying is any slanderous statements or accusations that cause the victim undue emotional distress.
Examples include:

directing foul language (profanity) at the target
using derogatory terms or playing with the person's name
commenting negatively on someone's looks, clothes, body etc. personal abuse
being laughed at

Main article: Cyber-bullying
According to the website Stop Cyberbullying, "Cyberbullying is when a child, preteen or teen is tormented,
threatened, harassed, humiliated, embarrassed or otherwise targeted by another child, preteen or teen using the
Internet, interactive and digital technologies or mobile phones."
This form of bullying can easily go undetected
because of lack of parental/authoritative supervision. Because bullies can pose as someone else, it is the most
anonymous form of bullying. Cyber bullying includes, but is not limited to, abuse using email, blog, instant
messaging, text messaging, or websites. A lot of kids who are bullied in school are likely to be bullied over the
internet, and vice versa.

The tragedy of cyber bullying has become extremely prevalent in today's society. Since 95% of social media using
teens reported to have witnessed malicious behavior on social media from 2009 to 2013,
the odds for rashness
from the victim are very high. This calls for preventative measures. There is obviously not a 24 monitoring system
on sites like Facebook, or Twitter so in this new age children must be taught at a young age the proper Internet
behavior. This is a call for parents and educators to teach these modern skills. Three basic abilities to achieve in
this are education through awareness, and advocacy.
Parents and educators need to make children aware at a
young age of the life changing effects cyber bullying can have on the victim. The next step for prevention is
advocacy. For example, three high school students from Melville, New York organized a Bullying Awareness
Walk where several hundred people turned out to show their support.
Other than organizing events, calling
for social media sites to take charge could make the difference between life and death.
Cyber-bullying is making it increasingly difficult to enforce any form of prevention
The rapid growth of social
media is aiding the spread of cyber-bullying and prevention policies are struggling to keep up. In order for
prevention policies to be put in place the definition of cyber-bullying must be stated, others must be educated on
how to recognize and prevent bullying, and policies that have already attempted to be enacted need to be
reviewed and learned from.
Most importantly, clear and concise legislation must be created on the state and
federal level to aid in world wide prevention.

Main article: Sexual bullying
Sexual bullying is "any bullying behavior, whether physical or non-physical, that is based on a persons sexuality
or gender. It is when sexuality or gender is used as a weapon by boys or girls towards other boys or girls
although it is more commonly directed at girls. It can be carried out to a persons face, behind their back
or through the use of technology."

As part of its research into sexual bullying in schools, the BBC Panorama program commissioned a questionnaire
aimed at young people aged 1119 years in schools and youth clubs across five regions of England.
The survey
revealed that of the 273 young people who responded to the questionnaire, 28 had been forced to do something
sexual and 31 had seen it happen to someone else. Of the 273 respondents, 40 had experienced unwanted
UK Government figures show that in school year 2007/8, there were 3,450 fixed period exclusions
and 120 expulsions from schools in England due to sexual misconduct.
This includes incidents such
as groping and using sexually insulting language. From April 2008 to March 2009, ChildLine counselled a total of
156,729 children. Of these, 26,134 children spoke about bullying as a main concern and 300 of these talked
specifically about sexual bullying.

Some people, including the UK charity Beatbullying, have claimed that children are being bullied into providing
sexual favours in exchange for protection as gang culture enters inner city schools.
Other anti-bullying groups
and teachers' unions, including the National Union of Teachers, challenged the charity to provide evidence of
this, as they had no evidence that this sort of behaviour was happening in schools.

Pack bullying[edit]
See also: Mobbing
Pack bullying is bullying undertaken by a group. The 2009 Wesley Report on bullying prepared by an Australia-
based group, found that pack bullying was more prominent in high schools and characteristically lasted longer
than bullying undertaken by individuals. Pack bullying may be physical bullying or emotional bullying and be
perpetrated in person or in cyberspace. In person, it can take place in schoolyards, school hallways, sports fields
and gymnasiums, classrooms, and on the school bus.

Associated with[edit]
Bullying is usually associated with an imbalance of power. A bully has a perceived authority over another due to
factors such as size, gender, or age.
Bullies are not identifiable by their appearance or group identification;
rather we need to focus on how they act. The definition of bullying briefly describes actions that are exhibited by
an individual that is playing the role of a bully.
Boys find motivation for bullying from factors such as not
fitting in, physical weakness, short temper, who their friends are, and the clothes they wear. Bullying among girls,
on the other hand, results from factors such as not fitting in, facial appearance, emotional factors,
being overweight, and academic status.
In both sexes, aspeech impediment of some sort (such as stutter) can
also become the target of a bully.
Individuals that choose to be a bully are not typically born with the characteristic. It is a result from the
treatment they receive from authority figures, including parents. Bullies often come from families that use
physical forms of discipline.
This somewhat turns the tables on the bully, making them the victim.
Unfortunately, this leads to a strategy of bully or be bullied.

Bullies come in all shapes and sizes. Girls and boys are both bullies. Girls are more likely social bullies, spreading
rumors, breaking up friendships, etc. Boys are more physical bullies, hitting, punching, and slapping.
are typically overly concerned about their appearance and the popularity standings. They have an urge to be
dominate, or to be in charge of others. Bullies are usually easily pressured by their peers and feel the need to
impress them.
There are several different types of bullies; confident, social, fully armored, hyperactive, bullied
bully, bunch of bullies, and a gang of bullies. The confident bully has a very high opinion of themself and feels a
sense of superiority over other students. The social bully uses rumors, gossip, and verbal taunts to insult others.
Social bullies are typically a female who has low self-esteem and therefore tries to bring others down. The fully
armored bully shows very little emotion and often bullies when no one will see or stop them. The hyperactive
bully typically has problems with academics and social skills. This student will often bully someone then place
the blame on someone else. A bullied bully is usually someone who has been bullied in the past or is bullied by an
older sibling. A bunch of bullies is a group of friends who gang up on others. A gang of bullies is a group of
students who are not really friends but are drawn together due to their desire for power.
Print Students
become bullies for many reasons such as they want to impress their peers, they were once bullied themselves and
now feel big bullying others, and some even do it as retaliation for being punished in school.

Bullying is delivered in a number of different forms and is not limited to one gender. Forms
include verbal, physical, direct, sexual harassment, and relational bullying. Bullying covers a wide range of age
groups but is particularly prominent between the ages of 918. Boys tend to do more bullying than girls,
especially in the form of physical bullying. However girls are just as guilty. They usually tend to bully in verbal

Understanding the semiotics of school-age bullying may increase the chances of stopping the problem before
drastic measures are taken by the victims, such as suicide. Bully, target, and bystander are labels that have been
created to help describe and understand the roles of the individuals involved in the vicious cycle. Barbara
Coloroso, an expert in the field of bullying prevention, explains that the labels serve as descriptors of a childs
behavior rather than permanently labeling the child.

Where and When Bullying Happens[edit]
Bullying occurs in and away from schools; however, the majority of bullying takes place in educational
institutions. Bullying locations vary by context. For example, the playground is the most dangerous area on the
elementary level, followed by the outdoor recess area, hallways, indoor recess, and classrooms. In middle school,
hallways were the most perilous location, followed by the lunchroom, outdoor recess areas, classrooms, indoor
recess, and the front of the school.
The bathroom, locker room, bus, from and back of the school, gym, parking lot, coat room, and cubby areas are
other hazardous bullying zones.
The common denominator in almost all of these locations is inadequate or no supervision and unstructured time.
Under these conditions, opportunistic children have free rein. For example, recess, playgrounds and hallways
head the list of trouble spots because there are few adults supervising large numbers of children who are
constantly moving around wide expanses with few or no organized activities.

Warning Signs of Bullying[edit]
There are warning signs for everyone involved in bullying. Whether your child is being bullied, doing the
bullying, or witnessing it, there are signs to look for. Parents should always keep the lines of communication open
by starting conversations about daily life and feelings with questions like: What was one good thing that
happened today? What is your lunch time like at your school? Who do you sit with? Keep the questions open-
ended so your child can describe his or her day. Listen for clues as they talk and follow up with further questions
if you suspect something is happening to your child. First, you need to help your child understand what bullying
is. Kids who know what bullying is can better identify it. Kids need to know what steps to take if they have been
bullied or have seen someone else get bullied. You should encourage your child to always report bullying. Let
them know that bullying is not acceptable for any reason, and they should report it immediately.

Signs that a child is being bullied
Unexplainable injuries
Lost or destroyed clothing
Change in eating habits
Declining grades
Continuous school absences

Signs that your child is bullying others
Getting into physical or verbal fights
Getting sent to the principals office frequently
Having friends who bully others
Becoming increasingly aggressive in normal day activities
Signs your child has witnessed bullying
Poor school behavior
Emotional disturbance
Post-traumatic stress
Drug and alcohol abuse
Suicidal tendencies

Roles Kids Play[edit]
There are some roles in bullying that take place. McNamee and Mercurio have identified the people involved in
bullying as: the person doing the bullying, the person getting bullied and the bystander as the bullying

Bully Students with power (social and/or physical) who repeatedly picks on another student or group of
students with the intent to inflict harm or discomfort.
Victim Students who are the target of the bullying.
Bystander Student who observes bullying may ignore bullying, encourage bullying, or take a stand
against bullying.

Even if you are not directly involved in the bulling you play a role. There is several roles kids play when
witnessing bullying they include:
Kids who assist These kids help in the bullying but do not directly start it. They are encouraged further
bullying from surrounding peers.
Kids who reinforce These kids are not directly involved in the bullying or assist in the bullying. These kids
are ones who laugh and give the bully an audience.
Outsiders These kids are incident bystanders who are not involved at all in the bullying but witness it.
They mainly will feel sorry for the victim but do not know how to get involved.
Kids who defend These kids either get directly involved or defend the victim or there to console the victim
after the bullying.

Short-term and long-term effects[edit]
See also: Post traumatic stress disorder and Psychological trauma
Dombeck defines some common short-term and long-term effects of bullying. These include, but are not limited

suicide (bullycide) Many feel unwanted in life and that they should not live
significant drop in school performance
Feeling as if their life has fallen apart
Excessive stress
abiding feelings of insecurity
lack of trust
extreme sensitivity (hypervigilance)
mental illness such as psychopathy
Complex dynamics of a school bullying culture[edit]
Parsons identifies school bullying cultures as typically having a web of dynamics which are much more complex
than just considering bullying amongst students. These dynamics include:

some students bully other students; some of these student bullies are themselves bullied by other student
bullies; some of these student bullies bully teachers
some teachers bully students; some teacher bullies bully other teachers; some teacher bullies bully parents
some office staff bully teachers, students and parents
some principals bully teachers, office staff, students and parents
some parents bully teachers, office staff, principals, and their own children.

Verifying the signs that signify bullying characteristics are slightly harder than expected. They are usually viewed
as loud and assertive and may even be hostile in particular situations. Bullies are not usually the largest kid in a
class, but may be part of the popular or cool kids group.
The bullies that are part of a popular group may not
come from intense disciplinary homes, rather they gain acceptance from the peer group by bullying a victim.

Victims of bullying typically are physically smaller, more sensitive, unhappy, cautious, anxious, quiet, and
withdrawn. They are often described as passive or submissive. Possessing these qualities make these individuals
vulnerable to being victimized. Unfortunately bullies know that these students will not retaliate, making them an
easy target.

A general semantics term called indexing is useful in dealing with the different types of bullying. Indexing is a
way to categorize of signs. This allows educators and parents a way to assist in recognizing how bullying behavior
varies. By understanding and recognizing the different varieties of behavior it helps to allow flexibility in the
responses to the variations.

An interesting result from previous research states that the majority of children possess anti-bullying attitudes.
However there is a small amount of children that admire those that bully and show little empathy for those that
get bullied.

Common Myths/Misconceptions About Bullying[edit]
Researchers Olweus, 2003
and Scarpaci, 2006

Bullying is a consequence of large class or school size.
Bullying is a consequence of competition for grades and failure in school
Bullying is a consequence of poor self-esteem and insecurity
Students who are overweight, wear glasses, have a different ethnic origin, or speak with an unusual dialect
are particularly at risk of becoming bully victims
Bullying is just teasing.
Some people deserve to be bullied.
Only boys are bullies.
Bullying is a normal part of growing up.
Bullies will go away if ignored.
It's tattling to tell an adult about a bully.
The best way to deal with a bully is by fighting or trying to get even.
People who are bullied will only hurt for a while and then get over it.
Strategies for Teachers[edit]
Children spend a lot of their time in school. Although bullying can happen anywhere, the vast majority of
bullying occurs in school, which means that a teachers influence is profound. It is important for teachers to be
able to identify the signs of bullying, and also be equipped with the strategies to help both bullies and victims.
Below is a list of possible warning signs, as well as ways that teachers can help students in their classrooms.
Easily frustrated and quick to anger
Does not recognize impact of their behaviour
Has friends who bully and are aggressive
Few friends at school or in neighbourhood
Afraid to go to school
Appears anxious or fearful
Low self-esteem
Lower interest in activities and lower performance at school
Injuries, bruising, damaged belongings
May appear isolated from the peer group
Complains of feeling unwell (headaches and stomach aches)
Helping students who are bullied
Teach the appropriate social skills
Build self-esteem
Encourage students to report bullying
Advocate for individual children
Model healthy relationships
Promote inclusive classrooms
Manage student interactions
Intervene early (and frequently)
Helping students who bully:
Help them change the way they use their power
Acknowledge positive behaviours
Give consequences that teach (and not punish)
Establish a code of conduct
Have student sign a behavioural contract
Main article: Anti-bullying legislation
Some states of the United States have implemented laws to address school bullying.
Law that prohibits discrimination against students based on sexual orientation and gender identity
Law that prohibits discrimination against students based on sexual orientation only
Law that prohibits bullying of students based on sexual orientation and gender identity
School regulation or ethical code for teachers that address discrimination and/or bullying of students based on sexual
orientation and gender identity
School regulation or ethical code for teachers that address discrimination and/or bullying of students based on sexual
orientation only
Law that forbids school-based instruction of LGBT issues in a positive manner
Law that forbids local school districts from having anti-bullying policies that enumerate protected classes of students
Law that prohibits bullying in school but lists no categories of protection
No statewide law that specifically prohibits bullying in schools
Anti-Bullying Laws in the United Kingdom Section 89 of the Education and Inspections Act 2006 provides for
an anti-bullying policy for all state schools to be made available to parents.
Anti-Bullying Laws across the United States As of August of 2013 all states, except for Montana, have anti-
bullying laws.
"Some policies require disciplinary procedures while others mandate that schools track and
report every incident. A growing number of states also require schools to employ someone trained in anti-
bullying education. Despite widespread attention to the issue, anti-bullying advocates worry that many of the
new laws dont provide adequate funding to implement anti-bullying strategies, particularly those calling for
training teachers, counselors or administrators. With state budgets facing huge shortfalls in recent years,
lawmakers have been cutting education funding, including for bullying prevention, leading some school districts
to resist anti-bullying mandates."

American victims and their families have legal recourse, such as suing a school or teacher for failure to
adequately supervise, for racial or gender discrimination, or for other civil rightsviolations. Special education
students who are victimized may sue a school or school board under the ADA or Section 504. In addition, the
victims of some school shootings have sued both the shooters' families and the schools.

Strategies to reduce school bullying[edit]
Researchers (Olweus, 1993);
Craig & Peplar, 1999;
Ross, 1998;
Morrison, 2002;
Whitted & Dupper,
Aynsley-Green, 2006;
provide several strategies which address ways to help reduce
bullying, these include:
Make sure an adult knows what is happening to their child[ren].
Enforce anti bullying laws.
Make it clear that bullying is never acceptable.
Recognize that bullying can occur at all levels within the hierarchy of the school (i.e., including adults).
Hold a school conference day or forum devoted to bully/victim problems.
Increase adult supervision in the yard, halls and washrooms more vigilantly.
Emphasize caring, respect and safety.
Emphasize consequences of hurting others.
Enforce consistent and immediate consequences for aggressive behaviors.
Improve communication among school administrators, teachers, parents and students.
Set up a peer support program.

Have a school problem box where kids can report problems, concerns and offer suggestions.
Teach cooperative learning activities.
Help bullies with anger control and the development of empathy.
Encourage positive peer relations.
The Olweus Bullying Prevention Program: Warmth, positive interest, and involvement from adults; firm
limits on unacceptable behavior; consistent application of nonpunitive, nonphysical sanctions for
unacceptable behavior or violations of rules; and adults who act as authorities and positive role models.

Offer a variety of extracurricular activities which appeal to a range of interests
Teach your child to defend him/herself verbally. Fighting back physically may land the bullied in school
trouble or even legal trouble.

Keep in mind the range of possible causes: e.g., medical, psychiatric, psychological, developmental, family
problems, etc.
If problems continue in your school, press harassment charges against the family of the person who is
bullying you.
Adjust teacher preparation programs to include appropriate bullying interventions to use in their

Albuquerque Public Schools strictly prohibits bullying by all members of the school community.
Albuquerque Public Schools strictly prohibits bullying by students whether on or off campus. Those who
encourage bullying may be subject to corrective action. Bullying incidents shall not be tolerated by any
Albuquerque Public School employee.
Albuquerque Public Schools prohibits reprisal or retaliation against any person who reports an act of
District Staff Responsibilities
Albuquerque Public Schools shall annually notify (electronically, orally or written) all school and
district personnel (including substitutes), school volunteers, students and their parents/legal
guardians of the Board of Education policy on Bullying Prevention and this administrative procedural
All district personnel shall be required to immediately report alleged or suspected incidents of
bullying. All other members of the school community shall be encouraged to report alleged or
suspected incidents of bullying.
Principals shall develop and implement a comprehensive written bullying prevention plan as part of a
school-wide prevention plan. Each plan shall be based on specific school needs and shall include
implementation of a universal, data-driven bullying prevention program, or adoption of a pre-existing
evidence-based bullying prevention program. This plan shall include:
Internal measures to strongly discourage, address and establish consequences for false reports
of bullying
An internal bullying reporting process which ensures the confidentiality of reporters, witnesses,
targeted students and persons acting aggressively
Principals shall notify all school personnel, school volunteers, students and their parents/legal
guardians of this process
Appropriate measures to protect reporters, witnesses and targets of bullying from retaliation
Procedures for administration to investigate allegations of bullying, which ensure the confidentiality of
reporters, witnesses, targeted students and persons acting aggressively
The principal, or his/her designee, shall respond consistently and promptly to all individuals involved
in every reported and suspected bullying incident
All licensed school employees, instructional and operational administrative personnel shall participate
in mandatory bullying prevention training provided by Albuquerque Public Schools at least once every
three years
Principals shall train their staff periodically about bullying prevention strategies and identifying,
reporting, and effectively responding to bullying
Staff shall be required to document attendance to these trainings and return the staff name,
employee number and signature to the counseling manager within five (5) days of the training
Education for Students and Parents
Albuquerque Public Schools shall teach students the skills necessary to recognize report and respond to
bullying as a targeted student or bystander. Students shall be engaged in learning activities, events and
campaigns that address bullying prevention.
Albuquerque Public Schools health education courses shall include instruction about bullying prevention
to comply with the New Mexico Public Education Departments content standard with benchmarks and
performance standards for health education.
Parents shall be invited to attend ongoing bullying prevention training, activities and events to assist in
promoting a consistent message that bullying shall not be tolerated. Schools may collaborate with
community partners for successful parental education and awareness.
Corrective Action
Corrective action may be determined by the number of previous acts, the nature of the act, the maturity of
the parties, and the context in which the alleged act occurred. Consequences may range from positive
behavioral interventions to suspension and expulsion and shall include consideration of compliance with
state and federal Individuals with Disabilities Educational Act requirements if appropriate. Principals, or
his/her designee, shall include parents/legal guardians in the remediation of severe and/or escalating
Corrective action taken shall be by the least restrictive means necessary to address the behavior and
shall be consistent with the legal rights of the involved students. Corrective action shall comply with
Board of Education policy and procedural directives regarding discipline.