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Folk music of Ireland

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Folk music of Ireland
The folk music of Ireland (also known as Irish traditional music, Irish trad, Irish folk music, and other variants)
is the generic term for music that has been created in various genres in Ireland.
History
In Topographia Hibernica (1188), Gerald de Barri conceded that the Irish were more skilled at playing music than
any other nation he had seen. He claimed that the two main instruments used at this time were the "harp" and "tabor"
(see bodhrn), that their music was fast and lively, and that their songs always began and ended with B-flat.
[1]
In A History of Irish Music (1905), W. H. Grattan Flood wrote that, in Gaelic Ireland, there were at least ten
instruments in general use. These were the cruit (a small harp) and clairseach (a bigger harp with typically 30
strings), the timpan (a small string instrument played with a bow or plectrum), the feadan (a fife), the buinne (an
oboe or flute), the guthbuinne (a bassoon-type horn), the bennbuabhal and corn (hornpipes), the cuislenna (bagpipes
- see Great Irish Warpipes), the stoc and sturgan (clarions or trumpets), and the cnamha (castanets).
[2]
There is also
evidence of the fiddle being used in the 8th century.
[2]
There are several collections of Irish folk music from the 18th century, but it was not until the 19th century that
ballad printers became established in Dublin. Important collectors include Colm Lochlainn, George Petrie, Edward
Bunting, Francis O'Neill, Canon James Goodman and many others. Though solo performance is preferred in the folk
tradition, bands or at least small ensembles have probably been a part of Irish music since at least the mid-19th
century, although this is a point of much contention among ethnomusicologists.
Irish traditional music has survived more strongly against the forces of cinema, radio and the mass media than the
indigenous folk music of most European countries. This was possibly due to the fact that the country was not a
geographical battleground in either of the two world wars. Another potential factor was that the economy was largely
agricultural, where oral tradition usually thrives. From the end of the second world war until the late fifties folk
music was held in low regard. Comhaltas Ceoltir ireann (an Irish traditional music association) and the popularity
of the Fleadh Cheoil (music festival) helped lead the revival of the music. The English Folk music scene also
encouraged and gave self-confidence to many Irish musicians. Following the success of The Clancy Brothers in the
USA in 1959, Irish folk music became fashionable again. The lush sentimental style of singers such as Delia Murphy
was replaced by guitar-driven male groups such as The Dubliners. Irish showbands presented a mixture of pop music
and folk dance tunes, though these died out during the seventies. The international success of The Chieftains and
subsequent musicians and groups has made Irish folk music a global brand.
Historically much old-time music of the USA grew out of the music of Ireland, England and Scotland, as a result of
cultural diffusion. By the 1970s Irish traditional music was again influencing music in the USA and further afield in
Australia and Europe. It has occasionally been fused with rock and roll, punk rock and other genres, as in certain
recordings of Horslips, Thin Lizzy, The Corrs, The Chieftains, Enya, Clannad, Riverdance, and Van Morrison.
Folk music of Ireland
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Music for singing
Like all traditional music, Irish folk music has changed slowly. Most folk songs are less than two hundred years old.
One measure of its age is the language used. Modern Irish songs are written in English and Irish. Most of the oldest
songs and tunes are rural in origin and come from the older Irish language tradition. Modern songs and tunes often
come from cities and towns, Gaeltacht and English-speaking Ireland.
Unaccompanied vocals are called sean ns ("in the old style") and are considered the ultimate expression of
traditional singing. This is usually performed solo (very occasionally as a duet). Sean-ns singing is highly
ornamented and the voice is placed towards the top of the range. A true sean-ns singer will vary the melody of
every verse, but not to the point of interfering with the words, which are considered to have as much importance as
the melody. To the first-time listener, accustomed to pop and classical singers, sean-ns often sounds more "Arabic"
or "Indian" than "Western".
Non-sean-ns traditional singing, even when accompaniment is used, uses patterns of ornamentation and melodic
freedom derived from sean-ns singing, and, generally, a similar voice placement.
Caoineadh Songs
The term Caoineadh/ki:n/ is an Irish language term which translates as crying/weeping. The Caoineadh-type song
is therefore a lament song which is typified by lyrics which stress sorrow and pain. Traditionally, the Caoineadh
song contained lyrics in which the singer lamented for Ireland after having been forced to emigrate due to political or
financial reasons. The song may also lament the loss of a loved one (particularly a fair woman). Many Caoineadh
songs have their roots/basis in The Troubles of Northern Ireland with particular reference to the presence of the
British military during this period. Examples of Caoineadh songs include: Far Away in Australia, The Town I loved
So Well and Four Green Fields.
Caoineadh singers were originally paid to lament for the departed at funerals, according to a number of Irish sources.
Music for dancing
Irish traditional music was largely meant (to the best of our current knowledge) for dancing at celebrations for
weddings, saint's days or other observances. Tunes are most usually divided into two eight-bar strains which are each
played as many times as the performers feel is appropriate; Irish dance music is isometric. (16 measures are known
as a "step", with one 8 bar strain for a "right foot" and the second for the "left foot" of the step. Tunes that are not so
evenly divided are called "crooked".) This makes for an eminently danceable music, and Irish dance has been widely
exported abroad.
Traditional dances and tunes include reels (4/4), hornpipes (4/4 with swung eighth notes), and jigs (double and single
jigs are in 6/8 time), as well as imported waltzes, mazurkas, polkas, and highlands or barndances (a sort of Irish
version of the Scottish strathspey). Jigs come in various other forms for dancing the slip jig and hop jig are
commonly written in 9/8 time, the slide in 12/8. (The dance the hop jig is no longer performed under the auspices of
An Coimisiun.) The forms of jig danced in hardshoe are known as double or treble jigs (for the doubles/trebles
performed with the tip of the hardshoe), and the jigs danced in ghillies/pomps/slippers are known as light jigs.
Polkas are a type of 2/4 tune mostly found in the Sliabh Luachra area, at the border of Cork and Kerry, in the south
of Ireland. Another distinctive Munster rhythm is the Slide, like a fast single jig in 12/8 time. The main differences
between these types of tunes are in the time signature, tempo, and rhythmic emphasis. It should be noted that, as an
aural music form, Irish traditional music is rather artificially confined by time signatures, which are not really
capable of conveying the particular emphasis for each type of tune. An easy demonstration of this is any attempt to
notate a slow air on the musical stave. Similarly, attempts by classically trained musicians to play traditional music
by reading the common transcriptions are almost unrecognizable - the transcriptions exist only as a kind of
shorthand.
Folk music of Ireland
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The concept of 'style' is of large importance to Irish traditional musicians. At the start of the last century, distinct
variation in regional styles of performance existed. With increased communications and travel opportunities,
regional styles have become more standardised, with soloists aiming now to create their own, unique, distinctive
style, often hybrids of whatever other influences the musician has chosen to include within their style.
Due to the importance placed on the melody in Irish music, harmony should be kept simple (although, fitting with
the melodic structure of most Irish tunes, this usually does not mean a "basic" I-IV-V chord progression), and
instruments are played in strict unison, always following the leading player. True counterpoint is mostly unknown to
traditional music, although a form of improvised "countermelody" is often used in the accompaniments of bouzouki
and guitar players. Much of the local character of a style comes from the type of decoration that is added to a tune.
Instruments used in traditional Irish music
The guitar and bouzouki only entered the traditional Irish music world in the late 1960s. The word bodhrn,
indicating a drum, is first mentioned in a translated English document in the 17th century,.
[3]
The 4-string tenor
banjo, first used by Irish musicians in the US in the 1920s, is now fully accepted. Cilidh bands of the 1940s often
included a drum set and stand-up bass as well as saxophones. Neither the drum kit nor the sax are accepted by
purists, though the banjo is. Traditional harp-playing died out in the late 18th century, and was revived by the
McPeake Family of Belfast, Derek Bell, Mary O'Hara and others in the mid-20th century. Although often
encountered, it plays a fringe role in Irish Traditional music.
Instruments such as button accordion and concertina made their appearances in Irish traditional music late in the 19th
century. There is little evidence for the concert flute having played much part in traditional music. Traditional
musicians prefer the wooden simple-style instrument to the Boehm-system of the modern orchestra. The
mass-produced tin whistle is acceptable. A good case can be made that the Irish traditional music of the year 2006
had much more in common with that of the year 1906 than that of the year 1906 had in common with the music of
the year 1806.
There is a three-cornered debate about which instruments are acceptable. Purists generally favour the line-up that can
be heard on albums by The Chieftains, The Clancy Brothers, The Dubliners, and The Bothy Band. Modernists accept
the drum kit of The Pogues and The Corrs, and the electric guitars of Horslips. Classically-influenced composers
such as Mchel Silleabhin and David Downes will accept the piano.
Fiddle
A fiddle and bow
One of the most important instruments in the traditional repertoire, the
fiddle (or violin - there is no physical difference) is played differently
in widely-varying regional styles.
[4]
It uses the standard GDAE tuning.
The best-known regional fiddling traditions are from Donegal, Sligo,
Sliabh Luachra and Clare.
The fiddling tradition of Sligo is perhaps most recognizable to
outsiders, due to the popularity of American-based performers like Lad
O'Beirne, Michael Coleman, John McGrath, James Morrison and
Paddy Killoran. These fiddlers did much to popularise Irish music in
the States in the 1920s and 1930s. Other Sligo fiddlers included Martin
Wynne and Fred Finn.
Notable fiddlers from Clare include Mary Custy, Yvonne Casey, Paddy
Canny, Bobby Casey, John Kelly, Patrick Kelly, Peadar O'Loughlin,
Pat O'Connor, Martin Hayes and P. Joe Hayes.
Folk music of Ireland
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Donegal has produced James Byrne, Vincent Campbell, John Doherty, and Con Cassidy.
Sliabh Luachra, a small area between Kerry and Cork, is known for Julia Clifford, her brother Denis Murphy, Sean
Maguire, Paddy Cronin and Padraig O'Keeffe. Contemporary fiddlers from Sliabh Luachra include Matt Cranitch,
Gerry Harrington and Connie O'Connell, while Dubliner Samus Creagh, actually from Westmeath, is imbued in the
local style.
Modern performers include Kevin Burke, Maire Breatnach, Matt Cranitch, Paddy Cronin, Frankie Gavin, Paddy
Glackin, Cathal Hayden, Martin Hayes, Peter Horan, Sean Keane, James Kelly, Mairad N Mhaonaigh, Brendan
Mulvihill, Mairead Nesbitt, Gerry O'Connor, Caoimhn Raghallaigh, and Paul O'Shaughnessy.
There have been many notable fiddlers from United States in recent years such as Winifred Horan, Brian Conway,
[5]
Liz Carroll, and Eileen Ivers.
Flute and whistle
Tin whistles, and a low whistle (right), in
a variety of makes and keys
The flute has been an integral part of Irish traditional music since roughly the
middle of the 19th century, when art musicians largely abandoned the wooden
simple-system flute (having a conical bore, and fewer keys) for the metal
Boehm system flutes of present-day classical music.
Although the choice of the Albert-system, wooden flute over the metal was
initially driven by the fact that, being "outdated" castoffs, the old flutes were
available cheaply second-hand, the wooden instrument has a distinct sound
and continues to be commonly preferred by traditional musicians to this day.
A number of excellent playersJoanie Madden being perhaps the best
knownuse the Western concert flute, but many others find that the simple
system flute best suits traditional fluting. Original flutes from the pre-Boehm
era continue in use, but since the 1960s a number of craftsmen have revived
the art of wooden flute making. Some flutes are even made of PVC; these are
especially popular with new learners and as travelling instruments, being both
less expensive than wooden instruments and far more resistant to changes in
humidity.
The tin whistle or metal whistle, which with its nearly identical fingering might be called a cousin of the
simple-system flute, is also popular. It was mass-produced in 19th century Manchester England, as an inexpensive
instrument. Clarke whistles almost identical to the first ones made by that company are still available, although the
original version, pitched in C, has mostly been replaced for traditional music by that pitched in D, the "basic key" of
traditional music. The other common design consists of a barrel made of seamless tubing fitted into a plastic or
wooden mouthpiece.
Skilled craftsmen make fine custom whistles from a range of materials including not only aluminium, brass, and
steel tubing but synthetic materials and tropical hardwoods; despite this, more than a few longtime professionals
stick with ordinary factory made whistles.
Irish schoolchildren are generally taught the rudiments of playing on the tin whistle, just as school children in many
other countries are taught the soprano recorder. At one time the whistle was thought of by many traditional
Folk music of Ireland
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A
(keyless)
Irish flute
musicians as merely a sort of "beginner's flute," but that attitude has disappeared in the face of
talented whistlers such as Mary Bergin, whose classic early seventies recording Feadga Stin (with
bouzouki accompaniment by Alec Finn) is often credited with revolutionising the whistle's place in
the tradition.
The low whistle, a derivative of the common tin whistle, is also popular, although some musicians
find it less agile for session playing than the flute or the ordinary D whistle.
Notable present-day flute-players (sometimes called 'flautists' or 'fluters') include Matt Molloy, Kevin Crawford,
Peter Horan, Michael McGoldrick, Desi Wilkinson, Conal O'Grada, James Carty, Emer Mayock, Joanie Madden,
Michael Tubridy and James Galway, while whistlers include Paddy Moloney, Carmel Gunning, Paddy Keenan, Sen
Ryan, Andrea Corr, Mary Bergin, Packie Byrne and Cormac Breatnach.
Uilleann pipes
Folk music of Ireland
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Banjo
The banjo being played by Mick Moloney
The four-string tenor banjo is played as a melody instrument by Irish
traditional players, and is commonly tuned GDAE, an octave below the
fiddle. It was brought to Ireland by returned emigrants from the United
States, where it had been developed by African slaves. It is seldom
strummed in Irish music (although older recordings will sometimes
feature the banjo used as a backing instrument), instead being played
as a melody instrument using either a plectrum or a "thimble".
[8]
While the instrument's percussive sound can add greatly to the "lift" of
a session, a poorly played or overly loud banjo can be disruptive.
Skilled and sensitive players will generally find themselves welcomed
in "open" sessions. Barney McKenna of The Dubliners is often
credited with paving the way for the banjo's current popularity, and
was, until his death at age 72, actively playing. Notable players include
Kieran Hanrahan, John Carty, Angelina Carberry, Gerry O'Connor,
Kevin Griffin and current All Ireland Fleadh champion, Dermot
Mulholland.
With a few exceptions, for example Tom Hanway,
[9]
the five-string banjo has had little role in Irish traditional music
as a melody instrument. It has been used for accompaniment by the singers Margaret Barry, Pecker Dunne, Luke
Kelly, Al O'Donnell, Bobby Clancy and Tommy Makem.
Mandolin
Example of an A-4-style mandolin
(oval hole)
The mandolin is becoming a somewhat more common instrument amongst Irish
traditional musicians. Fiddle tunes are readily accessible to the mandolin player
because of the equivalent range of the two instruments and the practically
identical (allowing for the lack of frets on the fiddle) left hand fingerings.
Although almost any variety of acoustic mandolin might be adequate for Irish
traditional music, virtually all Irish players prefer flat-backed instruments with
oval sound holes to the Italian-style bowl-back mandolins or the carved-top
mandolins with f-holes favoured by bluegrass mandolinists. The former are often
too soft-toned to hold their own in a session (as well as having a tendency to not
stay in place on the player's lap), whilst the latter tend to sound harsh and
overbearing to the traditional ear. The f-hole mandolin, however, does come into
its own in a traditional session, where its brighter tone cuts through the sonic
clutter of a pub. Greatly preferred for formal performance and recording are
flat-topped "Irish-style" mandolins (reminiscent of the WWI-era Martin
Army-Navy mandolin) and carved (arch) top mandolins with oval soundholes,
such as the Gibson A-style of the 1920s. Noteworthy Irish mandolinists include
Andy Irvine (who almost always tunes the E down to D), Mick Moloney, Paul
Kelly and Claudine Langille. John Sheahan and Barney McKenna, fiddle player and tenor banjo player respectively,
with The Dubliners are also accomplished mandolin players.
Folk music of Ireland
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Guitar
The guitar is not traditional in Irish music but has become commonplace in modern sessions. These are usually
strummed with a plectrum (pick) to provide backing for the melody players or, sometimes, a singer. Irish backing
tends to use chord voicings up and down the neck, rather than basic first or second position "cowboy chords"; unlike
those used in jazz, these chord voicings seldom involve barre fingerings and often employ one or more open strings
in combination with strings stopped at the fifth or higher frets. Modal (root and fifth without the third, neither major
nor minor) chords are used extensively alongside the usual major and minor chords, as are suspended and sometimes
more exotic augmented chords; however, the major and minor seventh chords are less employed than in many other
styles of music. Players usually strum only two to four strings at a time, rather than across all six at once; the strings
are often slightly muted with the palm of the plectrum (picking) hand.
The guitarist follows the leading melody player or singer precisely rather than trying to control the rhythm and
tempo. Many players agree that the guitar part should take inspiration and direction from the melody.
Many of the earliest notable guitarists working in traditional music, such as Dith Sproule and the Bothy Band's
Mchel Domhnaill, tuned their instruments in "DADGAD" tuning, although many players use the standard
"EADGBE" and "DADGBE" tunings: among others, Steve Cooney, Arty McGlynn and John Doyle. A host of other
altered tunings are also used by some players.
Guitarists and Bouzouki players sometimes play melody instead of accompaniment, but this playing tends to be
drowned out in anything but small sessions.
Bouzouki
An Irish Bouzouki.
Although not traditional, the Irish bouzouki has found a home in the modern Irish
traditional music scene. The Greek bouzouki was introduced to Irish traditional music in
the late 1960s by Johnny Moynihan and then popularized by Donal Lunny, Andy Irvine,
and Alec Finn. Today's Irish bouzouki (usually) has four courses of two strings (usually)
tuned G2D3A3D4. The bass courses are most often tuned in unisons, one feature that
distinguishes the Irish bouzouki from its Greek antecedent, although octaves in the bass
are favored by some players. Instead of the staved round back of the Greek bouzouki,
Irish bouzoukis usually have a flat or lightly arched back. Peter Abnett, the first
instrument maker to build an Irish bouzouki (for Dnal Lunny in 1970) makes a three
piece staved back. The top is either flat or carved like that of an arch top guitar or
mandolin, although some builders carve both the back and the top. Alec Finn and Mick
Conneely are the only notable players still using a Greek bouzouki, one of the older style
trixordo three course (six string) instruments tuned DAD.
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Bodhrn
Bodhrn with tipper.
A frame drum, usually of bent wood and goatskin, the bodhrn is
considered a relatively modern addition to traditional dance music.
Some musicologists suggest its use was originally confined to the
wrenboys on St. Stephen's Day and other quasi-ritual processions. It
was introduced/popularized in the 1960s by Sen Riada (although
there are mentions of "tambourines" without zils being played as early
as the mid 19th century), and quickly became popular. Notable players
include Liam O'Maonlai (Hothouse Flowers) Johnny 'Ringo'
McDonagh, Tommy Hayes, Eamon Murray of Beoga, Colm Murphy,
John Joe Kelly of Flook and Caroline Corr of The Corrs.
Mention should also be made here of the "bones" - two slender, curved
pieces of bone or wood - and "spoons". Pairs of either are held together
in one hand and shaken rhythmically to make a percussive, clacking
sound.
Occasionally, at pub sessions, there are some non-traditional hand drums used, such as the West African Djembe
drum - which can produce a low booming bass note, as well as a high pitched tone - and the Caribbean Bongo drum.
These drums are used as a variation to, or combined with, the bodhrn during sessions.
Harmonica
Although not as well-documented within the tradition as other free-reed instruments, the Irish harmonica tradition is
represented by Rick Epping, Mick Kinsella, Paul Moran, the Murphy family from County Wexford, Eddie Clarke
and Brendan Power (the latter being of New Zealand).
[10]
Revivals of traditional Irish music
Late 19th century revival and the 20th century
The revival of interest in Irish traditional culture was closely linked to Nationalist calls for independence and was
catalysed by the foundation of the Gaelic League in 1893. This sought to encourage the rediscovery and affirmation
of Irish traditional arts by focusing upon the Irish language, but also established an annual competition, the Feis
Cheoil, in 1903 as a focus for its activities.
The Gaelic League was often accused of being a largely middle-class organization and of taking little heed of the
interests or enjoyments of those living in rural areas of Ireland; most of the League's meetings were in fact held in
London.
Religion also played a role in the re-development of Irish culture. The actual achievement of independence from
Britain tallied closely with a new Irish establishment desire to separate Irish culture from the European mainstream,
but the new Irish government also paid heed to clerical calls to curtail 'jazz dancing' and other suggestions of a
dereliction in Irish moralitythough it was not until 1935 that the Public Dance Halls Act curtailed the right of
anyone to hold their own events; from then on, no public musical or dancing events could be held in a public space
without a license and most of those were usually only granted to 'suitable' persons - often the parish priest.
Combined with continued emigration, and the priesthood's inevitable zeal in closing down un-licensed events, the
upshot was to drive traditional music and dancing back into the cottage where it remained until returning migrants
persuaded pub owners to host sessions in the early 1960s.
Folk music of Ireland
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In the 1980s, major folk bands included De Dannan, Altan, Arcady, Dervish and Patrick Street. A growing interest in
Irish music at this time helped many artistes gain more recognition abroad, including Mary Black, and Sharon
Shannon. The BBC screened a documentary series about the influence of Irish music called Bringing it all Back
Home (a reference to both the Bob Dylan album and the way in which Irish traditional music has travelled,
especially in the New World following the Irish diaspora, which in turn has come back to influence modern Irish
rock music). This series also helped to raise the profile of many artistes relatively little known outside Ireland.
In the 2000s Beoga, Grda, Dan and Teada are among the youngest major instrumental bands of a largely
traditional bent.
There are many other Irish bands developing fusions of local and Irish music such as Flook, Kla, Grda and The
Dave Munnelly Band
[18]
.
Irish music enthusiasts gather at a pub to play
A place to hear traditional Irish music as part of a living and
evolving tradition is at Ionad Cultrtha,
[19]
which is a regional
cultural centre for the traditional and contemporary arts in
Ballyvourney (near Macroom in County Cork). It holds many
music and visual art events and has a very progressive
programming policy.
Pub sessions
Pub sessions are now the home for much of Irish traditional music,
which takes place at informal gatherings in country and urban
pubs. The first known of these modern pub sessions took place in
1947 in London's Camden Town at a bar called the Devonshire
Arms (although some ethnomusicologists believe that Irish
immigrants in the United States may have held sessions before
this); the practice was only later introduced to Ireland. By the
1960s pubs like O'Donoghues in Dublin were holding their own
pub sessions.
Notes
[1] The Topography of Ireland by Giraldus Cambrensis (http:/ / www. yorku. ca/ inpar/ topography_ireland. pdf) (English translation)
[2] A History of Irish Music: Chapter III: Ancient Irish musical instruments (http:/ / www. libraryireland. com/ IrishMusic/ III. php), William H.
Grattan Flood (1905)
[3] History of the bodhrn, part 1 (http:/ / comhaltas.ie/ music/ treoir/ detail/ bodhran_its_origin_meaning_and_history/ )
[4] Irish Fiddle (http:/ / www.irishfiddle.com/ article_on_styles3. html)
[5] Hitchner, Earle. "Brian Conway is the Irish Echos top trad artist for 2008." Irish Echo [New York] 28 Jan 2009, monthly ed. n. pag. Print.
Digital edition availabile at: http:/ / irishecho. com/ ?p=62163
[6] Walsh, Tom (7 December 2000). "Pure Piping" (http:/ / www. mustrad. org. uk/ reviews/ rickard. htm). Review of Pure Piping by Leo Rickard
(Claddagh CCF33CD). Musical Traditions Internet Magazine. . Retrieved 24 April 2012.
[7] See also James Boswell: Tour of Ireland (1786)
[8] [8] Sullivan 1979, p. 16.
[9] Hanway, Tom (1998). Complete Book of Irish & Celtic 5-String Banjo (http:/ / www. melbayxpress. com/ ProductDetail/ Products.
aspx?Catalog=MelBayXPress& ProductID=95759BCD& Action=AddProduct). Mel Bay Publications, Inc. ISBN0-7866-6582-3. .
[10] Irish Music Review (http:/ / www. irishmusicreview. com)
[11] M. Scanlan, Culture and Customs of Ireland (Greenwood, 2006), pp. 169-170.
[12] T. Brown, Ireland: A Social and Cultural History, 1922-79,(Fontana, 1981), p. 276.
[13] J. Cleary, Outrageous Fortune: Capital and Culture in Modern Ireland (Field Day Publications, 2007), pp. 265.
[14] J. S. Sawyers, Celtic Music: A Complete Guide (Da Capo Press, 2001), pp. 1-12.
[15] A. Byrne, Thin Lizzy (SAF Publishing Ltd, 2006).
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[16] J. Cleary, Outrageous Fortune: Capital and Culture in Modern Ireland, (Field Day Publications, 2007), pp. 272-3.
[17] J. S. Sawyers, Celtic Music: A Complete Guide (Da Capo Press, 2001), p. 267.
[18] http:/ / www.davidmunnelly.com
[19] Ionad Cultrtha (http:/ / www.ionadculturtha.ie)
Bibliography
Sullivan, Anthony: Sully's Irish Banjo Book, Manchester 1979,
Boydell, Barra: Music and Paintings in the National Gallery of Ireland, 1985, ISBN 0-903162-22-9
Carson, Ciaran. Irish Traditional Music. Appletree Press ISBN 0-86281-168-6
Carson, Ciaran. "Last Night's Fun", Jonathan Cape ISBN 0-224-04141-X
Fleischmann, Aloys, Sources of Irish Traditional Music, c.1600-1855, two volumes, Garland Publishing, Inc.,
New York and London, 1998. Number of melodies: 6841.
Joyce, Patrick Weston, Old Irish Folk Music and Songs: a Collection of 842 Irish Airs and Songs Hitherto
Unpublished, Cooper Square Publishers, New York, 1965. Originally published in 1909.
Mathieson, Kenny. "Ireland". 2001. In Mathieson, Kenny (Ed.), Celtic music, pp.1053. Backbeat Books. ISBN
0-87930-623-8
O'Connor, Nuala. "Dancing at the Virtual Crossroads". 2000. In Broughton, Simon and Ellingham, Mark with
McConnachie, James and Duane, Orla (Ed.), World Music, Vol. 1: Africa, Europe and the Middle East, pp
170188. Rough Guides Ltd, Penguin Books. ISBN 1-85828-636-0
O'Neill, Francis, The Dance Music of Ireland: 1001 Gems, compiled and edited by Captain Francis O'Neill,
arranged by James O'Neill, Lyon & Healy, Chicago, 1907.
Petrie, George, Petrie's Complete Irish Music: 1,582 Traditional Melodies, prepared from the original
manuscripts by Charles Villiers Stanford, Dover Publications, 2003.
Petrie, George, The Petrie Collection of Ancient Music of Ireland, edited by David Cooper, Cork University
Press, 2002.
Vallely, Fintan. "The Companion to Irish Traditional Music" Cork University Press, ISBN 1-85918-148-1
Wallis, Geoff, and Wilson, Sue, The Rough Guide to Irish Music ISBN 1-85828-642-5
External links
Comhaltas Ceoltir ireann (http:/ / www. comhaltas. ie/ ) A global movement promoting Irish traditional music
and culture
Irish Traditional Music Archive (http:/ / www. itma. ie/ ) National public reference archive and resource centre
for traditional song, instrumental music and dance of Ireland
The Irish Traditional Music Tune Index (http:/ / www. irishtune. info/ ) A searchable database of traditional dance
tunes which identifies sources for tunes on commercial recordings and in tune books
TheSession.org (http:/ / www.thesession. org/ ) an online tune database and discussion site for adherents of Irish
Traditional Music
TradTune.com (http:/ / www. tradtune. com/ ) is another database of traditional folk music from Ireland and
elsewhere
Martin Dardis Web Site (http:/ / unitedireland. tripod. com/ ) Irish folk and ballad song lyrics and guitar chords
with videos
Liam's Irish Traditional Music (http:/ / www. sligo-man. com/ ) Music in Midi,MP3 & ABC file format.
Historical Notes about Irish Melodies (http:/ / imslp. org/ wiki/ User:Clark_Kimberling/ Historical_Notes_3)
Cel lta (http:/ / www. ceol-olta. com/ ) News and actual information on Folk Music, with an accent on
Irish/Celtic Music
Contemporary Music Centre, Dublin (http:/ / www. cmc. ie/ ) Ireland's national resource and archive centre for
contemporary Irish classical music.
Folk music of Ireland
16
A History of Irish Music, by W. H. Flood (http:/ / www. libraryireland. com/ IrishMusic/ Contents. php)
CCUSA-Northeast Region (https:/ / home. comcast. net/ ~ccusane/ Festivals. html) The listing for Scottish, Irish,
and Celtic concerts and tours for the Northeast United States and Eastern Canada
Historical Harp Society of Ireland (http:/ / www. irishharp. org)
Clarsach.net (http:/ / www. clarsach. net)
Article Sources and Contributors
17
Article Sources and Contributors
Folk music of Ireland Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=534168593 Contributors: Abobby132, Alansohn, Allstarecho, Amicon, Amphibio, Andycjp, AngryEoin, Asarla,
BD2412, Badgernet, Bardin, Bbeethoven, Black Falcon, Blumentrop, Bsadowski1, CUTKD, Cckkab, Celt Mac Eireann, Celtic Minstrel, Chris the speller, ClaretAsh, Clark Kimberling,
CommonsDelinker, D.E. Cottrell, Daiv, Dandamanmk, Danielofhart, Davidbspalding, Deldaria, DerHexer, Dereksmootz, Dominicwik, Doppelhals, DragonBallNerd, Dweller, Edcolins, Edward,
Emcmboy97, EoGuy, Excirial, Folk Life, Fonsiecondon, Fylbecatulous, Gadfium, GaelicGotham, Gap9551, Gladsaxe, Grafen, Graham87, Guido Gonzato, Guliolopez, Hairycakelynam,
Heimstern, Heironymous Rowe, Herr Beethoven, Hinnerk R, Hmains, Hohenloh, Hollundersaft, HowardMorland, Hu12, Hyacinth, Ian2981, Itorres uci, JDMacify, Jack warnock, Jnestorius,
Joannaguy, Jonhall, JustAGal, Karl Craig, Komuso9425181, Lexandalf, Linearity, Lvova, MER-C, Marasmusine, Matthew Fennell, Maunus, MaxPride, Maxim, Mayofiddler, Mifter, N2e,
Nd4SU, Ndaco, Neelix, Neurolysis, Nick Number, Notedgrant, Nuclare, Ogg, OnBeyondZebrax, Osullivan94, Paddycomber, Pigman, Queenelvisgalway, Qwfp, Rainydase, Raymondwinn,
Ringfort, Roberta F., Rwalker, SD5, SMcCandlish, Sabrebd, ScottyWZ, Seamasmac, Sensei48, StrumStrumAndBeHanged, Tangerines, Tassedethe, The Thing That Should Not Be,
TheStoneCrusher, Timjarvis01, Tomdobb, Turgan, Uthican, Valfontis, W guice, WadeSimMiser, Weissmann, Welsh, WereSpielChequers, Wikiuserman, Woohookitty, Zimmer79, 197
anonymous edits
Image Sources, Licenses and Contributors
File:MyViolin.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:MyViolin.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Original uploader was Arent at nl.wikipedia Later versions were
uploaded by Siebrand at nl.wikipedia.
File:Tinwhistles.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Tinwhistles.jpg License: GNU Free Documentation License Contributors: AndreasPraefcke, Clusternote,
Jonathaneo, Thuresson
File:Irish Flute keyless.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Irish_Flute_keyless.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3.0 Contributors: Ganainm
File:Liam O'Flinn.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Liam_O'Flinn.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3.0 Contributors: Ganainm
File:Celtic harp dsc05425.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Celtic_harp_dsc05425.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 2.0 Contributors:
User:David.Monniaux
File:Happy Saint Patrick's Day 2010, Dublin, Ireland, Accordion Violin.jpg Source:
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Happy_Saint_Patrick's_Day_2010,_Dublin,_Ireland,_Accordion_Violin.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 Contributors: uggboy
File:Wheatstone English Concertina.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Wheatstone_English_Concertina.jpg License: GNU Free Documentation License
Contributors: Original uploader was DannyChapman at en.wikipedia
File:MickMoloney.JPG Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:MickMoloney.JPG License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 2.5 Contributors: Uploaded by
photographer.
File:GibsonA4Mandolin1921.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:GibsonA4Mandolin1921.jpg License: GNU Free Documentation License Contributors: Original
uploader was Harborsparrow at en.wikipedia
File:Irish Bouzouki.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Irish_Bouzouki.jpg License: GNU Free Documentation License Contributors: Arent, Hautala, Phso2
File:bodhran.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Bodhran.jpg License: GNU Free Documentation License Contributors: User:RichL
File:The Waterboys perform in Dublin 2004.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:The_Waterboys_perform_in_Dublin_2004.jpg License: GNU Free Documentation
License Contributors: Jkelly
File:Mulligans session.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Mulligans_session.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 2.5 Contributors: Kees Huyser
License
Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported
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