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Experiment-03

Two Dimensional Heat Conduction

Sagar Chawla

12110081

Abstract:-

The purpose of this experiment is to determine the relation between Reynolds number and

friction face through rectangular pipe and annular pipe for different flow rates of water in

turbulent flow regime. Flow rate of water is controlled by voltage regulator. Pressure drop

through the pipes is measured by mercury manometer. Pressure drop is increases as flow rate of

water increases. A graph is plotted between

obs

versus N

re

and f

theo

versus N

re

on log-log scale.

A large difference between theoretical value and observed value is obtained in final result.

Rectangular pip has more friction factor than annulus pipe because of their lower equivalent

diameter term.

Introduction:-

Annulus is a space between a two concentric objects where fluid can flow. Annulus pipe is very

useful at industry level. The cross sectional area of flow will be the cross sectional area of the

larger pipe calculated using the inner pipe diameter minus the cross sectional area of the smaller

pipe calculated using the outer pipe diameter. The wetted perimeter will be the inner

circumference of the larger pipe plus the outer circumference of the smaller pipe.

When fluid flow through pipes, shear stress is present in boundary layers. Shear stress is worked

in opposite to the direction flow. Shear stress at the wall due to pressure gradient expressed by

following formula

When fluid flow through a non circular one then it is necessary to determine the characteristic

length and it is four times the hydraulic radius. Hydraulic radius is defined as ratio of cross

sectional area of the conduit perpendicular to the direction of flow and the perimeter of the

conduit wetted by the fluid. The pressure drop increases and friction factor as the flow rate of

liquid is increased through pipes.

For flow through annulus the equivalent diameter will be

{(

)}

For flow through rectangular pipe the equivalent diameter will be

Procedure:-

Reservoir is filled with 90% of its capacity. Power supply of pump is switched on and flow rate

of water is adjusted with the help of voltage regulator. If any air bubbles are present in tube are

removed. Mercury Manometer is used to measure the pressure through the both pipes. Valve of

tube connected with rectangular pipe is closed. Time is noticed to raise water from bottom mark

to desire mark by closing the ball valve. Mercury manometers reading for 4-5 different flow rates

are taken. Same procedures are followed for annulus pipe.

Result:-

Table I: - Data for rectangular pipe

Obs.

no.

Manometer

Reading

(Cm)

Time required

for water level to

rise between two

marks t(sec)

Volumetric flow

rate of water (Q)

(cm3/sec) (x10

2

)

Frictional

Pressure

(gm /Cm s

2

)

(x10

5

)

1 16.0 15 3.20 2.13

2 12.7 18 2.66 1.69

3 9.1 21 2.28 1.21

4 6.0 26 1.84 0.79

5 5.0 30 1.60 0.66

6 4.0 33 1.45 0.53

Table II: - Data for annulus pipe

Obs.

no.

Manometer

Reading

(Cm)

Time required

for water level to

rise between two

marks t(sec)

Volumetric flow

rate of water (Q)

(cm3/sec) (x10

2

)

Frictional

Pressure

(gm /Cm s

2

)

(x10

5

)

1 6.2 28 3.50 0.82

2 5.0 31 3.16 0.66

3 4.0 36 2.72 0.53

Table III: - Data for rectangular pipe

Obs.

No

Average

velocity of

water

through

pipe U

(cm/sec)(x10^2)

Reynolds

no.

Frictional

factor

(observed)

Frictional

factor

(theoretical)

1 2.12 18054.19 0.021 0.0064

2 1.77 15073.54 0.024 0.0067

3 1.52 12944.51 0.023 0.0069

4 1.22 10389.67 0.023 0.0073

5 1.06 9027.09 0.026 0.0074

6 0.96 8175.48 0.025 0.0075

Table IV: - Data for annulus pipe

Obs.

No

Average

velocity of

water

through

pipe U

(cm/sec)(x10^2)

Reynolds

no.

Frictional

factor

(observed)

(x10^

-3

)

Frictional

factor

(theoretical)

(x10^

-3

)

1 4.04 39996.00 2.62 5.52

2 3.65 36135.00 2.55 5.63

3 3.14 31086.00 2.80 5.81

Graph:-

1. For Rectangular pipe

Fig.1 f

obs

versus N

Re

and f

theo

versus N

Re

on log-log scale

0.001

0.01

0.1

1

0 5000 10000 15000 20000

2.For annulus pipe

Fig.2 f

obs

versus N

Re

and f

theo

versus N

Re

on log-log scale

Discussion & Conclusion:-

Since large difference is obtained between observed value and theoretical value of friction factor.

The most probably reason of this difference is human error or accuracy of apparatus is not quite

high. This experiment help us to characteristic of annulus and rectangular pipe and also the

relation between Reynolds number and friction factor for different flow rates of water and we

conclude that Observed value of friction factor is higher for rectangular pipe than annulus pipe;

because of this reason annulus pipe is used for industrial process. One of the main advantages of

0.001

0.01

0.1

1

0 10000 20000 30000 40000 50000

obs

ftheo

annulus pipe is that it is very convenient for heat exchanger at industrial level because of their

space between two concentric objects. Pressure drop and average velocity decreases as flow rate

decreases and hence the friction factor decreases with the increment in Reynolds number.

Appendix:-

Inside diameter of the outer pipe (D2) = 1.6 Cm

Diameter of the rod (D1) = 0.8 Cm

Average temperature of the water during run = 23

0

C

Viscosity of water at average temperature = 0.933 Centipoise

Volume of Calibrated tank use to measure flow rate = 9810 CC

Cross-section area of annulus pipe (A) =

= /4*({1.6}2- {0.8}2)

= 1.51 Cm

2

Volumetric flow rate of water (Q) = (V/t) = 4800/28.22 = 3.20*10^Cm

3

/Sec

Average velocity of water through pipe (U) = (Q/A) = 3.20*10^2/1.50 = 2.12x10^2 Cm/Sec

Frictional pressure drop across the test section (P) = = 16.0*13.6*980 =

2.13x10^5 gm/Cm2

Reynolds number (Re) = = 0.8*2.12*100*0.99/0.00933 = 18054.19

Friction Factor (observed) = =

2.13*0.8*10*/(2*2.12*90*0.99) = 0.021

Friction factor (Theoretical) =

for

> 2100

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