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Irish Dance

Jig: Compound time - 6/8, 9/8 etc.


Reel: Simple time - 2/4, 4/4 etc.
Dancing: Step dance, fast and energetic, often in lines.
Features of music:
narrow melodic range
simple harmonies
occasional counter melodies
fast tempo
ornaments
Main instruements used:
Uilleann piped (Irish pipes)
Bodhran (Drum)
Fiddle

African A Cappella
Features of music:
call and response
songs often have meanings (violence, alcohol abuse etc.)
warm tone quality with voices blending together
wide range of pitch
vibrato and additional vocal sounds
o shouting
o tongue rolling
o clicking
o use of the glottle
clear phrases - sometimes repeated
Chorus sometimes sings in unison and sometimes in harmonies.
Lots of syncopation (rhythmic device) - off beat
Mbube style - singing loudly
Isicathanya - light singing

American Line Dance
Features of dance:
Dancers stand in lines all facing same way.
Perform the same steps with no physical contact
Use moves like: boot scoots, grapevines and heel digs.
Features of music:
ballad style songs (emphasis on lyrics)
single melody lines
simple harmonies (often 'tonic - dominant' bass line,
crotchet rhythm)
regular 2-4 bar phrases
'verse-chorus' structure (often with an introduction)
slides, glissandos
4/4 time signature
steady crotchet movement in bassline
Instruments:
guitars
steel guitar
violin
banjo
harmonica
accordian
drums

Bhangra
Features of dance:
Energetic hops, steps and leaps
Originates from Punjab (uses Punjabi language)
Musical features:
Chaal - The essential backing rhythm pattern.
Dhol - The double headed drum for playing the Chaal
Shouts of 'Hoi' from backing chorus
fast tempo
4/4 time signature
verse - chorus structure
Main instruments:
itar
tabla
harmonium
tumbi
sarangi

Disco
Features of dance:
Improvised dancing
individual of in a group
Musical features:
'4 on the floor drum beat'
rhythm guitar often supports high hat
usually fast tempo - around 120 bpm
lots of syncopation
strong bassline

Salsa
Features of dance:
Originated in Cuba
partners held close
steps in 4 beat patters
spins and holds
upper body remains upright
Musical features:
Son Clave - essential backing rhythm pattern
emerged in 1960s
influenced by American Jazz
highly syncopated
lots of ostinato - repeated rhythms of phrases
complex cross rhythms
melodies harmonized in 3rds and 6ths
often has a montuno section - improvised
Instruments:
brass instruments
flutes
singer
spanish guitar

Tango
Features of dance:
partners held in very close hold
lots of fast leg movements
Musical features:
moderate tempo - moderato
dotted rhythms
syncopation
minor key
melody can be chromatic
Instruments:
Bandonean (accordian)
violin
piano
bass
castanets