Physical, Emotional & Social Development Objectives: The participants will be able to  Understand concept of development.

 Describe important factors that impact the developing child  Demonstrate brain and body development of child  State how child develops relations to others  Explain primary and secondary emotions  Brief helping children manage inappropriate emotional reactions

Provide a brief overview of physical, emotional & social development of child.

What is development? The scientific study of the changes that occur in people as they age. Development means change - change can be abrupt or gradual. Plato argued children born with innate knowledge, while Aristotle saw knowledge as rooted in experience Important Factors That Impact the Developing Child • • Biological Development Environmental Influences Children are not miniature versions of an adult. particularly the brain.

Biological Development

 A child’s abilities coincide with the development of his/her central nervous system (CNS), This ‘co-development’ with the CNS often becomes more easily overlooked as the child gets older.

Environmental Influences  Those with primary child-rearing responsibilities are most likely to maximize learning capabilities.  Understand the balance between developmental limits and parental expectations (i.e. 2 year-old children cannot be taught how to read, but their language development can be enhanced by reading to them).

Remember, “normal” development is not necessarily an age specific event, but instead occurs within a range that can differ from child to child.

Physical Development Physical development takes place quickly in the lives of children. The infant who was once immobile turns into the toddler who seems to be always on the move. Children differ in how quickly they develop large

motor skills. This development occurs in stages, each one building upon the previous ones. The rate of this development is less important than the sequence. An environment that encourages physical development through exploration is important for children of all ages. This area of learning relates to the development of children’s body control and co-ordination of large movements, fine manipulative skills, spatial awareness and balance. It is also concerned with children’s knowledge and understanding of a healthy lifestyle upon which physical well-being depends. Features of Physical Development: During childhood, children grow another 12 inches, and gain weight about the rate of 5 pounds a year. Legs also grow much faster than the rest of the body. By the age of 6, children make up almost 45% of body length. Children begin this period with baby teeth, and, by the end, the children are loosing them. Brain Development How does the brain develop?  Birth, brain is about 25% of its adult weight  6 months, brain is about 50% of its adult weight  75% of adult brain weight is present at 5-6 years  By 10 years, about 95% of adult brain weight has developed Physical Development: Infancy through Preschool Physical development involves the increasing skill and functioning of the body whereas growth relates to a child’s increasing height, weight and general size. Both growth and development depend on suitable nourishment, including a balance of the right foods and sufficient water to drink. Increasing control and coordination is enabled by the maturing brain and nervous system, growing bones and muscles, exercise and physical activity. It also provides children with the abilities they need to explore and interact with the world around them. What are some developmental milestones in physical growth during the first five years of a child's life? First year:

Birth-2 months: babies focus on your face when you talk; arm and leg movements appear to be uncoordinated; weak neck muscles mean that babies cannot control their head movements.



3-4 months: babies begin to develop head control and can lift their chests when placed on their stomachs. While you should let your baby have some supervised play time on her stomach, ALWAYS place your child on her back to sleep. 4-5 months: babies roll from side to back and/or from back to side. 6-7 months: babies can turn completely over (front to back and/or back to front). 7 months: babies can pull themselves up to stand but have trouble sitting down again. 7-8 months: babies can sit up steadily with the support of their arms. 8-10 months: babies can creep on their stomachs or begin to crawl on their hands and knees. (Some babies do not learn to crawl until after they learn to stand.) 9-11 months: babies can walk when led by the hands or "cruise" holding onto furniture. 12-15 months: babies can stand without holding on to anything and begin walking.

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1-3 years:

18 months: toddlers are walking well, both forward and backwards; they can creep down stairs and get on and off a low chair; they can throw a ball without losing balance. 24 months: children are able to run and climb. 36 months: children are refining large motor skills; they can alternate feet while climbing stairs, ride a tricycle, jump and balance on one foot. They can throw a ball overhand. 36-48 months: children can run and skip well, play simple ball games, and are skilled tricycle riders. 48-60 months: children can hop, skip, run, play with a ball, and climb.

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What are some activities we can do to encourage child's physical development? Birth to 12 months:
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Allow your baby plenty of safe space for rolling, scooting and crawling. Make sure your baby's clothing is loose enough so arms and legs can move freely. Play gentle exercise games. To encourage your baby to crawl, place a favorite toy just out of reach. Provide firm, stable objects on which your baby can pull up to a standing position.

One to 3 years old:


Provide pull toys that make noise. Encourage your child to walk forward and backward while pulling the toy. Help your child walk up and down stairs. Help your child jump off the first or second step and over a small object. Provide opportunities for your child to climb up and through things. Provide both large and small balls for throwing and kicking. Provide a wagon for pulling and carrying objects from place to place.

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Four to 5 years old:
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Have your child walk along a line drawn on the floor to learn balance. Provide a mat for tumbling play such as rolls and somersaults. Play catch with child, starting with a large ball and gradually changing to smaller sized balls.

How settings can effectively implement this Area of Learning and Development To give all children the best opportunities for effective physical development, practitioners should give particular attention to:
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Planning activities which offer appropriate physical challenges. Providing sufficient space, indoors and outdoors, to set up relevant activities. Giving sufficient time for children to use a range of equipment and to persist and learn from their mistakes. Providing resources that can be used in a variety of ways, or to support specific skills. Introducing the language of movement to children, alongside their actions. Providing time and opportunities for children with physical disabilities or motor impairments to develop their physical skills, working in partnership with relevant specialists such as physiotherapists and occupational therapists.

• • •

Using additional adult help, if necessary, to support individuals and to encourage increased independence in physical activities. Treating mealtimes as an opportunity to promote children's social development, while enjoying food and highlighting the importance of making healthy choices.


Providing time to support understanding of the roles that exercise, eating, sleeping and hygiene have in promoting good health.

The Development of Physical Skills The concept of development includes two major categories: normative development and dynamic development. Each of these is defined as follows: • Normative development concerns the typical (normal) capabilities, as well as limitations, of most children of a given age within a given cultural group. It indicates a typical range of what children can and cannot be expected to do and learn at a given time. • Dynamic development concerns the sequence and physical changes that occur in all aspects of a child's functioning with the passage of time and increasing experience, and how these changes interact. Normative development is important because it allows parents and other adults to understand what to expect of a child physically at different ages. For example, expecting a 3-year-old child to zip her own coat would be unrealistic because she still is developing the physical ability to use fingers in that way. The term motor development refers to physical growth, or growth in the ability of children to use their bodies and physical skills. Motor development often has been defined as the process by which a child acquires movement patterns and skills.

GROSS MOTOR SKILLS Children’s control and co-ordination of their gross motor skills develop through movement that involves the use of muscles in the body, legs and arms. As they develop most children will acquire the following skills: • walking • running • stopping • jumping • climbing • pushing and pulling wheeled toys • pedaling a bike • rolling a ball • throwing / catching a beanbag or ball • balancing.

As they progress children will continue to refine their movements and apply their skills in new situations, for example: • hopping and skipping, following games marked on the ground or the wall • gaining awareness of space, height and distance as they move around, use climbing equipment or ride wheeled toys • building large constructions such as a den • rolling, striking, skittles, throwing / catching balls, balls of different sizes, quoits, hoops and other developmentally appropriate resources. FINE MOTOR SKILLS Skill at manipulating a range of malleable materials and small items of equipment depends on the development of small muscles. Fine motor control is needed, for example, to build a tower of blocks, or tie shoe laces. Physical skills are also linked with perceptual development, visual skills, cognitive skills and understanding of specific vocabulary related to spatial relationships. These are enhanced through a visually stimulating environment and opportunities to explore and talk about a wide range of resources and materials. As children’s small muscles mature, including eye muscles, hand / eye co-ordination will develop. Hand /eye coordination is a pre-requisite of being able to hold a pencil properly to make marks on paper and later produce precise writing patterns, letters and numbers. Children will develop fine manipulative skills and hand / eye co-ordination by handling a wide range of resources, including:  _ dough, , clay  _ painting- first with large brushes and then finer ones  _ sand and water play equipment  _ small world figures, animals and vehicles.
 _ construction equipment of different sizes for large constructions and table top activities.

 _ clothes for role and imaginative play  _ scissors, cooking equipment, sewing equipment  _ a range of mark making equipment for use in and on different types of medium  _ computers and other programmable devices. Social Development


When children feel emotionally and physically secure, they have the opportunity to freely explore their environment. They are able to interact with adults and other children, and gain a sense of identity through an understanding and confidence in themselves as individuals. The key to social and emotional development is strong, positive, secure relationships. Infants and toddlers need consistent, nurturing adults who are supportive and responsive. Caring adults provide safe, stable, and predictable environments that support young children‛s growing independence. Such environments promote a healthy sense of self and connections with others. How a person develops a sense of self or self-identity, develops relationships with others, and develops the kinds of social skills important in personal interactions. Theory: “An organized set of ideas that is designed to explain and make predictions about development” Erik Erikson’s Psychosocial Stages – – – – –

Trust vs. Mistrust Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt Initiative vs. Guilt Industry vs. Inferiority Identity vs. Role Confusion

Trust Vs. Mistrust (0-1 Year) Description: Infants depend on others to meet their basic needs, and therefore must be able to blindly trust the caregivers to provide them.

Positive outcome: If their needs are met consistently and responsively, infants will learn to trust their environment and people in it. Negative outcome: If needs are not responsibly met, infant may view world as a dangerous and unreliable place.

Autonomy Vs. Shame/Doubt (1-2 Years)

Description: Toddlers learn to explore and do things for themselves. Their self-control and selfconfidence begin to develop at this stage. Positive outcome: If child is encouraged to explore and reassured when mistakes are made, he/she will develop confidence needed to cope with future situations that require choice, control, and independence.

Negative outcome: If parents are overprotective or extremely critical, child may feel ashamed of behaviors and doubt his/her abilities and.

Initiative Vs. Guilt (2-6 Years)


Description: Children begin to interact with environment in more “adult like” manner as motor and language skills develop. They learn to maintain an eagerness for adventure and play, while learning to control impulsive behavior.

Positive outcome: If parents are encouraging, but consistent in discipline, children will learn to accept concept of right/wrong without guilt, and not feel shame when using their imagination and engaging in fantasy play.

Negative outcome: If not, children may develop a sense of guilt and may come to believe that it is wrong to be independent.

Competence/Industry Vs. Inferiority (6-12 Years)

Description: School is the important event at this stage. Children learn to master basic social and academic skills. Peers become the key social agent and children begin to compare themselves with others outside of the family.

Positive outcome: If children can find pleasure in learning, being productive, and seeking success, they will develop a sense of competence. Negative outcome: If not, they will develop feelings of inferiority. Description: This is the crossroad between childhood and maturity when adolescents ask "Who am I?" The key social agent is the person’s society of peers. Positive outcome: Adolescents who solve this conflict successfully will develop a strong identity, and will be ready to plan for the future. Negative outcome: If not, the adolescent will sink into confusion, unable to make decisions and choices

Identity Vs. Role Confusion (12-20 Years)

Emotional Development What is emotion? A state of physiological response to subjective feelings & cognitions that necessitate action. Primary & Secondary Emotions Primary Emotions are instinctive (adaptive responses) to a given situation. Fight or flight (autonomic) responses that may be evolutionary in origin. Secondary Emotions are secondary reactions to primary emotions & can be learned through socialisation. Primary Love Joy Surprise Secondary Affection, lust & longing Cheerfulness, zest & pleasure Amazement & astonishment

Anger Sadness

Irritation, Exasperation, & rage Disappointment, suffering & shame

Fear Horror, nervousness & panic Positive & Negative Emotions

From birth to maturity, emotions go from relatively undifferentiated positive and negative states, to increasingly different “discrete” states. What happens to emotions over time? • The study of emotional development attempts to answer a number of questions... • How do we go from a limited set of emotional reactions to full-blown adult emotions? • How much of this is innate? • How much depends on other factors being present? • How much requires socialization? Are these facial expressions meaningful? • They cry--but are they sad or angry? • They smile--but are they happy? • Distaste, but is it disgust? • These expressions are not made reliably in response to the “right” sorts of situations. Are these facial expressions Innate? • Test: Do blind babies have emotional facial expressions like sighted babies? -Yes, especially smiling -But, as time goes on, blind people make fewer facial expressions of emotion! (Except happiness) -Not good at posing facial expressions Emotion in Early Childhood What changes from Infancy to Early Childhood? • Many “mature” emotions dependent on cognitive development • Sense of Self

• Theory of Mind • Understanding Social Norms • Increased Linguistic Abilities Example: Fear • 7 months: Loud noise, sudden movement • Preschool: Imaginary things • Elementary School: Physical threats • Adolescence: Social Fears Recognizing Emotion Faces in Early Childhood • Young children fairly poor, but better with age • Happy, Angry, Sad emerge first (in that order) • Scared, surprised, disgusted only later Self-Conscious Emotions • In early childhood start being able to use social standards and rules to evaluate behavior • Basics start to appear around 2.5 years of age • e.g., pride, shame, guilt, embarrassment Other skills emerge in early childhood... • Better at talking about emotions • Increase in emotion-related words • can label emotions and talk about past and future emotions • Able to use emotion language in pretend play • Increased ability to reflect on emotions • Can talk about causes and consequences of emotions • Come to understand that same event can elicit different emotions in different people • Increased awareness about controlling emotions to meet social standards • Emotions and emotional regulation play a large role in the success of peer relationships Parenting Styles • • • • Authoritarian Permissive Authoritative Neglectful

Emotions of Preschoolers

Distress Anger Fear Sadness Surprise Interest Affection Joy

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Goal of Preschool Teacher To help children develop emotionally, the preschool teacher should be concerned with promoting positive responses and teaching management of inappropriate responses. Helping Children Manage Inappropriate Emotional Reactions • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Anger The emotion that results when we are physically or psychologically restrained from doing something, frustrated in our attempts, interrupted, personally insulted, or forced to do something against our will. Fear/Anxiety

Remove or reduce the cause of the emotion Diffuse the child’s negative response by allowing him to “let it out” through crying, talking, or transferring his feelings into nondestructive actions. Offer support, comfort, and ideas for self-control. Model controlled behavior yourself Give children the opportunity to talk about feelings in a nonemotional setting. Separation from mother Physical discomfort/pain Rejection by peers Dissatisfaction with performance Stressful family situation – birth of new baby, death, hospitalization, a move, or a divorce Give comfort Allow child to cry Redirect attention Help the child to verbalize – through play, art, or drawing

Principal Causes of Distress in Child Care Setting

Relieving Stress

Remains calm in difficult or dangerous situations Overcomes Sad Feelings in Appropriate Manner • • • • • • • • • Demonstrate Sympathy Provide a Quiet Space Give the Child Time Talk Privately to the Child Read a Book Nearness Touch Nonverbal cues Verbal affirmations

Shows fondness, affection, connection, love toward others when perform these.

Joy/enjoyment Smiles, seems happy much of the time


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