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Jul 14, 2014

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Formulas to Remember

© All Rights Reserved

13 views

Formulas to Remember

© All Rights Reserved

- Shearing Forces in Beams
- 02. Beam_02
- Questoin_Paper_JEN_Civil_Diploma_Exam_2016
- Autumn 2000
- ANALYSIS ON THE BEHAVIOUR OF HIGH RISE BUILDING SITUATED ON SMALL AREA UNDER LATERAL DIFLECTION DUE TO EARTH QUAKE AND WIND PRESSURE
- Chapter 9_Frame Analysis(New)
- Study of Effectiveness of Courbons Theory in the Analysis of T Beam Bridges
- Beam Formulas With Shear and Moments
- Beam Design
- Strengthening of web opening in non-compact steel girders
- Structures Lab 1 - Cantilever Flexure Beam
- Concrete Design Notes
- 60516568 Question Bank Engg Mechanics
- Straight Bending Beam
- Tablas Vigas
- MOm 2
- Table of Contents 1
- upscsyllabus
- RCD - Prelim Take Home Quiz
- Reinforced C Vol_I

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2

]

Area of a Rectangle = b d

Area of a Circle = r

2

Area of a Triangle = 1 b h

2

Area of a Bolt, = d

2

[where d = diameter]

Cable, Tube, Bar 4

Equilibrium:

M

= !

V

= !

H

=

Force: "units = kips & pounds#

$ = % [$orce = %oment ]

d distance

RETAININ !A"" #E$IN "units = kips & pounds#

$ = w h

2

[$orce e&erted on the = 'fluid (ressure (ro)ided* + 'height*

2

]

2 Retaining ,all 2

Remember: pcf = psf [pounds per cubic feet = pounds per square foot]

ft one foot width of wall

$HEAR #IARAM $HEAR F%R&E "units = kips & pounds#

R = - = w l [.hear Resisting $orce= 'uniform load (er ft* + 'distance*]

2 2

'EARIN T()E $HEAR &%NNE&TI%N$ "units = kips & pounds#

R = $

*

A

bol+s

[Resistance = 'allow/shear stress* + 'A of bolt cross sections/ Remember

to .hear $ailure to multiply A by total # of bolts*]

Remember: Stress = P Therefore P = Stress ! Area

A

Momen+: "units = 'k ,+-. /lb ,+-. 'k in-. /lb in-#

TA0IN M%MENT$ A'%1T A )%INT T% FIN# E21I"I'RI1M

% = $d [%oment = force + distance]

1NIF%RM "%A# 3uni+s 4 /k ,+-. /lb ,+-. /lb in-5

% = w 0

2

[%oment = uniform load + 'length*

2

]

1 1

)%INT6&%N&ENTRATE# "%A# AT THE &ENTER %F A MEM'ER

% = 2 0 [%oment = 2oint 0oad + length]

4 4

Remember: w l

2

" P # when Point $ %niform loads combine&

' (

)atch out: There are *arious types of Point loads&

E&&ENTRI& "%A# "units = 'k ,+-. /lb ,+-. /lb in-#

% = 2e [%oment = force + eccentricit3] ".ame as %=$d#

$ec+ion Modulus: [units = inch

7

]

. = b d

2

in

7

[.ection %odulus]

4

. = % [.ection %odulus = %oment in 5nches

$

b

Bending .tress]

)atch out: +oth ,oment $ Stress should be in # or -ips&

Remember: .or a Roof +eam . = %

$

b

+ 1/26

. = 5 [.ection %odulus = %oment of 5nertia

c /0ust -now this1 'dist/ from e&treme fiber to nuetral a&is*]

%nderstand that S contains ,oment of 2nertia and c&

Momen+ o, Iner+ia: [units = inch

8

]

Remember: ,oment of 2nertia occurs by default about the 3entroidal a4is&

5 = b d

7

in

8

[%oment of 5nertia]

12

5 = b d

7

in

8

[%oment of 5nertia of a rectan5le about its base]

7

5

base

= 5 8 A 3

2

in

8

[5 9 Base = 5 8 Area + 'dist/ from centroid to base*

2

]

&en+er o, Area:

:se the formula M 4 A d deri)ed from %=$d to find + and ;

A = .um of Areas of A00 members

$+ress: 3uni+s 4 ksi or psi5

'EN#IN 6 F"E91RA" $TRE$$ "units = ksi or psi #

Remember: ,a4& +endin5 stress occurs at the e4treme fibers&

f

b

= % [Bending .tress = %oment

. .ection %odulus]

f

b

= % c [Bending .tress = %oment + 'dist/ from e&treme fiber to <=A* ]

5 %oment of 5nertia

Remember: 6reater the c 5reater is the +endin5 Stress&

A9IA" $TRE$$ "units = ksi or psi #

Remember: ,a4& A4ial stress occurs alon5 the entire cross7section&

f

a

= 2 [A&ial Tension or = A&ial Tension $orce in lbs or >i(s]

A Com(ression .tress Area in in

2

Remember: A4ial Stress is the same at both Tension $ 3ompression

$HEAR $TRE$$ "units = ksi or psi #

Remember: ,a4& Shear stress occurs at the 8uetral A4is

Remember: Shear Stress is the same at both 9ertical $ :ori;ontal a4is&

f

v

= 1/6 - [Actual .hear .tress = 1/6 + .hear $orce]

A Area

0ust understand the fol& < formulas& 8o need to memori;e:

f

v

= - ?

5 b /.tatical moment about the

[.hear .tress = '.hear force* + nuetral a&is of the area abo)e the (lane*]

'%oment of 5nertia* + 'width of beam*

= = /section Area1 ! /dist& from centroid of rect& to the centroid of section

abo*e neutral a4is1

f

v

= 1/6 - = 7 -

A 2 b d

No+chin: on Tension side o, a !ood 'eam

f

v

= 1/6 - + d [d = o)erall d of beam]

b d@ d@ [d@ = d of the beam that is notched]

%se Actual dimensions of the b and d 8>T 8ominal dimensions

$hor+ hea*il; loaded 'eams & 'eams <i+h lar:e loads a+ suppor+s

f

v

= - [Actual .hear .tress = .hear $orce

dt 'de(th of beam* + 'thic>ness of beam*]

#e,lec+ion: 3 uni+s 4 inches 5

$H%RTENIN %F A &%"= %R E"%NATI%N %F A H%RI>= MEM'ER

= 2 0

A A

[.hortening = Alongation = $orce + 0ength

A of crossBsection of member + %odulus of Alasticit3]

Remember: Stress = P

A

for chan5e in len5th ,ultiply Stress by #en5th

,odulus of ?lasticity

#EF"E&TI%N %F A 'EAM

= 6 w 0

8

714 A 5

[Ceflection = 6 + 'w in (ounds* + '0ength in feet +12D*

8

'714* + 12D + %odulus of Alasticit3 + %oment of 5nertia]

Remember: w # = w #

ft @<A

#en5th in inches = #en5th in feet ! @<A

$+rain:

= [strain = Ceflection

0 Eriginal 0ength]

Modulus o, Elas+ici+;:

A = f [%odulus of Alasticit3 = .tress

.train]

Thermal e,,ec+s on s+ruc+ures: 3uni+s 4 inches 5

$H%RTENIN %R E"%NATI%N #1E T% &HANE IN TEM)ERAT1RE

= e 0

+

[Thermal Alongation = 'Coeff/of thermal linear e&(ansion* + 'Erig/0ength*

+ 'Tem( Change*]

THERMA" $TRENTH IN A RE$TRAINE# MEM'ER

f

+

= A e

+

[Thermal .tress = A + Coeff/ of linear e&(ansion + Change in Tem(]

in a Restrained member

$lenderness Ra+io /"oadin: &apaci+;-: 3uni+s 4 inches 5

$TEE" &%"1MN

-l is the effecti*e len5th in feet&

.R = > l [.lenderness Ratio = 'end cond/* + :nbraced length in inches]

r Radius of g3ration

Remember: Slenderness Ratio should be <BB for a steel column&

!%%# &%"1MN

.R = > l [.lenderness Ratio = '> =1* + ':nbraced 0ength in inches*

b 'crossBsection width of rectangle*]

Remember: Slenderness Ratio should be CB for a wood column&

r = 5 [Radius of F3ration = %oment of 5nertia]

A Area

Re+ainin: !all

$ = w h

2

[$orce e&erted on = 'fluid (ressure at to( of soil* + 'height*

2

]

2 the Retaining ,all 2

R

M

= 1/6 %

%T

[C0 Resisting %oment = 1/6 'E)erturning %oment of the Retaining ,all*]

.actor of Safety /.S1 for the Resistin5 ,oment requires it &

$. = R

M

[$actor of .afet3 = Resisting %oment

%

%T

E)erturning %oment]

Remember: .S

@&C

$"I#IN %F RETAININ !A""

$. against .liding = .liding Resistance 'G*

$orce causing tendenc3 to .liding 'G*

.liding Resistance = 'Total -ert/ 0oad in G on $tg* + 'Coeff/ of $riction*

$orce causing .liding = 'Aarth (ressure in G 9 Base of $tg* + 'h in ft*

'2* ft

%= '$* h [Bending %oment = $orce + 'ht at resultant force*

7

Remember: +endin5 ,oment occurs at @DE

rd

the hei5ht of the retainin5

wall where resultant force occurs&

!eld: 3uni+s 4 inches 5

Throat of ,eld = ,eld .iHe + '/II* [/II = 2 ]

2

Ca(acit3 of ,eld = 'Allow/ .tress*'Throat*',eld .iHe*'Total ,eld 0ength*

Allow& Stress = @' -si for ?FB electrode weld for AST, A7EF base plate&

<@ -si for ?GB electrode weld for AST, A7EF base plate&

f

+

= 2

[.tress in the = 'Com(ressi)e=Tensile $orce of the ,eld*

A

throat of the weld '/II* + ',eld .iHe* + 'Total ,eld 0ength*]

1l+ima+e $+ren:+h #esi:n ,or &oncre+e:

: = 1/4C0 8 1/I00 [:ltimate 0oad = 1/4'Cead 0oad* 8 1/I'0i)e 0oad*]

%

1

= 1/4 %

#"

8 1/I %

""

[:ltimate %oment = 1/4'Cead 0oad %oment* 8 1/I'0i)e 0oad %oment*]

%

1

= A

s

f

;

'd J a *

2

Remember: A

s

is a*ailable in a table HAST, STI R?28.>R3286 +ARSA

[%oment = 'strength reduction factor = /K* 'crossBsectional area of tensile

reinforcemnt* 's(ecific 3ield strength of reinforcemt* "'dist/ from e&treme

com(ression fiber to centroid of tensile reinforcement* J 'de(th of

rectangular stress bloc>* = 2#]

= A

$

[2ercentage of steel to = 'area of tensile reinforcemnt*]

bd achie)e a Balanced Cesign 'beam width* + 'd*

min

= 2

min

should be E f @

c

f

;

f

;

"i*e "oad Reduc+ions:

R = r 'A J 16*

[0i)e 0oad Reduction = 'rate of reduction* + "'Tributar3 Area* J 16#

Remember: rate of reduction = B&B' for .loors

See table @F73 Roofs

R

ma?

= 4L for single le)el floors

R

ma?

= 4L for multiBle)el floors

R = 27/1 '1 8 C0*

00

Remember: Io all E chec-s and then select the lowest *alue as your final

li*e load reduction&

Thrus+ in a 7 hin:ed Arch:

Thrust = w 0

2

[Thrust in a 7 hinged arch = uniform load + 'length*

2

]

1 h 1 + height

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