UNIT 8..........................................................................Error: Reference source not found INTONATION..........................................................Error: Reference source not found Definition..............................

................................Error: Reference source not found Main Functions of Intonation....................................Error: Reference source not found Notation System of Intonation..................................Error: Reference source not found The Basic Unit of Intonation: Word Group..............Error: Reference source not found Head and Pre-head....................................................Error: Reference source not found

UNIT 8.
INTONATION
Definition
Pitch movements associated to the segmental stream (speaker depending). The acoustic manifestation of intonation is fundamental frequency which is perceived by listener as pitch. Articulatory phonetics Acoustic phonetics Auditory phonetics (production point of view) (transmission point of view)(reception point of view) Rate of vocal folds  Fundamental frequency  Pitch (Fo) the higher Fo  the higher the pitch (higher number of sensation cycles per second)

The quicker the vocal  folds vibrate

Intonation can also be defined as the use of the pitch in order to provide linguistic information. There are different types of languages: • Tone languages: pitch is a lexical resource, changes in intonation produce differences in meaning at word level (Chinese). • Pitch-accent languages: syllables of a word are pronounced with a different pitch or accent (Japanese). • Intonation languages: changes in intonation have a change in meaning at sentence level (English, Spanish).

Main Functions of Intonation
1. Grammatical function The intonation is used to signal the syntactic or grammatical structure. The listener is better able to recognise the grammar and syntactic structure by using the information contained in the intonation (placement of boundaries between phrases, clauses or sentences, the difference between questions and statements and the use of grammatical subordination). She dressed and fed the baby (the baby was dressed and fed) She dressed | and fed the baby (she dressed herself and then fed the baby) 2. Accentual information Main function of intonation is distribution of accents among stressed syllables in order to emphasize what need to be perceived as the most significant word.

∩ Paul is ̀very ∗ tall ̀Paul is ∗ very ∗ tall

(Paul and not another one)

3. Discourse function The study of the intonation related to the context. It means to convey what is new and what in old or known. What is old is unaccented. Usually the main accent is in the last lexical word in the sentence: My name is ∪ Bond When the speaker said something after that, what he thinks is old or known is unaccented and the new is accented: My name is ∪ Bond. ∪ James Bond If somebody says you ∪ Thank you, and you reply Thank ∪ you, you must to change the pattern of intonation (in the first one Thank is accented, in the second one you is accented). 4. Attitudinal function Intonation is used to convey attitude, emotions or feelings. This adds a special kind of ‘meaning’ to spoken language. 5. Sociolinguistic function Intonation gives the clue a) where somebody comes from; b) his social level; c) sex, age, personality; d) individual features (idiosyncrasy).

Notation System of Intonation
• Interlinear notation A succession of dots (one for each syllable) between two parallel lines represents the tune (melodic curve) (see Cruttenden 11.6). • Tonetic stress marks Diacritics signs placed before the syllable. American linguistic has other means as the number system.

The Basic Unit of Intonation: Word Group
TONALITY The division of the speech into the intonational units (word groups, tone units or intonational phrases). Usually they coincide with syntactic units. I didn’t know that Peter left the country  1 unit I didn’t know | that Peter left the country  2 units I didn’t know | that Peter | left the country  3 units You can put the boundaries depending on you want to transmit or you mean. The boundaries can be a pause, a change of pitch, etc. They are marked by a single vertical line ‘|’, or by double vertical lines ‘||’ when there is a pause. She washed and brushed her hair  1 unit: the hair was washed and brushed She washed | and brushed her hair  2 units: she washed herself and then she brushed her hair TONICITY

Distribution of accents within each tone unit (accent: pitch movement). My *friend is *very *handsome movement) each stressed syllable is accented  only 2 accented syllables out of the 3 stressed  only 1 accented syllable out of the 3 stressed Stressed syllables but unaccented (without pitch movement) are marked with ‘ ϒ ’ or ‘ 8 ’ depending on whether the tone (pitch) is kept high or low. TONE True inventory of accent inventory. The choice the speaker has to produce different meanings. The choice of the linguistically relevant pitch movements. It is the pitch movement linguistically relevant.  3 stressed syllables (stress: rhythm)  3 accented syllables (accent: pitch

• Division of Tone units or Word Groups
(Pre-head) + (Head) + Nucleus + (Tail) ( ) optional element

Nuclear Tone
STRUCTURE OF NUCLEAR TONE The Word Groups (tone units) have pitch movements in order to signal the most informative word. Nucleus: The last accented syllable. The last accent (pitch movement or pitch prominence) falls on the stressed syllable of the most informative word. It is the only mandatory element of the tone unit. In monosyllabic words there is only nucleus. The accent which falls on the nucleus is the primary accent of the intonational phrase. Tail: unaccented syllables after the nucleus. *He is *very *handsome N T Nuclear tone: the tone on the nucleus and the tail. The pitch movement begins on the nucleus but it is completed over the rest of the tone unit (i.e. the tail). If it is a rising tone the pitch of the syllables in the tail getting progressively higher.

MAIN NUCLEAR TONES According to the direction they can be ascending (from grave to acute) or descending (from acute to grave): simple tones. There are combinations of simple tones, ascending and descending, and vice versa: complex tones. Simple tones: a. High Fall: the pitch starts high and then falls ( ⇑ ) ⇑ Mary is ϒ signing b. Low Fall: the pitch starts low and then falls (ˎ) ϒ signing c. High Rise: the pitch starts high and then rises ( ⇔ ) ϒ signing d. Low Rise: the pitch starts low and then rises ( , ) is ϒ signing e. Mid Level: there is no pitch movement ( > ) signing a. signing b. signing Complex tones: Fall Rise: the pitch falls and then rises ( ◊ ) Rise Fall: the pitch rises and then falls ( ⇓ )

ˎMary

is is

⇔Mary

, Mary >Mary is

◊ Mary ⇓ Mary

is is

Head and Pre-head
Pre-head: unaccented syllables before the first accented syllable. Head: syllables contained from the first accented syllable up to (but not including) the nuclear one. My *friend is *very *hand some PH H N T My *friend is *very *hand some PH H N T My *friend is *very *handsome PH N T It can be pre-head without head when the first accented syllable is the nucleus. a. nice Non-nuclear tones: the tones before the nucleus (on the head) High: the pitch starts high and it is kept ( : ) : Mary is ⇑

b. nice c. nice d. nice

Low: the pitch starts low and it is kept ( ∩ ) Rising: the pitch starts low and rising gradually ( ⊂ )

∩ Mary is ⇑ ⊂ Mary is ⇑

Falling: the pitch starts high and falling gradually ( ⊆ ) ⊆ Mary is ⇑ All accents on the head are equal, that is, they have the same non-nuclear tone (all are high, or all low, etc.) I ⊆ didn’t ⊆ know it ◊ happened PH H N T Pre-head usually is low but some times it can be high to convey emphasis, in such case it is marked with the diacritic: # ; (controversy: if high it seems there is pitch prominence, so it would be accented, but pre-head is unaccented).

Tune
TUNE STRUCTURE The tune (melodic curve) involves the melody that occurs over a complete tone unit, that is, pre-nuclear and nuclear elements. Since the only mandatory element is nucleus, the analysis of meanings associated to tunes is focused mainly in analysing nuclear tones meanings. TUNE ANALYSIS See also “About the Meaning of Tunes” document from the forum.

a) • • • •

Declarative phrases High Fall (the most usual) Neutral, lively, involved, interested ⇑ nice Low Fall Dull, uninterested, detached Fall Rise: Reservation, warning, contrast, contradiction ◊ nice High Rise Questioning (declarative question) ⇔nice Yes/No-interrogative phrases Low Rise Neutral, general, polite

It’s

very

It’s very nice It’s very

It’s

very

b) •

, sure? High/Low Fall Demanding, brusque ⇑ sure?

, really? : Are you
: Are you

Rise Fall: Exclamation, puzzlement ⇓ sure? Wh-interrogative phrases High/Low Fall Neutral ⇑ know? ˎknow? Low Rise Polite, tentative (offer…) , know? High Rise To ask for repetition Tag-interrogative phrases High/Low Fall Answer expected (agreement) she? (High/)Low Rise No answer expected she? (a thoughtful echo)

Are

you

c) •

: How : How : How

do do

you you

do

you

• d) •

Can I , help?

⇔What did you say?

She’s

⇑ coming,

⇑ isn’t

She’s ⇑ coming, ˎisn’t she? She’s

⇑ coming,

, isn’t

(Low rise can also expect answer and open the possibility of disagreement) e) • • • Imperative phrases High/Low Fall Neutral (abrupt) Low Rise Encouraging (polite) Fall Rise Warning , urgent (polite) Exclamative phrases High/Low Fall Neutral Social formulae High/Low Fall Neutral

: Don’t be ⇑ silly : Don’t be ˎsilly : Don’t be , silly Don’t be ◊ silly Be ◊ careful

f) • g) •

It’s ⇑ lovely!

⇑ Thank you (sincerity) ˎThank you (sincerity)

⇔Thank you Good , morning • Greetings also ‘Stylized’ tone: a step from high level to mid level beginning on the accented syllable. Good ⇐ morning

High/Low Rise Routine

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