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Word geography

Index Topc Page no
1. The Unverse 1
2.. Soar system 6
3. The earth 14
4. word cmatc condtons 23
5. Atmosphere of Earth 29
6. Pressure bets and wnds 33
7. Earths surface wnd system 38
8. Oceans 41
9. Economc Geography : Agrcuture 48
10. Words Forestry & Fshery 59
11. Mneras 62
12. Addtona nformaton 66


The Universe
The unverse of whch our earth s an nsgncant fracton conssts of
uncountabe number of stars, gaaxes, nebuae and other ceesta bodes.
The unverse can be sad to be the sum tota of potentay knowedgeabe
The scence deang wth the nature and orgn of the unverse s known as
As per present status of knowedge and thought-process of manknd, there s a
phosophca barrer about the nnty of the Unverse both n space and tme.
Hardy anythng can be sad concusvey about the orgn of the Unverse though
varous theores have been proposed to expan the possbe way of the
formaton of the Unverse.
To understand these theores, a remarkabe astronomca phenomenon caed
Red Shft or Dopper Ehect must be known.
Doppler Efect and Red Shift:
Accordng to Dopper Ehect the frequency of a wave appears to be hgher
when source approaches the observer and frequency owers when the source
recedes from the observer.
In the spectrum of vsbe ght, red has the owest frequency and ongest
waveength whe voet has the hghest frequency and shortest waveength.
It has been observed that ght comng from the gaaxes shfts to the red end
of the spectrum. Ths s known as Red Shft.
Assumng t to be true a gaaxes must be recedng away from us n a
drectons. Ths proportonate ncrease n red shft of the gaaxes wth
ncreasng dstance shows that matter n the Unverse s n a state of rapd
Ths des of rapd expanson s centra to a the modern theores of the orgn
of the Unverse.
Big Bang Theory:
A Began astronomer-prest, Canon Lematre was one of the earest to propose
such a cosmoogca theory, referrng to t as "reworks theory".
Accordng to Bg-Bang theory, some 10 to 20 bon years ago cosmc matter
(unverse) was conned n a super dense ba, n a state of extremey hgh
temperature and pressure. A prmorda exposon then occurred, hurng the
broken matera far out nto space where they are st traveng at thousands of
mes per second.
The sudden coong that accompaned expanson favour the combnaton of
atomc partces nto atoms of ghter eements whch condensed nto couds of
gases and eventuay gaaxes and other ceesta bodes were formed, wthout
dsruptng the expanson of the unverse and t happens n a exposons, the
farthest peces are yng the fastest.
Steady State Theory:
Orgnay advanced by Hermann Boud and Thomas God and supported/
moded by some other astronomers, ths theory proposes that unverse
everywhere and every tme remaned reatvey unform wthout begnnng or

Though gaaxes recede from one another ther spata densty remans
constant, .e., as od gaaxes move apart new gaaxes are beng formed from
new matter whch s beng contnuousy created from combnaton of atomc
partces n the space between gaaxes.
Ths concept, desgned to get around the phosophca barrer of a unverse
wth nte begnnng and end, s aso known as the Contnuous Creaton
Pulsating (Oscillating Universe Theory:
Ths theory, advocated among others by Dr. Aan Sandage, proposes that some
12 bon years ago a great exposon started the expanson of the unverse
whch s key to go on 29 bon years more when gravtaton w hat further
Afterwards a matter w begn to contract n a process known as mposon for
some 41 bon years compressng the matter nto an extremey superdense
state and then t w expode agan.
Thus unverse expands and then contracts aso n perods runnng nto tens of
bon of years.
In ths way we see that Bg Bang Theory dhers from other theores n two
mportant respects.
. It does not subscrbe to the cam of Steady State theory that new matter s
beng contnuousy created n the unverse.
() It does not admt the proposton of Pusatng Theory that matter w
contract to orgna super dense state.
None of the theores are concusve but recent dscoveres based on rado
astronomy and satete based observatons pace the Evoutonary Theory of the
unverse n a stronger scentc poston than the Steady State Theory.
COBE (Cosmc Background Exporer) satete aunched by NASA n 1992 reported
rppes n he cosmc radaton ndcatng that there was an rreguar dstrbuton
of matter and radaton 15 bon years ago at the tme of prmorda exposon,
thus corroboratng Bg Bank Theory.
!elestial "odies
A gaaxy s a huge congregaton of mons of stars hed together by ts own
gravtatona ed. On structura anayss, three basc types of gaaxes have been
i& Spiral #ala$ies:
Greater concentraton of stars n the centre, od ones near the centre and youngers
n the arms. Our gaaxy, the Mkyway and Andromeda are exampes of spra
ii& Elliptical #ala$ies:
The most numerous (about 2/3 of a gaaxes) consst mosty of very od stars.
'easure(ent units of space
)ight year:%

It s the dstance covered by ght n one year n vacuum at a speed of 3 x
Km/S.. It s equa to 5.88 x 10
*strono(ical Units (*&U&:%
It s the mean dstance between Earth and the Sun (1.49 x 10
Km). One ght year s
equa to 60,000 A.U.
It represents the dstance at whch the mean radus of Earths orbt subtends an
ange of one second of an arc. It s equa to 3.26 ght years.
!os(ic+#alactic year:%
Suns perod of revouton around the gaactc centre whch s 250 mon years.
Dstance of earth from the Sun = 8 ght mnutes = 1 A.U.
Dstance of earth from the Moon = 1.25 ght seconds
Dstance of earth from Proxma Centaur = 4.3 ght years
iii& ,rregular #ala$ies:
Comprse about 1/10 of a gaaxes, mosty young stars.
The two nearest gaaxes to our Mkyway are the aLarge Mageanc coud and
the Sma Mageanc coud.
Our Gaaxy, the Mkyway and the Andromeda gaaxy are the two argest
gaaxes n a custer of some 23 gaaxes known as the Loca Group.
These are dstant stear systems of umnous bodes made up of gas and dust
partces. ORION Nebuae s stuated n the Mkyway.
These are custer of stars, organsed nto dstnct shapes and gures and named
accordngy. Hydra s the argest consteaton.
There are huge couds of frozen gases and dust whch have ther home n the
cod outer frnges of the soar system. Ther Head (aso caed CDMA f t has no ta)
s formed by the evaporaton of sod ce partces when the comet approaches the
sun. they have an extremey eccentrc orbt but a dente perodcty, as the
Haeys comet s seen every 76 years. The ta s aways away from the sun.
These are sma sod matters whch, when comng nto the atmosphere of ht
earth, bur out due to frcton. Whe burnng, they emt ght and hence caed
shootng stars.
Leond Shower s a meteor storm, orgnated n the consteaton Leo. These
meteors are actuay part of the comet Tempe-Turte and they fa on every 33
.uasars or .uasi Stellar Radio Source:
In the unverse, some matters appears sma but emt more energy than the
stars of the mky way. Such stars are caed Ouasars. Such extremey umnous
ceesta bodes were dscovered n 1961.

Stars account for 98% of the matter n the gaaxy. Stars are formed by
gravtatona contracton from vast couds of gaactc gas and dust. Star-formng
matter s rcher n hydrogen and heum.
)ife of Stars:%
Stars pass through a dente evoutonary sequence n the foowng manner,
dependng prmary on ther mass and nterna structure.
(a * Proto Star:
It begns to form by the compresson of gaactc gas and dust. Compresson
generates heat whch n turn causes Hydrogen (H
) to be converted nto Heum n a
Nucear Fuson, thereby emttng arge amount of heat and ght. A STAR s thus
(" Red #iants:
Contnued Nucear Fuson over a perod of tme starts depeton of hydrogen and
the heum core becomes ncreasngy heavy, resutng nto sweng and reddenng
of outer regons. Such stars of ggantc dmensons are rghty termed as Red Gants.
Ths stage gves the rst ndcaton of ageng.
(c -ovae and Supernovae:
A gant star phase may end n a Novae/Supernovae stage. These are stars
whose brghtness ncrease suddeny by ten to twenty magntudes or more due to a
parta or outrght exposon n the star. When brghtness ncreases to 20
magntudes or more, t s caed a Supernovae.
(d /hite D0arfs:
A Novae/Supernovae exposon n a sma star ke our Sun (Stars ghter than
1.2 soar mass) may eave behnd a very dense core of that star. A star of ths sze
coos and contracts to become a Whte Dwarf, whch s no bgger than the earth,
but havng centra densty upto 10
gram per cubc centmeter.
(e -eutron Star:
A Supernovae exposon n a star bgger than the Sun but not more than twce
as bg, may eave behnd an extremey dense, resdua core of that star, reachng a
densty of 10
, known as Neutron Star.
(f Pulsars:
Because of sma sze, neutron Star rotates very speedy. Such fast rotatng
Neutron Stars emttng rado waves n reguar frequency are caed Pusars.
(g Blac1 2oles:
Stars havng mass greater than three tmes that of the sun, because of ther
great gravtatona power, have contracted so much that they have deveoped super
densty of 10
. It s so dense that nothng, not even ght can escape
from ts gravty and hence caed Back Hoe.
!os(ology So(e ,(portant 3acts
1. The Unverse or the Cosmos, as perceved today, conssts of mons of Gaaxes.
A gaaxy s a huge congregaton of stars hed together by the forces of gravty.
2 . Edwn Hubbe n 1924 rst demonstrated exstence of gaaxes beyond Mky
Way. He proved that these gaaxes are yng away from each other and that the
farther they are, the faster they y. Ths means that the unverse s expandng ke a
baoon that s beng bown up.

3 . In the ancent tmes, the knowedge about the unverse was vague and conned
to mystery and regous perceptons.
In 140 AD, Ptoemy propounded the theory that the earth was the centre of the
unverse and the sun and other heaveny bodes revoved around t. In 1543,
Coperncus argued that the sun and not the earth was the centre of the unverse.
However, he st equated the unverse wth the soar system. Keper supported
Coperncus but sad that the sun was the centre of the soar system and not the
unverse. In 1805, Hershe made t cear that the soar system was a part of the
much arger system of stars caed gaaxy.
4 .Our gaaxy s Mky Way Gaaxy (or the Akash Ganga). It s spra n shape. It
conssts of over a 100 bon stars rotatng and revovng about ts centre. Nearest
gaaxy to ours s Andromeda.
5 . The Bg Bang Theory evauates that 15 bon years ago, cosmc matter
(unverse) was n an extremey compressed state, from whch expanson started by
a prmorda exposon. Ths exposon broke up the super-dense ba and cast ts
fragments far out nto space, where they are st traveng at thousands of mes per
It s from these speedng fragments of matter that our gaaxes have been formed.
The formaton of gaaxes and stars has not hated the speed of expanson. And, as
t happens n a exposons, the farthest peces are yng the fastest.
6 . Later, Pusatng (Oscatng) Unverse Theory was gven whch says that unverse
perodcay expands from the exposon of the prmorda body, then contracts back
and expodes agan, over mmensey ong cyces, ad nntum.
7 . Stars are sef - umnous bodes that account for 98 per cent of the matera n
the gaaxy. The rest 2 per cent conssts of nterstear or gaactc gas and dust n an
attenuated form.
8. Stars are formed by gravtatona contractons from these vast couds of gaactc
gas and dust. Star formng couds are thousands of tmes denser than the norma
nterstear gas. Star formng matter s rcher n hydrogen and heum.
9 . A stars coour ndcates the temperature of ts surface. Bue coour denotes
maxmum temperature. Then comes yeow, then red, etc.
10. The fe of a star s spread over bons of years. It begns to form by
compresson of gaactc gas and dust. Compresson generates heat whch n turn
causes hydrogen to be converted nto heum n nucear fuson, thereby emttng
arge amount of heat and ght.
11. Contnued nucear fuson over a perod of tme starts depeton of hydrogen and
the heum core becomes ncreasngy heavy, resutng nto sweng and reddenng
of outer regons. Such stars of ggantc dmensons are termed as Red Gants.
12. If the star s of suns sze, t becomes a Whte Dwarf. Ther centra densty can
reach up to 10 grams per cubc cm.

13. If de star s bgger than the sun but not more than twce as bg, t w turn nto a
Neutron Star or Pusar. Ther centra densty s 1014 grams per cubc cm. They are
formed due to Novae or Super novae exposon.
14. Stars havng mass greater than three tmes that of the sun, because of ther
great gravtatona power, have contracted so much that they have deveoped super
densty of 1016 grams per cubc cm. It s so dense that nothng, not even ght, can
escape from ts gravty and hence caed Back Hoe.
15. Brghtest star outsde our Soar System s Srus, aso caed Dog Star.
16. Cosest star of Soar System s Proxma Centaur (4.2 ght years away). Then
come Apha Centaur (4.3 ght years away) and Barnards Star (5.9 ght years


The soar system conssts of the Sun and 8 panets revovng around t n
dherent orbts.
*ge : About 5 Bon years
Distance : 149.8 Mon Kms
Dia(eter : 1,38,400 Kms.
Photosphere te(perature : 5,770 K
!ore te(perature : 150,000,000 K
*"solute visual (agnitude : 4.75
Rotation (as seen fro( the earth at the e5uator : 25.38 days
Rotation (near the poles : 33 days
The sun conssts of 71% of Hydrogen, 26.5% Heum and 2.5% of other eements.
The rays of the Sun take about 6 (inutes to reach the earth.
The Sun resdes n one of the Mky Way's outer spra arms, known as the Orion7
!ygnus *r( or )ocal Spur&
Next cosest star s the triple star syste( Apha Centaur(A, B and C), whch s
about 4.4 ght years away.
The stars next cosest to the Sun are the red dwarfs Barnard8s Star(at 5.9 ght
years), /olf 9:; (7.8 ght years), and )alande <==6:(8.3 ght years). The argest
star wthn ten ght years s Sirius&
/hat is #alactic 4ear>
The Sun es between 25,000 and 28,000 ght years from the Gaactc Centre, and
ts speed wthn the gaaxy s about 220 kometres per second (140 m/s), so that t
competes one revouton every 225-250 mon years. Ths revouton s known as
the Soar System's gaactc year.
The conditions to "e satis?ed for planet%hood status :
1. A panet has to orbt the Sun. Puto does that.
2. A panet needs enough gravty to pu tsef nto a sphere. Okay, spherca. Putos
s spherca.
3. A panet needs to have cleared out its or"it of other o"@ects. Uh oh, Puto
hasnt done that.
For exampe, panet Earth accounts for a mon tmes the rest of the matera n ts
orbt, whe Puto s |ust a fracton of the cy ob|ects n ts ream.

!o(parison of planets "ased on siAeB radiusB densityB surface gravity:
Body 'ean


Sun 696,000 1,412,000,00

1.409 274.0
Fupiter 69,911 1,431,280 1,898,600 1.33 24.79
Saturn 58,232 827,130 568,460 0.70 10.445
25,362 68,340 86,832 1.30 8.87
24,622 62,540 102,430 1.76 11.15
Earth 6,371.0 1,083.21 5,973.6 5.515 9.78033
Cenus 6,051.8
(w/o gas)
928.43 4,868.5 5.24 8.872
'ars 3,390.0 163.18 641.85 3.94 3.7
2,439.7 60.83 330.2 5.43 3.7
'oon 1,737.1 21.958 73.5 3.3464 1.625
The inner Solar Syste( s the tradtona name for the regon comprsng the
terrestra panets and asterods. The four nner or terrestra panets have dense,
rocky compostons, few or no moons, and no rng systems. They are composed
argey of refractory mneras, such as the scates, whch form ther crusts and
mantes, and metas such as ron and ncke, whch form ther cores. Three of the
four nner panets (Venus, Earth and Mars) have atmospheres substanta enough to
generate weather; a have mpact craters and tectonc surface features such as rft
vaeys and vocanoes.
(= 'ER!UR4
It s the panet nearest to the earth and smaest one n soar system.
Mercury has no natura satetes
Average dstance to the Sun : 57.6 Mon Kms.
Dameter : 4,849.6 Kms.
Perod of revouton : 88 days
Perod of rotaton : 58 days 15 hrs 30 mts. 34sec.
(< CE-US
It s aso known as the Mornng Star or the Evenng Star.
It s the "rightest of a the panets.
It s cose n sze to Earth (0.815 Earth masses) and, ke Earth, has a thck scate
mante around an ron core, a substanta atmosphere, and evdence of nterna
geoogca actvty.
Venus has no natura satetes.
It s the hottest panet, wth surface temperatures over 400 C (752F), most key
due to the amount of greenhouse gases n the atmosphere
Dameter : 12,032 Kms.
Perod of revouton : 225 days
Perod of rotaton : 243 days 14mts.

(9 E*RT2
Surface Area : 510,100,500 Sq.Kms.
Poar radus : 6,357 Kms.
Land Surface : 148,950,800 (29.08%)
Water Surface : 361,149,700 (70.92%)
Equatora crcumference : 40,075 Kms.
Poar crcumference : 40,008 Kms
Equatora radus : 6,377 Kms.
Equatora Dameter : 1,22,756 Kms.
Poar Dameter : 12,714 Kms.
Mean dstance from the Sun : 14,95,97,900 Kms.
Perod of revouton : 365 days 5 hours 48 mts. 45.51 Sec.
Perod of rotaton : 23 hrs. 56 mts. 4.091 Sec.
Escape Veocty from the earth : 11 Km per Sec. (mnmum)
So(e i(portant Data a"out Earth:
The Earth s a sphere but t s not a perfect sphere. It s sghty
attened at the poes and buges at the equator. The crcumference of the earth s
approxmatey 25,000 mes (40,000 Kms).It rotates on ts axs once n every 24
hours, spnnng from west to east. Besdes spnnng on ts axs, t aso moves round
the Sun, caed the revolution.
Its orbt round the Sun s oval or ecliptical. The tme taken to compete one
revouton s approxmatey 365V days or one year. For convenence, one year s
taken as 365 days and the shortfa of V day each year s made good n the
Leap Year whch conssts of 366 days. The Earths axs ncned to the pane of ts
orbt at an ange of 66 poston n the course of ts revouton about the Sun, and
to the ncnaton of ts axs. The Equator s an magnary ne drawn round the Earth
mdway between the Poes. There are two other nes, namey,Tropic of !ancer
(<9G - and the Tropic of !apricon (<9G S& The word tropc means, turning
placeH. The ncnaton of the Earths axs together wth ts revouton round the Sun
s the cause of the varyng ength of day and nght n dherent parts of the
word. On 'arch <= (Cernal E5uino$ and Septe("er <9 (*utu(nal E5uino$)
the Sun s over- head at the Equator. On these dates, except at the Poes,
(a) days and nghts are equa a over the word; and
(b) the Sun rses exacty due east and set exacty due west at a paces on the
Earths surface.
At the E5uator tsef days and nghts are e5ual throughout the year.
Between March 21 and Septe("er <9, when the North Poe s tted towards the
Sun, the days are onger than the nghts throughout the Northern Hemsphere and
there s contnuous dayght at the North Poe. Smar condtons are experenced n
the Southern Hemsphere and the South Poe between Septe("er <: and 'arch
(I '*RS
Dameter : 6,755.2 Kms. s smaer than Earth and Venus (0.107 Earth masses).
Its surface, peppered wth vast vocanoes such as Oympus Mons and rft vaeys
such as Vaes Marners.
Its red coour comes from ron oxde (rust) n ts so.
Mars has two tny natura satetes (Demos and Phobos) thought to be captured
Dstance from the Sun : 225.6 Mon Kms.

Perod of revouton : 687 days
Perod of rotaton : 24 hrs 37 mts. 22.663 sec.
Outer panets of Soar System:
The four outer panets, or gas gants (sometmes caed |ovan panets), coectvey
make up 99% of the mass known to orbt the Sun
Ths s the argest panet n the soar system.
Dameter : 141,968 Kms.
Dstance from the Sun : 772.8 Mon Kms.
Perod of revouton : 11.9 years
Perod of rotaton : 9 hrs 50 mts. 30 sec.
It s composed argey of hydrogen and heum. |upter's strong nterna heat creates
a number of sem-permanent features n ts atmosphere, such as coud bands and
the Great Red Spot.
|upter has 67 known satetes.
The four argest, Ganymede, Casto, Io, and Europa. Ganymede, the argest
satete n the Soar System.
It was dscovered by Gaeo.
Dameter : 119,296 Kms.
Dstance from the Sun : 1,417.6 Mon Kms.
Perod of revouton : 29.5 years
Perod of rotaton : 10 hrs 14 mts.
east dense panet n the Soar System.
Saturn has 62 conrmed satetes; two mportant moons are Ttan and Enceadus.
Ttan, the second-argest moon n the Soar System
Dameter : 52,096 Kms.
Dstance from the Sun : 2,852.8 Mon Kms.
Perod of revouton : 84 years
Perod of rotaton : 16 hrs 10 mts.
Its axa tt s over nnety degrees to the ecptc.
Uranus has 27 known satetes, the argest ones beng Ttana, Oberon, Umbre,
Are, and Mranda.
(6 -EPTU-E
Dameter : 49,000 Kms.
Dstance from the Sun : 4,497 Mon Kms.
Perod of revouton : 165 years
Perod of rotaton : 18 hrs 26 mts.
Neptune has 14 known satetes. The argest, Trton, s geoogcay actve, wth
geysers of qud ntrogen
(; P)UTO : It's not a panet anymore. But t s the codest and smaest of a
panets. It s aso the most dstant one(whe t was panet)
Dameter : 3,040 Kms.
Dstance from the Sun : 5,865.6 Mon Kms.
Perod of revouton : 248 years
Perod of rotaton : 6 days 9 hrs and 18 mts.

'OO- : Moon s a dead panet. Moon s earth's satete. Its perod of rotaton
and Perod of Revouton are the same. .e.29.5 days.
So(e other ,(portant Points:
The asterod bet occupes the orbt between Mars and |upter
Ceres (2.77 AU) s the argest asterod, a protopanet, and a dwarf panet
Uranus and Neptune are caed Ice Gants.
Saturn's rng system s easy observed from Earth.
Ers (68 AU average) s the argest known scattered dsc ob|ect, and caused a
debate about what consttutes a panet&
Luiper "elt
The Kuper bet s a great rng of debrs smar to the asterod bet, but consstng
many of ob|ects composed prmary of ce. It extends between 30 and 50 AU from
the Sun. The Kuper Bet s a dsc-shaped regon of cy ob|ects beyond the orbt of
Neptune -- bons of kometers from our sun. The makeup of Kuper Bet Ob|ects s
smar to the composton of comets - a mxture of frozen water, ammona and
varous hydrocarbons, such as methane.
The centaurs are cy comet-ke bodes wth a sem-ma|or axs greater than |upter's
(5.5 AU) and ess than Neptune's (30 AU). The rst centaur dscovered, 2060 Chron,
has aso been cassed as comet (95P) because t deveops a coma |ust as comets
do when they approach the Sun.
!o(et Cs *steroid
Comets have eccentrc orbts so ther dstance from the Sun vares consderaby.
The nuceus of a comet s composed of voate matera. When a comet s far from
the sun, ths matera usuay stays prstne but when the comet comes coser to the
sun, soar radaton and soar wnds cause t to ose some voate compounds from
ts surface. Ths gves t a coma .e. a nebuous appearance and a thn, transent
atmosphere, whch dherentates t from asterods.
!o(et: A comet s a reatvey sma soar system body that orbts the Sun. When a
comet enters the nner Soar System, ts proxmty to the Sun causes ts cy surface
to submate and onse, creatng a coma: a ong ta of gas and dust often vsbe to
the naked eye.
*steroid: Asterods are sma soar system bodes that orbt the Sun. Made of rock
and meta, they can aso contan organc compounds. Asterods are smar to
comets but do not have a vsbe coma (fuzzy outne and ta) ke comets do.
'eteoroid: A meteorod s a sma rock or partce of debrs n our soar system.
They range n sze from dust to around 10 metres n dameter (arger ob|ects are
usuay referred to as asterods).
'eteor: A meteorod that burns up as t passes through the Earths atmosphere s
known as a meteor. If youve ever ooked up at the sky at nght and seen a streak of
ght or shootng star what you are actuay seeng s a meteor.

'eteorite: A meteorod that survves fang through the Earths atmosphere and
codng wth the Earths surface s known as a meteorte.
The regon surroundng the soar system at whch pressure from the outgong soar
wnd equas the pressure from the nterstear medum (made up mosty of
hydrogen and heum), and the soar wnd can penetrate no further. It s consdered
to be the outer boundary of our soar system
Origin of Solar Syste(
Varous theores have been gven by dherent persons to expan the orgn of Soar
Gaseous Hypothess Kant
Nebuar Hypothess Lapace
Panetesma Hypothess Chambern and Mouton
Tda Hypothess
|ames |eans & Harod
Bnary Star Hypothess H. N. Russe
Fsson Hypothess Ross Gun
Cephed Hypothess A.C. Baner|
Nova Hypothess Hoye & Lytteton
H. Afven
Interstear Dust
Nebuar Coud Hypothess Dr. Von Wezsacker
Protopanet Hypothess G. Kuper
Solar Syste( So(e 3acts
Bggest Panet |upter
Smaest Panet Mercury
Nearest Panet to Sun Mercury
Farthest Panet from Sun Neptune
Nearest Panet to Earth Venus
Brghtest Panet Venus
Brghtest star after Sun Srus
Panet wth maxmum
Codest Panet Neptune
Hottest Panet Venus
Heavest Panet |upter
Red Panet Mars
Bggest Satete Gannymede
Smaest Satete Demos
Bue Panet Earth
Mornng/Evenng Star Venus
Earth's Twn Venus
Green Panet Neptune

Gaseous Hypothess Kant
Panet wth a bg red spot |upter
Lord of the Heavens |upter
Greatest Durna

Earth *t(osphere
The atmosphere s a mxture of a ayer of gases enveopng the earth, hed to t by
gravtatona force. Amost a the atmosphere (97 per cent) es wthn 29 km of the
earths surface.
Beyond about 100 km, recent data from satetes suggest that the ghtest gases
separate out, formng severa concentrc ayers around the earth. The nnermost of
these s the ntrogen ayer (between 100-200 km); then comes oxygen (200-1100
km); heum (1100-3500) and then hydrogen ony, to whch there s reay no ceary
dened upper mt.
Up to a"out :D 1( the at(osphere is co(posed of:
Ntrogen - 78 09%
Oxygen - 20 95%
Argon - 0.93%
Carbon doxde - 0.03%
(Others are Neon, Heum, Ozone, Hydrogen etc.,)
Water vapour, besdes beng the mmedate cause of condensaton and
precptaton, absorbs the nsoaton comng from the sun, reducng the amount
reachng the earths surface.
Carbon doxde s mportant for absorpton of heat from the sun as we as from the
earth. A hgh concentraton of carbon doxde eads to Greenhouse Ehect.
Dust partces scatter and dhuse nsoaton and aso act as hygroscopc nuce for
condensaton (for the formaton of couds).
)ayers of *t(osphere
*t(osphere Troposphere
Layer nearest to earths surface. Thckness vares from 8 km at the poes to 16
km at the equator.
A weather phenomenons occur here.
Densest of a and contans water vapour, mosture and dust.
Dust partces present n ths ayer hod the water vapour and contrbute to the
occurrence of twght and the red coours of sunght and sunset.
In ths, at every 165 m there s a drop of 1c (or 6.4c per km). Ths s caed
Norma Lapse Rate of Temperature.
Tropopause separates troposphere from stratosphere.
*t(osphere Stratosphere
Extends from 16 km to 50 km ht. The temperature ceases to fa wth the
ncrease of heght n ths ayer.
Ltte weather s generated here as there s very tte water vapour and vrtuay
no dust present.
Stratosphere provdes dea condtons for yng arge arpanes.
Contans ozone (25-30 km from earths surface), regon beng caed
Ozonosphere. It absorbs the utra-voet rays from the sun. Ths ayer has a

comparatvey hgher temperature due to the absorpton of utra-voet radaton
from the sun (temperature ncreases as we go up).
*t(osphere 'esosphere
Up to a heght of about 80 km.
In ths, the temp decreases wth heght and fas to about -100c at 80 km ht.
*t(osphere ,onosphere
Extends to about 500-600 km.
Caed so as t contans eectrcay charged partces (ons) that reect the rado
waves back to the earth thus makng rado communcaton possbe.
Aso protects earth from harmfu radaton. Ths causes ncrease n temperature
wth heght n ths ayer.
It aso protects earth from fang meteortes, as most of them burn out n ths
Here the earths gravty s extremey weak.
Upper mt qute uncertan.
The outer part s caed Magnetosphere.
The onzed partces ncrease n frequency wth ncreasng heghts. There are
2 bets n the upper atmosphere havng a hgh concentraton of onzed
partces. They are known as Van Aens Radaton Bets. The nner bet es
about 2600 km from the earths surface, whe the outer es at about 13,000
to 19,000 km from t. These bets represent concentratons of hghy charged
partces, protons and eectrons from the sun, trapped wthn nes of force of
the earths externa magnetc ed- the Magnetosphere.
The na boundary between the earth and the outer space s caed
The auroras are produced by the charged partces from the sun captured by earths
magnetc ed at heghts of about 100 km. t s a umnous phenomenon seen n the
sky at nght n hgh attudes.
It may be vsbe as arcs of ght or as cooured curtans, streamers or rays. Auroras
occur most frequenty durng the ntense perods of the 11-year sunspot cyce.
In the Northern Hemsphere, they are caed aurora boreas and n the Southern
Hemsphere as aurora austras.

Earth )atitude and )ongitude
Earth )atitude
Imagnary nes drawn parae to the equator. Measured as an ange whose apex
s at the centre of the earth
The equator represents 0 attude, whe the North Poe s 90 N and the South
Poe 90 S 23 N represents Tropc of Cancer whe 23 S represents Tropc of
66 N represents Arctc Crce whe 66 S represents Antarctc Crce.
There are tota 181 attudes ncudng the equator. Each parae of attude s a
crce, but they are not equa.
The crce becomes smaer towards the poes. Equator s the Greatest Crce
that can be drawn on the earths surface.
The dstance between any two paraes of attude s aways equa.
Earth )ongitude
It s the anguar dstance measured from de centre of the earth. On the gobe
nes of ongtude are drawn as a seres of semcrces that extend from the North
Poe to the South Poe through the equator. They are aso caed merdans.
The dstance between any two merdans s not equa. At the equator, 1 degree
= 111 km. At 30N or S, t s 96.5 km. It goes on decreasng ths way unt t s
zero at the poes.
There are 360 merdans of ongtude. The prme merdan s a ongtude of 00,
passng through the Roya Observatory at Greenwch near London.
Ths merdan s taken by geographers to dvde the earth nto the eastern and
the western hemspheres.
Each merdan of ongtude s a sem-crce. 180 merdan (Internatona Date
Lne) es exacty opposte to merdan. Such ponts are caed Antpod Ponts.
The earth s dvded nto 24 ongtudna zones, each beng 15 or 1 hour apart n
tme (4 mnutes / degree).
)ongitude and Ti(e
Paces that are on the same merdan have the same oca (sun) tme. Snce the
earth makes one compete revouton of 360 n 24 hours, t passes through 15
n one hour or 1 n 4 mnutes.
The earth rotates from west to east, hence paces east of Greenwch see the sun
earer and gan tme whereas paces west of Greenwch see the sun ater and
ose tme.
A sutabe memory acronym can be: East-Gan-Add (E.G.A.) and West-Lose-
Subtract (W.L.S.). So, f t s noon n London (near 0), 15 east w be one hour
ahead of London or 1 p.m. and Chenna of 80E w be 5 hours 20 mnutes
ahead. To avod confuson about havng many oca tmes wthn one country, a
partcuar Merdan s chosen for the whoe country whose tme s known as
standard tme.
Generay, the standard merdans are chosen to dher from the Greenwch
merdan by the mutpes of fteen degree or seven and a haf degree, .e., by
exact number of hours or haf hours. The word s thus dvded nto a number of
tme zones. Larger countres ke Russa, Canada, USA etc., have greater east-
west extenson, so they adopt severa tme zones. Russa has 11 tme zones
whe USA and Canada have 5 tme zones.

Inda, whose ongtudna extent s approx. 30, has adopted ony one tme zone,
seectng the 82.5E for the standard tme whch s 5 hours and 30 mnutes
ahead of GMT (Greenwch Mean Tme).
The shape of the earths orbt aso changes n a cycc perod runnng between
90,000 to 100,000 years. So the orbt of the earth may become more eptca
sometmes or t may form a more crcuar path around the sun at other tmes. It s
argued by some schoars that ce Ages and Goba Warmng are ehects of such
eccentrcty of earths orbt.
Ths s the conca moton of the axs of the spnnng earth, |ust ke a spnnng
top. Ths extremey sow moton of the earths axs takes about 26,000 years to
compete one cyce. Presenty the earths axs s pontng to the Poe star, but n A.D.
4000 t w pont to the star Apha Cephe and n A.D. 14,000 to the star Vega.
,nclination of EarthHs *$is:
The magnary earth axs has a constant ange of ncnaton of 66
wth the
pane of the eptc, .e., the pane n whch the earth orbts round the sun.
Another characterstcs of earths axs, caed Paraesm, s that as the earth
revoves around the sun, the earths axs remans, parae to ts precedng
Ths resuts n changes n the attude of the md-day sun at dherent tmes of the
year, n varyng engths of day and nght at dherent tmes of the year and n
four reasons.
Carying lengths of Day and -ight:
Due to revouton and constant ange of ncnaton of earths axs, on 21
the sun s vertcay overhead at the tropc of Cancer.
As we go towards the North Poe the ength of day ght ncreases and n fact
beyond 66
N the regon has 24 hour ght for sx months.
On 21
|une, the Northern Hemsphere w have ts ongest day and shortest
nght. Ths s known as summer sostce.
By 22
December, exacty the same condtons are experenced by the Southern
Hemsphere when the sun s vertcay overhead at the tropc of Caprcorn. Ths s
Wnter Sostce when the Southern Hemsphere experences ts ongest day and
shortest nght.
On the 21
March and 23
September, the sun s drecty over the equator and
a parts of the word have equa days and nghts. Hence 21
March and 23
September are caed Verna and Autumna Equnox.
,nternational Date )ine
It s the 180 merdan runnng over the Pacc Ocean, devatng at Aeutan
Isands, F|, Samoa and Gbert Isands.
Traveers crossng the Date Lne from west to east (.e., from |apan to USA)
repeat a day and traveers crossng t from east to west (.e., from USA to |apan)
ose a day.

Earth Eclipses
Earth )unar Eclipse
When earth comes between sun and moon.
Occurs ony on a fu moon day. However, t does not occur on every fu moon day
because the moon s so sma and the pane of ts orbt s tted about 5 wth
respect to the pane of the earths orbt. It s for ths reason that ecpses do not
occur every month.
Can ast up to one hour 40 mnutes. The moon does not become competey dark
durng most unar ecpses. In many cases, t becomes reddsh.The earths
atmosphere bends part of the suns ght around the earth and towards the moon.
Ths ght s red because the atmosphere scatters the other coors present n
sunght n greater amounts than t does red.
Earth Solar Eclipse
When moon comes between sun and earth.
Can be parta or tota.
Occurs ony on a new moon day when the moon s n ne wth the sun. However,
due to the ncnaton of the moons orbt, a soar ecpse doesnt occur on every
new moon day.
Earth 'ove(ents
The Earth aso caed Bue Panet. It s the densest of a panets.
Earth !ircu(ference : 40,232 Kometers.
Earth *rea : 510 mon Square Kometers Average dstance from sun: 149 mon-
Earth Perihelion : Nearest poston of earth to sun. The earth reaches ts perheon
on |anuary 3 every year at a dstance of about 147 mon-Kometers.
*phelion : Farthest poston of earth from sun. The earth reaches ts apheon on
|uy 4, when the earth s at a dstance of 152 mon Kometers.
The shape of the earth s obate spherod or obate epsod (.e. amost spherca,
attened a tte at the poes wth a sght buge at the centre).
< Types of Earth 'ove(ents:
Rotaton or day movement.
1. Revouton or annua movement.
Earth Rotation

Spns on ts magnary axs from west to east n 23 hrs, 56 mn and 40.91 sec.
Rotatona veocty at equator s 1667 Kometers/h and t decreases towards
the poes, where t s zero.
Earths rotaton resuts n
. Causaton of days and nghts;
. A dherence of one hour between two merdans whch are 15 apart;
. Change n the drecton of wnd and ocean currents;
Rse and fa of tdes everyday.The ongest day n North Hemsphere s |une
21, whe shortest day s on 22 Dec (Vce-versa n S. Hemsphere).
Days and nghts are amost equa at the equator.
Earth Revolution
It s earths moton n eptca orbt around the sun. Earths average orbta
veocty s 29.79 Kometers/s.
Takes 365 days, 5 hrs, 48 mn and 45.51 sec. It resuts n one extra day every
fourth year.
Revouton of the earth resuts n
. Change of seasons
. Varaton n the engths of days and nghts at dherent tmes of the year
. Shftng of wnd bets
v . Determnaton of attudes.
Incned Axs: The axs s an magnary ne runnng from north to south and
passng through the centre of the earth. It aways remans ncned at an
ange of 66 to the pane of the earths orbt, and s tted 23 from a ne
perpendcuar to ths pane. The two facts, .e., a xed ange of the earths
axs to the pane of the orbt and the axs aways pontng n the same
drecton, when combned wth the earths movements, resuts n varyng
engths of days and nghts, seasonaty and changes n the attude of sun at
dherent tmes of the year.
Earth Seasons are perods nto whch the year can be dvded as a resut of
the cmatc condtons, argey due to the changes n the duraton and
ntensty of soar radaton.
The I Earth Seasons are:
Spring: On March 21, the sun s drecty overhead the equator. Ths s the
season of sprng n the northern hemsphere.
Su((er: On |une 21, the sun s drecty overhead the Tropc of Cancer. Thus,
the northern hemsphere experences summer.
*utu(n: On September 23, the sun returns to the equator, and the northern
hemsphere experences autumn.

/inter: On December 22, the sun s at the Tropc of Caprcorn, and the
northern hemsphere experences wnter.

Earth !li(ate
The average weather condtons over a arge area s caed the cmate of a pace.
Weather condtons over a specc ength of tme, usuay a perod of 31 years, are
taken nto consderaton.
On a arge scae, the cmate of a partcuar regon s determned by:
. Lattude and tt of the earths axs, whch determnes the amount of soar
radaton receved by the area
. The dstrbuton of and and sea and proxmty of ocean currents
. The attude and topography of the area
v. The ocaton of the area n reaton to the man crcuaton bets of the earth.
Cmate can be cassed on the bass of temperature, ranfa, evaporaton,
evapotranspraton and water baance. One of the unversay accepted cmate
casscatons s by Koeppen whch s beng descrbed here.
Types of !li(ates
=& Tropical Rain 3orest !li(ate
Aso caed equatora type of cmate or Sevas.
5 - 10 of equator, nghts and days equa.
Average monthy temperature s 24 - 27c, annua range east. Durna range of
temperature far greater than the annua range. Here nght s the wnter.
Caed Bet of Cam or Dodrums.
Convectona ranfa. Annua ranfa s 250 cm.
Broad-eaved evergreen dense forests. Trees are gregarous and there s
competton for sunght. Have more speces of pants and anmas than n a
others combned.
In Amazon basn, Congo basn, Indonesa.
<& Tropical 'onsoon !li(ate
Compete seasona reversa of wnds.
Ranfa seasona (generay n summers). Due to ths vegetaton s decduous.
Approx. 200 cm of ranfa.
Occurs n Western Gunea coast of Afrca, South-Eastern Asa, Northern Austraa,
some parts of Amazon vaey and West Indes.
9& Tropical #rasslands+Savanna !li(ate
Average annua temperature s 23c. Annua ranfa s about 150 cm. Area-
Afrca, East and Centra South Amerca.
Bounded by tropca ran forest cmate towards the equator and dry cmate
towards the poes, the Savannah type s characterstc of grassands n tropca
and subtropca attudes. Grassands are dotted wth scattered trees and bushes
that can survve the drought season.
Ranfa n summer owng to convectona ascent of ar. Dstnct dry season n
wnter. Trees wth onger roots, re-resstant.
I& Tropical%Su"tropical hot Desert
Stuated n the trade wnd bet. Occupy the western margns of contnents. The
area ncudes North Amerca - Coorado Desert Mexcan Desert; Afrca-Sahara,
Kaahar, Namb Desert; S W.Asa-Araban ,Iranan,Thar desert, South Amercan -
Atacama,Austraa- Great Austraan Desert.

Average annua temperature s 38 c; annua summer temperature s 40 c,
annua wnter temperature s 15 c. average annua ranfa s about 25-40 cm.
Greatest durna temperature.
Hghest nsoaton, as there s no couds cover to scatter the nsoaton.
Vegetaton s xerophytc.
:& 'iddle )atitude Desert !li(ate
Found between 35-50 N and S.
Area: Tarm, Gob, Russan Turkstan and C. Iran. In Southern Hemsphere, ony n
Unke the hot deserts, they have very cod wnters because of ther nteror
J& Tropical and Su"tropical Steppes
Transton bet between hot deserts and humd cmates. Occupy poe-ward
margns of the tropca and subtropca deserts.
Average annua temperature s 21 c.
Sem-ard cmate characterzed by abundance of shrubs and grasses.
Known by dherent names:
Prares - North Amerca
Pampas - South Amerca
Vedt - South Afrca
Downs - Austraa
Steppes - Eurasa
Canterbury - New Zeaand
Postaz - Hungary
Manchuran - Russa
K& 'editerranean !li(ate
In the western coast of contnents between 30-45 N & S; Around the
Medterranean Sea, n South Europe, North Afrca, Caforna coast, Centra Che,
Cape of Good Hope and South East Austraa.
Characterzed by dry summer and humd wnter. Oh-shore trade wnds bow n
summer; they are dry and gve no ranfa. Cyconc ranfa n wnter.
Average annua temperature s 16 c. average wnter temperature, 10 c,
summer 25c annua ranfa s 40-60 cm.
Oves, grapevne and ctrus famy fruts are the chef products of these regons
whch are aso known for gran farmng.
6& !hina Type !li(ate
Average annua temperature s 19 c, annua ranfa 120 cm.
In the eastern coasts of contnents between 25- 45 N & S. Areas- Chna, South
East USA, South Braz, Eastern Argentna, South East Afrca, South East
Austraa, South |apan. It s the eastern counterpart of the Medterranean type.
Characterstcs-Hot summers and md wnters. Ranfa throughout the year.
;& /est European Type !li(ate
On the western sde of contnents between 40-65 N & S. Areas- North West
Europe ncudng Brtsh Ises, West coat of Canada, South Che, Southern New

Summers are moderate to coo (15-18); wnters md (2-10). Average annua
temperature s 10 c.
Annua Ranfa: 75-100 cm. No dry season as the westery wnds bow from the
ocean throughout the year. Ranfa s mosty of cyconc orgn.
=D& !ool East !oast !li(ate
The Corn Bet of US has ths type of cmate; that s why t s known as Corn-Bet
Average summer temp s 21-24c; t s ong, warm and humd.
Wnter temp average-4 to 1.7 for a perod of 3-5 months.
==& !ontinental Type !li(ate
Codest wnter month average -12 to -6.7c.
Hottest summer months average 18c to 21c.
In the nteror parts of bg contnents.
=<& Taiga !li(ate
Taga means snow forests or conferous forests; neede shaped eaves, composed
of evergreen spruce, r and pne. Extends n two arge bets n east-west
drecton from Aaska to Newfoundand n North Amerca and from Norway to
Kamchatka Pennsua n Eurasa.
Coo and short summers (around 10c) and very cod and ong wnters (beow
Annua range of temperature hghest. (In Verkhoyansk, |an temp s -50, annua
range beng 64c)
Tota annua precptaton beow 50 cm.
These forests are the most mportant source of softwood and fur bearng anmas.
=9& Tundra !li(ate
Summers are warm enough to met the thn snow cover or sma water bodes,
wth the resut that and s water soaked and marshes, swamps are common.
Precptaton ess than 30 cm.
Bzzards bow.
Lchens and mosses common.
=I& 2ighland !li(ate
Experenced n the mountanous regons.
Determned by eevaton, shape of the hghand, exposure to wnds and ocaton.
Here wnds are much stronger than at ow eves.
Vegetaton vares as we move up.
Important Deserts of the World:
Sahara - N. Afrca (Incudes the Lbyan and the Nuban Desert)
Austraan - Austraa (Incudes Gbson, Smpson, Vctoran, Great
Araban - Arab Countres (Incudes Ruba Kha & An-Nafad of S. Araba
and Dast-e-Lut & Dast-e-Kavr of Iran)
Kaahar - Afrca (many n Botswana)
Gob - Mongoa
Atacama - Centra Che

Patagonan - Argentna
Nabb - Namba
TakaMakan - Snkang, Chna
Karakum - Turkmenstan
Sonoran - Arzona and Caforna (USA)
Thar - Inda
Lnes drawn on map aong whch the vaue of a partcuar phenomenon s unform.
Some Important Isopleths are:
Isopeth Reactons
Isobars Equa pressure
Isobaths Equa depth n sea
Isobronts Thunder-storm at the same tme
Isohane Santy
Isohes Sunshne
Isohyets Ranfa
Isohypse (or Contour Lnes) eevaton above sea-eve
Isonf Snow
Isotherms Temperature
Isoneph Coudness
Isodapan Equa transportaton cost dstance
Isocne Sope

,nsolation and 2eat Budget
1. Insoaton s the energy receved on the earths surface from the sun. It s the
most mportant snge source of atmospherc heat.
2. The earths surface does not absorb a the energy that t receves. The proporton
of the soar radaton reected from the surface s caed Abedo.
3. On an average, nsoaton s hghest near the tropcs, margnay ower at the
equator and owest at the poes.
4. Athough the earth receves energy contnuousy from the sun, ts temperature
remans fary constant, the ony varatons beng the ong-term cmatc changes.
Ths s so because the atmosphere oses an amount of heat equa to the gan
through nsoaton. Ths mechansm of mantanng the same temperature by the
atmosphere s caed the Heat Budget or Heat Baance.
5. Assumng that 100 unts of energy reach the top of the atmosphere of the earth,
14 unts are absorbed drecty by the atmosphere and 35 unts are ost to space
through reecton.
The remanng 51 unts reach the earths surface and are absorbed by the earth due
to whch the surface gets heated. The heated surface of the earth starts radatng
energy n the form of ong waves and ths process s caed Terrestra Radaton.
Out of the tota 51 unts gven up by the surface n the form of terrestra radaton,
the atmosphere (many carbon doxde and water vapour) absorbs about 34 unts
and the remanng 17 unts escape to space.
In ths manner, the atmosphere receves a tota of 14 + 34 = 48 unts and ths
amount s radated back to space by the atmosphere. The tota oss of energy to
space thus amounts to 100 unts: 35 unts reected by the atmosphere, 17 unts
ost as terrestra radaton and 48 unts from the atmosphere. In ths manner, no net
gan or oss of energy occurs n the earths surface.
Athough the earth and ts atmosphere as a whoe have a radaton baance, there
are attudna varatons. The heat/energy s transferred from the ower attudes to
the hgher attudes through wnds and ocean currents.
,nternal Structure of Earth
The !rust of Earth
It s the outermost and the thnnest ayer of the earths surface, about 8 to 40
km thck. The crust vares greaty n thckness and composton - as sma as 5
km thck n some paces beneath the oceans, whe under some mountan ranges
t extends up to 70 km n depth.
The crust s made up of two ayers- an upper ghter ayer caed the Sa (Scate
+ Aumnum) and a ower densty ayer caed Sma (Scate + Magnesum).
The average densty of ths ayer s 3 gm/cc.
The 'antle of Earth

Ths ayer extends up to a depth of 2900 km.
'antle is (ade up of < parts: Upper Mante or Asthenosphere (up to about
500 km) and Lower Mante. Asthenosphere s n a sem-moten pastc state, and
t s thought that ths enabes the thosphere to move about t. Wthn the
asthenosphere, the veocty of sesmc waves s consderaby reduced (Caed
Low Veocty Zone).
The ne of separaton between the mante and the crust s known as Mohovrcc
The !ore of Earth
Beyond a depth of 2900 km es the core of the earth.
The outer core s 2100 km thck and s n moten form due to excessve heat out
there. Inner core s 1370 km thck and s n pastc form due to the combned
factors of excessve heat and pressure. It s made up of ron and ncke (Nfe) and
s responsbe for earths magnetsm. Ths ayer has the maxmum specc
The temperatures n the earths core e between 2200c and 2750c.
The ne of separaton between the mante and the core s caed Gutenberg-
Wechert Dscontnuty.
Te(perature ,nside the Earth: In the rst 100 km, 12 ncrease per km. In the
next 300 km, 2 ncrease per km. After that t s 1 ncrease per km.
!o(position of Earth
Made up of over 100 eements.
The foowng 8 are mportant:
'a@or Earth )ayer Discontinuity:
. Moho Dscontnuty: Between Crust and Mante
. Canard Dscontnuty: Between outer and nner crust
. Wechart-Gutenberg Dscontnuty: Between mante & Core
v. Repette Dscontnuty: Between upper and ower Mante
v. Transton Dscontnuty: Between outer and nner Core
!ontinental Drift Theory:
The theory of contnenta drft was postuated by Afred Wegener n 1915 n
he gave sound evdences to support the dea of the movement of contnents
over the surface of the earth.
Accordng to hm, about 250 mon years ago, n the carbonferous perod, a
the contnents were unted as a super contnent known as Pangaea whch was
surrounded by a arge ocean, caed Panthasa.
Accordng to Wegenaer, Pangaea started breakng up n the Carbonferous
perod. In hs vew, contnents made up of ghter sa were movng over the
ocean basns whch are composed of denser sma.
The contnents drafted n two drectons-towards the equator due to gravtatona
attracton of equatora buge (resutng n the formaton of Hmaayas, Aps, Atas

etc) and towards the west owng to tda forces of the moon and the sun (formng
the mountans of Rockes and Andes).
Plate Tectonics:
In the ate 60s, the basc concepts of Wegeners theory and sea oor spreadng
were unted, n the ght of great strdes made n the ed of earth scences, nto
a much more encompassng theory known as Pate Tectoncs.
The revoutonary theory of Pate Tectoncs provdes the most ratona
expanaton for the dstrbuton of oceans and contnents, orogenc, vocanc and
sesmc zones and reated processes.
The theory of Pate Tectoncs postuates that outer rgd thosphere comprses a
mosac of rgd segments, caed Pates that move on the pastc upper mante
(asthenosphere), carryng the contnents and oceans aong wth them.
Ther thckness vares from 80-100 km aong the oceans to over 100 km n the
contnents. Sx ma|or and many mnor pates have been dented.
Plate Boundary ,nteractions:
A tectonc actvtes occur aong the boundares of the pate whch are of three
i& Diverging Boundary ,nteraction:
Aong ths boundary marked by the oceanc rdge system, two pates move away
from each other. Hot magma from deep mante erupts through cracks and
ssures and spreads ateray formng new crust.
Hence these are termed as constructve boundares. These are characterzed by
rft vaeys, rdges basatc vocansm and shaow-foc earthquakes. Md-Atantc
rdge system s the best exampe of ths type.
ii& !onverging Boundary ,nteractions:
Aong ths boundary, two pates move towards each other. If both the pates are
oceanc, one heaver pate boundary punges down beneath the other aong the
oceanc trenches, resutng nto formataton of vocanc sand arcs, e.g. |apan.
If one of the pates s contnenta, the heaver oceanc pate boundary subducts
beneath the contnenta one formng corderan mountans such as Rockes and
Andes. When both the pates are contnenta, no subducton occurs, vocansm,
ceases and pate edges and sedments are compressed, thrusted and foded to
form ggantc mountans ke the Hmaayas. Hgh ntensty earthquakes occur n
ths boundary nteracton.
iii& !onservative+Transfor( Boundary ,nteraction:
Here two pates |ust sde past each other aong the transform faut. There s no
vocansm, no crust s created or destroyed but strong earthquakes occur aong the
faut. Aong the San Andreas faut of Caforna, Amercan pate and Pacc pate
move past each other. Frequent earthquakes occur n ths regon.
Earth !louds
Earth Couds are masses of mnute water dropets and / or ce crystas formed by
the condensaton of water vapour and hed n suspenson n the atmosphere.
Condensaton, whch resuts from coong, usuay takes pace around nuce such as
dust, smoke partces and sat. Such partces are caed condensaton nuce.
Earth Couds are of dherent types and they can be cassed on the bass of ther
form and attude.
On the bass of form, there are two ma|or groups:
1. Stratform or ayered types, and
2. Cumuform or massve types.
Stratifor( !louds

These couds, whch are fary thn and banket ke, are sub-dvded nto three man
categores on the bass of attude.
High Clouds (mean ht 5-13 km)
1. Crrus Couds: Indcates far weather.
2. Crrocumuus Couds: Forms the mackere sky.
3. Crrostratus Couds: Produces a hao around sun and moon.
Middle Clouds (mean ht -! km)
Atocumuus Couds : Indcate ne weather.
Ato-stratus Couds : Assocated wth deveopment of bad weather.
"o# (mean ht up to km)
1. Stratus Couds : Brgs du weather, usuay accompaned wth a drzze.
2. Nmbostratus Couds : If ran or snow s fang from a stratus coud, t s caed
3. Stratocumuus Couds : Indcators of far or cearng weather.
!u(ulus !louds
They are massve couds havng a vertca extent from 1,500 to 9,000 m. They
resembe the head of a cauower. When these couds are sunt, they are branty
whte and are caed woo-couds. They occur many n summer and are produced
by convecton.
!u(uloni("us !louds:
Under dherent weather condtons, a cumuus coud may deveop nto
cumuonmbus, the thunderstorm coud mass of enormous sze whch brngs heavy
ranfa, thunder and ghtnng and gusty wnds.
Precipitation !louds
It refers to fang of water, snow or ha from the couds and resuts when
condensaton s occurrng rapdy wthn a coud.
The most common form of precptaton s ran and t s formed when many coud
dropets coaesce nto drops too arge to reman suspended n the ar. Ranfa occurs
when the dew pont of ar s above the freezng pont.
Sometmes the randrops freeze before reachng the ground and precptaton occurs
n the form of ce peets, caed seet.
Sno0 s produced when condensaton takes pace at a temperature beow freezng
pont, so that the mnute crystas (spcues) of ce form drecty from the water
2ail conssts of masses of ce wth a ayered structure. It occurs when there are
very strong updrafts n the couds carryng randrops up to a hgh attude, causng
them to freeze. Ha stone s a rounded ump of ce havng concentrc ayers.
Conditions for $re%ipitation
There are three possbe ways by whch precptaton s produced.
!onvectional Precipitation
It s caused by heatng of most ar n the ower ayers of atmosphere whch rses,
expands, and s cooed adabatcay to ts dew pont.
Convecton ran s often accompaned by ghtenng and thunder. It occurs n regons
near the equator n the afternoon as a resut of the constant hgh temperature and
hgh humdty.
Orographic Precipitation
In ths, precptaton s caused by mosture-aden ar beng forced to rse over a reef
barrer (mountan ranges). As the ar rses n the wndward sde, t s cooed at the
adabatc rate. If sumcenty cooed, precptaton resuts; when the ar descends on

the eeward sde, t gets warmed and dry, havng no source from whch to draw up
mosture. A bet of dry cmate, often caed a ran shadow, may exst on the eeward
!yclonic frontal Precipitation
When the ar s caused to rse upwards due to cyconc crcuaton, the resutng
precptaton d sad to be of the cyconc type

!yclones M *nticyclones
!yclones in /orld
It s a system of very ow pressure n the center surrounded by ncreasngy hgh
pressure outwards.
In ths, the wnds bows n a crcuar manner n Antcockwse drecton n Northern
Hemsphere. Cockwse drecton n Southern Hemsphere.
In the temperate regon, they occur due to the comng cose and mperfect mxng
of two masses of ar of contrastng temperature and humdty condtons. Cyces of
ths type are aso known as Wave Cycones or Temperate Cycones.
On the other hand, n the tropca regons, they occur due to ntense heatng up of
ar n some regons causng very ow pressure n these ocatons. Tropca seas and
oceans are most conducve to the deveopment of tropca cycones.
These are 1no0n as:
Cycones - n the Indan Ocean
Hurrcanes - n the Carbbean Isands
Typhoons - n the Chna Sea
Wy-Wes - n the North West Austraa
Tornadoes - n coasta US.
Twsters - n Msssspp Vaey, USA
Tornadoes are very strong tropca cycones of a smaer sze. They are especay
feared n the Msssspp Vaey n US and here they are caed Twsters. They dher
from cycones n that they generay deveop over and. They are more destructve
than cycones as the speed of wnds s very hgh, exceedng 320 km per hour.
They are opposte to cycones n a respects. They are the centers of hgh
pressure wth gente outward ow of ar.
The ar crcuaton s cockwse n the northern hemsphere and antcockwse n
the southern hemsphere.
Weather assocated wth an antcycone s far weather.

Earth 2u(idity
Earth Humdty refers to the amount of water vapour present n the ar.
The rato between the amount of water vapour actuay present n the ar mass and
the maxmum amount that the ar mass can hod at that temperature s caed
reatve humdty. It s expressed as a percentage. It vares nversey wth
temperature, gven a xed amount of water vapour.
Absoute humdty denotes the actua quantty of water vapour present n the ar
and t s dened as the weght of water vapour (grams) n a gven voume of ar
(cubc meter).
The term specc humdty s apped to express the rato of weght of water vapour
to the weght of most ar (ncudng water vapour). It s stated as grams of water
vapour per kogram of most ar.
Earth Humdty s measured by an nstrument caed hygrometer. Another
nstrument used for the same purpose s sng psychrometer.
!ondensationB De0 Point and Related *spects
The physca process of transformaton from the vapour to the qud state s
condensaton. Ths s the bass of a types of precptaton- the fa of water from the
atmosphere to the ground n any form.
Dew pont s the temperature at whch the ar s fuy saturated and beow whch
condensaton normay occurs.
Dew s the deposton of water dropets on the ground. It occurs when the
temperature of the ground surface fas and the ar n contact wth t s cooed beow
ts dew pont. Dew s key to occur on cear and cam nghts.
Frost s a weather condton that occurs when the ar temperature s at or beow 0c
mosture on the ground surface and ob|ects freezes to form an cy depost.
Fog s made of the dropets of water suspended n the ower ayers of the
atmosphere, resutng from the condensaton of water vapour around nuce of
oatng dust or smoke partces. A vsbty of ess than 1 km s the nternatonay
recognzed denton of fog. Fog s not consdered as a form of precptaton.
Smog (Smoke + Fog) s a form of fog that occurs n areas where the ar contans a
arge amount of smoke.
Mst s the term for reducton of vsbty between 1-2 km, caused by condensaton
producng water dropets wthn the ower ayers of atmosphere.
Haze s formed by water partces that have condensed n the atmosphere and the
vsbty n ths case s more than 1 km but ess than 2 km. Haze may aso be
produced by presence of dust and smoke, whch reduce vsbty.

Earth 'ountains
Types of 'ountains
3old 'ountains of the /orld
They are formed when the rocks of the crust of the earth foded under stress,
many by forces of compresson (as a resut of seres of earthquakes).
E&g& 7 *ll "ig (ountain syste(s: Hmaayas, Aps, Andes, Rockes, Atas,
On the "asis of ageB fold (ountains are grouped into: Young / New Fod
Came nto exstence after the contnenta drft. E.g. Hmaayas, Andes,
Rockes, Aps. Hmaayas are regarded the youngest mountans n the word.
Old 'ountains
They beong to pre-drft era, then sub|ected to denudaton and upft; many
fauts were formed; occur as rect mountans today. E.g. Pennnes (Europe),
Appaachans (US), Aravas (Inda).
Bloc1 'ountains of the /orld
These are formed when great bocks of earths crust may be rased or
owered. Durng the upft of structura mountans, sometmes magma ows
upwards nto the crust.
On ts coong and hardenng beneath the surface, t contracts and the overyng
rock may crack nto arge bocks movng up or down. An ntense fodng of rocks
s generay foowed by fautng of strata due to horzonta forces of tenson.
The and between the two parae fauts ether rases formng Bock Mountans or
Horsts, or subsdes nto a depresson termed as Rft Vaey or Graben.
Eg: Narmada, Tapt and Damodar vaey n Inda, the Vosges n France and Back
forest n Germany (through whch Rhne Rver ows).
Colcanic 'ountains of the /orld
Formed as a resut of vocanc erupton & the outow of ava (through crater, the
openng). Aso caed Mountans of Accumuaton. Have a gente sope.
E&g: Cotopax n Andes, Vesuvus and Etna n Itay, Fu|yama n |apan, Mauna Loa
and Kauea (Most actve vocano) n Hawa, O|os de Saado n Argentna / Che
(Hghest actve vocano), Popocatepet n Mexco, Raneer of Washngton,
Strombo n Medterranean (caed Lghthouse of the Medterranean), Mrap and
Krakatao n Indonesa, etc.
Relict 'ountains

Sometmes, the mountans are carved out as a resut of eroson of pateaus &
hgh panes by varous agents of eroson. E.g., Hghands of Scotand, Serras of
Span, Catsk mountans of New York and Ngr, Parasnath, Grnar, Ra|maha of
'a@or 'ountain Ranges of the /orld
Andes South Amerca 6,960
South Centra
Rockes North Amerca 4,401
Great Dvdng Range East Austraa 2,228
Western Ghats Western Inda 2,637
Caucasus Europe, Asa 5,642
Aaska USA 6,194
Aps Europe 4,808
Apennnes Europe 2,912
Ura Asa 1,895
Pennnes Europe 893
Pyrenees Europe 3,404
Appaachan North Amerca 2,040

Rocks are naturay occurrng sod aggregates of mneras or mneraods (a
mnera-ke substance that does not exhbt crystanty)
The Earths outer sod ayer, the thosphere, s made of rocks
Rocks are generay cassed nto three types
o Igneous rocks
o Sedmentary rocks
o Metamorphc rocks
The structure and co(position of roc1s change over ti(e, causng one
type of rock to be recassed as another
The study of roc1s is called petrology
,gneous roc1s are roc1s 0hich for( fro( the cooling and solidi?cation
of (ag(a
They are the resuts of vocanc processes
The magma can be derved from mets of pre-exstng rocks n ether the crust or
mante. Typcay, rocks met under condtons of extremey hgh temperatures,
ow pressures or changes n composton
,gneous roc1s can "e of t0o types:
o Intrusve (putonc) rocks
o Extrusve (vocanc) rocks
,gneous roc1s (a1e up a"out ;DN of the EarthHs crust& However, they are
hdden from the surface by a thn ayer of sedmentary and metamorphc rocks
Igneous rocks can be seen at md ocean rdges, areas of vocansm and ntra-
pate hotspots
They are crystane and mpervous
They are resstant to eroson and weatherng
Since igneous roc1s co(e fro( the (antleB the (inerals and che(istry
of igneous roc1s give infor(ation a"out the co(position of the (antle
Ther features are characterstc of a partcuar tectonc envronment, aowng
reconsttuton of tectonc condtons
They host mportant mnera deposts such as uranum, tungsten, tn, chromum,
'ineralogical co(position of igneous roc1s
Fesc rock: hghest content of scon wth predomnance of quartz and fedspar.
These rocks are usuay ght cooured and have ow densty
Mac rock: esser content of scon, predomnance of mac mneras
(manganese and ron). These rocks are usuay dark cooured and have hgher
densty than fesc rocks

Utramac rocks: owest scon content, wth more than 90% of mac mneras
3elsic 'a?c Ultra(a
Basat Komatte
,ntrusive igneous roc1s (plutonic roc1s
Intrusve gneous rocks are formed from magma that coos and sodes wthn
the crust
These rocks are coarse-graned. Mnera grans n these rocks can be dented
by the naked eye
The central cores of (ost (ountain ranges are (ade of intrusive roc1s
(usually granite& These arge formatons of ntrusve rocks are
caed batholiths
Exampes of ntrusve gneous rocks ncude grante and dorte
E$trusive igneous roc1s (volcanic roc1s
Extrusve gneous rocks are formed at the surface, from magma reeased nto
the surface from vocanc eruptons
Extrusve rocks coo and sodfy qucker than ntrusve
Extrusve rocks are ne graned n nature
Exampes of extrusve rocks ncude basat and rhyote
Large Igneous Provnces are extremey arge accumuatons of gneous rocks
(both ntrusve and extrusve)
They refer to igneous roc1s e$tending over =DDBDDD s5 1(B that for(ed
in a short geological ti(e scale of a fe0 (illion years or less
LIPs usuay consst of basat and rhyote rocks
When created, LIPs often have an area of few mon sq km and voume on the
order of a mon cubc km. Ma|orty of the LIPs voume s empaced n ess than
a mon years.
),PHs are postulated to arise fro( hotspots of linear chains of volcanoes
),Ps are often lin1ed to (ass e$tinction events& Ths s sad to arse from
the enormous quanttes of suphurc acd reeased nto the atmosphere, the
subsequent goba coong and absorpton of oceanc oxygen.
The Deccan TrapsB one of the largest volcanic features on EarthB is an
e$a(ple of a )arge ,gneous Province& The Traps consst of mutpe ayers of
basat, more than 2 km thck and cover an area over 500,000 sq km, and were
formed as a resut of vocanc eruptons n the Western Ghats about 66 mon
years ago. It s beeved that the enormous vocanc eruptons ed to goba
coong of around 2C, and were nstrumenta n the mass extncton of non-avan

Sedi(entary roc1 is the type of roc1 for(ed sedi(entation of
(aterial& Ths sedmentaton can occur on the Earths surface or wthn bodes
of water
Sedi(entary roc1s for( the thin outer(ost layer of the earthHs crustB
(a1ing up a"out :N of the total volu(e of the crust
Sedmentary rocks are deposted n strata caed beddng
!oal is a sedi(entary roc1
Exampes of sedmentary rocks ncude shae, sandstone, mestone
Study of sedmentary rocks provdes nformaton about subsurface, whch s
mportant n cv engneerng for constructon of roads, brdges etc
Sedi(entary roc1s are also i(portant sources of natural resources li1e
fossil fuelsB 0aterB ores etc
The study of sedmentary rock strata serves as the man source of scentc
knowedge about the Earths geoogca hstory
Sedi(entary roc1s are the only roc1s that contain fossils&Sedmentary
rocks contans fosss because, unke gneous and metamorphc rocks, they form
at temperatures and pressures that do not destroy fosss
!o(position of sedi(entary roc1s
'ost sedi(entary roc1s contain either 5uartA or calcite
Unke gneous and metamorphc rocks, sedmentary rocks do not contan
mutpe ma|or mneras
Carbonate rocks contan carbonate mneras ke cacte, aragonte or doomte
Scastc rocks contan sca-bearng mneras ke quartz
!lastic sedi(entary roc1s
!lastic roc1s are co(posed of frag(entsB called %lastsB of pre%e$isting
Castc sedmentary rocks are those that are formed from rocks that have been
broken down due to weatherng, whch are then transported and deposted
Castc sedmentary rocks come n varous gran szes. They range from ne cay
n shaes, to sand n sandstone and grave, cobbes and bouder sze fragments
n congomerates and breccas
Congomerates are castc sedmentary rocks wth rounded fragments, whe
breccas consst of casts wth anguar fragments. Both conglo(erates and
"reccias contain clasts larger than sand (O < ((
Exampes ncude shae, sandstone, ststone
Organic sedi(entary roc1s
Organic sedi(entary roc1s contain (aterials generated "y living
They usuay contan carbonate mneras generated by these organsms
Exampes ncude coras, chak, coa and o shae

Keywords: Inda, as, upsc, cv servce, study matera, free, exam, genera
studes, goba geography
!he(ical sedi(entary roc1s
Chemca sedmentary rocks are formed from mneras n souton that become
They usuay occur as a resut of evaporaton
Exampes ncude mestone, barte, gypsum
'eta(orphic roc1s for( as a result of transfor(ation of an e$isting
roc1B in a process called (eta(orphis(& The exstng rock s caed protolith
Metamorphc rocks are formed when the protoliths are sub|ect to extreme
temperatures and pressures
They for( fro( tectonic processB intrusion of (ag(aB or si(ply "y
"eing deep "eneath the earthHs surface (beng sub|ect to hgh temperatures
and pressures of rock ayers above)
Much of the ower contnenta crust s metamorphc
Exampes of metamorphc rocks ncude gness, sate, marbe
!o(position of (eta(orphic roc1s
Metamorphc rocks are composed of metamorphc mneras
'eta(orphic (inerals are those that for( only at high te(peratures
and pressures& These ncude smante, kyante, andauste, staurote and
garnet (a of whch are scates)
Metamorphc rocks aso contan smaer amounts of mcas, fedspars and quartz.
However, these are not products of metamorphsm, and are nstead eftovers
from the protoliths
!ontact (eta(orphic roc1s
Contact metamorphc rocks are those that form when magma s n|ected nto
surroundng rock
The coong magma eads to gneous rocks, and around ths s a zone
caed contact metamorphism aureole where metamorphc rocks are formed
The extreme temperatures cause sandstones to metamorphse nto quartz,
mestone nto marbe and shae nto corderte
Igneous rocks are harder to transform than sedmentary rocks snce they form at
even greater temperatures
Regional (eta(orphic roc1s
Regona metamorphc rocks are those that form due to metamorphsm over a
wde area
Regona metamorphsm tends to make rocks foated
Regona metamorphc rocks tend to form at great depths smpy under the
temperature and pressures of upper ayers of rock
Contnenta crusts are exampes of regona metamorphc rocks

Keywords: Inda, as, upsc, cv servce, study matera, free, exam, genera
studes, goba geography
Roc1 !lassi?cation !o(position -otes
Basat Igneous -
extrusve vocanc
Present on moon, Mars, Venus
Basat rocks sustan mcroba
Fne texture
Grante Igneous
(ntrusve, fesc)
Ouartz, fedspar Coarse texture
Massve, hard and tough
Exhbt radoactvty (uranum)
Shae Sedmentary
Cay Contan organc matter
Contans mutpe thn ayers
Sedmentary Cacte (cacum
Used n quckme, mortar,
cement, concrete
Soube n water
Host of most cave systems
Sedmentary Ouartz, fedspar Common budng matera
Porous, aows water percoaton
Host of water aqufers and
petroeum reservors
Sate Metamorphc Cay, vocanc
Used to make roong, oorng
It s an eectrca nsuator, used
for swtchboards
Can host even mcroscopc
amounts of fosss
Gness Metamorphc Garnet, botte
Marbe Metamorphc Cacte
Comes from metamorphsm of
Pure whte marbe comes from
pure mestone
Coours, swrs, vens come from
mnera mpurtes
Important source of cacum
carbonate, used n toothpaste,
Metamorphc Ouartz Comes from metamorphsm of
Used as a decoratve stone
Used for raway baast
)ocation !lassi?cation -otes
Deccan Traps Deccan
Pateau, Inda
Large Igneous
Provnce (LIP)
One of the argest
vocanc features on earth
Sberan Traps Sbera, Russa LIP One of the argest known
vocanc events (250
mon years ago)

Acasta Gness Ouebec,
Metamorphc Odest known rock n the
word (4.28 bon years)
Devs Tower Wyomng, USA Igneous Monothc rock that rses
1200 feet above
surroundng terran
Bue Las Engand Lmestone and
Rch n dnosaur fosss
Red Fort Deh Sandstone
Hawa Maha |apur Sandstone
Mount Augustus Western
Sandstone and
Largest monoth n the
Savandurga Karnataka Gness and
Largest monoth n Inda
Sphnx Egypt Lmestone Odest known
monumenta scupture
Largest monoth statue
n word
Phobos monoth Mars Igneous

Earth Colcanoes
A vocano s a vent or openng usuay crcuar n form through whch heated
materas consstng of gases, water, qud ava and fragments of rocks are e|ected
from the hghy heated nterors to he surface of the earth.
Vocanc eruptons are cosey assocated wth severa nterconnected processes
such as
The gradua ncrease n temperature wth ncreasng depth at a rate of 1c
per 32 m due to heat generated by degeneraton of radoactve eements nsde
the earth
Orgn of magma because of owerng of metng pont caused by reducton n
pressure of overyng rocks due to fractures caused by spttng of pates
Orgn of gases and water - vapour due to heatng of water
Ascent of magma due to pressure from gases and vapour
Occurrence of vocanc eruptons. These eruptons are cosey assocated wth
pate boundares.
!lassi?cation of Colcanoes
Colcanoes are classi?ed under diferent sche(es:
=& !lassi?cation on the "asis of Periodicity of Eruptions:
*ctive Colcano: Vocano whch erupt perodcay. E.g. Maona Loa n Hawa,
Etna n Scy, Vesuvus n Itay, Strombo n Medterranean Sea, etc.
Dor(ant Colcano: Vocano whch has been quescent for a ong tme but n
whch there s a possbty of erupton. E.g. Fu|yama n |apan, Krakatoa n
Indonesa, Barren sand Vocano n Andamans, etc.
<& !lassi?cation on the "asis of 'ode of Eruption
!entral Eruption Type or E$plosive Type: E.g. Hawaan type, Stromboan
type, Vocanan type, Peean type, Vesuvus type, etc.
3issure Eruption or .uiet Eruption Type: Large quanttes of ava quety
ow up from ssures and spread out over the surroundng areas. Successve ava
ow resuts n the growth of a ava pateau. E.g. Deccan Pateau, etc.
Distri"ution of Colcanoes in the /orld
About 15% of words actve vocanoes are found aong the P!onstructive or
DivergentQ pate margns, whereas 80% vocanoes are assocated wth the
PDestructive or !onvergentQ pate boundares.
1. The Crcum - Pacc bet or the Rng of Fre. It extends across the Kamchatka
Pennsua, Kure Isands, the Isands of |apan, Phppnes, New Gunea, New
Zeaand and the Sooman Isands. It aso passes through the Antarctca and the
western coast of Amerca.
2. The Md - Contnent bet ncudes vocanoes of Apne mountan chan, the
Medterranean Sea and the faut zone of eastern Afrca. E.g. Strombo, Vesuvus,
Etna, Kman|aro, etc.
3. The Md - Atantc bet n whch the vocanoes are ssure erupton type. E.g.
Iceand, Canary Isands, Cape Verde, Azores, etc.

Earth Pressure and /inds
Ar movng n a partcuar drecton s caed wnd. The prncpa cause of wnds s
dherence n pressure. Ar aways moves from areas of hgh pressure to those wth
ow pressure. The sope of the pressure from hgh to ow s known as Pressure
Gradent and the drecton of ths drecton decdes the drecton of wnds.Wnd
veocty s drecty reated to the steepness of the pressure gradent.
In addton, the drecton of wnds s ahected by the Coros Force, whch s caused
by the rotaton of the earth. Under the nuence of ths ehect, wnds are deected
to ther rght n the Northern Hemsphere and to ther eft n the Southern
Ths s referred to as Parres Law. Coros force s absent at the equator and
ncreases towards the poes. Due to ths, the wnds, whch woud bow at rght
anges to the sobars under the pressure gradent, bow obquey to them.
#lo"al Pressure Belts
E5uatorial )o0 Pressure Belt (or Doldru(s
From 5N to 5S.
Tremendous heat, thus warm ar rses creatng ow pressure. Aso, the centrfuga
force s very hgh at the equator, where the veocty of rotaton s hgh. Hence,
the ar masses tend to be thrown out, resutng n ow pressure.
Wnd speed ow, thats why caed Dodrums (Bet of Cam).
Tropical 2igh Pressure Belt (or 2orse )atitudes
From 30 to 35 N and S.
Apart from 2 months, usuay hgh temperature.
Here the pressure s hgh, athough hgh temperature, because here pressure
depends on the rotaton and movement of ar (as wnds from Dodrums bet rses
up and accumuate here. Aso wnds from Sub-Poar Low Pressure Bet
accumuate here).
Su"%Polar )o0 Pressure Belt
From 60 to 65N and S
Here the ow pressure s created because of ntense hgh pressure at the poes.
/inds and Their Types
9 "road categories are:
1. Regular /inds+Prevailing /inds+Planetary /inds: (E.g.: Trade wnds,
Westeres and Poar Easteres).
2. Periodical /inds (0hich "lo0 seasonally: Monsoons
3. Caria"le /inds: Cycones and other oca wnds
Trade /inds
Trade n German means Track. To bow trade means to bow steady n the same
drecton and n a constant course.

These are steady currents of ar bowng from the sub-tropca hgh pressure
bets towards the equatora ow pressure areas (dodrums). Under the nuence
of the Coros force they bow from the north-east n the northern hemsphere
and from the south-east n the southern hemsphere.
Bows from subtropca hgh pressure to sub-poar ow pressure bet.
In the northern hemsphere, and masses cause consderabe dsrupton n the
westery wnd bet. But between 40 and 60 S es the amost unbroken ocean
bet. Westeres are strong and persstent here, gvng rse to marners
expressons- Roarng Fortes, Furous Fftes and Shrekng Sxtes.
Polar Easterlies
Move from hgh pressure poes to sub-poar ow pressure areas.
These are deected by the Earths rotaton to become east wnds, or the poar
)ocal /inds
Land and
Sea Breeze
They are experenced n coasta areas. Due to dherenta heatng, the
atmospherc pressure over the and mass s ower than over the
neghborng sea durng the day. Therefore, wnds bow from sea to and
(sea breeze). At nght the ar pressure over and s hgher due to a ower
temperature than over the ad|acent ocean and the wnd starts bowng
from and to sea (and breeze). Land breeze s not as strong as sea
Chnook Hot, dry wnd n Rockes, aso caed 'snow eater'.
Foehn Hot, dry wnd n the Aps.
Khamsn Hot, dry wnd n Egypt.
Srocco Hot, most wnd from Sahara to Medterranean Sea.
Soano Hot, most wnd for Sahara towards Iberan Pennsua.
Harmattan Hot, dry wnd bowng outwards from the nteror of West Afrca, aso
caed 'Gunea Doctor'.
Bora Cod, dry wnd bowng outwards from Hungary to the north of Itay
(near AdratcSea).
Mstra Very cod wnd, whch bows down from the Aps over France.
Punas Cod, dry wnd bowng down towards the western sde of Andes.
Bzzard Very cod wnds n Tundra regon.
Brckeder Hot wnd n Austraa.
Purga Cod wnd n Russan tundra.
Levanter Cod wnd n Span.
Norwester Hot wnd n New Zeaand.
Santa Ana Hot wnd n Southern Caforna n USA.

1. Tremors or vbratons of earths surface produced by nterna forces.
2. The pont of orgn of earthquake s caed Sesmc focus. Most of the earthquakes
orgnate at the depth of 50-100 km nsde the earth.
3. The pont on the earths surface vertcay above the earths surface s caed
4. The passage of earthquake waves s recorded by Sesmograph.
5. The magntude of waves s measured on Rchters scae. For measurement of the
ntensty of the earthquake (damage caused), the Moded Merca Intensty
Scae s used.
Types of /aves Earth5ua1es
1. Pri(ary /aves (P%/aves: Trave from the pont of happenng by the
dspacement of surroundng partces. They are transmtted through sods,
quds and gases. Traves fastest.
2. Secondary /aves (S%/aves: Traves through sods ony. Thus they cannot
pass through core.
3. Surface /aves or )ong /aves ()%/aves: Traves on earths surface and
causes maxmum destructon. They are recorded after the P and S waves.
Distri"ution of Earth5ua1es
Around the Pacc Ocean aong a bet of vocanoes known as the Rng of Fre. 68
per cent of the vocanoes are experenced n ths regon.
From the mdde of Asa (Hmaayas, Caspan Sea) through the Medterranean
Sea to West Indes. 21 per cent earthquakes are experenced n the regon.
Md-Atantc rdge bet whch accounts for 11 per cent of the earthquakes.

Forests are areas wth a hgh densty of trees
3orests cover appro$i(ately ;&IN of the EarthHs surface i&e& a"out 9DN
of total land areaB athough they used to cover as much as 50% of and area
Forests are dherentated from woodand by the extent of canopy coverage: n
forests, the foage of trees meet and nterock whe n woodands there s
enough gap between trees aowng sunght to penetrate to the ground
Forests are one of the most mportant aspects of the Earths bosphere
The functons of forests ncude
o 2a"itat for organis(s
o 2ydrologic Ro0 (odulation
o Soil conservation
Human factors ahectng forest sustenance ncude oggng, urban spraw,
agrcuture, ndustres, human-nduced forest res etc. Natura factors ahectng
forests ncude forest res, nsects, dseases, weather etc
Only a"out <DN of the 0orldHs original forests re(ain in undistur"ed
forest& Of ths, 75% are n Russa, Canada and Braz
Distri"ution of forests
In genera, forests can be found n a regons capabe of sustanng tree growth
(at attudes up to the tree ne), except where natura dsturbance s too hgh or
human actvty has atered the envronment
The areas "et0een latitudes =D - and =D S are (ostly covered in
tropical rainforestsB and "et0een :9- and JK- have "oreal forests
Forests can contan many speces n a sma area (ke ranforests) or reatvey
few speces n a arge area (ke taga and montane conferous forests)
Forests have hgher bomass per unt area compared to other vegetaton
types. 'uch of the forest "io(ass occurs "elo0 the ground in root
syste(s and partially deco(posed detritus
The ma|or types of forest systems are
o Rainforests (both tropca and temperate)
o Taiga
o Te(perate "roadleaf forests
o Tropical dry forests
Old gro0th forests
Old gro0th forests (also called pri(ary forestsB ancient forests are
forests that contain trees 0hich have attained great age
Od growth forests typcay contan arge and od ve trees, arge dead trees and
arge ogs
Death of ndvdua trees creates gaps n the canopy ayer aowng ght to
penetrate and create favourabe condtons for undergrowth

Od growth forests are often home to rare and threatened speces, makng them
ecoogcay sgncant. For nstance, the -orthern Spotted O0l is reliant on
old gro0th forest
The mportance of od growth forests ncude
o They contan rch communtes of pants and anmas due to the ong
perod of forest stabty
o They serve as a reservor for speces that cannot thrve or regenerate n
younger forests
o They store arge amounts of carbon both above and beow the ground
(ether as humus or n wet sos as peat)
3orests that are regenerated after disruptions (ust 0ait several
centuries to (illennia "efore they can reach the sta"le e5uili"riu( that
signi?es old gro0th forests
Due to ncreased human actvty, od growth forests have been substantay
destroyed over the ast century. Of the od growth forests that st reman, 35%
are n Latn Amerca (Braz), 28% n North Amerca (many Canada) and 19% n
northern Asa (Sbera)
Second gro0th forests
Second gro0th forests (secondary forests are forests that have re%
gro0n after a (a@or distur"ance such as ?reB insect infestationB
loggingB 0indthro0 etc
Second growth forests tend to have trees coser spaced than prmary forests and
have more undergrowth
Second growth forests usuay have ess bodversty than od growth forests,
snce the former have had esser tme to deveop and reach stabe equbrum
Secondary forests are common n areas under shftng agrcuture, areas wth
forest res, and forests that are recoverng from harvestng and agrcuture
Secondary forests can several generations of trees (centuries to
rese("le the original old gro0th forests& However, n some areas,
secondary forests do not succeed due to so nutrent oss and eroson (especay
n tropca ranforests)
'ost of the forests of eastern -orth *(erica and of Europe are
secondary forests
Distri"ution of tropical rainforests in the /orld
Rainforests are forests characterised "y high rainfall, wth mnmum
annua ranfa as hgh as 1700-2000 mm
Rainforests are responsi"le for <6N of the 0orldHs o$ygen
turnover&However, ranforests do not contrbute much to the net oxygen
addtons to the atmosphere. Instead, they are vta n storng carbon n bo

The Intertropca Convergence Zone (ITCZ), the area near the equator where
wnds orgnatng n the northern and southern hemspheres meet, pays a
sgncant roe n creatng the ranforests
Despte the growth of vegetaton, soil 5uality in a rainforest is poor&Most
trees have roots near the surface due to ack of nutrents beow the ground
'ore than half the 0orldHs species of plants and ani(als are found in
Tropical Rainforests
Tropca ranforests are ranforests n the tropcs, near the equator between the
Tropc of Cancer and the Tropc of Caprcorn
Tropca ranforests are found n South Amerca (Braz), Centra Amerca (Yucatan
Pennsua), Sub-Saharan Afrcan (Congo), Northeast Inda, Southeast Asa (Indo-
Maaya, Indonesa, Papua New Gunea)
Tropical rainforests are called S0orldHs largest phar(acyHB since over
<:N of (odern (edicines originate fro( these plants
Tropical rainforests are ho(e to half of all the plant and ani(al species
on earth
Tropca ranforests are charactersed by heavy ranfa, resutng n poor so due
to eachng of nutrents
Temperatures range 15 C to 50 C. Ranfa ranges from 1250 mm to 6600 mm
Te(perate Rainforests
Temperate ranforests are ranforests that occur n the temperate zone and
receve hgh ranfa
Temperature range 4 to 12 C. Ranfa mnmum s around 1400 mm annuay
Te(perate rainforests are found in close pro$i(ity to oceansB and
usually occur in coastal (ountains& Ths s because temperate ranforests
depend on the proxmty to oceans to moderate seasons, creatng mder wnters
and cooer summers. Coasta mountans ncrease ranfa on the ocean facng
/ild?res are unco((on in te(perate forests due to the high (oisture
content in the forest
Mosses are abundant n temperate ranforests
Te(perate rainforests sustain the highest levels of "io(ass of any
terrestrial ecosyste(
Te(perate rainforests are nota"le for trees of (assive
proportionsB ncudng coast redwood, coast dougas r, skta spruce etc
Temperate ranforests are found n western North Amerca, south-western South
Amerca, Norway, northern Span, south-eastern Austraa and New Zeaand
Ranforests are typcay dvded nto four ayers, each wth dherent pants and
anmas adapted for fe n that envronment
E(ergent layer

o The highest layerB for(ed "y a s(all nu("er of very tall trees
that gro0 a"ove the general canopy
o They reach heghts of 45-55 m, occasonay even 70-80 m
o Need to be abe to wthstand hgh temperatures and strong wnds
o Eages, butteres, bats and some monkeys nhabt ths ayer
!anopy layer
o The canopy ayer conssts of the argest number of ta trees, whch
provdes a more or ess contnuous cover of foage by ad|acent treetops
o Usuay reach heghts of around 30-45 m
o The canopy layer is the densest area of "iodiversity in a
rainforest& It s estmated that the canopy ayer s home to about 50% of
a pant speces and 25% of a nsect speces
o The understory ayer es between the canopy and the forest oor
o Leaves are much arger at ths eve
o Only a"out :N of sunlight incident on the rainforest reaches the
understory layer
o Ths ayer s home to a number of brds, snakes, zards, and predators ke
|aguar, boa constrctors etc
3orest Roor
o The forest oor s the bottom most ayer
o The forest Roor receives only a"out <N of the sunlight& Ony pants
adapted to ow ght can grow n ths regon
o Due to lo0 sunlight penetrationB forest Roor is relatively clear of
vegetation& Ths makes t possbe to wak through a ranforest
Efect on glo"al cli(ate
Ranforests emt and absorb massve quanttes of carbon doxde. Undistur"ed
rainforests usually have no net i(pact on at(ospheric car"on dio$ide
2o0everB rainforests play a vital role in other cli(atic efects such as
cloud for(ation and 0ater vapour recycling
Deforestaton caused by human actvtes and drought can cause ranforests to
reease massve amounts of carbon doxde nto the atmosphere
Tropca dry forests are ocated n the tropca and subtropca attudes
These forests occur in areas that are 0ar( and receive plentiful rainfall
(several hundred centi(etres "ut e$perience long dry seasons 0hich
last several (onths& These seasona droughts have great mpact on the forest
Decduous trees domnate n these forests
Tropca dry forests are ess boogcay dverse than ranforests

However, they are home to a wde varety of wdfe ncudng monkeys, deer,
parrots, arge cats etc. 'a((alian "io(ass tends to "e higher in dry
forests than in rainforests&
During the drought season a leaRess season occurs& The sheddng of
eaves aows trees ke teak and ebony to conserve water durng these dry
When the trees enter the dry eaess season, the canopy ayer opens up
aowng sunght to reach the ground, thereby enabnggro0th of thic1
However, certan areas of tropca dry forests can have evergreen trees. Ths
happens especay when the forests are on mosture stes or have access to
Three tropca dry forest regons have evergreen forests:
o East Deccan dry evergreen forests (Inda)
o Sr Lanka dry zone evergreen forests (Sr Lanka)
o Southeastern Indochna dry evergreen forests (Camboda, Laos, Thaand,
The forests of central ,ndia are tropical dry forests
Dry forests are e$tre(ely sensitive to forest ?resB overgraAing and
deforestation& Restoraton of dry forests s possbe, but chaengng
Dry forests tend to exst north and south of the equatora ranforest bet, and
south and north of the subtropca deserts
They usuay occur n two bands: one between 10 and 20 N attudes and the
other between 10 and 20 S attudes
The (ost diverse dry forests of the 0orld are found in southern 'e$ico
and Bolivia
The dry forests of centra Inda and Indochna are notabe for ther dverse and
arge vertebrate fauna
Other tropca dry forests are found n New Caedona, Madagascar, south
eastern Afrca and the Pacc coast of South Amerca
Te(perate "roadleaf and (i$ed forests are a te(perate and hu(id
"io(e (ecological syste(
These forests typcay have four ayers
o Canopy ayer: contans mature trees 100-200 ft hgh
o Understory: shade toerant ayer of trees that grow to about 30-50 feet
shorter than the canopy
o Shrub ayer: ow growng woody pants
o Herbaceous ayer: ths s the ground cover, most dverse ayer

!haracteristic "roadleaf trees these forests include oa1sB "irchesB
"eeches and (aples& 'i$ed trees are "asically coniferous trees such as
pinesB ?rs and spruces
Areas of temperate broadeaf and mxed forests ncude northeast USA, northern
Inda, eastern Austraa, New Zeaand, southwest Chna
Te(perate "roadleaf and (i$ed forests occur in areas 0ith distinct
0ar( and cool seasonsB 0ith (oderate annual average te(perature (:%
=: !
They usuay occur n moderatey warm and rany cmates, sometmes wth a
dstnct dry season
Annua ranfa s typcay over 600 mm and sometmes over 1500 mm
Taiga is a "io(e characterised "y coniferous forests
The Taiga is the 0orldHs largest terrestrial "io(e
The taga experences reatvey ow precptaton (250mm - 750 mm), mosty n
the form of fog, snow and summer ran. However, snce evaporaton s aso ow,
there s enough mosture to enabe dense vegetaton growth
Taga sos tend to be young and nutrent-poor. The so tends to be acdc and
hence the forest oor ony has chens and mosses growng
The taga has harsh contnenta cmate and arge range of temperatures: -54 C
to 27 C
Except for the tundra and permanent ce caps, the taga s the codest bome on
There are two man types of taga:
o !losed forest: cosey spaced trees wth mossy ground cover
o )ichen 0oodland: trees that are farther apart and have chen ground
cover. More common n coder areas
In the northern taga areas, forest cover s not ony sparse but aso stunted
The forests of taiga are (ainly coniferous consisting of larchB spruceB
?r and pine
Taga trees tend to have shaow roots to take advantage of thn sos.
Snce the sun s ow on the horzon most of the tme, t s dmcut to
photosynthesse. Pne and spruce do not ose ther eaves n wnter and can
photosynthesse usng ther oder eaves
The adaptation of evergreen needles (on pines li(its 0ater lost to
transpiration and the dar1 green colour increases sunlight a"sorption

The taiga covers (ost of !anadaB *las1aB S0edenB 3inlandB -or0ayB the
Scottish 2ighlands and Russia& It s aso found n parts of northern USA,
northern Kazakhstan, northern Mongoa and northern |apan
Large areas of Sberas taga have been destroyed n recent years
In Canada, ess than 8% s protected deveopment and more than 50% has been
aocated for oggng
The taga s home to a arge number herbvorous mammas and smaer rodents
Some of the anmas, ke bears, eat n summer and hbernate n wnter. Others
have evoved ayers of fur to nsuate them from the cod
Due to the cli(ateB carnivorous diets are ineUcient for o"taining
A sgncant number of brds ke Sberan thrush, whte throated sparrow, back
throated green warber mgrate to the taga to take advantage of ong summer

Division of Ocean depths
The Word Ocean s a goba, nterconnected contnuous body of sane
water. *ppro$i(ately K=N of the earthHs surface is covered "y the ocean
For human convenence, the ocean has been dvded nto severa smaer
dvsons known as oceans and seas
There are ve ma|or dvsons of the word ocean: Pacc Ocean, Atantc Ocean,
Indan Ocean, Arctc Ocean and Southern Ocean
Evaporaton of water from the oceans s the source of most ranfa, and ocean
temperatures determne cmate and wnd patterns on and
)ife 0ithin the ocean evolved a"out 9 "illion years prior to life on
land& More than 230,000 marne fe forms are currenty known, but the actua
number may be 10 tmes as much
Physical properties
The tota area of word ocean s 361 x 10
sq km, and voume s approx 1.3
bon cu km
The average depth of the ocean is 9K;D ( and (a$i(u( depth is
=DB;<9 (
The average densty of sea water s 1.025 g/m and has a freezng pont of -2 C
Sea water contans more dssoved ons than a types of freshwater, especay
sodum and chorde. On average, sea 0ater has a salinity of 9&: N&
The causes of high salinity of sea 0ater include
o Rver runoh causng concentraton of sodum n the ocean
o Sodum eachng out of the ocean oor when the ocean was formed
o Chorde abundance due to vocanc actvty and hydrotherma vents on
the ocean oor
Ocean santy has been stabe for bons of years
Sea level
'ean Sea )evel ('S) is a (easure of the average height of the
oceanHs surface
Mean Sea eve s usuay taken to be the haf way pont between mean hgh tde
and mean ow tde
Sea eve change can be measured n two ways
o )ocal change: oca mean sea eve can be ahected by vertca
movement of and, and changes n atmospherc pressure, ocean currents
and oca ocean temperature
o Eustatic change: s the ateraton of goba sea eves, such as changes
n voume of water n the word oceans and changes n voume of ocean
Short ter( changes n sea eve can arse from tdes, atmospherc pressure,
storm surges, E Nno etc

'ediu( ter( changes n sea eve arse many from two factors: atmospherc
temperature and the mass of water ocked up as fresh water n rvers, akes,
gacers, ce caps etc
#eological changes n sea eves many arse from changes n the
conguraton of contnents and sea oors due to pate tectoncs and seaoor
On a geoogca tme scae, long ter( sea level has al0ays "een higher
than today (except at the Perman-Trassc boundary 250 mon years ago). As
a resut, sea eve s more key to rse than fa today, even due to sma
changes n cmate
Over the past =DD yearsB sea level has "een rising at an average of =&6
(( per year& The ma|orty of ths rse s attrbuted to therma expanson of
ocean water due to ncrease n ocean temperatures
'*R,-E #EO#R*P24
Oceanic "asins
Oceanc basns are arge geoogc basns (arge scae rock strata) that are beow
sea eve
In a sense, oceanc basns are the compement to contnents
Ocean basns serve as sedmentary basns that coect sedments eroded from
Ocean basns can be actvey changng or nactve dependng on pate tectoncs.
The Atantc and Antarctc Ocean basns are actvey growng whe the
Medterranean s shrnkng. Inactve ocean basns ncude the Guf of Mexco, the
Sea of |apan and the Berng Sea
The continental shelf is the e$tended peri(eter of a continent 0hich is
currently under sea
Contnenta sheves were part of the contnents durng gaca perods (when sea
eves were ow) but are under sea durng ntergaca perods (ke today)
The contnenta shef usuay ends at a pont of decreasng sope, caed
the shelf "rea1. The sea oor beow the shef break s caed the continental
slope. Beow the sope s the continental rise, whch merges nto the deep
ocean oor (caed a"yssal plain)
Due to the availa"ility of sunlight in shallo0 0atersB continental
shelves tee( 0ith life, compared to the botc deserts n the deep ocean
abyssa pans
Contnenta sheves consst of thck sedments from the contnents
!ontinental shelves e$tend on average a"out 6D 1( fro( the coast& The
argest shef, the Sberan Shef n the Arctc Ocean, stretches to about 1500 km,
whe certan areas have no sheves at a such as the coast of Che and the west
coast of Sumatra (Indonesa)

The United -ations !onvention on the )a0 of the Sea (U-!)OS de?nes
the e$tent and regulates usage of continental shelves "y sovereign
o The contnenta shef was dened as the natural prolongation of land
to the continental (arginHs outer edgeB or <DD nautical (iles fro(
the coast, whchever s greater.
o However, the shef s to not exceed 350 nautca mes, and t s to not
exceed 100 nautca mes beyond the 2500m sobath
o The coastal nations have the e$clusive right to harvest (ineral
and non%living (aterial in the su"soil of the continental shelf
o Coasta states aso have excusve rghts to vng resources "attached" to
the shef, but not to creatures vng there freey
'id Ocean Ridges
A md ocean rdge s an underwater mountan range formed by pate tectoncs
Md ocean rdges are caused by seaoor spreadng .e. magma rsng through the
crust and emergng as ava whch then coos to form new oceanc crust
A md ocean rdge demarcates the boundary between two tectonc pates, and s
caed a dvergent pate boundary
The varous md-ocean rdges of the word are connected and form a snge
goba md ocean rdge system whch covers every ocean. Thus, the (id ocean
ridge syste( is the longest (ountain range in the 0orld (over 65,000 km)
'id ocean ridges are geologically activeB 0ith ne0 (ag(a constantly
e(erging onto the ocean Roor
Ocean Trenches
Ocean trenches are arge scae ong but narrow depressons on the sea
oor. They are the deepest parts of the ocean Roor
Trenches are found at convergent pate boundares, where one pate subducts
(descends) beneath another. On average, oceanc crust moves nto trenches at a
rate of about 0.1 sq m per second
They are usuay ocated parae to vocanc arcs at a dstance of about 200 km
Ocean trenches typcay extend about 3-4 km beow the eve of the surroundng
sea oor
The deepest ocean depth 1no0n is the !hallenger Deep point of the
'ariana Trench in the Paci?c Ocean (=DB;== (
Trench )ocation Depth -otes
Western Pacc
Phppnes and
1 m
Deepest known part of the ocean
Lowest eevaton on the surface of the
earths crust
Maxmum depth s recorded at
Chaenger Deep, a sma vaey at ts
southern end
Formed by the subducton of Pacc
pate under Marana pate
Tonga Trench Southern Pacc 10,88 Formed by subducton of Pacc pate

(near New
2 m under Tonga pate and Indo-Austraan
Fastest pate veocty recorded on
earth (24 cm per year)
Northern Pacc 10,54
2 m
(Pacc Ocean)
0 m
New Zeaand
(Pacc Ocean)
7 m
E$traterrestrial oceans
The earth s the ony known panet to have qud water on ts surface
However, li5uid 0ater is 1no0n to "e present under the surface on
FupiterHs (oons Europa, and possby on Ganymede and Casto
It s beeved that Venus once had qud water and oceans on ts surface, but
they have now vanshed
SaturnHs (oon Titan is thought to have su"terranean 0ater ocean
under its crust (whch conssts of ce and hydrocarbons)
O!E*-,! 2*B,T*TS
!oral reefs are aragonite structures for(ed "y living ani(al
colonies&Aragonte s a carbonate mnera, one of the two ma|or naturay
occurrng crystane forms of cacum carbonate (the other beng cacte)
Reefs consst mosty of stony coras. These coras are but from poyps that
secrete an exoskeeton of cacum carbonate
Cora reefs grow best n shaow, cear, sunny waters. They are usuay found n
shaow depths n the tropcs, but deep cod water reefs aso exst athough on a
much smaer scae
!oral reefs are so(e of the richest and (ost diverse ecosyste(s in the
0orld& They occupy ess than 1% of word ocean surface, but provde habtat to
about 25% of a marne speces
Reefs are found n ocean waters contanng few nutrents. Hgh nutrent eves,
such as found n agrcutura runoh, can harm reefs by encouragng excess agae
Cora reefs are under threat from cmate change, ocean acdcaton, overshng
and overuse of reef resources
!oral reef )ocation -otes
Great Barrer
Largest cora reef system n the word
Words bggest structure made by vng
Area of approx 344,000 sq km
Beze Barrer
Beze Second argest cora reef n the word
Part of the Mesoamercan Barrer Reef that
stretches aong eastern coast of Centra Amerca

from Mexco to Honduras
New Caedona
Barrer Reef
French terrtory n southwest Pacc
Home to endangered dugong, and nestng ste
for green sea turte
Barrer Reef
Red Sea Cora
Red Sea
Puey Rdge Forda, USA
Deepest photosynthetc cora reef n the word
(about 60-80 m)
Madves Indan ocean Conssts of about 1200 cora sands
Ra|a Ampat
Indonesa Contans the hghest marne fe dversty n the
Deep sea and trenches
As the ocean depth ncreases, sunght decreases and water pressure ncreases.
In genera, sunght s not abe to penetrate the ocean water beyond a depth of
<DD (& This depth is considered to "e the "eginning of aphotic
Aone (deep sea). Unusua and unque creatures nhabt these depths ncudng
gant squd, guper ee, anger sh and vampre squd
,n the trenchesB 0ater pressure is e$tre(e and sunlight is non
e$istent& However, sma ounder sh (famy Soedae) and shrmp have been
observed even at these depths
Seamounts (extnct undersea vocanoes that rse to shaow depths) provde
natura habtats for sh and other speces to spawn and feed
2ydrother(al vents on the ocean Roor support uni5ue life
for(sB dervng essenta nutrents from the chemcas reeased by vocanc
Open Ocean
The open ocean s reatvey unproductve due to ack of nutrents. However,
smpy due to ts vastness, t possesses the argest number of fe forms n tota
,n the aphotic AoneB energy for life for(s is (ainly supplied in the for(
of detritus, whch s non vng organc matera consstng of dead organsms
and feca matera
The open ocean conssts many of |ey sh and ts predators ke the moa moa
,ntertidal and shores
Intertda zones are those areas cose to the shore, whch are constanty beng
covered and exposed by the tdes
These areas can be underwater anywhere from day to very nfrequenty
A huge array of fe forms s found n ths zone. Ths ncudes crabs, snas etc
Earth Ocean !urrents
Actua transportaton of water from one part of ocean to another. Because of
dherences n densty, santy, temperature of ocean waters, rotaton of earth,

shape of coastne and the prevang wnds.Currents crcuate n cockwse drecton
n Northern Hemsphere and n ant-cockwse drecton n Southern Hemsphere.
!urrents in Paci?c Ocean
a& 'orth-()uatorial Current (Warm): Fows across from east to west, .e., from
North Amerca t reaches the Phppnes.
*& +uroshio Current (Warm): N. Eq. current aong the Phppnes, Tawan & |apan
coast form ths current. From the S.E. |apan the current, under the nuence of
prevang westeres, ows rght across the ocean.
%& ,fter rea%hing the #est %oast of '& ,meri%a- it *ifur%ates into
*ran%hes :
i. Alasca Current (Warm) : Aong the coast of Brtsh Coumba & Aasca.
ii. California Current (Cold) : It moves southward aong the coast of Caforna
d. Oyashio Current (Cold) : Fows aong the east coast of Kamchatka pennsua.
e. Okhotsk Current (Cold) : Comes from the N. Poe & merges wth the Oyasho
f. East Australian Current (Warm): Fows from east to west n S. Pacc Ocean.
. !eru Current (Cold): Cod current near the west coast of S. Amerca.
!urrents of *tlantic Ocean
a. "uinea Current (Warm) : Fows oh the W. Afrcan coast (hot).
b. #lorida Current (Warm) : Aong the coast of US up to the cape Hatterus.
c. "ulf Stream (Warm) : Beyond the Cape Hatterus up to the Grand Banks
New Found Land, orda current s known as Guf Stream. From the Grand Banks the
Guf Stream moves eastward across the Atantc as the Atantc Drft.
d. Atlantic $rift di%ides into & branches:
i . 'or(aian Current: The man current passes aong the Norway coast & enters the
Arctc Ocean.
ii . Canary Current : The south branch of N. Atantc drft ows near Span by ths
e. & Cold Currents : The East Greenand Current & the Labrador Current ows from
the Arctc Ocean nto the Atantc Ocean.The Labrader Current meets the Guf
Stream. The nuence of these 2 currents produces the famous fogs around New
Found Land. |Most busy shng ground of the word|
f. )ra*il Current (Warm) : Fows aong the S. Amercan coast from North to South
. )enuela Current (Cold) : Cod current from S. to N near the Cape of Good
h. #alkland Current (Cold) : Cod owng aong the S.E. coast of S. Amerca from S. to
N. (meets the Braz current)
Currents of the Indian .%ean
The currents n the N. Indan Ocean dher entrey from the genera pattern of
crcuaton. They change ther drecton from season to season n response to the
seasona rhythm of the monsoons.
In wnters the N. Equatora current & the S. Equatora current ows from East to
+o*ambi,ue Current : Warm current owng through the Mozambque
Aulhas Current : Warm current at the South-East coast of Afrca.

/orld !ontinents
Asa, Afrca, North Amerca, South Amerca, Europe, Austraa and Antarctca are the
seven contnents of the word.
These seven contnents were beeved to be part of Pangaea whch was a snge
andmass around 250 mon years ago.
Due to the tectonc movement, the andmass broke up and the component
contnents separated and moved away to ts present poston. A these took around
1 mon years to compete.
Pangaea was surrounded by a sea, the Panthaassa.
The contnents of the word map w gve you nformaton about the geographca
postons of the contnents as we as ther potca dvsons.
The Contnents of the Word,
Asa Contnents Countres
Afrca Contnents Countres
North Amerca Contnents Countres
South Amerca Contnents Countres
Europe Contnents Countres
Austraa Contnents Countres
Antarctca Contnents Countres
/orld !ontinents: So(e 3acts
!ontinents Biggest
2ighest Pea1 )ongest
Asa Chna Mt. Everest (8850 m) Yangtze
Afrca Sudan Mt. Kman|aro (5895 m) Ne
Canada Mt. Mckney (6194 m)
Braz Mt. Aconcagua (6960 m) Amazon
Europe Russa Mt. Ebrus (5642 m) Ob
Austraa Austraa Mt. Coscusco (2228 m) Darng
Antarctca - Vnson Massf (5140 m) -

-a(e *rea in s5&1(
*ppro$& N of
0orld8s land
Asa 44,493,000 29.6
Afrca 30,293,000 20.2
North Amerca 24,454,000 16.3
South Amerca 17,838,000 11.9
Antarctca 13,975,000 9.3
Europe 10,245,000 6.7
Oceana 8,945,000 6.0
*griculture : Top : Producers
Chna, Inda, Indonesa, Bangadesh,
Wheat Chna, Inda, USA, Russa, France
Maze USA, Chna, Braz, Mexco, Argentna
Groundnut Chna, Inda, Ngera, USA, Indonesa
Tea Inda, Chna, Sr Lanka, Kenya, Turkey
Cotton Chna, USA, Inda, Pakstan, Braz
Indonesa, Thaand, Maaysa, Inda,
Braz, Vetnam, Indonesa, Coomba,
Braz, Inda, Chna, Myanmar, Mexco
T4PES O3 !U)T,C*T,O-:
Ony 11% of tota andmass of the word comes under the agrcutura actvty n
whch 50% of words popuaton s engaged. Foowng types of agrcuture are
generay practced n the word.
=& Shifting *griculture:
Ths prmtve form of agrcuture s prevaent n the trbes of torpca forest,
whch s aso caed sash and burn agrcuture and bush-feow agrcuture.
Shftng agrcuture s caed Bewar, Deha, Peda n M.P. and Chattsgarh, Podu n
Andhra Pradesh, Kaman, Bngaand Dhav n Orssa, Kumar n Keraa etc.
<& Su"sistence *griculture:
Ths type of agrcuture s done for the consumpton of farmers famy nvovng
many farmng of food grans. Subsstences agrcuture s practced n the
monsoona cmatc regons of Asa n whch maxmum utzaton of agrcutura and
s done.
9& !o((ercial *griculture:
In ths agrcuture practced many by the deveoped countres, crops are grown
for the commerca purpose. Wheat s the most mportant food crop.
I& ,ntensive *griculture:

The man purpose of ths agrcuture, practced n the regons of hgh popuaton
densty, s to extract maxmum producton from the mnmum agrcutura and.
Intensve subsstence agrcuture s practced n the deveopng countres and
ntensve commerca agrcuture s practced n the deveoped countres.
:& E$tensive *griculture:
Ths agrcuture nvoves growng of crops by the modern scentc methods on
arge farms n whch mnmum abor and maxmum use of machnes are done. In
ths agrcuture per hectare producton s very ow but per abour and tota
producton s very hgh. The regons of temperature Grassands are noted for
extensve agrcuture.
J& Plantation *griculture:
Aso caed estate farmng, n ths type of commerca agrcuture huge amount of
capta and abour s requred Banana n the West Indes, Centra Amerca and
Ecuadore; sugarcane n Cuba and Venezuea; cohee on the pateau of Braz and
Coumba; Coco n West Afrca; tea and cohee on East Afrca Pateau; Tea n North
East Inda and Sr Lanka; Rubber n Thaand, Indonesa and Maaysa and coconut n
Phppnes are ma|or pantaton crops. The deveopment of ths agrcuture has
taken pace many n the coasta areas of tropca regons, where facty of marne
navgaton s avaabe for the export of agrcutura products.
K& 'i$ed *griculture:
In the mxed agrcuture both crops and ve stocks are rased for the commerca
purpose. Ths type of agrcuture s practced many n the densey popuated areas
of deveoped countres.
6& 'i$ed !ropping:
In ths agrcuture crops of dherent maturty perod are grown smutaneousy n
a farm.
;& 'ultiple !ropping:
It refers to growng of two or more crops aternatvey on farm wthn the same
=D& !rop Rotation:
In ths, dherent crops are grown n a systematc successon n each ed of a
farm for the mantenance of so nutrents for a ong tme.
==& Dry 3ar(ing:
Farmng done wthout the facty of rrgaton n the regons of nadequate ranfa
s caed dry farmng.
=<& Truc1 3ar(ing:
The ntensve, specazed producton of fresh vegetabes, fruts and owers at
consderabe dstances from the metropotan markets s caed truck farmng n
whch the produce s sod. When t s ess specazed and nearer to the market, t s
caed market gardenng. Truck farmng s practced on arge scae n Forda and
Caforna of USA, Brtan, France, Denmark, Itay etc.

3a(ous ,ndustrialised !ountries of the /orld
!ountry *ssociated ,ndustry
Carpets, woo and dry
Austraa Wheat, woo, meat
Austra Machnery, Textes
Begum Gass, Textes
Braz Cohee
Canada Wheat, Newsprnt
Che Copper
Chna Rce, Wheat, Sk
Cuba Sugar, Tobacco
Denmark Dary Products
England Te$tilesB 'achinery
Fnand Textes
France Textes, Wne
Germany Machnery
Inda Mca, Tea, |ute, Textes
Indonesa Rubber, Cnchona
Iran Petroeum, Carpets
Iraq Petroeum, Dates
|apan Eectroncs, Automobes
Itay Mercury, Texte
Kuwat Petroeum
Maaysa Tn, Rubber
Mexco Sver
Netherands Eectrca goods
Heavy Machnery,
Saud Araba O and Dates
Span Lead
Sweden Matches
Swtzerand Watches
Tawan Camphor
South Afrca
God and Damond
U.S.A Automobes, Machnery

To0ns *ssociated 0ith ,ndustries
Town (Country) Assocated Industry
Baku (Azerba|an) Petroeum
Bangkok (Thaand) Shp budng
Befast (Ireand) Shp budng
Buenos Ares (Argentna) Meat
Cadz (Portuga) Cork
Chcago (U.S.A) Agrcutura mpements, Meat
Coogne (Germany) Cotton and wooen Industres
Dhaka (Bangadesh) |ute
Detrot (U.S.A) Motor cars
Dresden (Germany) Optca and photographc apparatus
Gasgow (Great Brtan) Machnery
Havana (Cuba) Tobacco, Cgars
Hoywood (U.S.A) Fm Industry
|ohannesburg (S. Afrca) God mnes
Kmberay (S. Afrca) Damond mnng
Leeds (Engand) Wooen Goods
Lyons (France) Sk Industres
Manchester (Engand) Cotton Industry
Maurtus (Indan Ocean) Fshng, Shppng, Sugar
Man (Itay) Sk
Morocco (North Afrca) Leather
Munch (Germany) Lenses
New Oreans (U.S.A.) Cotton ndustry
Osaka (|apan) Cotton fabrcs
Pttsburg (U.S.A.) Iron and Stee
Pymouth (Engand) Shp-budng
Shemed (Engand) Cutery
Vence (Itay) Gass manufacturng
Venna (Austra) Gass manufacturng
Wengton (New Zeaand) Dary Product

BiggestB 2ighestB )argestB )ongest in the /orld
Taest Anma n the Word Grahe
Largest Archpeago n the Word Indonesa
Fastest Brd n the Word Swft
Largest Brd n the Word Ostrch
Smaest Brd n the Word Hummng Brd
Longest Raway Brdge n the Word
Huey P. Long Brdge, Lousana
Taest Budng n the word Bur| Duba, UAE
Cana, Longest Irrgatona The Kaakumsky Cana
Longest Cana n the Word Suez Cana
Hghest Capta n the Word La Paz (Bova)
Bggest Cty n Area n the Word Mount Isa (Austraa)
Largest Cty n Popuaton n the Word Tokyo
Costest Cty n the Word Tokyo
Hghest Cty n the Word Van Chuan ( Chna )
Largest Contnent n the Word Asa
Smaest Contnent n the Word Austraa
Bggest Country n the Word by Area Russa
Largest Country n the Word by Popuaton Chna
Largest Country n the Word by Eectorate Inda
Largest Creature n the Word Bue whae
Largest Deta n the Word Sunderban ( Bangadesh & Inda )
Largest Desert n the Word Sahara ( Afrca )
Largest Desert n Asa Gob
Largest Dam n the Word Grand Couee Dam ( U.S.A )
Dam Hghest n the Word Hoover Dam ( U.S.A )
Damond Largest n the Word The Cunan
Largest Dome n the Word Astrodome, n Housten ( U.S.A )
Largest Epc n the Word Mahabharat
Largest Irrgaton Scheme n the Word Loyd Barrage, Sukkhur ( Pakstan )
Largest Isand n the Word Greenand
Largest Sea n the Word Medterranean Sea
Deepest Lake n the Word Baka ( Sbera )
Largest Lake ( Artca ) n the Word Lake Mead ( Bouder Dam )
Hghest Lake n the Word Ttcaca (Bova)

Largest Lake (Fresh water) n the Word Superor
Largest Lake (Sat water) n the Word Caspan
Largest Lbrary n the Word
Unted States Lbrary of Congress,
Washngton D.C
Hghest Mountan Peak n the Word Everest ( Nepa )
Longest Mountan Range n the Word Andes ( S. Amerca )
Largest Museum n the Word Brtsh Museum, London
Largest Ocean n the Word Pacc
Bggest Paace n the Word Vatcan ( Itay )
Largest Park n the Word Yeow Stone Natona Park ( U.S.A )
Largest Pennsua n the Word Araba
Codest Pace (Habtated) n the Word Verkhoyansk (Sbera)
Dryest Pace n the Word Iqque ( n Atacama Desert, Che )
Hottest Pace n the Word Azza ( Lbya, Afrca )
Ranest Pace n the Word Mausnram ( Meghaaya, Inda )
Bggest Panet n the Word |upter
Brghtest Panet n the Word Venus
Smaest Panet n the Word Mercury
Hghest Pateau n the Word Pamr ( Tbet )
Longest Patform n the Word Kharagpur ( Inda )
Longest Raway n the Word Trans - Sberan raway
Largest Raway Staton n the Word
Grand Centra Termna, Chcago
( U.S.A )
Longest Rver n the Word Ne ( Afrca )
Largest Rver n the Word Amazon ( S. Amerca )
Largest Sea-brd n the Word Abatross
Brghtest Star n the Word Srus
Taest Statue n the Word
Statue of Motherand, Vogograd
( Russa )
Largest Teescope Rado n the Word New Mexco ( U.S.A )
Word's Tramway rst n the Word New York
Longest Tunne (Raway) n the Word Tanna ( |apan )
Longest Tunne (road) n the Word
Mont Banc Tunne between France
and Itay
Hghest Vocano O|os de Saado ( Andes, Ecuador )
Most Vocano Actve n the Word Maunaoa ( Hawa - U.S.A )
Longest Wa n the Word Great Wa of Chna

Hghest Waterfa n the Word Ange ( Venezuea )
Lowest Water body n the Word Dead Sea
Largest Zoo n the Word Kruger Natona Park, South Afrca
,(portant Boundaries
Durand Lne Pakstan & Afghanstan
MacMohan Lne Inda & Chna
Radche Lne Inda & Pakstan
Magnot Lne France & Germany
Oder Nesse Lne Germany & Poand
Hndenberg Lne
Poand & Germany (at the tme of Frst
Word War)
38th Parae North & South Korea
49th Parae USA & Canada
,(portant !ities on River Ban1s (/orld
Adeade Austraa Torrens
Amsterdam Netherands Amse
Aexandra Egypt Ne
Ankara Turkey Kaz
Bangkok Thaand Chao Praya
Basra Iraq Eupharates and Tgrs
Baghdad Iraq Tgrs
Bern Germany Spree
Bonn Germany Rhne
Budapest Hungary Danube
Brsto UK Avon
Buenos Ares Argentna Lapata
Chttagong Bangadesh Ma|yan
Canton Chna S-Kang
Caro Egypt Ne
Chung Kng Chna Yang-tse-kng
Coogne Germany Rhne
Dandzng Germany Vstua
Dresden Germany Ebe
Dubn Ireand Lhy
Hamburg Germany Ebe
Kabu Afghanstan Kabu
Karach Pakstan Indus
Khartoum Sudan
Conuence of Bue & Whte
Lahore Pakstan Rav
Lenngrad Russa Neva
Lsbon Portuga Tagus
Lverpoo Engand Messey
London Engand Thames
Moscow Russa Moskva

Adeade Austraa Torrens
Amsterdam Netherands Amse
Montrea Canada St. Lawrence
Nankng France Yang-tse-kang
New Oreans USA Mssssp
New York USA Hudson
Ottawa Canada Ottawa
Pars France Sene
Phadepha USA Deaware
Perth Austraa Swan
Prague Czech Repubc Vtava
Ouebec Canada St. Lawrence
Rome Itay Tber
Rotterdam The
New Mass
Stangrad Russa Voga
Shangha Chna Yang-tse-kang
Sdney Austraa Darng
Sant Lous USA Mssssp
Tokyo |apan Arakava
Venna Austra Danube
Warsaw Poand Vstua
Washngton D.C USA Potomac
Yangoon Myanmar Irrawaddy
,(portant )a1es of the /orld
)a1e )ocation *rea (S5&L(
Caspan Russa and CIS 371000
Superor Canada and USA 82414
Vctora Tanzana (Afrca) 69485
Huron Canada and USA 59596
Mchgan USA 58016
Tanganyka Afrca 32892
Baka Russa (CIS) 31502
Great Bear Canada 31080
Maaw Maaw (Tanzana) 30044
Great Save Canada 28438
More than 60% of the words akes are n Canada;
ths s because of the deranged dranage system that
domnates the country.

Adeade Austraa Torrens
Amsterdam Netherands Amse
Fnand s known as "The and of Thousand Lakes".
The US State of Mnnesota s known as The Land of
Ten Thousand Lakes.
The words owest ake s the Dead Sea, borderng
Israe, |ordan at 395 m beow sea eve.
Lake Huron has the ongest ake coastne n the
word: about 2980 km, excudng the coastne of ts
many nner sands.
,(portant Straits of the /orld
S(allest and Biggest !ountries
Biggest -ations (*rea
% /ise
Biggest -ations
(Population % /ise
Russa Chna
Canada Inda
Chna USA
USA Indonesa
Braz Braz
Austraa Pakstan
Inda Bangadesh
Argentna Ngera
Kazakhstan Russa

Straits /ater Bodies
Red Sea &
Araban Sea
Araba & Afrca
Berng Arctc Ocean &
Berng Sea
Aaska & Asa
Back Sea &
Marmara Sea
Dover North Sea &
Atantc Ocean
Engand & Europe
Forda Guf of Mexco &
Atantc Ocean
Forda & Bahamas
Gbrater Medterranean
Sea & Atantc
Span & Afrca
Maacca |ava Sea & Bay of
Inda & Indonesa
Pak Bay of Benga &
Indan Ocean
Inda & Sr Lanka
Magean South Pacc &
South Atantc
Sunda |ava Sea & Indan

Adeade Austraa Torrens
Amsterdam Netherands Amse
Biggest -ations (*rea
% /ise
Biggest -ations
(Population % /ise
Sudan |apan
S(allest -ations (*rea
% /ise
S(allest -ations
(Population % /ise
Vatcan Cty Vatcan Cty
Monaco Tuvau
Nauru Nauru
Tuvau Paau
San Marno San Marno
Lechtensten Monaco
Marsha Isands Lechtensten
Sant Ktts and Nevs Sant Ktts and Nevs
Madves Antgua and Barbados
Mata Domnca
,(portant Ores of the 0orld
Iron Ore Chna, Braz,
Ch, Peru, USA
Tn Chna, Indonesa,
Lead Chna, Austraa, USA
Znc Chna, Austraa, Peru
South Afrca, USA,
Chna, Russa,
Cement Chna, Inda, USA
Saud Araba, Russa,
Russa, USA, Canada
Sver Peru, Mexco, Chna
Coa Chna, USA, Inda

Adeade Austraa Torrens
Amsterdam Netherands Amse

Geography of Inda
Index Topc Page no
1. Physca Geography of Inda 75
2. Dranage system of Inda 82
3. Cmate 91
4. Sos of nda 95
5. Natura Vegtaton of Inda 101
6. Source of Irrgaton 116
7. Mut Purpose Pro|ects 118
8. Agrcuture n Inda 126
9. Anma Husbandary 150
10. Industres 156
11. Mneras 167
12. Transportaton and communcaton of Inda 181
13. Demography of Inda 189

,ndian #eographical )ocation
Inda s the seventh argest country n the word whch makes t obvous for the
country to have vast geographca features. The map on geography of Inda by
mapsonda tres to contan the massve geographca detas of the country on a
map, for your convenence.
There are as many as 28 states n Inda, ocated n the tota area of 3,287,263
km2. The argest of a Indan states s Ra|asthan whch covers an area of 342240 sq
km. The state of Ra|asthan shares ts border wth Pakstan on the West, Gu|arat on
the South West, Madhya Pradesh on the South East and Pun|ab to the North.
Goa s the smaest state n Inda ocated merey n 3702 sq km. The state of
Goa s ocated to the South West of Inda and s the most prosperous of a the
states n the country. Uttar Pradesh yng to the North East of the country s the
most popuous country n Inda. The state of Gu|arat yng on the extreme west of
Inda s one of the most prosperous of a Indan states. The awe strkngy beautfu
|ammu and Kashmr s the northernmost state n the country.
Indas eastern border s equpped by states of Manpur, Meghaaya, Assam,
Mzoram, Nagaand, Trpura and Arunacha Pradesh. A these states together are
ocated n the 7% of the tota area n the country. The unon terrtores n the
country are seven n number. Deh, the capta of Inda aso fas under the category.
The other unon terrtores of the country ncude Chandgarh ocated to the North of
the country, Dadra and Nagar Have and Daman and Du ocated to the West of the
country, Lakshadweep ocated to the South West of the country, Puducherry ocated
to the South East of the country and Andaman and Ncobar Isands ocated to the
South East of the country.
Lyng between attude 4 N to 376 N and from ongtude 687 E to 9725 E,
the country s dvded nto amost equa parts by the Tropc of Cancer (passes from
|abapur n MP).The southernmost pont n Indan Terrtory, (n Great Ncobar Isand)
s the Indra Pont (645), whe Kanyakumar, aso known as Cape Comorn, s the
southernmost pont of Indan manand. The country thus es whoy n the northern
and eastern hemspheres. The 8230 E ongtude s taken as the Standard Tme
Merdan of Inda, as t passes through the mdde of Inda (from Nan, near
*rea #eography M Boundaries #eography
1. Inda stretches 3,214 km from North to South & 2,933 km from East to West.
2. Geography Area of Inda : 32,87,263 sq. km. Accounts for 2.4% of the tota word
area and roughy 16% of the word popuaton.
3. Manand Inda has a coastne of 6,100 km. Incudng the Lakshadweep and
Andaman and Ncobar Isands, the coastne measures about 7516.6 km.
4. In Inda, of the tota and mass:
Pans Geography : 43.3%
Pateaus : 27.7%
Hs : 18.6%
Mountans Geography : 10.7%
5. In the South, on the eastern sde, the Guf of Mannar & the Pak Strat separate
Inda from Sr Lanka.
6. Tota and neghbours: 7 (Pakstan, Afghanstan, Chna, Nepa, Bhutan,
Bangadesh and Myanmar).
7. Indas Isands ncude the Andaman & Ncobar Isands n Bay of Benga and
Lakshadweep, Mncoy & Amndve Isands n the Araban Sea.

,ndian Physiography
Physographcay, Inda can be dvded nto 3 unts:
1. Mountans n the North
2. Pans n the Northern Inda & the Coast
3. Pateau regon of the South
To these can be added the fourth, namey, the coasts and sands
'ountains of ,ndia
The 2i(alayas in ,ndia
Means Abode of Snow. They are one of the youngest fod mountan ranges n
the word and comprse many sedmentary rocks.
They stretch from the Indus Rver n the west to the Brahmaputra Rver n the
east. Tota ength s about 5000 km. The wdth of the Hmaayas vares from 500
km n
Kashmr to 200 km n Arunacha Pradesh. Ther average heght s 2000m.
The Eastern Hmaayas - made up of Patka Hs, Naga Hs, Mzo Hs and the
Garo, Khas and |anta Hs - are aso known as Purvancha.
The Pamr, popuary known as the Roof of the Word, s the connectng nk
between the Hmaayas and the hgh ranges of Centra Asa.
Can be dvded nto 3 parae or ongtudna zones, each wth separate features :
The #reat 2i(alayas or The 2i(adri
Average eevaton extends upto 6000m & some of the words hghest peaks are
here :
Mt Everest (or Sagarmatha or Chomo Langma) 8850 m (n Nepa)
Mt Kanchen|unqa 8598 m (n Inda)
Mt Makau 8481 m (n Nepa)
Mt Dhauaqr 8172 m (n Nepa)
Mt Cho Oyu 8153m (n Nepa)
Mt Nanga Parbat 8126m (n Inda)
Mt Annapurna 8078 m (n Nepa)
Mt Nanda Dev 7817 m (n Inda)
There are few passes and amost a of them have a heght above 4,500 m. they
ncude Shpk La and Bara Lapcha La n Hmacha Pradesh, Burz and Zoz La n
Kashmr, Nt, Lpuekh and Thag La n Uttarankhand, and |eep La and Nathu La n
)esser 2i(alayas or The 2i(achal
Average heght of mountans s 3700 - 4500 m.
Mountans and vaeys are dsposed n a drecton ( mountans rsng to 5000 m
and the vaeys touchng 1000 m ).

Its mportant ranges are : Dhauadhar, Pr Pan|a, Nag Tbba, Mussoore.
Important h resorts are : Shma, Chha, Rankhet, Chakrata, Mussoore,
Nanta, Amora, Dar|eeng.
Outer 2i(alayas or The Shi0ali1s
Lowest range ( average eevaton s 900 - 1200 m ).
Forms the fooths and es between the Lesser Hmaayas and the pans. It s the
newest range.
Trans 7 2i(alayan Vone
Ths range es to the north of the Great Hmaayas. It has some mportant ranges
ke Karakoram, Laddakh, Zanskar, etc. the hghest peak n ths regon s K2 or
Godwn Austn ( 8611m, n Pak occuped Kashmr ). Other hgh peaks are Hdden
Peak ( 8068 m ), Broad Peak ( 8047 m ) and Gasherbrum II ( 8035 m ).
The ongest gacer s Sachn n the Nubra vaey, whch s more than 72 km ong
( bggest gacer n the word ). Bafo, Bataro, Batura, Hspar are the other
mportant gacers n ths regon.
Ths area s the argest snow-ed outsde the Poar Regons.
Peninsular 'ountains
Whe the Hmaayas are Fod Mountans, they are not.
The Arava Mountans ( Ra|asthan ) : Words odest. Guru Shkhar s the hghest
peak on whch Mount Abu ( 1,722 m ) s stuated.
The Vndhya Mountans
The Satpura Mountans ( hghest pont at Dhupgarh |1,350 m| near Pachmarh )
The Western Ghats or Sahyadrs : Average heght 1200mtrs, 1600km ong. Its
southern part s separated from the man Sahyadr range by Paghat Gap ( nk
between Tam Nadu & Keraa ). Other passes are Thaghat ( connects Nask to
Mumba ) and Bhorghat (connects Pune to Mumba).
The Eastern Ghats ( Hghest peak : Mahendra Gr ( 1501 m ) ).
The Ngrs or The Bue Mountans : Meetng pace of the Western and the Eastern
Ghats. Two hghest peaks are Dodda Betta and Makurt.
The hghest peak of Pennsuar Inda s Anamud ( 2695 m ) n Anamaa Hs.
Cardamom hs or Eaamaa s the southernmost mountan range of Inda.
3acts a"out position of states
UP borders the maxmum number of States - 8 ( Uttarakhand, HP, Haryana,
Ra|asthan, MP, Chhattsgarh, |harkhand, Bhar ). After UP s Assam, whch touches
the border of 7 States.
Tropc of Cancer passes through 8 States : Gu|arat, Ra|asthan, MP, Chhattsgarh,
|harkhand, WB, Trpuro, Mzoram.
Indan Standard Merdan passes through 5 States : UP, MP, Chhattsgarh, Orssa, AP.
9 States form the coast of Inda. They are : Gu|arat, Maharashtra, Goa,
Karnataka, Keraa, Tam Nadu. Andhra Pradesh, Orssa and West Benga.

2 Unon Terrtores, vz. Daman & Du and Pondcherry are aso on the coast.
The Unon Terrtores of Andaman and Ncobar Isands and Lakshadweep are made
up of sands ony.
The Plains of ,ndia
To the south of the Hmaayas and to the north of the Pennsua es the great pans
of North Inda. They are formed by the depostona works of three ma|or rver
systems, Indus, Ganga and Brahmaputra. The vast pans of north Inda are auva
n nature and the westernmost porton s occuped by the Thar Desert.
The thckness of the auvum s maxmum n the Ganga pans and mnmum n the
Western Pans.
In the Keraa pans are the backwaters or Kayak, whch are the shaow agoons or
nets of the sea, yng parae to the coastne. The argest among these s the
Vembanad Lake.
The pans consst of four dvsons:
Bhabar : Aong the fooths of Shwaks. Hghy porous
Tara : Re - emergence of streams. Zone of excessve dampness
Bhangar : Oder auvum of the pans. Studded wth cacareous formatons caed
Khadar : New auvum and forms the ood pans aong the rver banks.
Peninsular Plateau of ,ndia
Spreads south of the Indo - Gangetc pans anked by sea on three sdes. Ths
pateau s shaped ke a trange wth ts base n the north. The Eastern Ghats and
the Western Ghats consttute ts eastern and western boundares, respectvey.
Narmada, whch ows through a rft vaey, dvdes the regon nto two parts: The
Mawa Pateau n the north & the Deccan Pateau n the south.
Most of the rocks are of the gneous type.
Vndhya Pateau s stuated south of Mawa pateau.
Chhota Nagpur Pateau es to the west of Benga basn, the argest and most
typca part of whch s the Ranch pateau.
The Deccan Pateau s the argest pateau n Inda. It s made up of ava ows n
the Cretaceous - Eocene era through the ssure eruptons.
,slands of ,ndia
Tota coastne of Inda : 7516 km. Longest coastne: Gu|arat ( Second ongest s of
Andhra Pradesh ).
Indan terrtora mts ncude 248 sands:
The *nda(an and -ico"ar #roup
Andamans s a group of 204 sands of whch the argest s Mdde Andaman.
The Andamans are beeved to be extensons of mountans system n the N.E.
part of the country.
Sadde Peak ( 737 m ) n N.Andaman s the hghest peak.

The Ncobars s a group of 19 sands of whch the argest s Great Ncobar. Most
of them are vocanc n nature.
Great Ncobar s the southernmost sand and s ony 147 km away from Sumatra
sand of Indonesa.
Vocanc Isands: Barren and Narcondam Isands. Barren s n the process of
erupton these days after yng dormant for 200 years.
The *ra"ian Sea #roup
A the sands n the Araban Sea ( Tota 25 ) are cora sands and are surrounded by
Frngng Reefs ( North : Lakshadweep, South: Mncoy ).
'ote :
Ten Degree Channe separates Andamans from Ncobars ( Ltte Andaman from
Car Ncobar
Duncan Passage es between South Andaman and Ltte Andaman.
Nne Degree Channe separates Kavaratt from Mncoy Isand.
Eght Degree Channe separates Mncoy Isand ( Inda ) from Madves.

T2E DR*,-*#E S4STE' O3 ,-D,*
The rivers of ,ndia pay an mportant roe n the ves of the Indan peope.
Seven ma|or rvers aong wth ther numerous trbutares make up the rver system
of Inda. Most of the rvers pour ther waters nto the Bay of Benga; however, some
of the rvers whose courses take them through the western part of the country and
towards the east of the state of Hmacha Pradesh empty nto the Araban Sea.
Parts of Ladakh, northern parts of the Arava range and the ard parts of the Thar
Desert have nand dranage. Dr.Francs Buchanan surveyed the courses of the
rvers of Inda aong wth ther trbutares and branches n 1810-11 AD and
presented a mnute account of t.
The shftng of the courses and bed over the centures s very remarkabe. Many of
the channes mentoned n that survey have now become dead , dred or even
A ma|or rvers of Inda orgnate from one of the three man watersheds:
1. The Hmaaya and the Karakoram ranges
2. Vndhya and Satpura ranges and Chotanagpur pateau n centra Inda
3. Sahyadr or Western Ghats n western Inda
The ,ndus:
(Sanskrt-Sndhu) After orgnatng from the northern sopes of the Kaash
range (Tbet). ows north-westwards through tbet and Ladakh.
The rver foows a ong and neary straght course n Ladakh. runnng between
Ladakh Range and Zaskar Range. The Shyok and Ggt are ts mportant rght
bank trbutres and the Zaskar s eft bank trbutary.
After crossng Hmaayas through a very deep gorge (5181 metres at Bun|
north of the Nanga Parvat), t turns to the sourth-west and enters Pakstan.
The Rver has deveoped antecedent dranage n |ammu and Kashmr state. It
eaves the mountans at Attock and ows roughy southwards unt t fas nto
Araban Sea near Karach. It has a ength of 2900 km from ts source to the
Araban sea.
The |heum (Sanskrt) Vtasta Emerges from sprng at Vernarg, stuated n the
south-eastern part of the vae of Kashmr.
It ows northward from ts source to Wuar ake and further down South-West
wards, t t enters a george es between Baramua and Muzaharabad. Its
gradent s gente n the vae of Kashmr and s navgabe between Anantnag
and Baramua.
It turns to the North-West beow Ur and South beow Muzaharabad and
contnues unt Manga s reached. Kshangange ts rght banks trbutary, |ons t
at Muzaharabd. Between Muzuharabad and Manga t runs roughy aong the
Indo-Pakstan border, and |ons Chenab near |hang n Pakstan. Its ength s 400
The !hena" (Sans1ritB *si1nii or !handra"hanga:
The Chenab of |ammu & Kashmr state s known as Chandrabhanga n
Hmacha Pradesh. The Chandra and Bhanga, the head stream of
Chandrabhanga orgnate from ether sde of the Bara-Lacha pass n Lahu.
The Chandrabhanga ows North-West wards and runs parae to the Pr Pan|a
range for some dstance near Kshtwar t cuts a deep gorge n the Pr Pan|a
range and turns southwards and ows n ths drecton for a short dstance,
further down t turns to the west and enters the pan area near Akhnur. Its
ength n Inda s 1180 km.

The Ravi (Sans1rit : Parushni or ,ravati:
The source of ths rver es near the Rohtang pass. From ts orgn t ows to
north-west and drans the area yng between the south-eastern part of Pr
Pan|a range and the Daua-Dhar Range. Some and dstances beow Chamba, t
turns to the south-west and cuts a gorge n Dhaua-Dhar range, enters the
Pun|ab pan near Madhopur. Before enterng Pakstan t runs amost aong the
northern boundary of Gurdaspur and Amrtsar dstrcts.
It beng a part of Indo-Pakstan boundary, the rver has some strategc
sgncance. It |ons the Chenab n Pakstan. Its ength s 720 km.
The Beas : (Sans1rit: Cipasa or *rgi1iya:
Emerges from a pace known as Beas kund, near the Rohtang pass, In ts eary
stage t runs from North to South passes Mana and Kuu, where ts vaey s
popuary known as Kuu Vaey. It crosses the Dhaua-Dhar range through a
deep gorge.
Further down, t turns to the west and enters the Pun|ab pan near Mrtha.
Snce some of ts trbutares orgnatng from the southern sde of the great
Hmaaya are snow-fed. So t has reatvey arge voume of water durng the
ong dry season.
After debouchng on the pan ts turns to the south-west and |ons the Sate|
near Harke after owng a dstance of 615 km.
The Satle@ (Sans1rit : Satadru or Satudri:
Orgnates from Rakas ake, stuated at an attude of 4555 meter n Tbet. The
ake s connected wth Manasarowar Lake by a stream. After foowng the
North-westward route the rver enters the Hmacha Pradesh at Shpk pass.
Further t ows westward.
It cuts deep gorges where t perces the Great Hmaayas and other ranges of
the Hmaayas. It trbutres n Hmacha Pradesh are short n ength except the
Spt whch drans a arge Trans-Hmaayas area and |ons t at Namga (near
spk pass) as ts rght bank trbutary.
Before enterng the Pun|ab pan t cuts a gorge n the Nana Dev Dhar. A dam
has been constructed across ths gorge near vage Bhakra. known as Bhakra
Dam. After enterng the pan t turns to the south.
Beow Rupar t turns to the West. The Beas ts rght bank trbutary |ons t at
Harka. A short dstance beow Harko the Sate| runs amost short dstance
beow Harko the Sate| runs amost aong the Indo-Pak boundary and enters
Pakstan near Suemank.
Its ength n Inda s 1050 km.
The )uni: Its source es near A|mer n the Arava Range. It ows southward and
fas nto Rann of Kutch. The Band, the Sukr, and the |awan are ts mportant eft
bank trbutres.
The 'ahi: Havng ts source n Udapur dstrct n the southern Arava Range ows
towards the south-south-west and pours ts water nto the Guf of Cambay through
as estuary.
The -ar(ada: Emerges from the Amarkantak pateu n Madhya Pradesh, ows
towards the west. Near |abapur t makes a water about 10 meters hgh and ows
na narrow gorge about 3 km ong, whch s known as a Marbe Rocks. It ows
westward n the rft vaey, where ts course s neary straght. It wdens beow
Braoch and makes an estuary, whch enters the Guf of Cambay. Its egnth s 1290

The Tapti: Rses n Betua dstrct n the Satpura range and ows westward ke the
Narmada. After owng Satpura range, turns to the south, after emergng out of the
Bhuranpur Gap. It receves the Purna. It ows n the between Satpura range n the
North and A|anta range n the South. After makng an estuary beow Surat and fas
nto the Guf of Cambay. Its ength s 700 km ong.
T2E DR*,-*#E S4STE' 3*)),-# ,-TO T2E B*4 O3 BE-#*)
Ths system drans a very arge area wth vared reef and structure, the
mdde part of the Hmaayas n the North and the northern part of the Indan
Pateau, (roughy north of ne runnng aong the Vndhyan range, the Amarkantak
Pateau and the watershed yng east of the Suvarnarckha) n the south.
The #anga%
Rses from the Gangotr Gacer, at the heght of 5163 metre a part of Great
Hmaayas es n Uttarancha. The rver cuts through the Great Hmaayas and
the esser Hmaayas n narrow gorges.
It s caed Bhagrath above Dev Prayag and Ganga beow ths town. The
Aaknanda, an mportant amuent |ons t at Dev prayag. At Hardwar t eaves
Hmaayas, and enters the pan beow ths town runs towards the south-east
upto Mrzapur and further down eastward n Bhar pan.
It turns south-east near the Ra| Maha and after traversng same dstance n
Murshdabad dstrct of West Benga, t enters Bangadesh.
The Ganga deta n the West Benga es the south of ths rver. Bhagrath-
Hooghy s the western most dstrbutory of the Ganga and t akes oh from the
rght bank of ths rver n Murshdabad dstrct. The hooghy s a tda rver and
s navgabe beow Cacutta.
The tota ength of Ganga s about 2510 km.
The Ganga s the most sacrosanct rver of Inda, the most mportant pgrmage
centres namey Hardwar, Aahabad, Varanas are stuated on the bank of ths
The 4a(una
The rght bank trbutary of Ganga, rses at Yamunotr gacer, stauted at the
Wester sope of Banderpoonch. After cuttng a deep gorge at esser Hmaays, t
ows towards the South-West and enters the Ganga pan Paonta Sahb. After
crossng Nagtbba range t meets wth ts trbutary Tons.
The Yamuna ows towards the towards the south-east drecton t t |ons the
Ganga at Aahabad. Chamba, Snd, Betwa and Ken are ts mportant
trbutares and |on t at ts rght bank. The ength of the Yamuna from ts
source upto Aahabad s 1300 km.
The !ha("al 7
Rses near Mhow n the Vndhyan range (|anapav 616 meter heght) and ows
towards the north generay n a gorge upto Kota.
Passng through Dhar, U||an, Ratam, Mandsaur of Madhya Pradesh, t enters
the Ra|asthan state and ows Kota and Bund, after ths t forms the boundary
of Rasthan and Madhya Pradesh and ater on Madhya Pradesh and Uttar
After reachng Pnhat t turns to the east and runs neary parae to Yamuna,
Chamba |ons Yamuna near Etawah. It s 1060 km ong. Banas s an mportant
eft bank trbutary of Chamba.

The snd,Betdwa and ken are ts other trbutres. Chamba has carved down
numerous ravnes n the auva pan of Ganga.
The Banas % Rses n the southern part of Arava Range and ows to the north-
east drecton. It |ons the Chamba at a pont about 30 km to the east of Sawa
The Son % It orgnates from Amarkantak pateau. After owng for same dstance to
the north, t meets the Kashmr range whch turns ts course towards the north east
and aows t to foow a strke vaey. Amost a of ts trbutres |on t on ts rght
bank. It merges nto Ganga near Ram Nagar. In ths rver the voume of water
uctuates wdey Durng the rany season t s often n spate and has very tte
water durng the dry season. It s 780 km ong.
The Ra( #anga - Rses n the Great Hmaayas (near Garhwa of Uttarancha) and
enters the ganga pan near Kaagarh (B|nor) Rver Koh |ons t from the rght bank.
After owng n Moradabad, Rampur, Barey, Badaun and Shah|ahanpur, part of
Farrukhabad and Hardo dstrcts, t merges wth Ganga near Kannau|. Its ength s
600 km.
The Sarda % It rses from Map Gacer, from the Great Hmaayas. It s known by
varous names Ka n Hmaayas, Sarda n Pbht and Kher dstrcts and the
Chaukha before t |ons the rght bank of Ghaghara near Bahramgwat. The Sarada
runs aong the Indo-Nepa boundary and eves the Hmaayas at Baramed.
The #hanghara -
Orgnates from Bharchachuga gacer Rakchash - Ta n Nepa. Though ts
headwater, the Karna, aso orgnates Trans - Hmaayan and crosses western
part of Nepa Hmaaya as forms deep and narrow gorges.
After crossng the Swak ranges, chok, a trbutary of Sarda |ons t near
Baharampur.Fowng towards east the rver forms the dstrct boundares of
Gonda, Barabank and Fazabad near Barha| Bazar at Gorakhpur, from north the
tte Gandak (Rapt) |ons Ghaghera.
In end t |ons Ganga near Chhapra (Bhar).
The rver s arge and s generay chocked wth st. It often shfts ts course. Its
ength s 1180.
The Rapti - Orgnates from Rukunkot Nepa, ows south west then south. Passng
through Bahra|ch, Gonda, Bast and Gorakhpur |ons Ghaghera near Bahra|.
The #anda1 % known as Sagram n Nepa and Naran n pan, rses near Sno-
Nepa boundary and drans the centra part of Nepa and separates the boundary fo
Uttar Pradesh and Bhar. After enterng Champaran dstrct (Bhar), t turns to the
south east and |ons the eft bank of Ganga at Sonpur. Lke Ghaghera t often
changes ts course and s notorous for ts ood.
The #o(i 7
Orgnates from the heght of 200 meters n Pbht dstrct (U.P), ows from
north-west sourth-west n between Ganga Ghaghera Doab. Rver Kathna and
Sarayan, the two sma rvers |on eft bank of Gomt at Stapur dstrct.
The rver Gomt forms the boundary of Stapur and Hardo dstrcts, na denter
Lucknow dstrcts. After owng Barabank Sutanpur and |aunpur |ons Ganga
at Gazpur, Lucknow the capta of Uttar Pradesh s stuated at ts bank.
The Losi 7
A eft bank trbutary of Ganga, s a coectve name of seven rvers, Mamch,
Bhota, Kos, Tamba Kos, Lkhu, Dudkh Kos, Arun and Tambur.
Rver Arun known as Pangehu n Tbet, emerges from the northern sope of
Gosathan rane, ows south west of Sapu upto 320 km. The three arge rvers,

the arun, the SUN kos and the Tamur dranng Mt. Everest and Kanchen|una n
east Nepa, unte north of the Mahabharat range and form the Kos.
The Kos enters the tara of Nepa after cuttng a gorge n the Mahabharat
range at Chatra. Its catchment area n Nepa s hghy rugged and
mountanous. It measures 59,310 sq km. and s second ony to that of
Brahmaputra. Ranfa too s heavy n the catchment area of ths rver.
Soon after debouchng the pan, the rver becomes suggsh and begns to
depost ts oad.
The Kos has shfted ts course westward n North Bhar and s now 110 km
away from the course t had 200 years ago. Its tota ength s 730 km. The Kos
|ons Ganga at Karagoa.
The Bet0a % It orgnates near Kumra Gaon, (Dstrct Rasen M.P.) from Vndhyan
ranges owng north-ward of Vdsha and Guna dstrcts of Madhya Pradesh enters
the |hans dstrct of Uttar Pradesh. After owng near north-eastern boundary of
Tkamgarh, t |ons Yamuna near Hamrpur. Its tota ength s 480 km.
The 'ahanadi -
It s an mportant rver of Orssa and the south-eastern part of Madhya Pradesh.
The rver has ts rse n Shawa range, frngng the southern part of Chattsgarh
After owng northward for same dstance, t receves Seonathon ts eft bank, a
tte above Seornarayan.
The upper Mahanad ows n the Chattsgarh pan whch beng surrounded by
h ranges s a arge basn. Beow Seornarayan t ows eastwards and turns
southward a tte beow Hrakud Dam. Further turns eastward near Sonepur.
After crossng the eastern ghats, through a gorge, dvdes tsef nto
dstrbutres at Cuttack, and merges wth Bay of Benga. Its tota ength s 890
Ta0a % Orgnates from Mahadeo h of Panchmarh and |ons Narmada.
2asdo % Orgnates from Kamur ranges of Sar|uga dstrct. After owng Baspur t
|ons Mahanad.
,ndravati % Orgnates from the Kaahar regon of Orssa. After owng westward, t
forms a fa near Chtrakut, enters the Andhra Pradesh and |ons the Godavar.
Lalisind % Orgnates from Vndhyacha, near Bango vage of Devas. After owng
So|apur and Narnghgarh dstrct t |ons Chamba at Ra|asthan.
Sind : Orgnates near Shra| n dstrct Guna owng Guna, Shvpur, Data and
Bhnd, |ons Chamba near Etawah.
Len : Orgnates from Vndhyan ranges. Fows towards north and |ons Yamuna n
Uttar Pradesh.
Par0ati : Orgnates from Vndhyan ranges n Madhya Pradesh, ows through Kota
and Pa dstrcts of Ra|asthan, |ons Chamba.
#haggar % Orgnates from Hmaayas near Kaka, drans the northern frnge of
Haryana state n a rany season stream and oses tsef near Hanumangarh n the
Banganga % Orgnates from Barath hs at |apur, drans Bharatpur dstrct and
|ons Yamuna at Fatchabad near Agra.
So( - Orgnates from Bcchamera at Udapur, ows South-east thereafter ows
eastward formng the boundary Dungarpur, |ons Mah near Bapeshwar. |okham,
Gomt and Saran are ts trbutary.
Sa0ar(ati % : Orgnates from the South western part of Gu|rat and ows n Gu|rat
state. Baka, Hathmat, Meshwa, Betrak and Ma|am are ts trbutares.

Berach : Orgnates from Gomunda hs, north of dstrct Udapur. After owng 190
km |ons Banas near Chttorgarh.
Brahamputra takes ts rse n a Gacer about 100 km south-east of Mansarowar
ake at the heght of 5,510 meters. In tbet t runs parae to the Hmaaya for
about 1200 km. Here t s known as Tsangpo.
It turns to the south aong the eastern ank of Nameha Barwa and crosses. the
Assam Hmaayas under the noun of Dhang. Near Sadyer t receves the
Dbang comng from the north and the Luht comng from the east and enters
the Assam vaey, where t s caed the Brahamputra, t ows to the west upto
Dhubr na dfurther beow t runs to the south and enters Bangadesh.
It s navgabe for about 1280 km from the Bay of Benga to Dbrugarh. Its oca
ength s 2900 km whch s more than that of Ganga by 400 km.
The number of streams |onng the Brahamputra on ts rght bank s greater
than that of those |onng t on ts eft bank.
The Subansr, the Bhare and the Manas are ts mportant rght bank
trbutares, the Dabang, the Luht, the Bur Dhng, the Dhanasr, the Kap are
arge streams and they pour great quanttes of water n the Brahmaputra,
whch became notorous for oods as we as eroson on ts banks.
The 'anipur % Rsng n the north of Manpur state, ows southwards drans Laktak
Lake and |ons the Chndwn n Burma (Myanmar).
The Barak -Orgnatng from Mt |apvo ows southwards n Manpur State, makes a
harpn bend near the north-western boundary of ths state and turns to the north
near Lakhmpur. It turns to the west through Cachar near Indo-Bangadesh border, t
bfurcates, one branch s caed the Kusyara and the other the Surma. They ow
westward for same dstance n Bangadesh and agan unt.
The Lalandan 7
It drans the southern part of Mzoram ows southward, traverses, Myanmar
and fas nto Bay of Benga.
The Krshna - The rver takes ts rse n a pace near Mahabaeshwar n Western
Ghats and ows through Satara and Sang dstrct of Maharashtra, northern
Karnataka and southern Andhra Pradesh state.
The Bhma and Tungabhadra are ts mportant trbutares. Its headwaters
namey Koyna and the Ghatprabha pass through deep vaeys or gorges n the
western Ghats and t cuts a gorge n Nammaa hs. I(t has but a ferte deta
near V|awada. It s 1290 km ong.
The !auvery 7
It s known as the "Ganga of South Inda". It drans the South - Western part of
Karnataka state and the mdde part of Tamnadu state.
Snce ts dranage basn receves ranfa durng the summer monsoon rany
season as we as the wnter season. It s a perenna as we as very usefu
rver. It rses n the Brahmagr H (Coorge dstrct) n the western Ghats and
ows generay eastwards n Karnataka state.
The Hemavat, and the Krshna are ts mportant eft bank trbutres and
Kabbar, the Bhavan, the Noz and the Aurawa ts rght bank trbutares.
The rver has two sands namey Serngapattam and Shvasamudram. Beow
Truchrapa t ows nto two branches, the coeroon n the North and Cauvery
n the South. These two branches roughy encose the deta. It s 760 km ong.
The rver has been dammed at no. of paces for the deveopment of rrgaton
and hydro-eectrcty.

Pennar-Orgnates n Koar dstrct (Karnataka), ts chef trbutres are Chttravat
and Papaghn. t ows through a gorge of cuddapah near Chandkota (Cuddapah
dstrct) and enters the sea near the town of Neore.
Rivers of the Peninsula in ,ndia
Dherent from the Hmaayan rvers because they are seasonabe n ther ow
( whe Hmaayan rvers are perenna ).
-hey can be di%ided into t(o roups:
,& (ast /lo#ing 0i1ers of India ( or Delta forming ri1ers )
'ahanadi River ( 6:6 1( : Rses n Rapur dstt. n Chhattsgarh. Man
trbutares: b, Seonath,Hasdo, Mand, |onk, Te, etc.
#odavari River ( =IJ: 1( : Aso caed Vrddha Ganga or Dakshna Ganga. It s
the ongest pennsuar rver. Rses n Nask. Man trbutares : Man|ra, Penganga,
Wardha, Indravat, Wanganga, Sabar, etc.
Lrishna River ( =9<K 1( : Rses n Western Ghats near Mahabaeshwar. Man
trbutares:Koyna, Dudhganga, Panchganga, Maprabha, Ghatprabha, Bhma,
Tungabhadra, Mus, etc.
!auvery River ( 6D: 1( : It s the argest pennsuar rver ( maxmum amount of
water ). Infact, t s the ony pennsuar rver whch ows amost throughout the year.
Known as the Ganga of the South. It rses from the Brahmagr range of Western
Ghats. Man trbutares : Hemavat, Lokpawn, Shmsa. It s ess seasona than others
as ts upper catchment area receves ranfa durng summer by the S.W monsoon
and the ower catchment area durng wnter season by the retreatng N.E. monsoon.
Its 90% - 95% rrgaton and power producton potenta s aready beng harnessed.
S0arnare1ha River ( 9;: 1( and Brah(ani ( KD: 1( : Rses from Ranch
2& West /lo#ing 0i1ers in India
-ar(ada River ( =D:K 1( : Has ony / 10th part n Gu|arat. Rses n
Amarkantak Pateau and ows nto Guf of Khambat. It forms the famous Dhuan
Dhar Fas near |abapur. Man trbutares: Hran, Burhner, Ban|ar, Shar, Shakkar,
Tawa, etc.
Tapti River ( K<I 1( : Rses from Betu dstt n MR Aso known as twn or
handmad of Narmada. Man trbutares: Purna, Betu,Arunavat, Gan|a, etc.
Sa"ar(ati River ( I=J 1( : Rses from Aravas n Ra|asthan.
'ahi River ( :JD 1( : Rses from Vndhyas n MR
)uni River ( I:D 1( : Rses from Aravas. Aso caed Sat Rver. It s nay ost
n the marshy grounds at the head of the Rann of Kuchchh.
Sharavathi River s a west owng rver of the Sahyadrs. It forms the famous |og
or Gersoppa or Mahatma Gandh Fas ( 289 m ),whch s the hghest waterfa n
,nland Drainage
Some rvers of Inda are not abe to reach the sea and consttute nand dranage.
Ghaggar ( 494 km ) s the most mportant of such dranage.
It s a seasona stream whch rses on the ower sopes of the Hmaayas and gets
ost n the dry sands of Ra|asthan near Hanumangarh. It s consdered the od
Saraswat of the Vedc tmes.
The argest man-made ake n Inda s Indra Sagar Lake, whch s the reservor of
Sardar Sarovar Pro|ect, Onkareshwar Pro|ect and Maheshwar Pro|ect n Gu|arat - MP.

!hil1a )a1e ( Orissa s the argest bracksh water ake of Inda. Otherwse aso, t
s the argest ake of Inda.
/ular )a1e ( F M L s the argest fresh water ake of Inda. Du Lake s aso there
n | & K.
From Sambhar and Ddwana Lake ( Ra|asthan ), sat s produced.
Other mportant akes are Vembanad n Keraa and Koeru & Pucat n AP.
-he three important "ulfs in the Indian -erritory are:
#ulf of Luchch (0est of #u@arat : Regon wth hghest potenta of tda energy
#ulf of !a("ay or #ulf of Lha("at ( #u@arat : Narmada, Tapt, Mah and
Sabarmat dran nto t.
#ulf of 'annar ( south east of Ta(il -adu : Asas rst marne bosphere
'ORE 3*!TS *BOUT T2E DR*,-*#E ,- ,-D,*
Indus though a perenna rver, takes most of ts water whe owng through
Thar desert. Its deta s mosty waste and and s fu of brakshwater.
Brahamputra has dherent names n dherent countres e.g. Tsangpo (Ther),
Brahamputra (Inda), |amuna (Bangadesh). Durng oods, the water of
Brahamputra ooks reddsh n coour after mxng the red so of Assam.
Ganga the second ongest rver n Inda. The Ganga and Brahmputra ows n
opposte drecton. They meet at Bangadesh, and form a deta ( argest n the
Gaumukh (meanng cows mouth, an ce cave of Hmaaya s the souces of
Yamuna, the most mportant trbutary on the rghtbank of rver Ganga, whe
Gomat, Ghahra, Gandak, Kos are the eft bank trbutres of Ganga. Son s the
ony bg rver to |on Ganga drecty from southern pateau.
Rver Damodar, the sorrow of Benga cause destructon of ves, catte and crops
due to frequent oods and |ons Ganga from the rght.
Chamba, Betwa, Ken, Snd and Son from Pennsua Inda ow towards Ganga.
They rse from Vndhyan Ranges.
Cauvery s shown as a Ganga of South forms Svasamudram fa.
Narmada forms a magncent water fa (Marbe fas of Bheraghat n M.P.)
Ganga, Brahmaputra, Mahanad, Godavar, Krshna, Cauvery and Pennar, are the
ma|or rver system of Inda. dranng nto Bay of Benga.
Indus Sabarmat, Narmada and Tapt dran nto Araban sea.
Godavar s the argest rver system n Pennsuar Inda.
The Cauvery basn s one of the most deveoped regons of Inda from the pont
of vew of power and rrgaton.

The !li(ate of ,ndia
Inda has tropca monsoon type of cmate. It s greaty nuenced by the
presence of the Hmaayas n the north as they bock the cod the cod ar masses
from Centra Asa. It s because of them ony that the monsoons have a watershed
n Inda.
The Tropc of Cancer dvdes Inda nto two amost equa cmatc zones, namey,
the northern zone and the southern zone. The warm temperate or the subtropca
cmate of the northern zone gves t cod wnter seasons and the hot summer
The southern tropca cmatc zone s warmer than the north and does not have
a cear - cut wnter season.
The northern zone does not have the mdday sun vertcay overhead durng any
part of the year; the southern zone has the mdday sun amost vertcay overhead
at east twce every year.
!li(ate Seasons in ,ndia
In Inda, the year can be dvded nto four seasons, resutng from the monsoons
whch occur many due to the dherenta heatng of and and movement of the
suns vertca rays.
The vertca rays of the sun advance towards Tropc of Cancer from md - March,
due to whch hot and dry weather arrves. As temperatures rse over most of
northern and Centra Inda, a vast trough of ow pressure s created. The hghest
temperature experenced n South s n Apr whe n North t s n May and |une.
Ths part of the year s marked by a dry spe and the north - western parts of
the country experence hot, dry wnds, caed oo. In ths perod, the country aso
experence storms / dust storms at varous paces.
1. Tornado ke dust storms n Pun|ab and Haryana, caed Andhs n UP and
Kabasakhs n West Benga. They nvove strong convectona movements causng
some precptaton.
2. The Norwesters orgnate over the Chhotanagpur Pateau and bow n the north-
drecton whch brngs about 50 cm of ranfa n Assam and about 10 cm ranfa n
Benga and Orssa. Ths ranfa s very usefu for Assam tea and sprng rce crops of
3. Smary, Cherry Bossoms are there n Karnataka, beneca to cohee
pantaton and
Mango showers n esewhere South Inda, whch are beneca to mango crops.
Ths weather s foowed by hot, wet weather from |une to September.
South 70est (onsoon
In May, the south -west monsoon sets n. The norma dates of onset of the
monsoon are May 20 n the Andaman and Ncobar Isands, |une 3 n the Konkan,
|une 15 n Kokata and |une 29 n Deh.
The south - west monsoon enters the country n two currents, one bowng over
the Bay of Benga and the other over the Araban Sea. Ths monsoon causes ranfa
over most of the country ( except Tam Nadu and Thar Desert area ). The S.W
monsoon enterng from Western Ghats causes heavy ranfa over Keraa coast, but
Tam Nadu fas on the eeward sde.
In the Thar area, the wnds bow parae to the Aravas and do not cause ran.
The Bay of Benga current causes heavy ranfa n the north east parts of the

country and a part of t turns west aong the Hmaayas over the Indo - Gangetc
pans causng ranfa n ths regon. But the Bay of Benga current, by the tme t
reaches W Ra|asthan, runs out of mosture.
The Bay of Benga branch after crossng the detac regon enters the Khas
vaey n Meghaaya and gets entrapped n t due to funne shape of the regon. It
strkes Cherrapun| n a perpendcuar drecton causng heaves ranfa n
Mawsnram ( Approx. 1400 cm ).
-orth 7 east (onsoon
From md - Sept to md-Dec, the monsoon retreats. As the suns vertca rays
start shftng towards the Tropc of Caprcorn, the ow pressure area starts movng
south and wnds nay start bowng from and to sea. Ths s caed north - east
monsoon. The wthdrawa of monsoon s a much more gradua process than ts
onset. It causes ranfa n Tam Nadu as the wnds pck some mosture from Bay of
Benga. Ths expans the phenomenon why Tam Nadu remans dry when the entre
country receves ran and why t gets ran when practcay the entre country s dry.
The cod and dry weather starts n eary December. In ths, the average
temperature n south s 24 - 25c, and whe n the north s 10 - 15c. In the atter
part of December and n |anuary, the dry spe s broken by the westery depressons
( temperate cycones ) from Medterranean Sea, whch causes some ran n north -
west Inda.
Amost a the precptaton n Inda s caused by the monsoons and t s prmary
orographc n nature. Cyconc storms provde ony a tte ran, many n the North
!li(atic Regions of ,ndia
India can be di%ided into a number of climatic reions :
Tropical Rain 3orests in ,ndia : Found n the west coasta pans, the Western
Ghats and parts of Assam. Characterzed by hgh temperatures throughout the year.
Ranfa, though seasona, s heavy- about 200 cm annuay durng May-November.
Tropical Savanna !li(ate : In most of the pennsua regon except the sem - ard
zone n the eeward sde of the Western Ghats. It s characterzed by ong dry
weather throughout wnter and eary summer and hgh temperature (above 18.2c);
annua ranfa vares from 76 cm n the west to 150 cm n the east.
Tropical Se(i 7 *rid Steppe !li(ate : It prevas n the ran - shadow bet
runnng southward from Centra Maharashtra to Tam Nadu n the eeward sde of
the Western Ghats and the Cardamom Hs. It s characterzed by ow ranfa whch
vares from 38 cm to 80 cm, hgh temperature between 20 and 30.
Tropical and Su"tropical Steppes : Large areas n Pun|ab, Haryana and Kutch
regon. Temperature vares from 12-35c. The maxmum temperature reaches up to
49c. The annua ranfa, varyng from 30.5 - 63.5 cm, s aso hghy erratc.
Tropical desert : Ths cmate extends over the western parts of Banner, |asamer
and Bkaner dstrcts of Ra|asthan and parts of Kutch. It s characterzed by scanty
ranfa ( 30.5 cm ), whch s hghy erratc. Rans are mosty n the form of coud-
burst. Mean monthy temperature s unformy hgh ( about 35c ).
2u(id Su"tropical !li(ate 0ith Dry /inters : Ths area ncudes south of the
Hmaayas, east of the tropca and subtropca steppes and north of tropca
savannah. Wnters are md to severe whe summers are extremey hot. The annua
ranfa vares from 63.5 cm to more than 254 cm, most of t receved durng the
south west monsoon season.
'ountain !li(ate : Such type of cmate s seen n mountanous regons whch
rse above 6,000 m or more such as the Hmaayas and the Karakoram Range

SO,)S O3 ,-D,*
Before cassfyng varous type of sos, t s better to take bref account of the
factors that ahect the so formaton. These factors are:
=& Parent (aterial:
The parent matera, of whch the sos are formed, s derved from the
weatherng of the rocks exposed on surface. For exampe the so derved from ava
and rocks s generay back n coour.
<& Relief features:
They nuence the process of so formaton through varous ways. The varaton
n reef features ke sope, underground water etc. ahect the coour, composton
and propertes of so.
9& !li(ate:
Cmate s the man mportant snge factor n so formaton. It ahects the
condtons of so formaton through the amount and seasona dstrbuton of
temperature as ranfa. It aso ehects so formaton ndrecty by ahectng other
genetc factors ke parent matera, reef features, natura vegetaton, etc.
I& natural vegetation:
The decayed eaf matera adds to the fertty of so by provdng to t much
needed content of humus. That s why, the densey forested areas contan some of
the best sos.
Ran water washes the cacum compounds and consequenty t cause the so
decent n Lme.
So decent n me are acdc and deveop n area of heavy ranfa.
Oxygen combnng wth ron compounds produces Iron-Oxde, red n coour and t
gves the red coour to the sos.
Chemca weatherng s more mportant n hot tropca cmate. Hence, the Indan
subcontnent s prone to chemca weatherng.
Leachng s more mportant n area of heavy ranfa. It s the most common
feature of hy regons of Inda.
Hgh temperature of Inda promotes actve decay of vegetaton and hence
humus s destroyed. So, Indan sos are generay decent n humus and requre
reguar appcaton of ntrogen rch fertzer.
Ttanum sat adds back coour to the sos of Indan Pateau.
Sedentary so/n stu so produced after breakng of parent rocks underneath the
surface are usuay very deep up to 15 mt. or more on the Deccan Pateau.
Drfted sos/Transported sos/Azona sos formedn stu but transported by
agents and deposted n vaeys and detas.
Sedentary sos are: Back cotton sos, Leterte Red so, Podzoc so of forest,
Sane and Akane so, Peaty so.
The Indan Counc of Agrcutura Research (ICAR) has dvded the Sos of Inda
nto 8 ma|or groups.
=& *lluvial Soils including the coastal and deltaic alluviu(:

Agrcuturay the most mportant sos. It covers 24% of the countrys tota area.
Many found n Centra pans extendng from Pun|ab to Assam; Eastern and
Western Coasta pans and detac regon.
Auva so s transported or nter-zona so. It s dvded nto Khadar (newer) and
Bhabar (oder). Ths so s, however, decent n ntrogen and humus content;
unsutabe for water retentve pantaton e.g. cotton. Sutabe for the cutvaton of
rce, wheat, sugar cane and vegetabes.
.hadar-Fner and newer auvum. Its texture vares from cayey to sandy oam.
It s ght n coour and s formed n the ood-pans of rvers and s generay
acdc, decent n me, phosphorus and humus.
.ankar-They are found ony few feets beow the surface of bhangar whch s a
bed of me nodues known as Kankar. Kankars are coected near Dadr n
Haryana for makng cement.
)hanar-They are oder auvum or coarse grave, hgh eve sos above 30 Mt.
above ood eve where ood water cannot reach. Its texture s more cayey and
the coour s darker.
Auva texture vares from sand and oam to sts and heavy cays that are
draned and sometmes n|urous accumuatons of sat and produces a stre
surface caed "Usar".
In the sub-mountan bets on the foot hs of Swak auva forms wth coarse
often pebby sos known as "Bhabhar". To ts south occurs swampy owands
wth sty sos known as "Tara".
<& Blac1 cotton Soils:
Ths s aso caed regur so. Man areas ncude Deccan Trap, Maharashtra,
Gu|arat, Madhya Pradesh, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Tamnadu, U.P. and
Back Sos are usuay decent n ntrogen, phosphate and humus but rch n
Potash, me, aumnum, cacum and magnesum. The so s mosture retentatve
and t has a hgh degree of fertty. Sutabe for the cutvaton of cotton, cereas,
oseeds, tobacco, groundnut and ctrus fruts.
Back sos deveop under sem-ard condton, n area covered wth basat.
Coour of the back sos vary from deep back to ght back or chestnut. The
back coour s added due to the presence of "Ttanferous magnette".
They become stcky when wet due to hgh percentage of cay and deveop cracks
n hot-sunny whether.
Back sos are we known for ther fertty. Snce, the content of water soube
sat s hgh they are not sutabe for heavy rrgaton.
Back sos regons are dea for dry formng due to ther mosture retentve
9& Red Soils:
Occupes about 70% of the tota area n Tamnadu, Chotanagpur, few parts of
Andhra Pradesh and Orssa. They comprse of red oams and due to oxdaton of
ferro-magnesum these sos have deveoped n Pennsuar Inda.
Red sos have a concentraton of ron, absence of me, Kankar, carbonates,
humus, phosphorc acd and neutra to acd reactons. Favorabe for the
cutvaton of puses and coarse grans.
Red sos deveop generay on crystane and metamorphc rocks rch n Ferro
magnesum mneras. Hence they are more sandy and ess cayey.
Red sos are found n area of comparatvey ow ranfa and so are ess eached
than the aterte sos.

They are not retentve to mosture so cutvated mosty durng the rany season.
Crops: Rce, Rag, Tobacco, Vegetabes, Groundnut etc. on coarse so for hgher
eve; Sugarcane on heavy cay at ower eve.
I& )aterite Soils:
They are formed under the condtons of hgh ranfa and temperature wth
aternate wet and dry perods. These sos are rch n oxdes of ron and aumnum
but poor n ntrogen, potash, phosphorc acd and me content due to eachng,
hghy acdc n nature. These sos are concentrated n Vdhyan Pateau, Satpura,
Mahadeo and Maka ranges n Madhya Pradesh, Maabar Coast, Orssa Coast and
Laterte sos deveop n the tropca regon whch receve heavy seasona ranfa.
Heavy ranfa promotes eachng whereby me and sca are eached away and
sos rch n oxdes of ron and aumnum are eft behnd.
If the oxde of aumnum predomnates the atere sos, they are caed
"Bauxte", the chef ndustra ore of aumnum.
Laterte sos are red due to the presence of oxdes of ron.
Laterte sos are poor n me content hence acdc n nature.
Laterte sos of hgh areas are very poor and east retentve to mosture.
Sometmes they form the barren and topography.
Laterte sos of ow eve areas hnders the process of aterzaton due to reguar
addton of so washed down from the neghbourng hgh areas.
Crops: Rce, Rag, Sugarcane, Tapoca, Chestnut etc.
:& 3orest Soils:
Humus predomnates n forest so but t s the decent n potash, phosphorous
and me. It s dstrbuted over the Hmaayan and other ranges n the north,
Western Ghats Eastern Ghats and Pennsua. Favourabe for pantaton crops e.g.
tea, cohee spces and tropca fruts.
1. !od*ols (At hih /e%el)-They are formed under hgh acdc condton and found on
hgher sopes of Hmacha Pradesh and |ammu and Kashmr. They are covered by
conferous forests. They are hghy eached due to excessve mosture and are
greysh brown n coour.
2. )ro(n #orests Soil (In (arm -emperate belt)-They are ess acdc than podzo
wth hgh base status. They are rch humus and ferte and extensvey used for
crop cutvaton.
3. Alpine +edo( (In alpine *one of 0imalayas)1They are dark cooured, ether
sandy-cay or sandy oam. They contans mosty under composed pants.
J& *rid and Desert Soils:
These sos, characterzed by hgh sat and ow humus content, are found n
Ra|asthan, Haryana, Pun|ab, Rann of Kutch and other ran-shadow regons, snce
these sos consst of hgh phosphate, fertty ncreases wth rrgaton and by
addng nutrents.
Desert sos are found n and ard and semard condtons n north-western part
of Inda, west of Arava range.
They are mosty frabe and ow n mosture content.
They are rch n phosphate but poor n ntrogen and cay content (ony 8%).
Crops: Very few crops specay Mets, |owar, Ba|ra are grown for want of water
K& Saline and *l1ali Soils:
Deveop aong ard regon n sma patches. Aso caed reh Kaar and Usar, they
are nferte but can be recamed by good dranage. These sos are found n
Ra|asthan, Pun|ab, Haryana, U.P. and Bhar.

Sane and akane sos deveop at paces where desert condton prevas
because of hgh rate of evaporaton and very tte eachng.
Sane sos contan free sodum and other sats whe akane sos have sodum
Crops: Rce, Wheat, Cotton, Sugarcane, Tobacco etc. supported by rrgaton. For
better fertty appcaton of me and gypsum and cutvaton of sat resstant
crops ke Berseem, Rce, Sugarcane can be used.
Akane sos are decent n cacum and ntrogen and are hghy mpervous and
have very ow water hodng capacty.
6& Peaty and Organic Soils:
Deveop under resut of accumuaton of arge quantty. Hghy sane and
decent n phosphate and potash and occur n centra Orssa, Centra Bhar, West
Benga and Tamnadu.
Peaty and Marshy sos orgnates n humd regons as a resut of an
accumuaton of arge amount of organc matters.
They may contan consderabe sobe sae and s caed as "Kar".
These areas are submerged under water durng the monsoon season and as
soon as ran cease the and s put under paddy cutvaton.
These sos are back, heavy and hghy acdc.
The destructon of so cover s known as so eroson. The man reasons of so
eroson are:
a) Deforestaton
b) Over-grazng
c) Irratona Cutvaton (eg., |hoom cutvaton n North Eastern Inda).
d) Foods
e) Wnds

-*TUR*) CE#ET*,O- O3 ,-D,*
Before dscussng about natura vegetaton, t woud be better to understand the
dstncton between ora, vegetaton and forest.
It refers to the pants of a partcuar regon of perod, sted by speces and
consdered as a group.
It refers to the assembage of pant speces vng n assocaton wth each other
n a gven envronment-often termed ecoogca frame.
Forest s a arge tract covered by trees and shrubs. It conssts of forests
grassand scrub. Natura vegetaton n Inda s rch and dverse because of vared
reef features, and forms, terran, so, temperature dherences and varyng amount
of ranfa. Inda s dvded nto the foowng manor vegetatona regons.
=& Tropical evergreen or Rain 3orests:
These forests occur n areas where the ranfa exceeds 200 cm, the average
annua temperature s between 20
C to 27
C and average annua humdty
exceeds 77%. The trees are evergreen and dense and forests have a three
stored appearance.
These forests are found n Western parts of Western ghats, eastern part of
subtropca Hmaayas (Tara), |anta and Garo hs and most of Andaman and
Ncobar Isanda.
These forests may be sub-dvded nto the foowng sub-types:
i Tropical 0et evergreen forests:
They cover 4.5m ha area and are found aong wth western sde of the western
ghats, n a strp runnng southwest from Arunacha Pradesh, upper Assam,
Meghaaya, Nagaand, Manpur, Trpura and Andaman and Ncobar Isands.
Here the ranfa exceeds 300 cms. The forests are ofty, dense, evergreen and
The man speces of trees found are poon, toon, chapas, rosewood, ebony,
sssoo, ronwood, gur|an, pa champa etc. the undergrowth conssts of canes,
bamboo, ferns, cmbers etc. Due to the dense undergrowth and ack of transport
these forests have not been expoted.
ii Tropical se(i%evergreen forests:
Where the ranfa s somewhat ess that 200 cms, the mean annua temperature
between 24
C to 27
C and humdty percentage s 80, the evergreen forests
degenerate nto sem-evergreen forests. These cover 1.9 m., area.
These forests are found on the western coast, n the upper Assam, ower sopes
of eastern, Hmaayas, Orssa and neghbourng hs and n Andaman and
Ncobar sands.
The forests have evergreen trees mxed wth decdus types. The mportant
speces ncude an, semu, gute, mundane, hopea, benteak, kadam, ru,
rosewood, hadu, kan|u, champa, mango, Indan chestnut, thorny bushes, canes,
ferns and orchds.
iii Tropical (oist deciduous forests:
Such forests occur n areas of ow annua ranfa of 100 cm to 150 cm. The man
annua temperature s between 26
C to 27
C, and humdty percent s 60 to 80.

These forests cover 23.3 m. ha., and are found n a bet runnng north-south on
eastern sopes of western ghat, centra pateau ncudng Chotanagpur, Upper
Mahanand Vaey and hs of Madhya Pradesh. Hmaayan fooths, hy areas of
eastern part of deccan ncudng eastern ghats n Tamnadu and Andaman and
Ncobar sand.
These forest trees shed ther eaves and are the most mportant forests yedng
commerca tmber.
The the speces of trees ncude sateak, ar|un, |anru, aure, Andaman paduk,
ebony, muberry, kussum, kan|u, ber, guar, paas, hadu, srs, mahua, smu,
har, sandawood, |amun etc. Most of these forests have been ceared from eve
and for cutvaton.
iv )ittoral and s0a(p forests:
These forests cover 6 akh ha., and occur n and around tda creeks and rver
detas. They are found n thckest on western coast at a few paces but on the
eastern coast they form a contnuous bet on the frnge of detas of Ganga,
Mahanand, Godavar, Krshna and Cauvery. They are densest n Sunderbans, where
sundar trees predomnate. Thee evergreen speces kekeora, amur, sundar, bhara
etc have stt ke roots submerged n water.
<& Dry Tropical 3orests:
These forests occur n areas havng annua ranfa between 75 cms to 125 cms,
mean annua temperature of around 23
C to 27
C and humdty between 51 to
58%. They are dvded nto the foowng sub-types.
i Tropical dry deciduous:
These forests cover 29.2 m ha., area and are found on a very arge area n an
rreguar wde strp runnng north south from the fooths of Hmaayas to
Kanyakumar except n Ra|asthan, western ghats and West Benga.
The mportant trees, ncude, teak, tendu, sa, b|asa, rosewood, paas, be, end,
axewood, an|ar, harra, khar etc. arge tracks of these forests has been ceared
for cutvaton.
ii Tropical thorn forests:
These forests cover 5.2m, ha., area. They are restrcted to areas where ranfa s
very ow. .e., between 50 cm to 75 cm, the mean annua temperature s
between 25
C to 27
C and humdty s ess than 47%.
They are found n Kutch, neghbourng parts of saurashtra, a arge strp n south
western Pun|ab, western Haryana, western and northern Ra|asthan, Upper Ganga
Pans, Deccan Pateau and ower pennsuar Inda. Here thorny trees especay
acacas predomnate.
The trees ncude tamarx, khar, kokko, dhaman, baboo, reun|ha, thor, cact,
khe|ra, kanu, paas, AK, neem etc.
iii Tropical dry evergreen forests:
These forests cover an area of 7 akh ha.,. and occur n areas where the mean
annua ranfa about 100 cms, mean annua temperature s about 28
C and
mean annua humdty s 74%.
These forests are found n the east coast of the pennsua from Tamnadu north
to Neore. The mportant speces of trees ncude khrn, |amun, kokko, rtha,
neem, toddy, pam, gamar etc.
9& Riparian 3orests:
Where the ranfa s ess than 50 cms, short trees and grass predomnate. These
forests are found aong banks of rvers and wet ands. Decduous vegetaton ke

neem, shsham, papa, mango, |amun, khar are usuay found. Kans and mun|grass
are found n Abundance.
I& Su"%tropical "road leaved hill forests:
The foests covers 3 akh hectare area and are found between 915 to 1830 m
heght above sea eve where the mean annua ranfa s between 75 cm to 125 cm,
mean annua temperature s between 18
C to 21
C and humdty percent s 80.
These forests are found n hgh ands of Bastar. Panchmarth, Mahabaeshwar,
Ngrs, Pan and Khas hs and ower sopes of Hmaaya n West Benga and
Assam. Such forests are caed "Shoa" n South Inda. The trees ncude |amun,
machus, cets etc.
:& 'ontane 0et te(perate 3orests:
These forest cover an area of 1.6m. ha. They occur at a heght of 1800 to 3000
m above sea eve n areas where annua ranfa s between 150 to 300 cms, annua
temperature s between 11
C to 14
C and humdty percent s 83. These forests are
found n hs of Tamnadu, Keraa, Eastern Hmaayas, hghter hs of West Bengak,
Assam and Arunacha Pradesh. The man trees found are deodar, Indan Chestnut,
Mangoa, brch, pum, bue pne, Oak, hemock etc.
J& 'ontane (oist te(perate 3orests:
They cover an area of 2.7 m ha. They occur n temperate eastern and western
Hmaayas between the pne and apne forests n Kashmr, Hmacha
Pradesh,Pun|ab, Uttar Pradesh, Dar|eeng and Skkm between 1600 to 3500
meters. The forests are predomnanty conferous forests and ncude trees ke pne,
deodar, spruce, sver r, oak, beach, brch, poar, cm, chestnut, mape,
rhodendrons etc.
K& *lpine 3orests:
They cover an area of 300 ha. They occur n the Apne areas of the Hmaayas
beyond the mt of tree growth .e., between 2900| to 3500 m and consst of dwarf
shrubs of |unper, r, honey, sucke, betua, brch, rhodendrons etc. At st hgher
attude shrubs of ow herbs s the ony vegetaton found.
6& #rass lands:
These grassands are dvded nto three types () Hy or upand grassand. They
are found n Hmaayas above 100m and n deccan hs () ow and grassands. They
occur n pans of Pun|ab, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh, Bhar and north western parts of
Assam () Rverne grass ands. They are found n rverne tracks of northern Inda
especay n the bhabhar tracks.
3orest Aones of ,ndia in
ter(s of
percentage of land covered
Andaman & Ncobar 87%
Mzoram 76%
Manpur 68%
Aruna 61%
Trpura 60%
Nagaand 52%
Meghaaya 42%
Assam 39%
Goa 38%
Skkm 37%
Orssa 36%

M.P. & Chattsgarh 35%
Lakshwadweep 0%
Pondcherry 0%
Du and Daman 0.5%
Deh 2.8%
Haryana 3.8%
Pun|ab 5.8%
|ammu and Kashmr 9%
Ra|asthan 9.2%
Gu|arath 9.9%
West Benga 13.3%
3)OR* M 3*U-* O3 ,-D,*
Owng to a wde range of cmatc condton, Inda can boast of a rch and vared
vegetaton. In the remote hy tracts of the Hmaayas and Deccan mountans, a
arge number of endemc ora .e., pants t hat have grown there for mons of
years are not found to grow naturay esewhere n the word, s found here.
In recent years, many of these endemc pants are facng extncton because of
ecoogca dsturbance. There are eght Forstc regons of Inda.
() The Western Hmaayas
() The Eastern Hmaayas
() Assam
(v) The Indus Pan
(v) The Ganga Pan
(v) Deccan
(v) Maabar
(v) Andamans
Inda has the forest cover of 19.5 per cent whe the actua forest covers s ony
about 11 percent of the tota country area.
Conferous forest cover ony 6 percent and the Broadeaf Decduous forest
comprses about 94% of the tota forest cover.
About 90% of the forests n Inda are state controed.
Inda has some of the word's most bodverse regons. The potca boundares of
Inda encompass a wde range of ecozones-desert, hgh mountans, hghands,
tropca and temperate forests, swampands, pans, grassands, areas surroundng
rvers, as we as sand archpeago. It hosts three bodversty hotspots: the
Western Ghats, the Eastern Hmaayas, and the hy ranges that stradde the Inda-
Myanmar border. These hotspots have numerous endemc speces.
Inda, for the most part, es wthn the Indomaaya ecozone, wth the upper
reaches of the Hmaayas formng part of the Paearctc ecozone; the contours
of 2000 to 2500m are consdered to be the attudna boundary between the
Indo-Maayan and Paearctc zones. Inda dspays sgncant bodversty.
One of eghteen megadverse countres, t s home to 7.6% of a mammaan,
12.6% of a avan, 6.2% of a reptan, 4.4% of a amphban, 11.7% of a sh,
and 6.0% of a owerng pant speces.
The regon s aso heavy nuenced by summer monsoons that cause ma|or
seasona changes n vegetaton and habtat.

The unque forms ncudes the snake famy Uropetdae found ony n the
Western Ghats and Sr Lanka.
The ora and fauna of Inda have been studed and recorded from eary tmes
n fok tradtons and ater by researchers foowng more forma scentc
approaches (See Natura hstory n Inda)
Inda s home to severa we known arge mammas ncudng the Asan
Eephant, Benga Tger, Asatc Lon, Leopard and Indan Rhnoceros. Some of
these anmas are engraned n cuture, often beng assocated wth detes.
These arge mammas are mportant for wdfe toursm n Inda and severa
natona parks and wdfe sanctuares cater to these needs.
There s nsumcent nformaton about the nvertebrate and ower forms of Inda
wth sgncant work havng been done ony n a few groups of nsects notaby
the butteres, odonates, hymenoptera, the arger coeoptera and heteroptera.
There are about 2546 speces of shes (about 11% of the word speces) found
n Indan waters. About 197 speces of amphbans (4.4% of the word tota) and
more than 408 repte speces (6% of the word tota) are found n Inda. Among
these groups the hghest eves of endemsm are found n the amphbans.
There are about 1250 speces of brds from Inda wth some varatons
dependng on taxonomc treatments accountng for about 12% of the word
speces. There are about 410 speces of mammas known from Inda whch s
about 8.86% of the word speces.The Word Conservaton Montorng Centre
gves an estmate of about 15,000 speces of owerng pants n Inda.
Indan forests are Tropca Sem-evergreen as we as Evergreen. Extremey dense
forests found at western ghats regon of Keraa, Nagaand, some parts of
Assam and Andaman Ncobar Isands. The man speces grown here are
Mahagony and Ebony trees.
Tropical Thorny 3orests:
The mportant speces grown here s Acaca, many found n ran shadow regon
behnd the Western Ghats, Eastern Ra|asthan and Bundhekhad.
Su"%tropical "road leaved forests:
Many found n upper regons of pateaus, tabe ands, hs of pennsuar Inda
especay Ngars, Mahadeo, Make. Oak, Chestnut, Evergreen Eucayptus are the
mportant speces grown here.
In Karnataka, these forests are caed as Shoaas. In Western Ra|asthan, we nd
bushes and shrubs many cactus varety because of ow ranfa trees takes shape
of bushes and shrub of xerophytc and megatherm varety to reduce water oss.
2iodi1ersit3 in Indian forests
Indan forests represent one of the 12 mega bodverse regons of the word.
Inda's Western Ghats and Eastern Hmaayas are amongst the 32 bodversty
hotspots on earth.
Inda s home to 12 percent of word's recorded ora, some 47000 speces of
owerng and non-owerng pants. Over 59000 speces of nsects, 2500
speces of shes, 17000 speces of angosperms ve n Indan forests
About 90000 anma speces, representng over 7 percent of earth's recorded
fauna speces have been found n Indan forests. Over 4000 mamma speces
are found here. Inda has one of the rchest varety of brd speces on earth,
hostng about 12.5 percent of known speces of brds.
'angrove Cegetation

The vegetaton aong the coasta beds and rver mouths, the vegetaton caed as
mangrove vegetaton. Ths s many observed n detas, agoons, austeres. Near
mangroves the ecoogy s unque.
Here there s a arge scae marne wave attack and ntruson of sea water and water
oggng hence, the speces whch survve at these condtons are of (1) Hydrophytc
(survve n water and oats n water wth stt roots) (2) The speces are sane n
nature ke Rhyzhophera varety.
*dvantages of 'angroves:
Mangroves prevent coasta so eroson thus, they hep n coastne stabzaton.
They oher protecton to coasta areas from cyconc waves, tsunams.
They pay vta roe n nutrent transfer or enhancement between marne and
terrestra eco system.
Protect ferte agrcutura ands on coasts from sane water ntruson.
The Mangrove forests yed commerca wood and aso support bodversty.
Threat to 'angroves:
Mangrove forests are threatened by wood cuttng, Speca Economc Zone,
psccuture, coasta toursm, etc. Eg. Mundra SEZ n Gu|arat accused of cearng
arge extent of Mangrove on Gu|arat coast.
,nternational conventions for protection of 'angroves:
Ramsar (Iran)-Internatona conventon for conservaton of wet ands, cora reefs
and Mangroves. As beng part of ths conventon, Inda decared certan Mangroves
as protected Mangrove reserves. Some of them are:
1. Sunderbans, West Benga at mouth of rver Hooge.
2. Bhttar Kanka, Orssa.
3. Cornga near Kaknada of A.P.
4. Pont Camore and Pchavurama Mangrove reserves of Tamnadu.
5. Vembunad of Keraa.
6. Kondapur of Karnataka.
7. Achra of Maharashtra.
-ational 3orest Policy:
1. A mnmum 33% of the countrys and shoud be covered wth forest (Now t s
hardy 22%).
2. Mnmum forest area coverage wth 60% at h statons (whch s far beow now).
3. Mnmum forest coverage shoud be 20% n pans and basns (t s ess than
Hence, the extent of forest coverage s far beow than that s mentoned n the
forest pocy. So to protect certan forests, the Government decared them as
Natona Parks, wdfe reserves and bosphere reserves.
-ational Par1 /ile life sanctuary Biosphere reserve
Conservaton of
ora, fauna .e.,
both pants and
Conservaton of specc
wd fe speces not
ora and fauna
Conservaton of ECO system .e., ora,
fauna, physca envronment (water, so,
rock, sunght, rvers, streams, water
Larger or moderate
n area
Smaer n area Huge and arge area conssts of more
than 1 natona park and wd fe
sanctuary, Eg. Neeagr Bosphere
Reserve consst of Sent Vaey Natona

park and Peryar Wdfe Sanctuary
The boundares are
determned by
State Legsaton
through statutes
No egsatve statutory
needed ony
nstructons denes the
Boundares are determned by State
Legsature through statutes
No botc
nterference s
aowed .e., we are
not aowed to
mancuate or
estabshng a
settement (In the
buher zones some
botc nterference s
aowed, but not n
core zone
Lmted nterference s
aowed for ntroducton
of new ora and fauna
No botc nterference s aowed except n
buher zone
No reasons and
deveopments and
educaton, tranng
actvtes w be
No reasons and
deveopments and
educaton, tranng
actvtes w be carred
Research, educaton and tranng take up
on arge scae and n comprehensve
-ational Par1sB /ildlife preserves and protected ani(als:
*ndhra Pradesh:
. Pakha wdfe reserve and tger reserve
. Kava wdfe sanctuary, Adabad.
. Koeru brd sanctuary.
v. Nagr|un Sagar, Srsaam Natona Park and tger reserve (It s the argest n
area n Inda).
*runachal Pradesh:
1. Namdapha wd fe sanctuary.
2. Mong wd fe sanctuary.
1. Kazranga Natona Park
2. Manas wd fe sanctuary
3. Sand-rupa wdfe sanctuary
4. Namer wdfe sanctuary
Vamk Natona Park
1. Hazarbagh Natona Park
2. Catgan wdfe sanctuary
1. Gr Natona Park
2. Vevador Natona Park
3. Kuchch wdfe sanctuary
Sutanpur brd sanctuary
2i(achal Pradesh:

1. Kugt wdfe sanctuary
2. Daranghat wdfe sanctuary
3. Pn vaey Natona Park
Fa((u and Lash(ir:
1. Dachgaon wdfe sanctuary
2. Herms Natona Park
1. Bandpur Natona Park
2. Bannerghatta Natona Park
3. Nagrhoe Natona Park
4. Kudrumukh Natona Park
5. Ranganthtoo brd sanctuary
1. Paryar wdfe sanctuary
2. Sent Vaey Natona Park
'adhya Pradesh:
1. Kanha Natona Park and tger reserve
2. Bandhavgadh Natona Park and tger reserve
3. Vanvhar Natona Park
4. San|ay Gandh Natona Park
5. Pryadharshn Natona Park
1. Tadoba Natona Park and tger reserve
2. Yawa wdfe sanctuary
3. Borv Natona Park
4. Karnaa brd sanctuary
Kebu-Lam|oo Natona Park
Bapakram wdfe Natona Park
1. Dampa wdfe sanctuary
2. Musem Natona Park
3. Bue Mountan Peak Natona Park
4. Phawng Pu Natona Park
Intagk Natona Park
1. Smpa Natona Park
2. Nandan Kanan tger reserve
1. Ranathambore wdfe sanctuary and tger reserve.
2. Sarska wdfe sanctuary and tger reserve (Found wthout tgers. Tgers ked
and so mportng tgers now).
3. Keodev (Ghana) brd sanctuary (near Bharatpur) (Famous for mgratory Sberan
cranes n wnter.

1. Mudumaa wdfe sanctuary
2. Gundy Natona Park
3. Makurt Natona Park (n Ngrs)
4. Vedantaga brd sanctuary
Uttar Pradesh:
1. |m Corbett Natona Park and tger reserve
2. Chandraprabha Natona Park
3. Dudhvda Natona Park
1. Ra|a| Natona Park
2. Vaey of owers Natona Park
3. Gangotr Natona Park
/est Bengal:
1. Sunderbans tger reserve
2. |adapara wdfe sanctuary
3. Neora Vaey Natona Park
*nda(an M -ico"ar ,slands:
1. Campbe bay Natona Park
2. Gaathea Natona Park
3. Sadde Peak Natona Park
4. Mt. Harrot Natona Park
5. Ran |hans Marne Natona Park
Under Man and Bosphere programme of UNESCO
1. Achanakmar-Amar Kantak bosphere reserve, Madhya Pradesh and Chattsgarh.
2. Agastyama bosphere reserve, Keraa
3. Dehang Dbang bosphere reserve, Arunacha Pradesh
4. Dbru-Sakhowa bosphere reserve, Assam
5. Great Ncobar bosphere reserve, Ncobar sands
6. Guf of Mannar Marne bosphere, Tamnadu and Sranka
7. Kanchanga bosphere reserve, Skkm
8. Manas bosphere, Assam
9. Nandadev bosphere, Uttarancha
10.Ngrs bosphere reserve, Karnataka, Keraa, Tamnadu
11.Nokrk bosphere reserve, Meghaaya
12.Panchmuk bosphere, Madhya Pradesh
13.Smpa bosphere, Orssa
14.Sunderbans bosphere, West Benga.
/ild life in ,ndia:
Inda was very rch n wdfe. The vastness of the country, wde range of
cmate condtons and pant fe and dherent terran provdes dea condtons
for dherent' speces of wdfe to thrve.
There are about 81,000 known speces dspersed across the country, whch s
about 6.5% of the word's tota speces. Indan fauna ncudes about 6,500
nvertebrates, 5000 mousk, 2,546 speces of shes, 2000 speces of brds,
458 speces of reptes, 4 speces of panthers and over 60,000 speces of

The mammas ncude eephant, the gaur or Indan bson, nga, Indan
buhao, chousngha or four-horned anteope (unque to Inda) back buck or
Indan anteope, ghorkhur or Indan wd ass found n Rann of Kachch-the
great one horned Rhnoceros (now conned to eastern Inda) and severa
speces of deer-the rare Kashmr stag, sway deer, stopped deer, mush deer
thamr or browantered deer (found n Manpur), the mouse and the hog deers.
The Chnkara and the Tbetean gazee are the two gaazeas found n Inda.
Two varetes of wd sheep-the bex and the markhor, and one varety of wd
goat (thar) are found n the Hmaayan regon.
There are two varetes of wd pgs-the Indan wd pg found n the forest areas
of the pans, and the pgmy hog conned- to the north eastern regon. The
common hare of Inda s prevaent a .over the country whe the arger marsh
hare s very rare. The Pangon s the ony ant eater found n Inda.
Among the reptes found n Inda, the argest one s the sh eatng crocode or
the ghara found n fresh water |akes. The mugger or the snub-nosed crocode
and the sat water crocode (fond n coasta areas) are the other two
crocodan types.
The Python, the Kng Cobra, the-Krat, the Russe's vper, the saw-scaed vper,
and the pt Vper are among the snakes found outsde Afrca), the tger, the
eopard, coud eopard, the snow-eopard; the shng cat, the wd cat, (a
beongng to cat famy) the Tbetan back wof, the |acka and the fox
(beongng to the dog famy). The rate, the marten, the cvet cat and the
mongoose are other sma carnvores.
Severa speces of monkeys and angurs are found a over the country. But the
on taed macaque s found ony n the South. Hooock, the ony ape found n
Inda s conned to the ran forests of the northeastern regon.
There are three knds of bears n Inda, Vz, the brown bear whch dwes n
Hmaayan regon, the back bear and the Indan soth bear found n the pans.
Among the brds found n Inda the argest one s the sarus crane whch
measures amost 1.5 metres hgh, The tte sun-brd whch measures hardy 7
cm s the smaest brd.
There are severa speces of storks such as the ad|ustant stork, and the open
bed stork: Among the geese and the ducks that mgrate to Inda durng
wnter are the persan grey ag, the. barheaded goose, the brahmn duck, the
comb duck, the maard, etc.
Snow-partrdge found above snow ne n Hmaayas, the Chuckor and the h
partrdge found at ower attudes, the swamp patrdge the back partrdge, the
panted partrdge and the grey partrdge found n pans, are the
representatve's of the partrdge famy n Inda.
There are severa varetes of pheasants. The snow pheasant, the beautfu
mona pheasant, the bood pheasant and the tragopan are some of them.
The Kokas, the 'cheer, the Ka|, the |ungefow, (found a over Indan pans),
red |unge fow (found n the saforests), the grey |unge fow (found n the
south), the spur fow (found n centra Inda) mynahs, para-keets, peacocks,
pegons, severa varetes of cranes and hornbs are some other brds found n
The above st whch ooks mpressve s not exhaustve. But some of them are
extnct whe many of them are n the- endangered st.
/ildlife reserves:

Some of the famous wd Lfe reserves of Inda are:
Corbett Natona Park, home of tgers, has eephants, chtas.
Ghana Brd Sanctuary s a famous Sanctuary of water brds. Sberan cranes,
herons, spoonbs found here.
Bandpur Sanctuary s the home of wd anmas ke tgers, eephants, bears,
panthers and deer.
Namdapha Natona Park s the home of eephants and tgers n Arunacha
Wd Ass Sanctuary n Gu|arat s famous for ts wd ass.
Sundarbans, the tger sanctuary n sunderbans s the home of the wd bear,
crocode and. deer.
|adapara Sanctuary, West Benga, houses the famous Indan Rhnocers.
Khazranga Natona Park s famous for one-horn Rhnocers.
The man-anma conct: The man anma conct s' a growng probem.' It has
two dmensons. The settng up of protected natona parks and sanctuares goes
aganst the economc nterests of the surroundng vagers as t deprves them of
the forest products "whch they were coectng. For exampe at Bharatpur brd
sanctuary frequent cashes have broken out between forest stah and the
vagers on grazng by the catte. Amost a natona parks and' sanctuares are,'
facng such troubes.
Attacks and kngs of vagers especay chdren by the wd anmas s another
dmenson wth more serous mpcaton. Vage peope surroundng Hazarbagh
Natona Park n M.P. are terrorzed by the frequent kng of chdren by
undented wd anmas. 122 such cases have been reported snce 1982.
Vagers at the fooths of Hmaayas ve n costant fear of tger attacks. 422
peope have been ked snce 1978 n these attacks. These probems are
acqurng potca dmensons. The catte grazng has aready become a: potca
Scarcity of land:
Land area of the country whch s statc s becomng ncreasngy scarce due, to
heavy demand from many quarters such as agrcuture and ndustres. Forest
and s beng dverted to meet ths demand.
These probems rase a queston: Who shoud be gven, prorty? Man or Anma?
The prospects of revtasng the wdfe are beak as scope for t s mted. Most of
the ecoogsts, and conservatonsts fee that they are ghtng a osng batte.
Nevertheess t s possbe to save the endangered speces from extncton by takng
sutabe measures.
Environ(ent ,(pact *ssess(ent:
The programme of Envronment Impact Assessment (EIA) was ntroduced n Inda n
1978. EIA s statuary for 29 categores of deveopmenta pro|ects under varous
sectors such as Industry, mnng, rrgaton, power transport, toursm,
communcaton etc.
Endangered *ni(als in ,ndia
Nature has ts own way of mantanng the baance n ora and fauna. But, man's
greedy advancements n makng progress have eft a deep mpact on other
creatures. In an ehort to create the stuatons accordng to hs wshes, man has

gone beyond the mt, and has made many anmas as crtcay endangered
anmas. Some of the anmas endangered crtcay are:
*sian Elephant: Accordng to an estmate, ony 15,000-20,000 Asan eephants are
ave today. The man reason for ther decreasng numbers s ther oss of habtat,
and extensve poachng for ther vory tusks. Goods made from vory tusks are n
huge demand n the nternatona market. Asan eephants are many found n the
tera regon of Uttar Pradesh, Benga, Assam, Karnataka, and Keraa.
Tiger: Tgers are many hunted for ther bones and skn. Tger bones are wdey
used to make tradtona medcnes, as a cure for dseases ke cancer. They are aso
hunted for peasure n games, and, sometmes, to protect the domestc vestock. An
estmated ony 40,000 tgers are eft today.
#reat ,ndian One%horned Rhinoceros: They are one of the most endangered
anmas n Inda. They are hunted for ther horns, whch are beeved to have
aphrodsac propertes. They are many found n the Kazranga and Orange natona
park. It s sad to note that ony 1,500 of the Great Indan One-horned Rhnoceros are
eft today.
*siatic )ion: Asatc ons are consdered to be the most powerfu vng anmas on
earth. But, they are the most crtcay endangered anma n Inda. Ony 352 of
these mghty creatures are eft to be seen today. Poachng s consdered to be the
man reason for ther decreasng number. Today, they are many found n Gr
natona park.
)eopard: Leopards are aso ghtng for ther survva. They are many found n the
parts of centra Inda and the north-east. Ther number has decreased to about
Sno0 )eopard: They are many found n the upper Hmaayas. Lack of food for
them, and poachng has consderaby reduced ther numbers. But, some approprate
and tmey hep from the envronmentasts have protected them from becomng
Ti"etan *ntelope: Tbetan Anteope s aso caed "Chru". They have very soft furs
on ther body, known as "sahtoosh". Ths ght-weght woo has a great demand n
the market. A shaw made of sahtoosh can fetch upto $16,000. It s for ths fur that
the Tbetan Anteopes are hunted and have become an endangered anma n Inda.
20,000 Chrus are poached every year to satsfy the needs of human bengs.
The st aso ncudes Kashmr Stag, Lon-taed Macaque, Bue Whae, Ganges
Rver Dophn, Red Panda, Marsh Mongoose, Hooock Gbbon, and t may go
endessy. It s mportant to save the ves of these endangered anmas n Inda. If
correct steps for savng them are not taken now, then we may nd them ony n
zoos, or n the museums. Our comng generatons w know about them from the
museums ony.
Typical !reature only in ,ndia:
=& #angetic Dolphin:
A rver Dophn, foundng Ganga basn many and some parts of Brahmaputra
basn-born bnd.
<& !ivits:
Cats ke creature.
Hdes day, hent durng nghts.
9& #reat ,ndia horn "ill :
A brd wth strong nestng habts.
I& 'ouse Deer:
A deer of 30 cm heght.


SOUR!E O3 ,RR,#*T,O-
Water for rrgatng crops s avaabe from a number of sources. They are ran,
rvers, sprng and underground water. Ran water beng a free gft of nature s an
dea source of rrgaton, provded t s tmey and adequate n amount.
Unfortunatey n our country, the ranfa s seasona, ncentve and hghy
uneveny dstrbuted.
A arge area of the country comprsng neary 72% of the area receve ranfa
ess than 127 cm n a year and ths area s abe to suher from droughts.
It s supposed that 1869 cubc cm water s avaabe n the Indan rvers n whch
ony 690 cubc km. can be used. Besde ths 432 cubc km. underground water s
aso avaabe.
Large, medum and sma rrgaton pro|ects have been mpemented and snce
mpementaton of the rst ve year pan to 1999-2000, the rrgaton potentay
has been ncreased from 226 akh hectares to 947.3 akh hectare (provsonay)
Topography, so, ranfa condtons and rvers whether perenna and non-
perenna determne the source of rrgaton n Inda. In Inda there are four ma|or
source of rrgaton.
() Tanks () Canas () Wes (v) Tube-wes.
i Tan1 irrigation:
In the uneven and reatvey rocky pateau of pennsuar Inda, where the ranfa
s aso hghy seasona, peope have restored to tank rrgaton, Eastern Madhya
Pradesh, Chattsgarh, Orssa, nteror areas of Tamnadu and Andhra Pradesh have
more and under tank rrgaton.
ii !anal irrigation:
Some years ago canas were the prncpa source of rrgaton n Inda. Now
after wes ncudng tubewes, they are the second most mportant source of
rrgaton (39.5%). It s done ony n those areas where arge eve pans, of
deep ferte so and are draned by we dstrbuted perenna rvers.
The pans of north Inda detas and coasta ow ands and broad vaeys pans
n Inda pateau are areas were cana rrgaton s done.
Cana rrgaton s mportant n the state of Andhra Pradesh, Haryana, Assam,
|ammu and Kashmr, West Benga, Pun|ab, Bhar, Keraa, Madhya Pradesh,
Chattsgarh, Karnataka, Tamnadu and Uttar Pradesh.
iii /ells irrigation:
We rrgaton s done many n the auva pans where owng to the soft nature of
so wes are easy to dg. Pun|ab, Haryana pan, (excudng the dry area near
Ra|asthan) pans of Uttar Pradesh, Bhar and Gu|arat states, a few paces n
Narmada vaeys. The Tapt vaeys and Tamnadu are the areas where we rrgaton
s done.
State percentage
Gu|arat 86.6
Ra|asthan 77.2
Madhya Pradesh 66.5
Maharashtra 65
Uttar Pradesh 58.21
West Benga 57.6
Tam nadu 54.7

iv Tu"e%0ells
Gu|arat, Maharashtra,
Pun|ab, Ra|asthan, Madhya
Pradesh and Tamnadu Tube-
We rrgaton s done.

Bha1ra%-angal Pro@ect:
It s a |ont venture of Pun|ab, Haryana and Ra|asthan and ahs been so named after
two dams but at Bhakra and Nanga on rver Sute|.
The Pro|ect comprses (1) Two dams at Bhakra and Nanga (2) Nanga-Hyde Channe
(3) Four power house at Ganguwa, Kota, eft bank power house and rght bank
power house wth a combned nstaed capacty of 1204 MW; and transmsson nes
(4) Bhakra cana system, commandng a gross area about 27.4 akhs hectares of
whch the cutvabe command area s 23.7 akh hectares.
Bhakra dam s regarded as the hghest straghtway gravty dam n the word,
constructed across the Sute| at the sght of Bhakra gorge. The reservor of water
behnd ths dam s 88 km. ong and 8 km. wde known as the Govndsagar ake wth
a gross storage capacty of 9868 mon cubc metres.
The dam s 22 meter hgh and 518 meter ong and the wdth of the base as ts
wdest pont s 362 m.
Bhakra Cana system commands a gross area of about 27.4 akh hectares. The
Bhakra man cana s 174 km ong and rrgates an area of 14.6 akh hectare. The
cana system conssts of 1104 km. ong canas and 3360 km dstrbutares.
Beas Pro@ect:
It s a |ont venture of Pun|ab, Haryana and Ra|asthan states, constructed at rver
Beas. It conssts of two unts-(1) A Beas-Sute| nkage (2) Pong dam at Mukheryan
near |uandhar has been constructed.
Due to the pro|ect 4 akh hectare and of Pun|ab and Ra|asthan s rrgaton and 660
MW and 240 MV hydroeectrcty s produced.
,ndira #andhi (Ra@asthan !anal Pro@ect:
It s a venture to utze the suppes made avaabe from Sute|, Beas and Rav to
Ra|asthan and to provde rrgaton factes to 13 akh hectares.
It w have a fu suppy capacty of 524 cm meter/sec, at head and a tota ength of
649 km. and a dstrbuton system of 700 km ength. The pro|ect s beng executed
n two states.
Losi Pro@ect:
The three unt Kos scheme conssts of UNIT () A barrage near Hanumannagar n
Nepa and appurtenant works. UNIT () About 270 Km ong ood embankments
and other protectve works and UNIT () The eastern Kos Cana System (A) Kos
Power House.
Wth an nstaed capacty of 20 MW on the eastern Kos cana, aong wth
connected transmsson nes s under constructon haf the power generated s
supped to Nepa and rest to Bhar.
2ira1ud Pro@ect:
Ths pro|ect s parae to D.V. Pro|ect, based on utzaton of the water of the
The pro|ect was undertaken n 1948 whch has snce been competed.
It ams at reguatng the Mahanand tsef by constructon of three dams. The
pro|ect was dvded nto two stages.
Tunga"hadra Pro@ect:
The |ont undertakng of the governments of Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka
Comprses () 92,441 meter ong and 49.39 meter hgh dam on Tungabhadra
rver at Maapuram n Beary dstrct of Karnataka () a 227 km ong cana
(caed eft bank cana) wth a power house on the eft sde () a 349 km ong

cana (caed the ow eve cana) wth two power houses and (v) a 196 km ong
cana (caed the Hgh eve cana) on the rght sde.
The reservor has a water spread of 37,800 hectares. The eft bank and the rght
bank cana w rrgate neary 3.32 akh hectares n Anantur and Kurnoo Dstrcts
of Andhra Pradesh and Beary and Rachur Dstrcts n Karnataka.
There are two power statons on the rght sde, one beow the dam and other at
the ta end of 22.5 km ong hydro channe at Hamp. Four generatng unts of 9
MW each n the dam power house and four unts of the same capacty n the
cana power house have been commssoned.
A power staton has aso been constructed beow the dam on the eft sde, wth
three generators of 9 MW. The tota rrgaton potenta created so far s 4 akh
hectares and the tota nstaed capacty far power generaton s 126 MW.
Ths pro|ect comprses the constructon of a 1450 metres ong masonry dam wth
3,415 meter ong eastern anks on the Krshna rver near Nandkonda vage,
about 144 km from Hyderabad and two canas on the each sde of the rver.
The rght bank cana (204 ong) and the eft bank canas (17 km ong) wth
together rrgate 8.3 akh hectares, ncudng the stabzaton of rrgaton n
Krshna deta.
The reservor w have a storage capacty of 808 crore metres and ts water
spread over 23,387 hectares.
The rrgaton w be provded to about 8.30 akh hectares at Khammam, West
Godavar, Guntur, Kurnoo and Neore Dstrcts. The Pr|ect aso envsages a
power house at the toe of Nagar|unasagar dam wth 2 unts 50 MW each
!ha("al Pro@ect:
Ths pro|ect s a |ont venture of Ra|asthan and Madhya Pradesh. It makes use of the
drop of 122m n the gorge between Chaurasgarh and Kota where masonry and
concrete dams are ocated. The entre scheme was phased for executon n three
stages (1) comprses a masonry gravty dam, at the border of M.P. and Ra|asthan
and a barrage near Kota cty aong wth the rght and eft Bank man canas for
rrgatng arge areas n both the states.
Three generatng unts of 33,000 KW have been nstaed at ths staton.
Under ths pro|ect rrgaton suppy to both the states woud be 2.87 hectares n
Da(odar Calley Pro@ect:
The basc feature of the Damodar Vaey Pro|ect s that t consttutes a campact,
uned mutpurpose rver basn deveopment eg. Food contro, promoton and
operaton of rrgaton schemes, water suppy and dranage, generaton transmsson
and dstrbuton of eectrc power, promoton and contro of navgaton, ahorestaton
and contro of the so eroson.
#anda1 Pro@ect:
It s a |ont venture of the states of U.P. and Bhar, though Nepa w aso get
rrgaton and power factes from t.
The pro|ect comprses the foowng components
() A 747m ong and 10m hgh barrage across the rver Gandak near Bamknagar n
Bhar about 760m beow the exstng Trben cana head reguator n Bhar. Haf of
the barrage ength as n Bchar
() man western cana to rrgate 4.84 akh hectares n the Savan dstrct of Bhar
and about 1.88 akh hectares n the Gorakhpur and Deora dstrct of Uttar Pradesh

() Man eastern cana to rrgate 6.68 akh hectares n Champaran, Muzaharnagar
and Darbangha dstrcts of Bhar and 0.56 akh hectares n Porasa, Bara and
Rautahat dstrcts of Nepa
(v) A power house wth an nstaed capacty of 15 MW at the 14
Km of the man
Western Cana n Nepa terrtory has been handed over to Nepa as a gft.
La1rapar Pro@ect:
Stuated at rver Tapt n Gu|arat state, about 80 km away from Surat dstrct. The
Pro|ect has been competed n 1963. At the eve of the rver, 14 m hgh and 621
meter ong dam has been constructed. A 505 km ong and the other 837 km ong
canas from the rght and eft bank of the dam have been constructed whch w
rrgate about 2.27 akh hectares of ava.
Loyna Pro@ect:
Stuated at Koyna rver n Maharashtra state. A dam of 250 meter hgh has been
constructed across the rver.
'acch1und Pro@ect:
It s a |ont venture of Orssa and Andhra Pradesh State. A dam at the border of
Orssa and Andhra has been constructed at Macchkund rver.
'alpra"ha Pro@ect:
Ths pro|ect s n Karnataka state a dam at Maprabha, rver a trbutary of Krshna
has been constructed 154.6 m ong and 44 m dam at Begaon dstrct has been
constructed, whch w rrgate 2.13 akh hectare of and.
Bhi(a Pro@ect:
Under ths pro|ect a dam of 1319 m ong and 42 m hgh at rver Pawna (Pune) n
Maharashtra state has been constructed. An other dam n Soapur dstrct at rver
Krshna w be constructed. The dam w be 2,467 m ong and 56.4 m hgh and a
139 km ong cana w be constructed to rrgate 1.62 akh hectares of and.
Parriyar Pro@ect:
Under ths pro|ect, a 210 meter ong barrage w be constructed at rver Parryar
near Aways dstrct n Kerea state. The pro|ect w provde an rrgaton to about
77,000 hectares of and.
Theen Da(:
The Tehr Dam has been constructed 1.5 km beow the conuence of Bhagrath
and ts trbutary Mangana n Tehr dstrct n Uttarancha. Under ths pro|ect 260.5
ong rock dam has been constructed. A reservor known as Ram Trtha Sagar wth
a capacty of 32.2 mon cubc meter of water w be extended upto 45 km from
Bhagrath vaey and 25 km from Manga Ghat. Tota capacty of the water of
reservor sha be 2615 mon cubc meter 7400 mn cubc meter of water of
Ganga dranage system w be utzed whch w rrgate 2.70 akh hectare of and
and w generate 340 MW hydroeectrcty.
3arra1ha Barrage:
Ths pro|ect has been constructed n Murshdabad dstrct of West Benga. The
man ob|ect of ths pro|ect s to suppy water to cean Kokata harbour and to
remove santy of Hooghy water.
Bansagar Pro@ect:
It s the |ont venture of Uttar Pradesh, Bhar and Madhya Pradesh states. Under
ths pro|ect water of rver Sun w be stores.
Lunda Pro@ect:
It s the hyde pro|ect of Tamnadu state. The eectrc generatng capacty of the
pro|ect n the nta stage w be 425 MW, whch ater on w ncrease 535 MW.
Sa"arigiri Pro@ect:

The nstaaton capacty of ths pro|ect n the Keraa state s 300 MW.
Bali(ela Pro@ect:
The nstaed capacty of ths pro|ect s 360 MW n Orssa state.
Salal Pro@ect:
It s a hyde pro|ect of |ammu and Kashmr state constructed at rver Chnab.
Lalindi Pro@ect:
It s the hyde pro|ect of Karnataka state, ts eectrc generatng capacty s 270
,ddu1i Pro@ect:
It s the hyde pro|ect of the Keraa state wth ts generatng capacty of 390 MW.
-ar(ada Calley Pro@ect:
Rver emerges from Amarkantak h (Madhya Pradesh) and ows n Gu|arat
state competng the dstance of 1312 km t drans n Araban Sea. Over ths
pro|ect roughy 3000 dams of dherent sze wth dherent purposes sha be
Two dams () Indra Sagar Dam () Sardar Sarovar Dam are mportant.
Indrasagar Dam known as the Narmada Dam s beng constructed near Punasa
n dstrct Nmar to factate the rrgaton n 1.23 akh hectares of and and
generaton of 300 KW of eectrcty.
Sardar Sarovar dam s beng constructed near Badgaon n Barooch dstrct of
Gu|arat to factate 15 akh hectares of and for rrgaton and generaton of
300 MW of eectrcty. The tota cost of the Narmada dam sha be 5000 crore of
Rs. whe those of sardar sarovar sha be 13,500 crore rupees.
Pocha(pad Pro@ect:
Ths pro|ect s constructed at Pochampad rver n Andhra Pradesh; wth a
rrgaton capacty of 2.24 akh hectare.
Son Pro@ect:
It s an extenson pro|ect of Son dam pro|ect n Bhar state wth a rrgaton
capacty of 1.61 akh hectare of and.
'ahi Pro@ect:
The pro|ect s beng constructed across rver Mah n Gu|arat State n two stages
Mah Pro|ect I across rver Mah to rrgate about 1.8 akh hectares n Kara dstrct
and Kadano Pro|ect (Mah State II) to rrgate about 3 akh hectares on competon
to Panchmaha dstrct.
Sa"ar(ati Pro@ect:
Under ths pro|ect a dam n Dhar vage near Mehasana dstrct n Gu|arat has
been constructed and another dam at Wasana near Ahmedabad has been
Pana( Pro@ect:
Under ths pro|ect, a dam near Ked|or at Panchmaha dstrct has been
constructed at rver Panam. A Kaccha (Mud) dam has been constructed for ths.
!urAon Pro@ect:
Under ths pro|ect a mud dam near |eetgarh vage n Gu|arat State across the
rver Curzah has been constructed.
Bhadra Pro@ect:
It s amutpurpose pro|ect at rver Bhadra n Karnataka State. Ths w rrgate
1.01 akh hectare of and n Chckmagur, Chtadurg, Shmoga and Beary dstrcts.
Upper Lrishna Pro@ect:
Under ths pro|ect two dams-one at Naranpur and other at Amat have been

constructed across the rver Krshna n Karnataka state to rrgate 4.08 akh hectare
of and.
#hat Pra"ha Pro@ect:
It s the most mportant pro|ect deveoped on rver Ghat prabha to rrgate about
3.2 hectares of and n Begaon and B|aur dstrcts.
Lu1adi Pro@ect:
It s the pro|ect of Maharashtra state. Under ths pro|ect ve dams w be
constructed at () Yadugaon () Mank Droh () Dbha (v) Badag (v) Ppa gaon.
Lrishna Pro@ect:
Under ths pro|ect two reservors n Ishapur vage n dstrct |awatma n
Maharashtra State have been constructed on Penganga rver, another dam at Sap
vage n Parbhon dstrct has been constructed across rver Ryadh.

Name of the pro|ect
States whch
admnster or
whose needs are
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5)
1. Bhakra-Nanga Pro|ect:-
It s named after two
dams, but across the
Sute| at Bhakra and
Nanga n Hmacha
|ont Venture of
Pun|ab, Haryana
and Ra|asthan
Irrgaton and
It s the argest n Inda
wth 1204 MW of
power generaton. It
possesses 1100 kms.
Of canas wth 3400
kms. Of dstrbutons
rrgatng 14.6 akh
2. The Beas Pro|ect:- Ths
pro|ect w nk the Beas
and Sute| waters. It
conssts of () Beas-Sute|
nk and () Beas dam
constructed across Beas
a Pong
Pun|ab, haryana
and Ra|asthan
(man) and
1020 MW of power
generaton. It s
expected to rrgate 17
akh hectares of and
n three states.
3. Damodar Vaey Pro|ect:-
It conssts of a seres of
dams on the trbutares
of the Damodar rver n
Admnstered by
Damodar Vaey
Authorty (DVC)
to make the
benet to West
Benga and Bhar
ood contro,
1181 MW of power
capacty 4.5 akh
hectares of rrgaton
4. Hracud Pro|ect:- But
across Mahanand near
Sambapur n Orssa
Orssa Irrgaton,
and ood
Hracud dam s one of
the ongest n the
word. It rrgates 2.5
akh hectares and has
power capacty of 280
5. Nagar|unasagar Pro|ect:-
But across Krshna near
Nandkonda vage n
Nagonda dstrct of
Andhra Pradesh
Andhra Pradesh Irrgaton,
It s one of the argest
rrgaton pro|ects
rrgates 8.3 akh
hectares. It has the
power reducng
capacty of 960 MW
6. Tungabhadra Pro|ect:-
But across Tungabhadra
at Maapur n Beary
dstrct of Karnataka
Karnataka and
Andhra Pradesh
Irrgaton and
It rrgates 3.5 akh
hectares and has the
tota power potenta
of 126 MW
7. Kos Pro|ect:- But across
Kos near Hanuman
Nagar on the INDO-
NEPAL Border
It s an
pro|ect. It s
admnstered by
Inda, but the
benets shared
by Inda (Bhar
Irrgaton and
Irrgates 5.66 akh
hectares and
generates power 386

State) and Nepa
8. Chamba Pro|ect:- But
across Chamba. It
conssts of three dams
Madhya Pradesh
and Ra|asthan
Irrgaton and
Irrgates 5.66 akh
hectares and
generates power 386

9. Gandak Pro|ect:- But a
barrage across Gandak
at Bamk nagar n Bhar
|ont executon of
Bhar and Uttar
Pradesh Nepa
w aso derve
some benets
Irrgaton and
14.88 akh hectares to
be rrgated. The
power house has the
capacty of 15 MW
Ramganga Pro|ect:- But
across Ramganga n
Uttar Pradesh
Uttar Pradesh Irrgaton,
genera and
ood contro
Provde rrgaton to
5.75 akh hectares.
Power generaton of
198 MW. 200 causes
water suppy to Deh
-*T,O-*) /*TER #R,D
A natona water grd was mooted by Centra Water and Power Commsson
under the gudance of Dr. K.L. Rao, to conceve the nternkng of varous rvers for
the foowng ob|ects. (1) Surpus water of varous rvers shoud be utzed
benecay by transfer to water dect ones from North to South and West to East
by means of cana rver nks, (2) These rvers must, therefore be nternked to
make use of such surpus water for evenng out the varatons n the water suppy
for agrcuture, (3) Surpus water shoud be used on prorty bases n chroncay
drought ahected areas.
So acheve these ob|ects the scheme comprses the foowng-(1) Ganga-Cauvery
nk. Connectng Ganga s the north to Cauvery n the south enroute through the
basns of Son, narmada, Tapt, Godavar, Krshna and Pennar, (2) Brahmputra-Ganga
nk (3) Lnk cana from Narmada to Western Ra|asthan (4) Cana from Chamba to
Pump areas to Centra Ra|asthan, (5) A cana rom nk wth Mahanand to serve
coasta areas n Orssa and Andhra Pradesh to estabsh nk wth other cana
systems (6) Lnk from west owng rvers of western Ghats towards the East.

*griculture in ,ndia
Today, Inda ranks second wordwde n farm output. Agrcuture and aed sectors
ke forestry and sheres accounted for 16.6% of the GDP n 2009, about 50% of the
tota workforce.
The economc contrbuton of agrcuture to Inda's GDP s steady decnng wth the
country's broad-based economc growth. St, agrcuture s demographcay the
broadest economc sector and pays a sgncant roe n the overa soco-economc
fabrc of Inda.
Inda s the second argest producer of wheat and rce, the word's ma|or food
stapes. Inda s aso the word's second or thrd argest producer of severa dry
fruts, agrcuture-based texte raw materas, roots and tuber crops, puses, farmed
sh, eggs, coconut, sugarcane and numerous vegetabes.
Inda ranked wthn the word's ve argest producers of over 80% of agrcutura
produce tems, ncudng many cash crops such as cohee and cotton, n 2010.
Inda s aso one the word's ve argest producers of vestock and poutry meat,
wth one of the fastest growth rates, as of 2011.
In sca year endng |une 2011, wth a norma monsoon season, Indan agrcuture
accompshed an a tme record producton of 85.9 mon tons of wheat, a 6.3
percent ncrease from a year earer. Rce output n Inda aso ht a new record at
95.3 mon tons, a 7% ncrease from the year earer.Lents and many other food
stapes producton aso ncreased year over year. Indan farmers, thus produced
about 71 kograms of wheat and 80 kograms of rce for every member of Indan
popuaton n 2011
The per capta suppy of rce every year n Inda s now hgher than the per capta
consumpton of rce every year n |apan.
Inda exported about 2 bon kograms each of wheat and rce n 2011 to Afrca,
Nepa, Bangadesh and other regons of the word.
Aquacuture and catch shery s amongst the fastest growng ndustres n Inda.
Between 1990 and 2010, Indan sh capture harvest doubed, whe aquacuture
harvest trped.
In 2008, Inda was the word's sxth argest producer of marne and freshwater
capture sheres, and the second argest aquacuture farmed sh producer. Inda
exported 600,000 metrc tonnes of sh products to neary haf of a the word's
Indian agri%ulture poli%3 sin%e 145!
Indan agrcuture pocy s amed essentay at mprovng food sef sumcency
and aevatng hunger through food dstrbuton. Asde from nvestng n
agri%ultural infrastru%ture, the government supports agrcuture through
measures ncudng mnmum support prces (MSP) for the ma|or agrcutura
crops, farm nput subsdes and preferenta credt schemes.Under the prce
support pocy, MSPs are set annuay for basc stapes to protect producers
from sharp prce fas, to stabse prces and to ensure adequate food stocks
for pubc dstrbuton. In the past guaranteed prces have been beow the
prevang market prces, accordng to the International /ood $oli%3
0esear%h Institute (IFPRI) n 2007.At the same tme subsdes on farm nputs
ncudng fertilisers, ele%tri%al po#er and rrgaton water have ed to
nemcent use of nputs and ndrecty subsdse ncome. IFPRI concuded that
"support for agrcuture (from 1985-2002) has been argey
Inda has some of the word's best agrcutura yeds n ts tea pantatons. An tea
estate n Keraa, a southern state of Inda

As of 2011, Inda had a arge and dverse agrcutura sector, accountng, on
average, for about 16 percent of GDP and 10 percent of export earnngs. Inda's
arabe and area of 159.7 mon hectares (394.6 mon acres) s the second argest
n the word, after the Unted States.
Its gross rrgated crop area of 82.6 mon hectares (215.6 mon acres) s the
argest n the word. Inda has grown to become among the top three goba
producers of a broad range of crops, ncudng wheat, rce, puses, cotton, peanuts,
fruts, and vegetabes. Wordwde, as of 2011, Inda had the argest herds of buhao
and catte, s the argest producer of mk, and has one of the argest and fastest
growng poutry ndustres.
agriculture in ,ndiaB largest crops "y econo(ic value
Unit price
yieldB ,ndia
(2009 prces,
(US$ /
(tons per
(tons per
1 Rce $35.74 bon 0.27 3.3 10.8 Austraa
2 Buhao mk $25.07 bon 0.4 1.7 1.9 Pakstan
3 Cow mk $14.09 bon 0.31 1.2 10.3 Israe
4 Wheat $12.13 bon 0.15 2.8 8.9
5 Sugar cane $8.61 bon 0.03 66 125 Peru
6 Mangoes $8.12 bon 0.6 6.3 40.6
7 Bananas $7.60 bon 0.28 37.8 59.3 Indonesa
8 Cotton $5.81 bon 1.43 1.6 4.6 Israe
9 Potatoes $5.31 bon 0.15 19.9 44.3 USA
$5.28 bon 0.19 13.4 76.8 USA
11 Tomatoes $4.12 bon 0.37 19.3 524.9 Begum
12 Buhao meat $3.84 bon 2.69 0.138 0.424 Thaand
13 Onons $2.92 bon 0.21 16.6 67.3 Ireand
14 Okra $2.90 bon 0.64 10.6 20.2 Cyprus
15 Chck peas $2.83 bon 0.4 0.9 2.8 Chna
16 Fresh fruts $2.79 bon 0.35 7.6 23.9 Israe
17 Eggs $2.65 bon 0.83 13.8 24.7 |ordan
18 Soybean $2.61 bon 0.26 1.1 3.7 Turkey
19 Catte meat $2.39 bon 2.7 0.1 0.42 |apan
20 Groundnuts $2.33 bon 0.42 1.1 5.5 Ncaragua
The Statstcs Omce of the Food and Agrcuture Organzaton reported that, per na
numbers for 2009, Inda had grown to become the word's argest producer of the
foowng agrcutura produce:

Frut Fresh
Lemons and mes
Buhao mk, whoe, fresh
Castor o seed
Samower seed
Mangoes, mangosteens, guavas
Indgenous Buhao Meat
Frut, tropca
Chck peas
Areca nuts
Other Bastbres
Pgeon peas
Ches and peppers, dry
Anse, badan, fenne, coran
Goat mk, whoe, fresh
Per na numbers for 2009, Inda s the word's second argest producer of the
foowng agrcutura produce:
Vegetabes fresh
Sugar cane
Groundnuts, wth she
Cauowers and brocco
Peas, green
Sesame seed
Cashew nuts, wth she
Sk-worm cocoons, reeabe
Cow mk, whoe, fresh
Cotton nt
Eggpants (aubergnes)
Nutmeg, mace and cardamoms
Indgenous Goat Meat
Cabbages and other brasscas
Pumpkns, squash and gourds
In 2009, Inda was the word's thrd argest producer of eggs, oranges, coconuts,
tomatoes, peas and beans.
*griculture productivity in ,ndiaB gro0th in average yields fro( =;KD to
*verage 4,E)DB =;KD%
*verage 4,E)DB =;;D%
*verage 4,E)DB <D=D7
kogram per hectare kogram per hectare kogram per hectare
Rce 1123 1740 2240
Wheat 1307 2281 2938
Puses 524 578 689
Oseeds 579 771 1325
48322 65395 68596
Tea 1182 1652 1669
Cotton 106 225 510

Inda acks cod storage, food packagng as we as safe and emcent rura transport
system. Ths causes one of the word's hghest food spoage rates, partcuary
durng Indan monsoons and other adverse weather condtons. Food traves to the
Indan consumer through a sow and nemcent chan of traders. Indan consumers
buy agrcutura produce n suburban markets known as 'sabz mand' such as one
shown or from roadsde vendors.
!otton Ro0er in ,ndia& This is the (ain cash crop in Cidar"ha region&
*verage far( yield
in Bihar
*verage far( yield in
*verage far( yield in
kogram per hectare kogram per hectare kogram per hectare
Wheat 2020 unknown 3880
Rce 1370 2380 3130
Puses 610 470 820
O seeds 620 680 1200
45510 79560 65300

The ow productvty n Inda s a resut of the foowng factors:
The average sze of and hodngs s very sma (ess than 2 hectares) and s
sub|ect to fragmentaton due to and ceng acts, and n some cases, famy
dsputes. Such sma hodngs are often over-manned, resutng n dsgused
unempoyment and ow productvty of abour. Some reports cam smahoder
farmng may not be cause of poor productvty, snce the productvty s hgher n
Chna and many deveopng economes even though Chna smahoder farmers
consttute over 97 percent of ts farmng popuaton. Chnese smahoder farmer
s abe to rent hs and to arger farmers, Chna's organzed reta and extensve
Chnese hghways are abe to provde the ncentve and nfrastructure necessary
to ts farmers for sharp ncreases n farm productvty.
Adopton of modern agrcutura practces and use of technoogy s nadequate,
hampered by gnorance of such practces, hgh costs and mpractcaty n the
case of sma and hodngs.
Accordng to the Word Bank, Indan Branch: Prortes for Agrcuture and Rura
Deveopment", Inda's arge agrcutura subsdes are hamperng productvty-
enhancng nvestment. Overreguaton of agrcuture has ncreased costs, prce
rsks and uncertanty. Government ntervenes n abour, and, and credt markets.
Inda has nadequate nfrastructure and servces. Word Bank aso says that the
aocaton of water s nemcent, unsustanabe and nequtabe. The rrgaton
nfrastructure s deteroratng.The overuse of water s currenty beng covered by
over pumpng aqufers, but as these are fang by foot of groundwater each
year, ths s a mted resource.
Iteracy, genera soco-economc backwardness, sow progress n mpementng
and reforms and nadequate or nemcent nance and marketng servces for
farm produce.
Inconsstent government pocy. Agrcutura subsdes and taxes often changed
wthout notce for short term potca ends.
Irrgaton factes are nadequate, as reveaed by the fact that ony 52.6% of the
and was rrgated n 2003-04, whch resut n farmers st beng dependent on
ranfa, speccay the Monsoon season. A good monsoon resuts n a robust
growth for the economy as a whoe, whe a poor monsoon eads to a suggsh

Farm credt s reguated by NABARD, whch s the statutory apex agent
for rura deveopment n the subcontnent. At the same tme overpumpng made
possbe by subsdzed eectrc power s eadng to an aarmng drop n aqufer
A thrd of a food that s produced rots due to nemcent suppy chans and the
use of the "Wamart mode" to mprove ecency s bocked by aws aganst
foregn nvestment n the reta sector.
Inda s the fth argest producer of cohee beans n the word, accordng to the
statstcs omce of the FAO.
The Indan Agrcutura Research Insttute (IARI), estabshed n 1905, was
responsbe for the research eadng to the "Indan Green Revouton" of the 1970s.
The Indan Counc of Agrcutura Research (ICAR) s the apex body n agrcuture
and reated aed eds, ncudng research and educaton.The Unon Mnster of
Agrcuture s the Presdent of the ICAR. The Indan Agrcutura Statstcs Research
Insttute deveops new technques for the desgn of agrcutura experments,
anayses data n agrcuture, and specazes n statstca technques for anma and
pant breedng.
Recenty Government of Inda has set up Farmers Commsson to competey
evauate the agrcuture program.However the recommendatons have had a mxed
In November 2011, Inda announced ma|or reforms n organzed reta. These
reforms woud ncude ogstcs and reta of agrcutura produce. The reform
announcement ed to ma|or potca controversy. The reforms were paced on hod
by the Indan government n December 2011.
Dry land *griculture:%
A unque system of farmng where crops are cutvated on the ran fed condtons
and n the absence of assured rrgaton factes.
The system of farmng s very tght, farmer has no exbty.
Accounts 45% of tota agrcutura producton
60% net area under cutvaton.
In practced n the whoe country partcuary n the nterors of pennsuar Inda
.e., n tabe ands.
1. Yed eves are ow.
2. Crop faures are very common.
3. Ecoogcay frage regons.
4. The water resource management s cruca.
5. Because of contnuous droughts, dry and agrcutura and headng to ma|or
ecoogca dsaster .e., desert agrcuture.
6. The percapta ncome of farmers dependent on ths cuture s very ow. Even the
wage eves to workers are very ow.
7. No agrcuture empoyment through out year, seasona unempoyment s
rampant. So vehoods are ahected.
Hence n these areas the poverty and unempoyment of Inda s concentratng.
Regona deveopment n these areas s ow and aggng behnd n the process of
deveopment as a whoe.
Dry and agrcuture areas are bg sources of mgraton to metro areas etc whch
s a soca probem n these areas.

So they face economc, ecoogca and soca probems. Identfyng at these
thngs Government of Inda focuses to bud a strategy to deveop dry and
1. The emphass on mprovng agrcuture yed eves (due to ess rrgaton
2. Emphass on water utzaton to optmum extent by focusng on mn and
medum water shed.
3. The genera concept of water harvestng the ran water ocay by carryng out
repars to od tanks, ponds, akes and store ran water as possbe.
4. Promotng sma and medum rrgaton.
5. Reduce the wastage of water by usng sprnker system/dp system of
rrgaton-reduce the wastage of water by fetchng ntro crops.
6. Promotng short |ustcaton seeds b y usng hybrd varety.
7. Promotng drought resstant type of seeds.
8. Gong for sutabe croppng patterns through ess mosture ntensve crops.
Ex.: Cereas, Orchards.
To shed the farmer agan crop faures, Government focused on:
1. Provdng crop nsurance.
2. Dverscaton of economy of the farmer by promotng aternatve economc
practces ke sercuture, anma husbandry, apcuture.
Improvng dry and agrcuture s mportant.
Signi?cance of dry land agriculture:%
1. Because t account 45% of producton share and 60% of net cutvabe and.
2. Deveopment of agrcuture n Inda depends on the deveopment of dry and
The cumuatve popuaton growth s greater than cumuatve agrcuture
'ethods to i(prove agriculture:%
1. Increase the net area under cutvaton not possbe because 46% of aready
geographca area under cutvaton. So ths opton rued out.
2. Increasng the yed eves. But green revouton aready ncreased the yed
eves n the areas of green revouton as t reached the maxmum eve and so
ncrease the yed eve n dry and agrcuture zones (Ran fed ands) ony opton
avaabe. So our agrcuture strateges depends upon the deveopment of dry
and agrcuture.
3. In Inda poverty eevatons s meant to deveop the dry and agrcutura areas
where poverty, unempoyment many concentrated.
#reen Revolution:%
Meanng-Refers to phenomena and deveopment growth n Indan agrcuture
around 1965-1980.
!o(ponents of #reen Revolution:%
1. Introducton of rrgaton formng n bg way many cana and tube we rrgaton.
2. Introducton of hgh yedng varety of seeds unke tradtona seeds.
3. Lbera use of chemca fertzers and pestcdes n the pace of the tradtona
pestcdes used earer.
4. Promotng from mechanzaton by ntroducng modern agrcuture nstruments
ke tractors, ters, threasher etc.

5. Provdng credt support to farmers, through Regona Rura Banks (RRBs) and
Agrcutura Deveopment Banks (ADBs).
6. Provdng marketng support through mnmum support prces and aso
constructng marketng yard and godowns (MSP).
Success of the #reen Revolution in ,ndia:%
1. It ed to food sef sumcency n 1980. By 1980, Inda stopped mportng food
2. Improvement n the yed eves especay 4 fod ncrease n what yed eve and
2 tmes ncrease n rce yed eves.
3. Led to modernzaton of Indan agrcuture. From subsstence form moved to
commerca form of agrcuture. Earer farmers are conservatve n nature, after
green revouton they changed ther outook.
4. Green revouton ed to deveopment of agrcutura nfrastructure n the country
ke arge number of rrgaton reservors, cana n/ws, chan of market yards,
storage godowns.
5. Led to estabshment chan of agrcutura unverstes and research mproved.
Pro"le(s of #reen Revolution:%
1. The whoe Green Revouton mted to certan parts of country ke Pun|ab,
Haryana, Eastern U.P., Krshna-Godavar basn etc.
2. It dd not touched a the crops. Many touched wheat and some extent n rce
and other crops are eft out. (So sometmes rce s consdered as orphan of Green
At the tme of Green Revouton ntroducton n 1960-65 Inda need ony sef
sumcency at the earest an urgency. The agrcuture scentsts bounded by the
constrants of tme, capta as Inda s newy born one them. So they to use avaabe
resources wth n the tme, so they nvested n certan areas where they get hgher
resuts partcuary n areas of rrgaton factes abundant, ferte so and farmers
are aready progressve and aso they nvested n crops whch are usefu n more, so
they gone for cerets especay wheat, rce whch has got proven experment resuts
avaabe aready.
Pro"le(s 0ith #reen Revolution in ,ndia:%
1. It ed to regona mbaances n the country. Those areas whch are aready
deveoped more and back ward areas aggng behnd. The wdenng of regona
mbaances s not desrabe whch sored the seeds of soca dsturbances by
regonasm and eft wng extremsm.
2. It aso ed to mbaances between the dherent sectons of the socety wthn the
deveoped areas because green revouton s capta ntensve and technoogy
ntensve whch are pro-rch andord havng huge extent of and. For the sma
and margna farmers nether can nvest nor experment n the technoogy. So a
the subsdes n the Green Revouton tme by Government cornered by
andords. There s a transfer of and from sma and margna farmers to rch
farmers whch opposng and reforms of Inda. The sma farmers became
agrcuture abourers.
3. Sustanabty of Green Revouton n the ong run s showng sgns of craks.
Green Revouton s fadng out now, t s not green st.
Pro"le(s in countries 0ith #reen Revolution:%
1. Induced santy n agrcuture ands because of arge scae utzaton of water.
2. Exhauston of nutrents n so whch decrease the fertty of so.
3. Concentraton of toxc chemca resdues due to ntense use of pestcde.
4. Green Revouton strateges encouragng the farmers to deveop few varetes of
crops .e., crop dversty s dsappeared and genetc dversty of the crops has

come down wt whch crop mmunty s suherng and the abty to resst the
pests and dseases s reducng because gone poo of crops s becomng narrow
and the mmunty of pests ncreasng over perod of tme.
5. The hgh use of pestcdes eadng harm to farmer frendy organsms whch
protect the crops.
The Green Revouton chd crops are not ehectve n ong run.
Now the farmer s forced to ncrease hs producton cost.
The so s degradng and yed eves are stagnant and comng down resutng n
the decne of prot margns. Hence, Green Revouton ead to
1. Ecoogca degradaton.
2. Eco sustanabty and economc sustanabty and soca sustanabty s
under shadow or questonabe. So there s a need for Sustanabe Green
Revouton/Ever Green Revouton/Second Green Revouton n Inda.
2o0 to achieve sustaina"le #reen Revolution:%
1. Wdenng the scope of Green Revouton .e Expand the Green Revouton to
other crops.
Best of Indan agrcutura eves s comparabe wth best of agrcutura eves
n the word and n the sense expand the Green Revouton to other areas,
ncrease the fertzer usage n other agrcuture ands of Bhar, W.B., Eastern
U.P., |harkhand, Orssa and Chattsgarh.
Promotng the dry and agrcuture.
2. Integrated Nutrent Management and Integrated Pest Management.
Reduce the usage of pests and ntegrate the tradtona methods of nutrent
management ke revvng the practce of haowng, gong for green manures,
muchng (crop resdue s eft n the ed) wth modern nutrent management.
Gong for bopestcdes and bofertzers aong wth ntroducng farmer frendy
3. Gong for better so and water management through watershed.
4. Gong n for proper croppng patterns and crop combnatons through regona
specc strateges.
*griculture policy of ,ndia:%
Regona specc strateges for dherent areas s suggestabe to nda because of
ots of agro cmatc dversty n Inda. Dependng on Agro cmatc dversty, the
regons of Inda are dvded based on:
Avaabty of rrgatona factes
Croppng pattern
Average and hodng sze
Percapta ncome of farmers
Inda s dvded nto 15 Agro Cmatc regons by Pannng Commsson.
Sute|-Yamuna Pans
Upper Ganga Pans
Centra Ganga Pans
Lower Ganges Pans
Eastern Pateaus & Hs

Centra Pateaus & Hs
Western Pateaus & Hs
Southern Pateaus & Hs
Gu|arath Pans and Hs
Ard regon of West Ra|asthan and North Gu|arath
East Coast Pans and Detas
West Coast Pans
Western Hmaayas
Eastern Hmaayas
Pro"le(s 0ith (= and (< regions:%
Induced santy of sos.
Very ow eve of crop dversty.
1. Promotng crop dverscaton and
2. Better water management
3. Deveopng agro processng
Pro"le(s 0ith (9 and (I regions:%
1. Promotng tube we rrgaton to use rch ground water eves.
2. Increasng the pestcdes utzaton and ncrease HYV extent.
(:B (JB (KB (6 and (; regions%Dry land agriculture:%
3ocus on:
1. Water shed deveopment .e., water harvestng.
2. Promotng aed actvtes.
3. Promotng ow water ntensve crops ke orchards, fodder crops.
4. Increasng drought resstant varety of crops.
(=D region:%
1. Sand dune stabzaton, strp croppng and stabe muchng to promote so
2. Focus on agro forestry and form forestry.
3. Water harvestng.
(== M (=< regions:%
1. Introducng crop rotatons and dscourage mono cuture.
2. Protectng aqua cuture and mprove sh farms.
3. Protectng mangroves.
(=9 M (=I regions%2illy regions:%
3ocus on:
1. Contour farmng.
2. Dscouragng shftng cutvaton.
3. Promoton orchards, pantatons ke appe (Western Hmaayan Zones),
pneappe (n Eastern Hmaayan Zone).
(=: region:%
3ocus on:

Introduce modern agrcuture practces snce there are prmtve practces foowed
Blue Revolution (=;6D%<DDD:%
Drastc Growth and Deveopment n sheres s the ob|ectve of Bue revouton
By 2000, Inda started exportng huge amount of sheres.
It became feasbe because of Aqua cutura promotons .e., sh farmng.
Bue Revouton ed to:
1. Fsh producton ncrease n the country.
2. Fshng emerged export sector and an mportant contrbuton to exports n tota.
3. Provded arge scae empoyment.
#overn(ent had ta1en certain another steps in ?sh far(ing:%
Fsh farmers Deveopng Agency.
MPEDA-Marne Products Exports Deveopment Agency.
Introducton of mechanzed shng boats and deep sea shng vesses.
Pro"le(s 0ith Blue Revolution:%
1. Large scae ecoogca degradaton because of
1) Encroachment of ttora zones by sh farm.
2) Pouton of ttora zones due to resdues and dscharges of sh forms.
2. Crop osses because of farmers hgh stockng denstes and ndscrmnate usage
of pestcde n sh farms.
Shrmp and prawns are man aqua products and heavy demand n nternatona
3. S.C. gave order a aqua cuture farmers around 500 Mts. from hgh tmenes of
coast has to be removed.
4. Imports huge amount sh seeds.
Wth ntroducton of mechanzed shng boats are competng and ganng over
tradtona sherman resuts n oss of vehood of sherman.
The Bue Revouton bypassed the sma and tradtona sherman whose
vehood s shng and many of them turned nto abourers n sh farms.
/hite Revolution:%
Ths reay beneted sma farmers and andess agrcuture farmers as ts
contrbuton s more to these peope.
Success is due to:%
Whte Revouton reed on smpe technoogy and not capta ntensve.
Whte Revouton reed on smpe technoogy and not capta ntensve.
Whte Revouton ed to growth and deveopment of dary sector n Inda.
Through Operaton Fed Programme and ts noda agency s Natona Dary
Deveopment Board, whoe programme reed on cooperatve structure.
The strategies:%
1. Connectng the areas of mk producton wth mk markets (metros) by provdng
rura structura arrangement through NGOs.
2. Seasona uctuatons of mk producton whch concdes wth actatng capacty
of anmas. So convertng the surpus mk nto mk products ke mk powders
(green provded the ad).
3. The mk yed eves are ow n Inda because of anma dseases. So contro
epdemcs and go for anma vaccnaton and ook after the genera heath of
anma through vetenary hosptas.

4. The programme ooked nto nutrtous, feed and fodder of anmas at subsdzed
5. Indan anma breeds are nferor n nature and so mk potenta s very ow
compared to cod cmate catte breeds. So go for4 mprovng the breed quaty
by mportng the good quaty catte.
In the next stage, artca nsemnaton programme to programe ve stocks.
It has not covered whoe country arge parts of north East and Southern Inda eft
Cooperatve structure n dary farmng s degradng.
Out of the tota mk, 40% s unpasteurzed.
Indas share n nterna mk market s ess than 1% because n Inda there are
no brand (names) postonng to penetrate nto nternatona market and mss
nformaton campagns n western countres about whte buhao mk produced n
Inda, Pakstan and Bangadesh.
A broad pcture of the ma|or croppng patterns n Inda can be presented by takng
the ma|or crops nto consderaton. To begn wth, the south-westery monsoon crops
(kharf), ba|ra, maze, rag, groundnut and cotton.
Among the post-monsoon crops (rab), wheat, sorghum (rab)and gram can aso be
consdered to be the base crops for descrbng the croppng patterns. Wth such an
approach, the crop occupyng the hghest percentage of the sown area of the regon
s taken as the base crop and a other possbe aternatve crops whch are sown n
the regon ether as substtutes of the base crop n the same season or as the crops
whch t n the rotaton n the subsequent season, are consdered n the pattern.
Aso these crops have been dented as assocatng themseves wth a parcuar
type of agrocmate, and certan other mnor crops wth smar requrements are
grouped n one category. For exampe, wheat, barey and oats, are taken as one
category. Smary the mnor mets (Paspaum,Setara and Pancum spp.) are
grouped wth sorghum or ba|ra. Certan other crops, such as the pantaton crops
and other ndustra crops are dscussed seperatey.
Among the kharf crops, rce, |owar, ba|ra, maze, groundnut and cotton are the
promnent crops to be consdered the base crops for descrbng the kharf croppng
The rice%"ased cropping patterns:
Rce s grown n the hgh-ranfa area or n areas where suppementa rrgaton
s avaabe to ensure good yeds.
If the crop has to depend soey on ranfa, t requres not ess than 30 cm per
month of ranfa over the entre growng perod. However, ony 9 per cent of
the area n the country comes under ths category, and t es n the eastern
Areawse the monsoon bet occupes 53.6 per cent of the area (comprsng
Assam, West Benga, coasta Orssa, coasta Andhra Pradesh, parts of Tam
Nadu, Karnataka and Keraa).On an a-Inda bass, about 30 rce-based
croppng patterns have been dented n dherent states. In the most humd
areas of eastern Inda comprsng Trpura, Manpur and Mzoram, rce s the
excusve crop.

In Meghaaya, rce s aternated wth cotton, vegetabe and food-crops, whereas
n Arunacha Pradesh, where rce s not grown excusvey, the aternatve crops
beng maze, sma mets and oseeds.
In parts of Assam, West Benga, Bhar, orssa and northern coasta dstrcts of
Andhra Pradesh, |ute forms an mportant commerca crop aternatve to rce. In
West Benga, besdes rce and |ute, puses and maze are grown on a mted
In Bhar, rce s grown over 49 per cent(5.3 m ha) of ts cropped area(14.2 per
cent of a-Inda area), whereas puses, wheat, |ute, maze, sugarcane and
oseeds are the aternatve crops.
In Uttar Pradesh rce s grown on 19 per cent(4.6 m ha) of ts cropped area and
represents about 12.4 per cent of the a-Inda area under ths crop. Rce s
concentrated n the eastern dstrcts of Uttar Pradesh where the aternatve
crops are puses, groundnut, sugarcane, ba|ra and |owar n the decreasng
order of ther mportance. Tobacco s grown n some dstrcts.
In Orssa, rce s grown on more than 50 per cent of the area, whereas the
aternatve crops are: puses, rag, oseeds, maze and sma mets. n Madhya
Pradesh rce s grown n the Chattsgarh area on 4.3 m ha(11.7 per cent of the
a-Inda rce area), but the crop suhers because of nadequate ranfa and
rrgaton. The mportant aternatve crops of ths area are: sma mets, puses
and groundnut. Wheat s aso grown on a mted scae.
In the southern states, namey Andhra Pradesh, Tam Nadu and Keraa rce s
grown n more than one season and mosty under rrgaton or under sumcent
ranfa.Together, these three states have over 6.0 m ha, representng over 17
per cent of the a-Inda area under rce. Important aternatve pantaton crops
n Andhra Pradesh are: puses, groundnut, |owar, maze, sugarcane and
In Karnataka the crops aternatve to rce are: rag, pantaton crops, ba|ra,
cotton, groundnut, |owar and maze. In Keraa pantaton crops and tapoca
form the man pantaton crops aternatve to rce.
n Maharashtra rce s grown mosty n the Konkan area over 1.3 m ha, aong
wth rag, puses, rab |owar, sugarcane, groundnuts and oseeds. n other
states, namey Gu|arat, |ammu and Kashmr, Ra|asthan and Hmacha
Pradesh,rce forms a mnor pantaton crop and s mosty grown wth rrgaton.
However, n Pun|ab and Haryana and to some extent n western Uttar Pradesh
owng to hgh water-tabe durng ths monsoon season, rce has become a
ma|or crops n such areas.
The 1harif cereals other than rice:
Maze, |owar and ba|ra form the man kharf cereas, whereas rag and sma mets
come next and are grown on a mted area.
The (aiAe%"ased cropping patterns:
The argest area under the kharf maze s n Uttar Pradesh (1.4m ha), foowed by
Bhar (0.96 m ha), Ra|asthan (0.78 m ha), Madhya Pradesh (0.58 m ha) and Pun|ab
(0.52 m ha). In four states namey Gu|arat, |ammu and Kashmr, Hmacha Pradesh
and Andhra Pradesh, the area under maze ranges from 0.24 to 0.28 m ha n each,
whereas other states have much ess area under t.
Takng the ranfa of the maze growng areas under consderaton, over 72 per cent
of the areas receve 20-30 cm per month of ranfa n at east two months or more
durng the south westery monsoon season.
On the a-Inda bass, about 12 croppng patterns have been dented. They have
maze as the base crop.

In the maze growng areas of Uttar Pradesh and Bhar, rce n kharf and wheat n
rab are the man aternatve crops.In some areas, ba|ra, groundnut, sugarcane, rag
and puses are taken as aternatve crops.
In Ra|asthan maze s grown as an extensve crop n some areas, whereas at other
paces, t s repaced by sma mets, puses, groundnut and wheat(rab) as
aternatve crop.
In madhya Pradesh many the kharf |owar s repaced by maze, whereas rce and
groundnut are aso grown to a mted extent.
In Pun|ab maze has groundnut, fodder crops and wheat(rab) as aternatve crops.
In other states, e.g. Gu|arat, rce, groundnut, cotton and wheat form the aternatve
crops n the maze-growng areas of Hmacha Pradesh, whereas n Andhra Pradesh,
rce, kharf |owar, and oseeds are grown n these areas.
The 1harif @o0ar%"ased cropping patterns:
The area under the kharf |owar n Inda s hghest n Maharashtra (2.5 m ha),
foowed by madhya Pradesh (2.3 m ha), whereas n each of the states of
Ra|asthan, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka and Gu|arat, the area under ths crops s
between 1.0 and 1.4 m ha.
|owar s many grown where ranfa dstrbuton ranges from 10-20 per month
at east for 3 to 4 months of the south-westery monsoon or s st more
On the a-Inda bass, about 17 ma|or croppng patterns have been dented.
In them the base crops s kharf |owar. Most of the aternatve crops are aso of
the type whch can be grown under medum ranfa.
In Maharashtra cotton, puses, groundnut and sma mets are sown as
aternatve crops.
In the ad|acent states of Madhya Pradesh, besdes the above aternatve crops,
wheat and fodder are sown. In Ra|asthan wheat, cotton, ba|ra and maze are
grown n the kharf-|owar tract, whereas n Andhra Pradesh, groundnuts, cotton,
oseeds and puses form the man aternatve crops.
Besdes cotton and groundnut, rag s sown n the kharf-|owar tarct of
Karnataka, whereas n Gu|arat, ba|ra, cotton and groundnut are the ma|or
aternatve crops.
The "a@ra%"ased cropping patterns&
Ba|ra s more drought-resstent crop than severa other cerea crops and s generay
preferred n ow-ranfa areas and on ght sos.
The area under the ba|ra crop n Inda s about 12.4 m ha and Ra|asthan (4.6 m ha)
shares about the 2/3 tota area. Maharashtra, Gu|arat and Uttar Pradesh together
have over 4.6 m ha, consttutng an addtona 1/3 area under ba|ra, n Inda.
Over 66 per cent of ths crop s grown n areas recevng 10-20 cm per month of
ranfa, extendng over 1 to 4 months of the south-westery monsoon.
On the a-Inda bass, about 20 ma|or croppng patterns have been dented wth
ba|ra. However, t may be observed that |owar and ba|ra are grown mosty under
dentca envronmenta condtons and both have a wde spectrum adaptabty n
respect of ranfa, temperature and ranfa.
The groundnut "ased cropping patterns&
Groundnut s sown over an area of about 7.2 m ha, mosty n ve ma|or
groundnut-producng states of Gu|arat (24.4 per cent area), Andhra Pradesh
(20.2) per cent), Tam Nadu (13.5 per cent), Maharashtra (12.2 per cent) and
Karnataka (12.0 per cent).

Fve other states vz. Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Pun|ab, Ra|asthan and
Orssa together have about 17.3 per cent of the tota area under ths crop. The
ranfa n the groundnut area ranges from 20-30 cm per month n one of the
monsoon months and much ess n the other months.
In some cases the ranfa s even ess than 10 cm. per month durng the
growth of the crop. The rrgated area under groundnut s very sma and that
too, n a few states ony, vz. Pun|ab(16.4 per cent), Tam Nadu (13.3 per
cent)and Andhra Pradesh (12.5 per cent).
On the a-Inda eve, about 9 croppng patterns have been dented wth ths
crop. In Gu|arat besdes the soe crop of groundnut n some areas, ba|ra, s the
ma|or aternatve crop, whereas the kharf |owar, cotton and puses are aso
grown n ths tract. In Andhra Pradesh and Tam Nadu, ths crop receves
rrgaton n some areas and rce forms an aternatve crop.
Under ranfed condtons, ba|ra, kharf |owar, sma mets, cotton and puses
are grown as aternatve crops.
In Maharashtra both the kharf and rab |owar and sma mets are mportant
aternatve crops.
In Karnataka aso, |owar s the ma|or aternatve crop, whereas cotton, tobacco,
sugarcane and wheat are aso grown n ths tract.
The cotton%"ased cropping patterns
Cotton s grown over 7.6 m ha n Inda. Maharashtra shares 36 per cent (2.8 m
ha), foowed by Gu|arat wth 21 per cent (1.6 m ha), Karnataka wth 13 per
cent (1 m ha) and Madhya Pradesh wth 9 per cent (0.6 m ha) of the area.
Together, these four states account for about 80 per cent of the area under
cotton. Other cottom-growng states wth smaer areas are Pun|ab, wth 5 per
cent (0.4 m ha), Andhra Pradesh and Tam Nadu each wth 4 per cent (0.31 m
ha), Haryana and Ra|asthan wth 3 per cent of each (0.2 m ha each).
Most of the coton areas n the country are under the hgh to medum ranfa
zone. The cotton grown n Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Karnataka, and
Andhra Pradesh (4.8 m ha) s ranfed, whereas n Gu|arat and Tam Nadu (1.93
m ha) t receves parta rrgaton 16-20 per cent of the area).
The area under cotton n Pun|ab, Haryana, Ra|asthan and Uttar Pradesh (0.8 m
ha)gets adequate rgaton, randng from 71 to 97 per cent of the area. These
growng condtons, together wth the speces of cotton grown, determne the
duraton of the crop whch may vary from about 5 to 9 months.
On the a-Inda bass, about 16 broad croppng pattens have been dented. In
Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka, the croppng
patterns n the cotton-growng areas are mosty smar owng to dentca
These patterns ncude |owar (kharf and rab), groundnut and sma mets.
Puses and wheat are aso grown n a mted area. In some pockets, wher
rrgaton s avaabe, rce and sugarcane are aso grown. In Gu|arat, rce,
tobacco and maze are grown, besdes the ranfed crops, e.g. |owar and ba|ra.
Among the rab crops, wheat, together wth barey and oats, |owar and gram, are
man base crops among the rab croppng patterns. Generay, wheat and gram are
concentrated n the subtropca regon n northern Inda, whereas the rab sorghum
s grown mosty n the Deccan. The extent of these areas n dherent states s as

!rop *rea Region (per cent of all%,ndia area
2.5 m
Uttar Pradesh (51), Haryana (6),Bhar (6), Pun|ab (6),
Maharashtra (8), Andhra Pradesh (5),Tam Nadu (5),
Karnataka (3)
m ha
Andhra Pradesh (48), Gu|arat (19.5), Karnataka (8.7),
Maharashtra (3.5), Tam Nadu (3.5)
Potato 0.491
Uttar Pradesh (33.6), Bhar (20.4), West Benga (13.3),
Assam (5.2), Orssa (4.8)
|ute 0.778
West Benga (60), North eastern Regon (18.7), Bhar (17.6),
Orssa (6.1), Uttar Pradesh (1.7)
m ha
Keraa (68.3), Karnataka (12.4), Tam Nadu (9.7), Andhra
Pradesh (3.5)
m ha
Keraa (92.8), Tam Nadu (5.0), Karnataka (1.9)
m ha
Keraa (67.4), Karnataka (12.1), Andhra Pradesh (10.8),
Tam Nadu (9.8), Maharashtra (4.8)
m ha
West Benga, Assam and Trpura (77), Keraa, Tam Nadu
and Karnataka (20)
m ha
Keraa , Tam Nadu and Karnataka (99)
A frut-
1.8 m
Spread a-over Inda
m ha
Maharashtra (18.5), Karnataka (11.7), Andhra Pradesh
(12.8), Tam Nadu (11.2), West Benga (7.6), Madhya
Pradesh (7.2), Orssa (6.8), Pun|ab (6.2)
m ha
Andhra Pradesh (26.9), Maharashtra (20.4),
Karnataka(14.5), Madhya Pradesh (5.5), Tam Nadu (10.1)
m ha
Andhra Pradesh (36), Ra|asthan (23.6), Madhya Pradesh
(11.1), Tam Nadu (10.0)
In severa sugarcane-growng areas, mono-croppng s practsed, and durng the
nterva between the crops, short duraton seasona crops are grown. In U.P., Bhar,
Pun|ab and Haryana, wheat and maze are the rotaton crops. rce s aso grown n
some areas. In the southern states, namey Tam Nadu, Karnataka and Andhra
Pradesh, rag, rce and puses are grown aong wth sugarcane. In Maharashtra,
puses, |owar and cotton are grown.
In the potato-growng regon, maze, puses, wheat are the aternatve crops. n
the tobacco-growng areas, dependng on the season and the type of tobacco,
|owar, oseeeds and maze are grown n rotaton. n the |ute-growng areas, rce s
the usua aternatve crop.
In the case of pantaton-crops, ntercroppng wth puses and fodder crops s
common. Spces and condments are generay grown on ferte sos. Ches are
rotated wth |owar, whereas onon, corrander, turmerc and gnger are grown as
mxed crops wth other seasona crops.
,nfor(ation on various *gricultural Research ,nstitutes in ,ndia:
!entral *gricultural Research ,nstituteB Port Blair CARI s mandated to
provde a research base to mprove the productvty of mportant agr-
hortcuture, vestock and sheres of Andaman and Ncobar Isands through
adaptve and basc research for attanng economc sef-sumcency.

!entral *rid Vone Research ,nstituteB FodhpurB Ra@asthan A unque
mutdscpnary research organzaton n South and South-East Asa havng
research factes for over 30 dherent dscpnes.
!entral *vian Research ,nstituteB ,AatnagarB Uttar Pradesh A premer
nsttute n the ed of poutry research, educaton, extenson and tranng n
!entral ,nland 3ishries Research ,nstituteB Barrac1poreB /est Bengal
The odest premer research nsttuton n the ed of nand sheres research
and tranng n Inda.
!entral ,nstitute for !otton ResearchB -agpurB 'aharashtra Its msson s
to Improve producton, productvty and quaty of cotton through the
deveopment of ecooges for dherent agrocmatc regons.
!entral ,nstitute for Research on #oatsB 3arahB Uttar Pradesh A poneer
nsttute dedcated to the deveopment of goats n nda.
!entral ,nstitute for Research on !otton TechnologyB 'u("aiB
'aharashtra An Insttute engaged n research and deveopment actvtes n
cotton technoogy n Inda.
!entral ,nstitute of *gricultural EngineeringB BhopalB 'adhya Pradesh It
ams to deveop approprate equpment and processes for modernzaton of
agrcuture utzng anmate and mechanca power sources, deveop technoogy
for reducng post harvest osses and add vaue to agro-produce through
!entral ,nstitute for *rid 2orticultureB Bi1anerB Ra@asthan Its mandate s
to conduct msson orented research for mprovement n productvty of
hortcutura crops and deveopment of hortcuture based croppng system
under ard envronment; and to act as a repostory of nformaton reated to ard
!entral ,nstitute for Research on BufaloesB 2issarB 2aryana The Insttute
carres out research on varous aspects of buhao mprovement ncudng
conservaton of germpasm, deveopment of optmum dets and feedng systems,
enhancement of reproductve emcency and heath management practces for
augmentng mk, meat and draught.
!entral ,nstitute of Bra1ish0ater *5uacultureB !hennaiB Ta(ilnadu
Mandated to conduct research for deveopment of techno-economcay vabe
and sustanabe cuture system for nsh and shesh n brakshwater.
!entral ,nstitute of 3resh0ater *5uacultureB Bhu"anes0arB Orissa
Premer Research Insttute on Freshwater Aquacuture n Inda.
!entral ,nstitute for 3isheries EducationB 'u("aiB 'aharashtra
!entral ,nstitute of Post 2arvest Engineering M TechnologyB )udhianaB
Pun@a" A noda nsttute for ead researches n the area of post harvest
engneerng and technoogy approprate to the agrcutura producton
catchments, agro-processng ndustres, pot pants, ndustra ason,
technoogy transfer and natona and nternatona cooperaton to meet natona
!entral 'arine 3isheries Research ,nstituteB LochinB Lerala The Premer
Research Insttute dedcated to Marne Fsheres Research.
!entral Plantation !rops Research ,nstituteB LasaragodB Lerala
Mandated to deveop approprate producton, protecton and processng
technooges for coconut, arecanut and cocoa through basc and apped

!entral Potato Research ,nstituteB Shi(laB 2i(achal Pradesh Mandated
to undertake basc and strategc research for deveopng technooges to
enhance productvty and utsaton of potato n Inda.
!entral Research ,nstitute for Dryland *gricultureB 2ydera"adB *ndhra
!entral Research ,nstitute for Fute and *llied 3i"erB Barrac1poreB /est
Bengal Mandated to the Improvement of |ute (C.Capsuars and C.otorus) and
aed bre crops ke mesta (H.Cannabnus and H.Sabdarha), sunnhemp,
(Crotaara |uncea), rame (Boehmera nvea) ssa (Agave ssaana) and ax
(Lnum ustatssmum) for yed and quaty.
!entral Rice Research ,nstituteB !uttac1B Orissa Its man ob|ectve s to
carry out research on basc and apped aspects n a dscpnes of rce cuture n
order to devse ways and means of optmsng hectare yeds of rce.
!entral Soil Salinity Research ,nstituteB LarnalB 2aryana Its msson s to
generate new knowedge and understandng of the processes of recamaton and
deveop technooges for mprovng and sustanng the productvty of saty ands
and waters.
!entral Tu"er !rops Research ,nstituteB Thiruvananthapura(B Lerala
Mandated to undertake basc, strategc and apped research for generatng
technooges to enhance productvty and utzaton potenta of tuber crops
(other than potato).
,ndian *gricultural Research ,nstituteB -e0 Delhi The Indan Agrcutura
Research Insttute (IARI) s the country's premer natona Insttute for
agrcutura research, educaton and extenson. .
,ndian *gricultural Statistics Research ,nstitute -e0 Delhi The Indan
Agrcutura Statstcs Research Insttute ams to promote and conduct research
and educaton / tranng n Agrcutura Statstcs and Computer Appcatons and
to advse, ase wth other Insttutes who have a stake n strengthenng of
agrcutura statstcs system.
,!*R Research !o(ple$ 3or #oaB Ela OldB #oa Mandated to conduct
strategc and apped research on potenta Agrcutura and Hortcutura crops,
Lvestock and Fsheres for mprovng productvty and post harvest management
,ndian #rassland and 3odder Research ,nstituteB #0aliorB Fhansi The
Insttute s mandated to organzed research work on grassand and forages and
durng ast four decades have acheved severa commendabe breakthroughs.
,ndian ,nstitute of 2orticultural ResearchB BangaloreB Larnata1a
Mandated to undertake basc and apped research for deveopng strateges to
enhance Productvty and utsaton of tropca and subtropca hortcutura crops
vz., fruts, vegetabes, ornamenta, medcna and aromatc and mushrooms.
,ndian ,nstritute of Soil Science B BhopalB 'adhya Pradesh In vew of the
fast changng scenaro of Indan agrcuture, and the growng mportance of
enhancng and sustanng productvty of so resource, the ICAR estabshed the
Indan Insttute of So Scence n 1988 at Bhopa to conduct basc and strategc
research on ths aspect.
,ndian ,nstitute of Spices ResearchB !alicutB Lerala The Indan Insttute of
Spces Research (IISR), Cacut a consttuent body of Indan Counc of
Agrcutura Research (ICAR) s a ma|or Insttute devoted to research on spces.
,ndian ,nstitute of Sugarcane ResearchB )uc1no0B Uttar Pradesh It was
estabshed n 1952 for conductng research on fundamenta and apped aspects
of sugarcane cuture as we as to co-ordnate the research work done on ths
crop n dherent States of the country.

,ndian ,nstitute of Cegeta"le ResearchB CaranasiB Uttar Pradesh The
pro|ect has been envsaged as a natona network of mutdscpnary research
on the mprovement of the ma|or vegetabe crops.
,ndian )ac Research ,nstituteB -a(1u(B Ranchi The ony research Insttute
of ts knd n the word, beng devoted excusvey to a aspects of ac
research ncudng ts cutvaton, processng, vaue addton and utsaton.
-ational *cade(y of *gricultural Research 'anage(entB 2ydera"adB
*ndhra Pradesh
-ational ,nstitute of *ni(al -utrition and PhysiologyB BangaloreB
-ational ,nstitute for Research on Fute M *llied 3i"res TechnologyB /est
Bengal (for(erly FTR)
Sugarcane Breeding ,nstituteB !oi("atoreB Ta(ilnadu A poneerng
breedng nsttute n the word, works to evove superor varetes of sugarcane to
cater to the needs of the varous agro cmatc zones n the country.
Cive1anand Parvatiya Lrishi *nusandhan SansthanB *l(oraB
Uttaranchal It s a premer nsttute of ICAR engaged n h agrcutura research
for North-Western Hmaayan regon of Inda.
-ational Bureau of *ni(al #enetic ResourcesB LarnalB 2aryana It s
responsbe for dentcaton, evauaton, charactersaton, conservaton and
utsaton of vestock and poutry genetc resources n Inda.
-ational Bureau of 3ish #enetic ResourcesB )uc1no0B Uttar Pradesh
Mandated to coecton, casscaton and evauaton of nformaton on sh
genetc resources of the country.
-ational Bureau of Plant #enetic ResourcesB -e0 Delhi It s the noda
organzaton n Inda for exchange, quarantne, coecton, conservaton,
evauaton and the systematc documentaton of pant genetc resources.
-ational Bureau of Soil Survey M )and Use PlanningB -agpurB
'aharashtra It was setup n 1976 wth a mandate to provde a research nput
n the so survey actvtes of the country and aso carryout so resource
mappng programs at natona, state and dstrct eve for and use pannng.
-ational Bureau of *griculturally ,(portant 'icroorganis(sB Distt&
'auB Uttar Pradesh The NBAIM has been estabshed under the auspces of
the Indan Counc of Agrcutura Research (ICAR) wth the basc am to
promote and co-ordnate systematc scentc studes n agrcuturay
mportant mcroorgansms (AIMs) n order to mprove the agrcutura
-ational Research !entres
-ational !entre for *gril Econo(ics M Policy ResearchB -e0 Delhi
Conducts Pocy orented research and strengthens agrcutura economcs
research and teachng capabty n state agrcutura unverstes and ICAR
-ational Research !entre for *groforestryB FhansiB Uttar Pradesh
Mandated to undertake basc and apped research for deveopng and deverng
technooges based on sustanabe agroforestry prctces on farms, margna and
wasteands for dherent agrocmatc zones n Inda.
-ational Research !entre for !ache0B PutturB Larnata1a Mandated to
ncrease producton and productvty of cashew by evovovng hgh yedng
varetes of cashew.

-ational Research !entre on !a(elB Bi1anerB Ra@asthan Mandated to
undertake basc and apped research for mprovement of cames.
-ational Research !entre for !old0ater 3isheriesB Bhi(talB Uttaranchal
It s emergng as the noda facty n the country where research nvestgatons
are under taken both on capture and cuture aspects wth a focus on exotc and
Codwater speces.
-ational Research !entre on E5uinesB 2issarB 2aryana A premer nsttute
estabshed under the aegs of Indan Counc of Agrcutura Research for
conductng research on equne heath and producton.
-ational Research !entre for #rapesB PuneB 'aharashtra A premer
Research Centre estabshed to undertake msson orented programme nvovng
basc and strategc research for resovng the ma|or botc and abotc constrants
ahectng the producton and productvty of grapes.
-ational Research !entre for ,ntegrated Pest 'anage(entB -e0 Delhi
Through the partnershps, NCIPM pans and conducts eco-frendy IPM research
and deveopment programmes whch are essentay requred for sustanabe
agrcuture and envronmenta securty.
-ational Research !entre for 'edicinal M *ro(atic PlantsB BoriaviB
#u@arat Its mandate s to deveop approprate producton, protecton and
processng technooges for mportant medcna and aromatc pants through
basc, strategc and apped research.
-ational Research !entre for 'ushroo(B SolanB 2i(achal Pradesh
-ational Research !entre for Onion and #arlicB Ra@gurunagarB PuneB
'aharashtra Natona Research Centre for Onon and Garc s a research centre
of Indan Counc of Agrcutura Research (ICAR) under the Department of
Agrcutura Research and Educaton (DARE).
-ational Research !entre for OrchidB Pa1yongB Si11i( For resovng ma|or
constrants n producton of orchds and other bubous ornamentas n ma|or
growng bet, the centre has msson mode approach.
-ational Research !entre on Seed SpicesB *@(er Estabshed durng IXth
ve year pan to ntate research work on seed spces especay amed at
mprovng the productvty and quaty wth reference to export vaue and
domestc demand.
-ational Research !entre for Sorghu(B 2ydera"ad estabshed on 16
November, 1987 s the noda agency n the country deang wth a aspects of
sorghum research, deveopment ncudng coordnaton and consutancy. NRCS
works cosey wth many other sster nsttutons of ICAR, State Agrcutura
Unverstes and natona and nternatona agences and nsttutons both n
pubc and prvate sector.
-ational Research !entre for Soy"eanB 'adhya Pradesh Estabshed
durng the year 1987 for the needed centrased research to support soybean
producton systems research wth basc technoogy and breedng matera.
-ational Research !entre for /eed ScienceB 'adhya Pradesh Mandated
to undertake basc and apped research for deveopng strateges for emcent
weed management n dherent agro-ecoogca zones
-ational Research !entre for 4a1B DirangB *runachal Pradesh Mandated
to conduct research on mprovement of yak and ts products through seecton
and breedng wth exotc frozen semen and crossbreedng programme wth BOS
Other *gricultural !entres

Lrishi Cigyan Lendra % Ba"halesh0arB 'aharashtra An Agrcutura
Extenson pro|ect funded by ICAR for dssemnaton of technoogy, renement
and assessment of the avaabe packages to sut the oca envronment.
*ll ,ndia !oordinated Pro@ect of 'icro and Secondary -utrients and
Pollutant Ele(ents in Soils M Plants Its msson s So fertty management
through baanced use of mcro- and secondary- nutrents for enhancng and
sustanng hgh crop productvty of so resource wth mnma envronmenta

*ni(al 2us"andry

A arge number of farmers n ,ndia depend on ani(al hus"andry for ther

vehood. In addton to suppyng mk, meat, eggs, and hdes, anmas, many
buocks, are the ma|or source of power for both farmers and drayers.

Thus, anma husbandry pays an mportant roe n the rura economy. The gross
vaue of output from ths sector was 358 bon (US$6.8 bon) n FY 1989, an
amount that consttuted about 25 percent of the tota agrcutura output of 1.4
tron (US$26.6 bon).

In the year 1992, Inda had approxmatey 25 percent of the word's catte, wth a
coectve herd of 193 mon head. Inda aso had 110 mon goats, 75 mon
water buhao, 44 mon sheep, and 10 mon pgs.
Mk producton n FY 1990 was estmated to have reached 53.5 mon tons, and
egg producton had reached a eve of 23.3 bon eggs.
Dary farmng provded suppementary empoyment and an addtona source of
ncome to many sma and margna farmers.
The Natona Dary Deveopment Board was estabshed n 1965 under the
auspces of Operaton Food at Anand, n Gu|arat, to promote, pan, and organze
dary deveopment through cooperatves; to provde consutatons; and to set up
dary pants, whch were then turned over to the cooperatves.
There were more than 63,000 Anand-stye dary cooperatve socetes wth some
7.5 mon members n the eary 1990s. The mk produced and sod by these
farmers brought 320 mon (US$6.1 mon) a day, or more than 10 tron
(US$190 bon) a year.
The ncrease n mk producton permtted Inda to end mports of powdered mk
and mk-reated products. In addton, 30,000 tons of powdered mk were
exported annuay to neghborng countres. There was about 50000 cows n
Today, Inda has the word's argest dary herd (composed of cows and
buhaoes), about 300 mon strong, and s second ony to the Unted States n
mk producton. Inda s aso the words thrd argest goba producer of eggs
and the words sxth argest producer of poutry meat.
Whe the ma|orty of Indas anma products are consumed domestcay,
exports are growng.
Inda s the top goba exporter of buhao meat, and s aso the fourth argest
exporter of soybean mea, an mportant ngredent n commerca feed for
farmed anmas. In addton, Indas eadng poutry producers, ncudng Suguna,
Venkys, and the Amrt Group, are ncreasng saes to countres n other parts of
Asa and the Mdde East. Internatona nvestment s aso expandng.
In 2008, U.S.-based Tyson Foods acqured a 51 percent stake n Godre|,an Indan
congomerate that s a ma|or producer of anma feeds and poutry, and the
Internatona Fnance Corporaton (IFC) has an equty stake n Suguna.
An estmated 200 mon egg-ayng hens are kept n battery cages, and more
than haf of the 2-bon-pus "meat" chckens produced each year are factory-
farmed. Vertca ntegraton and contract farmng for poutry and eggs s aso
Whe the mk and cheese sectors st ncude many sma-scae producers and
cows and buhaoes n extensve systems the number of arge, factory-stye dary
operatons s ncreasng.

.peration /lood
Operaton harry,s the word's hardest operaton, attempted to estabsh nkages
between rura mk producers and urban consumers by organzng farmer-owned
and -managed dary cooperatve socetes.
In the eary 1990s, the program was n ts thrd phase and was recevng
nanca assstance from the Word Bank and commodty assstance from the
European Economc Communty.
At that tme, Inda had more than 64,000 dary cooperatve socetes, wth cose
to 7.7 mon members. These cooperatves estabshed a day processng
capacty of 15.5 mon ters of whoe mk and 727 tons of mk powder.
Anma husbandry s one of the most mportant occupatons for farmers n Inda.
Lvestock, meat, eggs, mk, hdes etc are the ma|or products for the farmers.
Farms, farm anmas, and farmers makeup a ne farmng eco-system n Inda.
Inda occupes the thrd poston n goba producton of eggs and the sxth
poston n goba producton of poutry meat.
Catte are an asset to sma and mnor farmers, who suppement ther farm
revenue through the mk they generate.
The Indan catte speces are known for ther toughness and mmunty towards
tropca dseases. They are therefore n great demand, nternatonay.
Extra endeavours are beng taken to mprove catte breed, prmary for yedng
more mk. Embryo transfer technoogy s now beng apped n an extensve way.
Artca nsemnaton centres have been estabshed a over the country.
Wth 205 mon catte Inda aone accounts for 1/6th of the word`s tota catte
popuaton. And 84 mon buhaoes n Inda consttute 55% of the word`s tota
number of buhaoes, as per the 1992 anma census.
Inda stands 2nd n the word, next ony to the U.S.A. Wthn a short perod of
tme, t w overtake U.S.A. n mk producton.
Uttar Pradesh stands as the eader n catte rearng, and s toed cosey by
Madhya Pradesh.
The states of Bhar, Maharashtra, Ra|asthan and Andhra Pradesh ne up cosey,
n that order. But the chocest bus and buhaoes are from Pun|ab, Haryana,
Gu|arat, Ra|asthan and Uttar Pradesh. From ts breeds, Surt and Murrah
buhaoes from Gu|arat and Pun|ab respectvey are we-known. The kankre|
varety of catte dates back to the Mohen|odaro and Harappa days. The other
breeds ncude Sahwa and Nagora from Haryana and Ra|asthan and Haker and
Khar from the south.
The 1982 vestock census cacuates ther tota number at above 48 mon.
However, Inda`s share n the word s among the owest-a mere 4%.
Indan sheep yeds somewhat nferor quaty woo and ther producton s aso
ow. It comes to ess than one kogram per head.
The tota producton of woo was 44,000 tonnes. Over 20,000 chocest merno
sheep for exceent woo have been mported to mprove the types of Indan
Sheep of crude quaty woo are reared n Andhra Pradesh and Tam Nadu. But
sheep wth decate quaty woo are reared n western Hmaayas, .e. n the
states of |ammu and Kashmr and Hmacha Pradesh.
Known as "poor man`s cow", goats are more pentfu n Inda, partcuary n Bhar,
Ra|asthan and Madhya Pradesh.

They account for 1/6th of the word`s tota count. Inda`s percentage of horses,
pones and mues s qute ow, |ust 2% of the word`s tota. Cames and yaks are the
other domestc anmas n Inda.
Yeary producton of eggs was ess than two bon n 1950-51. It had rsen to 28
bon by 1996-97. Broer producton, vrtuay unknown t 1961, had rsen to 80
mon brds durng 1986-87.
Duck are aso now bred on an enormous scae.
The yeary producton of meat of varous speces has traversed the one mon
tonne mark. Its export had earned Rs. 1925 crores of rupees n 1996-97.
Pork s ganed from 10 mon pgs reared n the country.
Rearng pgs has ncreasngy ganed momentum n the anma husbandry sector.
Generay andess and poor farmers, uneducated and unempoyed youth, and
peope n agrcutura vehood farm pgs
28% of the tota pg popuaton n Inda s farmed n the North East. HS X I,
Landrace, Hampshre, Large Whte Yorkshre, Duroc and other natve breeds are
found n Inda.
3isheries sector
It s the source of vehood for a arge secton of economcay backward popuaton
of the country.
The man chaenges facng sheres deveopment n the country ncudes accurate
data on assessment of shery resources and ther potenta n terms of sh
producton, deveopment of sustanabe technooges for n and she sh cuture,
yed optmzaton, harvest and post-harvest operatons, andng and berthng
factes for shng vesses and wefare of shermen.
Thrust *reas
Fshery s a State sub|ect and as such the prmary responsbty for deveopment
rests wth the State Governments. The ma|or thrust n sheres deveopment has
been focused on optmzng producton and productvty, augmentng export of
shery products, generatng empoyment and mprovng wefare of shermen and
ther soco-economc status.
1. There has been sgncant growth n sh producton n the country n the recent
years. Inda s now the thrd argest producer of sh and second argest producer of
fresh water sh n the word.
2. Fsh producton durng the year 2008-09 was 76.2 akh tonnes comprsng
29.8 akh tonnes of marne sh and 46.4 akh tonnes of nand sh.
6. Fsh seed producton durng 2007-08 was 24143.57 mon fry.
7. A network of 429 Fsh Farmers Deveopment Agences (FFDAs) has been set up
coverng a the potenta dstrcts n a the States and Unon Terrtores for
propagatng freshwater aquacuture.
8. Wth a vew to provde technca, nanca and extenson support to shrmp
farmers n the sma scae sector, 39 Brackshwater Fsh Farmers Deveopment
Agences (BFDAs) have been set up n a the coasta States and the UT of
Andaman & Ncobar Isands.
9. Due to ntroducton of mproved technoogy of sh farmng and the ehorts of
FFDAs ,the natona average productvty of ponds and tanks covered under the
programme has reached 2600 kg/ha per annum.
3ish Production: (in /akh tonne):


E$port Potential of 'arine Products:
There has been steady growth n the export of sh Products. Durng 2009-10 the
country exported 6.64 akh tonnes of marne products, whch resuted n export
earnng of ` 9921.46 crore.
Ehorts are beng made to boost the export potenta through dverscaton of
products for export. The country has now started exports of frozen squd, cutte
sh and varety of other nshes.
Under the CSS for deveopment of nfrastructure of marne sheres the
Government of Inda has sanctoned 7 ma|or shng harbours, 58 mnor shng
harbours and 189 sh andng centres.
Out of these, 7 Ma|or Fshng Harbours, 44 Mnor Fshng Harbours and 189 Fsh
Landng Centres have been competed and put to use. The remanng shng
harbours and sh andng centres are at varous stages of constructon.
'arine 3isheries:
It ncudes coasta sheres, ohshore shers and deep sea sheres.
!oastal 3isheries:
The coasta zone extends upto 25 m. depth. Fshng of ths bet comprses of
peagc shers, ke sardnes, Mackere, Lesser Sardnes, bottom speces ke
Bombay duck, sver bees, shps, etc.
Herrngh, Sardnes and Anchoves together account for 65% catch.
Tuna, Bontos, Mackeres, Crustaceans, Shark, Rays, Skates, Founders, Habuts
account the remanng 35%of tota catch.
71% of tota producton of marne sh s aong the west coast of Keraa,
Maharashtra, Karnataka, Gu|arat, Goa. Ony about 29% of the tota marne sh
catch comes from the east coast of Inda.
Of%shore and Deep sea ?sheries:
It s not fuy deveoped n Inda.
Large concentraton of Sardnes and Mackere have been ocated aong the
Truvanantpuram-Goa coast.
Szabe stocks of Anchoves, Sardnes, Mackare and Garan-Kaa have been
dscovered n these areas.
,nland 3isheries:
Ouck growng speces wth nonprecous feedng habt are generay seected for
cutvaton n ponds, akes and reservors.
Some famous nand speces are Crrhnus-margaa, Crrhnus-crrhosa, Puntus,
Cornatcus, Kata, Labeo-rohta, Labeo-Cabaru, Labeo-dmbratus, Labeo-bata,
Labeo-Kontus, Etropus, Suratenss, Chonas, Mug-cephaus, Channa-stratues.
In braksh water estuarne sheres the sh found are mosty marne speces ke
Anchoves, Cat-sh, Perches, Pear-spot, etc.
/est !oast 3ishing:
4. Here the shng season s from September to February-March.

5. Here both the contnenta sef and the water have more pronounced seasona
cyce and hgher phosphatc and ntrate contents, so more avaabty of
6. Ma|or sh speces are Sardness, Mackare, Prown, etc.
East !oast 3ishing:
7. Here the shng season s from |uy to October on the Andhra coast and
to Apr on the Coromande coast.
8. Here the crcuaton of water s ess pronounced.
9. Estuarne Fsheres: Chka and Pucat Laker.
10.Paucty of Sardnes and Mackras and ther paces are taken by Horse-mackou,
Cupeds, Sverbees, etc.
11.Per capta sh consumpton s one of the hghest n West Benga but the state
producton s sumcent to meet ony 20% of tota demand.
Pearl 3isheries:
12.East coasts are more extensve and productve than the west coast and
extended from Cape Camorn to Kkara wth Tutcorn as centre. Exceent
quaty of Orenta Pears or Lngna pears are found here.
13.On the west coasts Guf of Kutch, to the north of Laar dstrct of Saruashtra and
near |amnagar are the productve regons.
14.The prncpa pear shng area n nda are Guf of Mannar, Guf of Kutch and the
Pak Bay.
15.In southern Inda pear-oysters are harvested by dvers but n Kutch and
Saurashtra they are exposed to ow-water sprng tdes and hence are easy
coected by hand.
16.Centra Marne Fsheres Research Insttute s ocated at Mandapam Camp.
3resh%/ater 3ish Production Ran1s:
West Benga
Bhar (ncudng |harkhand)
Andhra Pradesh
'arine 3ish Production Ran1:
Total 3ish Production Ran1:
West Benga
#eographical factors afecting location of industries:

Raw materas are basc requrements for manufacturng ndustres. Weght
osng ndustres e.g. cement, sugar (10 quntas of sugarcane, s needed to
produce 1 qunta of sugar) are ocated near the source of raw matera. On the
other hand footoose ndustres are ndependent of raw matera sources e.g.
garment and eectroncs ndustry.
Power resources are mportant for ntensve ndustres such as aumnum and
poythene bags ndustres whch are ocated near the energy sources.
Labour suppes s another mportant factor partcuary for the aboru ntensve
ndustry e.g. constructon ndustry.
Means of transportaton and communcaton pay a speca ro n brngng raw
matera to the factory and nshed products to the market e.g. cheap water
transport has factated the deveopment and concentraton of |ute ms n
Hooghy regon.
Market facty aso nuences ndustres many of whch are ocated near arge
urban centres because the potenta buyers are easy avaabe.
Other factors ke nanca factes, cmate, ndustra ncentves and
government factes aso matter. In Inda one coud get more subsdzed raw
matera, very ow rate of nterest on capta and other ncentves for estabshng
an ndustry n the Backward Regons or n No Industry Dstrct.
The ocaton of ndustry s not guded by a snge factor due to ts compex
nature. A aspects have to be consdered and anayzed before settng up an
Te$tile industry:
Texte ndustry n Inda s the argest snge ndustry. It accounts for 20 percent of
tota ndustra output (n vaue terms), empoyng around 150 akh peope and
contrbutes about 25 percent of our tota export.
!otton Te$tile:
The cotton texte ndustry s argest empoyng and odest organzed ndustry n
The rst cotton m was estabshed at Fort Goster n Cacutta 1818.
The cotton texte ndustry s argey concentrated n the cotton growng areas.
Maharashtra and Gu|arat are the foremost cotton texte manufacturng states.
Andhra Pradesh and Tamnadu are mportant n spndeage capacty.
Percapta consumpton of coth of Inda s 16.50 metre.
a. Obsoete and nemcent machnery
b. Inadequate transportaton factes of raw matera to the m
c. Uneconomc sze of ms.
To check the contnuous fa n the producton of yarn and coth due to sckness
of many ms. Natona Texte Corporaton Ltd. (NTC).
2andloo( Sector:
Provdes empoyment to more than one crore peope n decentrazed sector next
ony to agrcuture. In the ed of export, handoom sector has regstered sgncant
gans. Vaue of export was Rs.448.51 crore n 1989.
|ute ndustry empoys about 2.5 akh workers and supports forth akh |ute
growng farmers.
The |ute ndustry s concerned wth producton of gunny bags of sackng, gunny
coth coarse carpets and many other tems.

The rst power-drven |ute m n Inda was estabshed at Rshra near Cacutta n
The |ute ndustry has been facng probems due to a number of factors ke
decnng demand of carpet backng coth n export market; hgh cost of nput;
sth competton n export market from other |ute producng countres; adverse
competton from synthetc substtutes.
Natona |ute Manufacturers Corporaton (N|MC) under Mnstry and Textes
accounts for 12% of tota producton of |ute. |ute Manufacturers Deveopment
Counc (|MDC) s aso assocated n marketng and export actvtes.
Sil1 Te$tile:
Inda has the unque dstncton of beng the ony country n the word producng
a varetes of natura sk .e., muberry, tasar, er and muga.
Inda s second argest producer of natura sk n the word, nest to Chna. Indas
share n goba producton n over 15%.
Andhra Pradesh produces muberry and tasar raw sk; Assam produces muga,
er and muberry raw sk; Bhar ranks rst n tasar producton.
Karnataka s the bggest mutvotne muberry sk producng state.
Centra Sk Board has aunched a natona sercuture (producng of sk) pro|ect
wth Word Bank and Swss assstance.
Sercuture, beng a cottage ndustry n Inda, has a consderabe potenta.
/oolen Te$tiles:
In 1976, Wooen texte ndustry came nto exstence on an organzed bass.
Ma|or regons-Pun|ab, Haryana, Maharashtra, Gu|arat, Karnataka, |ammu and
Kashmr, Deh and Ra|asthan aso have wooen ms.
Synthetic 3i"re:
Synthetc bre ndustry s of recent orgn, rayon, nyon and poyester bre fabrcs
are manufactured by arge cotton wavng unts. Maharashtra, Gu|arat, Uttar
Pradesh, West Benga, Deh and Tamnadu are mportant regons.
'etallurgical ,ndustries:
Inda has estabshed severa metaurgca ndustres.
,ron and Steel:
The ndustry s ocated near the sources of raw matera. Tata Iron and Stee Co.
(TISCO) came up rst at |amshedpur (1907) and the Indan Iron & Stee Co.
(IISCO) at Burnpur (1919); Vsvesvaraya Iron and Stee Works Ltd.
At Bhadravat n (1923); Bha, Durgapur, Rourkea and Bokaro are other ron and
stee pants. Stee Authorty of Inda Lmted (SAIL) s a whoy Government
owned undertakng.
It s responsbe for the management of ntegrated stee pants at Bha,
Durgapur, Roukea, Bokaro and Burnpur and aso aoy stee pants at D.Surgapur
and Saem stee pant at Saem.
*lu(iniu( industry:
The ocaton of ths ndustry s near dependabe sources of ths ndustry s near
dependabe sources of bauxte and power pro|ects. Important smetng unts are
Begaum, Hrakud, Aupuram, Renukoot, Mettur, Korapur, Korba and Ratnagr.
!opper s(elting:
The Maubhander unt (Snghbhum dstrct of Bhar) of the Indan Copper
Corporaton Ltd. Was the rst copper smetng unt n Inda. Khetr n Ra|asthan s
aso an mportant unt.
Engineering industry:

In modern age ths ed s of growng mportance.
'achine Tools:
The most mportant company n ths ed s Hndustan Machne Toos Ltd. wth
pants at Bangaore, Pn|ore, Kaamassery, Hyderabad and Srnagar.
2eavy Electricals:
The Bharat Heavy Eectrcas Ltd. (BHEL) s ocated at Bhoopa, Hyderabad,
Trchurapa and Hardwar.
Rail0ay E5uip(ent:
Raway ocomotves are but n the Chttaran|an Locomatve works, Chttaran|an
and the Dese Locomotve Works, Varanas both of whch are admnstered by
the Mnstry of Raways. Stea engnes are aso but by TELCO, a prvate sector
The buk of the passenger servce vehces are manufactured n the Integra
Coach Factory, Perambur, whch s aso admnstered by the Mnstry of Raways.
ICFs producton s suppemented by two pubc sector undertakngs, Bharat
Earth Movers Ltd., and |essops.
These three together meet the entre requrements of the raways. Raways
requrements of whees and axes are at present met ony n part by ndgenous
Ship Building:
Inda has four ma|or shpbudng yards; Cochn Shpyard at Cochn, Hndusthan
Shpyard at Vsakhapatnam, Garden Reach Shp Buders and Engneers at
Cacutta and Mazagon Docks at Bombay.
A these shpyards are n the pubc sector. There are at present 15 ma|or repar
dry docks, ve at Cacutta, two at Vsakhapatnam and two at Cochn.
Cars are manufactured at Cacutta (Ambassador), Bombay (Fat-Premer Padmn),
Madras automobe s beng produced. Trucks are produced at |amshedpur (Tata
Mercedes) and Madras (Ashok-Leyand).
*ircraft ,ndustry:
Inda has arcraft producton centres at Bangaore, Kanpur, Koraput, Nask and
Inda produces arcraft both for mtary and for cv purposes arcraft both for
mtary and for cv purposes.
Hndustan Aeronautcs Ltd. (HAL) s the ma|or pubc sector undertakng n ths
Electronics ,ndustry:
Eectroncs ndustry provdes maxmum empoyment per unt of nvestment and
pays a domnant roe n mprovng productvty. It has regstered substanta
growth over the years. The growth rate s exponenta.
Eectroncs ndustry ncudes computers consumer equpment. The threat faced
by Inda eectroncs ndustry s many the hgh degree of obsoesce. Research
and Deveopment wng s engaged n technoogca upgradaton.
!2E',!*) *-D *)),ED ,-DUSTR4
Important ndustres are as foows:
Inda s the fourth argest producer of ntrogenous fertzers n the word.
The ndustry s deveoped both under pubc and prvate sectors. Pubc sector
factores are ocated at-Sndr (Bhar), Nanga (Pun|ab), Madras, Trombay,

Rourkea, Paradeep and other regon. Prvate sector factores are ocated at
Tutcorn, Ennore (Tamnadu), Varanas, Kanpur, Baroda, Kota, Goa and
Mangaore. Gas based pants are ocated at V|apur (Guna), Aona (Barey) and
|agdshpur (Sutanpur).
Antbotcs are produced at Pmpr near Pune and Rshkesh. The Hndustan
Antbotcs Pant at Rshkesh s one of the argest n the Word Indsan Drugs and
Pharmaceutcas Ltd. (IDPL) s ocated n Hyderabad. Other unts are ocated n
Bombay, Baroda, Madras, Deh, Cacutta and Kanpur.
Manufacture of cement was rst started n Madras n 1904.
The necessary raw materas for the manufacture of cement are mestone or
doomte, cay, gypsum and carbon. The eadng producers of cement are
Tamnadu, Madhya Pradesh (Katr, Satna), Bhar (Thkpan), Gu|arat (Porbandar),
Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh and Ra|asthan (Lakher, Kota).
The Assocated Cement Company Ltd. And the Dama group contro the buk of
the cement producng n the country. The Cement Corporaton of Inda s the ony
pubc sector undertakng.
Inda s the words argest snge source of eather due to ts vestock
popuaton. The ndustry has a good export potenta.
Most of the tems, partcuary footwear, s manufactured by cottage and sma
scae unts. Important centres of producton are Agra, Kanpur, Bombay and
The man forest based ndustry s paper:
The rst modern paper m of the country was set up n 1832 at Sehrampore n
West Benga.
Other mportant paper producng regons are-Andhra Pradesh, Orssa,
Maharashtra, Karnataka and Madhya Pradesh, Bhar, U.P. and Keraa aso
produce paper.
The Hndustan Paper Corporaton Ltd. (HPC), Cacutta s a pubc sector
undertakng. The Natona Newsprnt & Paper Ms Ltd. Is ocated n Napanagar.
Hndustan Photo Fms Manufacturng Company Ltd. At Udhagamandaam,
produces cne and X-ray ro, graphc art and ndustra X-ray ms and photo
Other forest based ndustres are match ndustry and ac ndustry a n prvate
!ottage ,ndustry:
Cottage ndustry s characterzed by hand manufacture of oca raw materas at
home through, mosty, famy members. Sma-scae ndustry s a natura growth of
cottage ndustry.
Handcrafts consttute an mportant cottage ndustry of the country and
provdes empoyment to about 35 akh artsans. Handcrafts comprse a wde range
of artstc products-wooen carpets, art metawares, vory products etc. handcraft s
an mportant source of foregn exchange earnng. Gems and |eweery comes under
sma scae and cottage ndustry.
The Sugar ,ndustry:

Inda s the word's argest producer of sugar cane.
However, n terms of producton 195 akh tones n 2005-06. It s aso the second
argest agro-ndustry.
The country s not ony sef sumcent n sugar producton but aso t exports a
substanta quantty every year. Sugar ndustry s a seasona ndustry and as
such, abour cannot be empoyed n ths ndustry a the year round..
Sugar ndustry occupes a promnent poston n the ndustra sector of the
country because the prosperty a number of other ndustres ke sugar
machnery manufactures, engneerng ndustres, dsteres, paper ndustry,
pestcdes, fertzers, chemcas, confectonery, pharmaceutcas, acoho, bre-
board, pastcs and synthetc rubber, s nked wth prosperty of the Sugar
ndustry n one way or the other.
For nstance, n the manufacture of paper, cardboard, nsuaton board, the use
bagasse s consderabe. Press-mud s used n the makng of shoe posh and
carbon paper. Moasses have demand n the preparaton of pastcs, synthetc
rubber, chemcas, quor and power acoho.
The heavest concentraton of sugar factores occurs n the sugar cane tracts of
Mahrashtra, Uttar Pradesh, Tam Nadu Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Gu|arat and
Bhar. Out of the 299 factores found n the country as many as 266 were ocated
n these states and' "ogether they accounted for over 92 per cent of the
country's tota producton. Haf of the tota number of sugar factores are ocated
n Uttar Pradesh aone. The reatve share of states n Sugar producton s shown
States %of A Inda Producton No. of factores
Maharashtra 36.00 77
Uttar Pradesh 25.00 90
Tamnadu 8.50 21
Karnataka 8.00 23
A.P. 5.50 27
Gu|arat 5.00 13
Bhar 4.50 28
States ,(portant centres
'aharashtra Ahmednagar, KohapLr, Pune, North Satara, Sanga,
South Satara, Shoapur and Aurangabad.
Uttar Pradesh Kanpur, Meerut, Pbht,' Lucknow, Aahabad. Gorakhpur,
Moradabad, Muzaharnagar and Saharan pur.
Ta(ilnadu Combatore, Noth and South Arcot, Tru-hrapay, Veore
& Ramanathapuram
Larnata1a Begaum Mandya, B|apur, Beary, Shmoga and
Nzambad, Medak, Chttor, V|ayawada and
Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, Tam Nadu and Karnataka together produce more
sugar at present than a the states of the bet of the Norhtern Great Pans coverng
Uttar Pradesh, Bhar, Haryana' and' Pun|ab.
,RO- *-D STEE) ,-DUSTR4:

Inda's share n tota word producon of stee s very ow: t. IS about 1.1 percent 'as
aganst 20 percent of Russa, 19 percent of U.S.A, 15 percent of |apan, 7 percent of
Germany, 4 percent of U.K. and 3.8 percent of France.
Moreover, the buk of stee producton n Inda (about 90 percent) conssts of md,
tems such as structuras, ras, sheets, pates bars and rods. Aoy and speca stees
consttute a sma proporton of the producton.
The tota producton of nshed stee n 2005-06 s 44.5 mon tonnes. The ndustry.
provdes drect empoyment to 2.5 akh peope.
The Indan ron and stee ndustry conssts of few bg prmary ntegrated pants and
a arge number of 'mn stee pants (Eectrc are furnace unts).
Whe ntegrated stee pants many produce md stee n buk quanttes, mn stee
pants produce md as we as aoy stees whch coud not be econom cay
produced by ntegrated stee pants.
The mn stee pants produce stee based on stee scrap/ sponge ron. At present
there are 179 mn stee pants wth a tota censed capacty of over 56 akh tonnes
per annum, of whch 167 unts have been commssoned and have produced 7.30
mon tonnes of stee n 1996-97. Other unts are at varous stages of
Progress during Planning Era:
On the eve of pannng n Inda there were three man unts producng stee.
There were the Tata ron) and Stee Company (TISCO) set up n 1907 at
|amshedpur (Bhar); The Indan Iron and Stee Company (IISCO) set up n 191 9
at Bumpur (West Benga); and the Vsvesvaraya Iron and Stee (VISL) set up n
1923 at Bhadraat (Karnataka)
Durng the second pan three stee pans were set up. The three stee pants set
up n the pubc sector came nto operaton n stages between 1959 and 1962.
Durng the thrd pan a new stee pant was setup at Bokaro n Bhar wth the ad
of Russa. Ths pant was commssoned n 1978.
The Bokaro stee pant s the bggest stee pro|ect n Inda. Out of the country's
tota gnot stee capacty, t w account for neary 25 percent when fuy
The fourth pan and the Ffth pan stee programmes were based on the
maxmum utsaton of the exst ng stee capacty and the preparaton of pan
for settng up three new stee pants at Seam (Tam Nadu), V|aynagar"near
Hospet (Karnataka), and Vshakapatnam (Andhra Pradesh).
Durng the sxth pan the Bha and Bokaro stee. pants have been expanded.
Durng the seventh pan the thrust of the stee program'mes was to brng up the
technoogy to contemporary- eves and optmse producton from the exstng
Steel *uthority of ,ndia )i(ited:
Stee Authorty of Inda Lmted (SAIL) set up n 1973 s a whoy-owned Government
undertakng wth headquarter at Deh. It s responsbe for management of
ntegrated stee pants at Bha, Durgapur, Rourkea, Bokaro and Burnpur and aso
Aoy Stee Pants at Durgapur and Saem Stee Pant at Saem. Burnpur stee pant
works are under Indan Iron and Stee company, a whoy owned subsdary of SAIL.
'a@or Pu"lic sector industries
)ocation Esta"lish(ent !apacity
(in DDD
'*TER,*)S !O*) (!B
,RO- ORE (,B
8),'ESTO-E ()B
'*-#*-ESE (M)
TISCO at Set up n 1907 by 2,000 (crude C-|hara & W. Bokaro,

|amshedpur n
|amshed| Tata stee) 1,500
(saeabe stee)
I-Mayurbhan| (Orssa) &
Snghbhum (|harkhand)
L - sundargarh Dstrct
M - Keon|har dstrct
IISCO at Burnpur
n West Benga
Set up n 1919.
Taken over by the
Centra Government
n 1972. Now u'nder
1,000 (crude
800 (saeabe
I-Gua captve mnes
L-Brmtrapur mnes
M-Keon|har mnes
Damodar rver suppes
Bhadravat n
Shmoga dstrct
of Karnataka
Setup by the
Prncey state of
Mysore wth the
assstance of Per
and Marsha CG.
(USA) n 1923.
Taken over by
Centra Govt. n
1962 and by SAIL n
1,000 (crude
700 (saeabe
Instead of Coa, Hyde
power from Karnataka
I-Kemmangund mnes of
Chkmagaur dstrct
L-Bhandgunda deposts
M - Shmoga &
Water s provded by the
Bhadra rver

Bha pant n
Durg dst. of
Set up wth the ad
of USSR durng
second pan.
Producton was
started n 1959.
Now under SAIL
4,000 (crude
3,153 (saeabe
C - Kobra (Chattsgarh) &
I - Da - Ra|hara mnes of
Durg dst L - Nandn
M - Baghat & Bhandar
dsts. of M:P Water - Tandua
cana of Gond reservour
Power - Kobra Therma
Power staton.
oant n
dstrct of
West Benga
Set up wth the ad
of U.K durng
second pan
Producton started
n 1962. Now under
1600 (crude
1239 (saeabe
C-|hara & Barakar eds
I-Boan mnes (Gua regon n
L-Brmtrapur n Sundargarh
M-|amba n Keon|har dstrct
Water-Damodar rver
Power-Damodar vaey Grd
Rourkea pant n
Set up wth the ad
of West Germany
durng second pan.
Producton started
n 1959. Now under
1800 (crude
1225 (saeabe
C-|hara, Bokaro, Tacher &
Korba eds
I-Sundergarh & Keon|har
dst. of Orssa
L-Brmtrapur & Hathber
Water-Mandra Dam across
Sankh rver and Mahanand
Power-Hrakud power pro|ect
Bokaro pant n
Hazarbagh dst.
of |harkhand
Set up wth the ad
of USSR durng the
thrd pan.
Producton started
n 1972. Now under
4000 (crude
3156 (saeabe
C-|hara, Bokaro, Karg coa
I-Krburu mnes n Keon|har
mnes n Keon|har dstrct
L-Paamau dstrct
M-Brmtrapur mne
Water-Tenu dam across
Damodar rver
Power-Damodar vaey grd
and Korba Therma pant
Ci@ayanagar Steel Plant wth a capacty of 30 Lakh Tonnes s ocated at Tornaga
near Hospet n Beary Dstrct. Iron ore from Hospet, Coa from Kanha & Sngaren
eds n Andhra Pradesh and water & Power requrements are met by Tungabhadra
Hyde pro|ect.
Sale( Steel plant: at saem n Tamnadu s a ma|or producer of word cass
staness stee and exports to USA, Austraa and S.E. Asa. It produces 80 thousand
tonnes of stee and caters to the conage requrement of Indan Government mnts.
Iron ore & Lmestone are avaabe n the ad|onng areas and has access to cheap
power, charcoa and vast market.
Posco SteelB Parad0ip
Pohang Stee Company (Posco) of Korea has entered nto a memorandum of
understandng (MoU) wth Orssa Government for settng up a 12 mon tonne stee
pant at Paradwp 'wth a tota nvestement of 51 thousand crores whch s the
bggest FDI n Indan Industry.

Cisha1apatna( Steel Plant : at Vshakapatnam n Andhra Pradesh was
estabshed n the year 1992 and has a capacty of 5 mon tonnes. It s the most
sophstcated ntegrated stee pant. Iron ore Baada, Coa from Damodar Vaey
and Austraa, gas from KG basn and Lmestone, Manganese from Chatsgarh and
Madhya Pradesh meet the requrements.
In response to the reforms process, certan new stee pants n the prvate sector
are aready n ppene'.
They are:
Loyd Stee
Essar Gu|arat
Nppon Denro
|nda V|ayanagar
Mavka Steers etc.
As compared - to word producers, Indan stee s compettve' n terms of cost.
However, mprovement s requred n terms of quaty and devery mechansms.
Indan s at present exportng certan types of stee whe mportng certan other
types of .stee. In 199596, Inda's-stee exports were - around 1320 thousand tonnes
whe mports 1900 thousand tonnes.
T2E E-#,-EER,-# ,-DUSTR4:
The EngneerngIndustry contrbutes about 24.1 percent of the tota
ndustra producton and provdes 28 percent of the ndustra empoyment
n the country.
As a resut of the rapd progress of the engneerng goods ndustry, the tota
export earnngs' amounted to Rs. 47,853 crores n 2003-04.
The engneerng ndustry ncudes Heavy Machnery, Machne Toos" Heavy
Eectrcas, Raway Equprnents, Shp-Budng, Automobes, Ar-Crafts and
',-ER*)S ,- ,-D,*
!lassi?cation of (inerals:
Mneras are cassed broady nto two categores:
4. Metac Mneras and
5. Non-Metac Mneras
=& 'etallic 'inerals:
Metac Mneras are those from whch we get metas such as ron, copper, god
and ead.
These mneras are sub-dvded nto two groups: (a) Ferrous group and (b) Non-
ferrous group.
a 3erro 'etallic 'inerals:
These ncude Iron Ore, Manganese Ore, Chromte and Pyrte. These mneras
account for about. three-fourths of the tota vaue of the producton of metac
Inda's poston s amost envabe n the reserves of these mneras and the
country exports substanta quanttes.
Mneras provde a strong base for the deveopment of metaurgca ndustres.
" -on%3errous 'etallic 'inerals:
These ncude God, Sver, Copper, Znc, Lead and Bauxte.
Unke n the case of ferrous mneras, Inda's poston both n reserves and
producton of non-ferrous metac mneras except n Bauxte s not satsfactory
and the country depends for these many on foregn suppes.

These mneras pay a vta roe n a number of metaurgca, engneerng,
eectrca and other ndustres and have, therefore, an mportant pace n the
ndustra, deveopment of a country.
Non-ferrous metac mneras are further subdvded nto two types: () Base
metas, Eg:- Tn, Copper, Znc, Lead and Aumnum (derved from Bauxte) and
() Precous metas Eg:- God, Sver and patnum.
<& -on%(etallic 'inerals:
These mneras are sub-dvded nto two groups: a) Non-metac Fue Mneras
and. b) Non-metac Non-Fue Mneras
a 'on-Metalli% /uel Minerals : These ncude Coa, Ugnte,' petroeum Natura
Gas Nucear Energy Mneras(Monazte, Uranum, Beryum, Zrconum, and
Imente). These mneras account for neary four-fths of the tota vaue of the
country's tota mnera producton. Further, these mneras factate neary two-
thrds of the country's tota nstaed capacty n eectrca power.
*) 'on-Metalli% 'on-/uel Minerals: These ncude Lmestone,Domte, Mca,
Kyante, Smante, Gysum, Apattes, Damond, Phosphates, Sfeatte,' Magneste
and Sat. They are used n a varety of ndusrtes ke cement, fertzers, refractores
sgncanty n the counrty's mneras export.
The Non-Metac Non-Fue Mneras are further sub-dvded nto foowng types on
the bass of ther uses:
) Mneras used n the Chemca Industry Eg:- Suphur & Rock Sat.
) Mneras used n the Fertzer Industry Eg:- Ntrate, Phosphate and Potash.
) Mneras used as aws n the Metaurgca Industres, Eg:- Doomte & Magneste.
v) Budng materas, Eg.:- Grante, Marbe, Lmestone, Sate, Cay and Asbestos.
v) Precous Stones or Gem Stones, Eg:- Damond, Ruby, Sapphre, Emerad, |ade
and Garnet.
v) Mneras used for msceaneous purposes, Eg:Mca. & Graphte
Overall position in (ineral resources:
The foowng anayss gves an overa poston of Inda's mnera resources:
5. Mnera n whch Inda has arge' exportabe surpus to domnate the word
market: (1) Iron Ore (2) Mca (3) thorum Ore and (4) Ttanum
6. Mneras n whch Inda has fary good surpus for exports : (1) Manganese Ore
(2) Magneste' (3) Bauxte (4) Grante (5) Sca (6) Beryum (7) Steatte(8)
Monazte (9) Smante (10) Kyante and (11) Barytes.
7. Mneras n whch Inda s sef-sumcent: (1") Coa (2) Chromte (3) Marbes (4)
Sate (5) Lmestone (6) Doomte (7) Sodum Sats and akaes (8) Gypsum (9)
Gass Sand (10) Pyrtes (11) Zrcon (12) precous and sem-precous stones (13)
God (14) Uranum (15) Frecay and (16) Chna cay (17) Fedspar. (18) Fourde.
8. Mneras n whch Inda has to depend on foregn mports: (1) Petrouem and
Petroeum products (2) Sver (3) Ncke (4) Cobat (5) Znc (6) Lead (7) Copper
(8) Tn (9) Mercury (10) Tungsten (11) Pat num (12) Graphte (13) Potash (14)
Suphur and (15) Rock Phosphate.
Mnera resources have an extremey uneven dstrbuton n Inda. Over 97 per
cent of the countrys tota reserves of Coa are ocated n the vaeys of the
Damodar, Sone, Mahanad and Godavar (.e. Bhar, Orssa, Madhya Pradesh,
West Benga, Andhra Pradesh and Maharashtra).
Most of the reserves of petroeum dscovered so far e n a few sedmentary
basns of Gu|arat, Assam and n Bombay Hgh.

Most of the deposts of Iron ore are ocated n |arkhand, Orssa, Madhya Pradesh,
Chattsgarh, Kamataka and Tamnadu; of Bauxte n |arkhand, Bhar, Orssa,
Madhya Pradesh, Chattsgarh and Gu|arat; of Manganese n Madhya Pradesh
Orssa and +aharashtra2 and of Lead, and Znc ores n |arkhand and Ra|asthan.
Amost the entre deposts of Mca s found n Bhar, Andhra Pradesh and
Ra|asthan. The entre deposts of God are found n karnataka (Koar God Feds
& Hutt Mnes) andAndhra pradesh (Ramagr God Feds n Anantapur dstrct).
Most of the reserves of mnor mneras ncudng Gypsum Steatte, Rock
phosphate and Precous Stones are ocated n Ra|asthan. Thorum and Uranum
deposts are mosty ocated n Bhar. Most of the Monazte and mnte occur n
the beach sands of Keraa Coast.
Most of the reserves of Smante are found n Meghaaya, Maharashtra, of
Kyante n Bhar and of Doomte n Orssa. Thus the above anayss shows that
the States of |ammu and Kashmr, Pun|ab, Hmacha Pradesh, Haryana & Uttar
Pradesh are very poor n mnera resources.
DET*,)S O3 '*FOR ',-ER*)S
,RO- ORE: Though Inda has about 6.6% of the word's known Iron ore deposts, t
accounts for ony 5% of the tota annua word producton of Iron Ore and hods the
Types of Iron Ore: Inda produces three types of Iron Ore, vz.,
hematte, n whch the ron content s 68%
magnette, n whch the ron contents vares from 25 to 62%
monte, wth ron content of 35 to 50% ony
Iron Ore Reserves: Recoverabe reserves are estmated at 13460 mon tonnes of
whch 10052 mon tonnes are Haematte and 3408 mon tonnes Magnette Ore
State-wse dstrbuton of reserves:
States % of A-Inda
Reserves Karnata
Orssa 12.98
Goa 5.04
Others 15.68
Production of ,ron Ore:
Durng 2006-07 tota producton of Iron Ore n Inda was 172 mon tonnes, out of
whch 83 mon tonnes are exported.
There are around 250 Iron ore mnes n Inda out of whch 18 are captve mnes of
varous stee pants. They account for 35% of tota ron ore output.
Wth dereguaton of Iron and Stee ndustry, Iron ore sector s attractng many
domestc and foregn nvestors.
,(portant places associated 0ith ,ron Ore production:
Koen|har, Sundargarh, Mayurbhn (Orssa); Snghbhum (|harkhand); Rapur, Durg,
Bastar (Chattsgarh); Chkmagore, Beary & Chtradurrg (Karnataka); Goa; Saem,

Truchrapay-North Arcot bet (Tamnadu); Kozkode, (Keraa); |asamer
,(portance of ,ron:
On account of ts cheapness and strength, stee whch s derved from Iron Ore s
the most wdey used of a the metas.
The Producton of nshed stee durng the persona 2002-03 to 2007-08:
!rude steel production
in ,ndia ('illion Tonnes
2002-03 34.71
2003-04 38.73
2004-05 43.44
2005-06 46.46
2006-07 50.82
2007-08 53.90
200809 54.52
Today Inda s the fth argest crude stee producng country n the word.
It s used n the manufacture of varous types of machnes nstaed n factores;
n the constructon of raway.
Tracks, brdges and budng; n the manufacture of shps, raway engnes and
carrages and automobes; n the preparaton of agrcutura toos and
mpements; n the producton of defence weapons and n the makng of
furntures and househod artces. Further, Iron and some of ts components are
used n certan chemca processes. For nstance, ron pyrte - a suphde or' Iron
s used n the manufacture of suphurc acd. Iron s used as a catayst n the
producton of synthetc ammona.
Some of the oxdes of ron are used to make pgments of the pant and rubber
'*-*#*-ESE ORE:
Inda s the word's sxth argest producer of Manganese Ore and accounts for
about 6% of the word output.
Indan manganese s of rch Ruaty (wth mnera contents of 40 to 60 p.c. as
compared to U.S.S.R. (content 45 p.c.) Ghana (41 to 50 p.c) and Braz (33 to 50
p.c).Manganese Ore Reserves: Recoverabe reserves of Manganese Ore are
estmated at 176.5 mon tonnes.
Type of 'anganese Ore:
In Inda t occurs n the form of sedmentary strated metramorphc deposts of
Darwar Sytem of Pennsuar Inda.
Ore Types: Psomeane, Braunte, Pyrouste, Hausmant, Hoandte.
About 78% of tota reserve s found n Nagpur and Bhandara dstrcts of
Maharashtra and Baaghat dstrct of Madhya Pradesh Snghbhum-Keon|har-Bona
area hods the 11% of tota reserve whe the north-Kannara shares 6%.
In terms of statewse reserve Madhya Pradesh (ncudng Chattsgarh) ranks rst
foowed by Maharashtra, Orssa and Karnataka.

In terms of producton Orssa ranks rst foowed by Karnataka, M.P. (ncudng
Chattsgarh), Maharashtra and Andhra Pradesh.
4. Ferro-Manganese Pants: (1) Rayayada (2) |oda (both n Orssa) (3) Tumsar (4)
Kamptee (both n Maharashtra) (5) Bhadravat (6) Dande (both n Karnataka)
(7) Garvd (Andhra Pradesh).
In the country, t hods a poston next to ron.
Interestngy, around haf of aumnum produced n the country s utzed by
eectrca ndustres. Aumnum s speccay used n the producton of
renforced aumnum conductors and sheathed cabes. Ths mnera resource s
recovered from aumna by eectro-chemca processes. That s why, aumnum
smeters are stuated near the sources of eectrcty.
Amost one-fourth of the creaton cost of aumnum meta s accounted for by
eectrcty. In Inda, smeters producng aumnum meta are stuated at severa
paces ke |aynagar near Asanso, Hrakud Dam, Mettur Dam (Tam Nadu),
Aupuram (Keraa), Begaum (Karnataka) and Renukoot (near Rhand Dam).
Moreover, Government of Inda has set up an ntegrated aumnum pro|ect at
Korba (Chattsgarh). Ths aumnum pro|ect s based on the bauxte deposts
stuated n the Amarkantak Pateau and Phutka Pahar ocated around 15 kms to
the north of Korba. Ths aumnum pant began producng aumna n the year
1973 and aumnum n the year 1975.
The annua capacty of ths pro|ect s very huge. Extrusons are made from the
aumnum supped by the Korba aumnum pant at smeters stuated at |.K.
Nagar. Moreover, n Inda, aumnum uorde and cryote used n the producton
of aumnum meta are manufactured n Inda.
Largest aumnum compex n Inda s the Natona Aumnum Company Ltd.
(NALCO), n Orssa. However, the aumna pant and the smeter of ths compex
are at dherent paces. The producton cost of aumnum n Inda s moderatey
hgh many because of hgh rate of eectrcty, nadequate suppy of eectrcty
and some raw materas ke cryote, aumnum uorde, caustc soda, etc. and
asty reguar nterruptons n the suppy of bauxte. These are some of the
reasons that hnder the producton of aumnum In Inda.
Copper n Inda s chey used for the producton of eectrca machnery.
As an ndustra meta, copper stands second ony to stee.
It s measured as the best conductor of eectrcty. Copper s aso used n
producng brass and bronze, castngs and ppes. Further, for the renng of
copper, cheap and abundant eectrcty s requred.
Inda manufactures ony a tte amount of copper and t mports a huge quantty
of ths mnera resource annuay to meet domestc needs.
At present, most of the copper ore s mned n the dstrcts of Snghbhum
(|harkhand), Baaghat (Madhya Pradesh) and |hun|hunu Dstrct and Awar n
Ra|asthan. The sma producers of copper ncude Khammam Dstrct of Andhra
Pradesh, Dhtradurga and Hassan Dstrct of Karnataka and aso n some parts of
The smeter at Ghatsa n Snghbhum dstrct s very od. It receves copper ore
concentrates from Mosaban. Interestngy, up to the year 1971, the smeter at
Ghatsa was the ony producer of copper n the country.
On the other hand, the smeter stuated at Khetr n |hun|hunu dstrct of Andhra
Pradesh aso has a huge capacty. In the year 1970, ths smeter started
producng copper on an expermenta bass. The smeter was commssoned for

the producton of eectroytc copper on a rea arge scae n the year 1974. Ths
smeter gets copper ore from the copper ore mnes at Khetr, Chandmar, Darba
and Kohan. A these paces are ocated wthn cose proxmty from Khetr.
Presenty, god s mned Hutt mnes n the Rachur dstrct of Karnataka. The other
mne s ocated n Anantpur dstrct of Andhra Pradesh.
Pure god has a brght yeow coour and uster tradtonay consdered attractve,
whch t mantans wthout oxdsng n ar or water.
Inda s the argest mporter and consumer of God but God mnng remans at a ow
Indas domestc god producton was at 3.05 tonnes durng the nanca year 2006.
The ow producton of god have adversey ahected the economy of the country and
the government has asked domestc god mners to actvey survey |ont venture
wth foregn companes to speed up exporaton of the yeow meta wthn the
The Geoogca Survey of Inda and the Mnera Exporaton Corporaton of Inda are
two of the ma|or government agences that carry out vercaton surveys on god
mnng n Inda.
2igh grade "au$ite s found n abundance n Inda.
Bauxte s wdey dstrbuted as surface deposts n those areas where aterte
so s found.
Ths mnera s the ore of aumnum meta that s used argey n the
manufacture of speca aoys, aumnum powder, utenss and eectrc cabes.
Aumnum aoys are used n the manufacture of automobe engnes because of
ts ght and tough.
Bauxte s used n manufacture of cement and chemcas.
Bauxte s mned at severa paces n the country. The ma|or deposts of bauxte
are stuated n Ranch, |amnagar, |abapur, Kohapur and Shevaroy Hs. Apart
from these areas, the other paces where ts chef deposts are found ncude
Poonch and Ras n |ammu and Kashmr, Baaghat n Madhya Pradesh and more.
Moreover, n Kutch dstrct n Gu|arat too arge deposts of Bauxte are found. Of
ate, deposts n Orssa have been deveoped and the bggest pant of ts knd n
Asa has been constructed to produce aumna and aumnum.It utzes the
atest French technoogy, whch economzes on the use of eectrcty.
Bauxte ore s exported to |apan and European countres.
In Orssa, there are two very bg hgh grade deposts of Bauxte. The rst one at
Panchpatma s regarded as the argest n the country and the second one s at
Gandhamardan bauxte depost. Interestngy, producton of bauxte s regstered
partcuary n those regons that suppy aumna pants wth ths ore.
Bauxte ore has beneted n mportance because aumnum-a very ght but
exceedngy functona meta, s made from t.
It s a must for arcraft engneerng.
Bauxte deposts n Inda are extensvey dstrbuted. Orssa, Andhra Pradesh,
Madhya Pradesh, Gu|arat, Maharashtra and Bhar are the foremost states where
bauxte reserves are predomnatey ocated. The tota reserves are approxmated
to be more than 2462 mon tonnes. Ma|or reserves are centrazed n East
Coast Bauxte deposts of Orssa and northern Andhra Pradesh.

Aumnum s obtaned from bauxte n two stages. In the rst stage bauxte s
rened and transformed nto aumna by a chemca process and n the second
stage aumnum meta s obtaned by the eectroyss of aumna. Of the tota
bauxte produced n the country, the ma|or porton s used for makng aumnum
meta. A sma quantty of t s exported to other countres.
produced n huge proporton n Inda. In fact, Inda s one of the eadng suppers
of mca to the word. Inda aone accounts for a ma|or porton of the word`s
export of bock mca and mca spttng.
Mca can wthstand hgh temperature as t s a bad conductor of eectrcty.
Moreover, t can aso be spt up nto thn ms. These unrvaed propertes of
mca have actuay made t ndspensabe for the producton of severa eectrca
Inda produces approxmate 90 % of the word`s mca. It s an ndspensabe
component of the eectrca ndustry. Inda accounts for 60 % of mca embarkng
n nternatona trade.
Types of 'ica
There are two types of Mca avaabe n the word, doctahedra and
troctahedra mca. In Troctahedra mca, the most common types found are
Muscovte, Znnwadte, Botte, Lepdote, and Phogopte. Where as Cntonte s
Brtte mca.
*vaila"ility of 'ica
Mca s wdey avaabe and dstrbuted n sedmentary, metamorphc and
gneous regmes.
Large szed mca crystas, utsed for varous purposes, are usuay mned from
grantc pegmattes. In Inda, Mca s wdey avaabe n Karnataka, Bhar,
Kokata, Ra|asthan, Gudur and Andhra Pradesh. Hazarbagh, Gaya and Munger
dstrcts of Bhar account for a huge proporton of the tota producton.
These dstrcts e on the northern frnge of Chota Nagpur Pateau. The remanng
haf s eveny dvded between Neore Dstrct n Andhra Pradesh and Bhwara
Dstrct n Ra|asthan.
Mca s aso mned n sma quanttes n Udapur, Skar, Tonk and A|mer dstrcts
of Ra|asthan.Moreover, a sma proporton s aso mned n sma quantty n
Ngr dstrct. Producton has been worsenng due to artca repacements.
In Inda, mca bet s ocated aong the northern frnge of the Bhar Pateau as
ncudes parts of Hazarbagh and Gaya dstrcts.
Mca bet generay occurs n the vens of the metamorphc rocks. The mca bet
n ths regon runs n the east-west drecton. Grdh, Domchanch and Kodarma
are the prncpa coectng centres where t s processed. Ths partcuar mca
bet produces more than haf of the tota mca producton of the country.
)ead and Vinc:
Generay these found together (assocate mneras). ore of ead s Gaena (ead
suphate). Ore of znc znc bend (znc suphte).
98% of znc and 97% of ead of Inda produced n Ra|asthan.
(1) Zawar and Darba-Man centres of ead and znc.
In Darba, there s znc smeter. Another znc smeter at Vzag caed Hndustan Znc
Precous stone because of sparkes due to tota nterna reecton.
Used for drng engneerng.

!o((ercial dia(ond (ining centre
In Inda, we do not have ppe ke structure of damond. Kmbery, South Afrca s
famous for ppe ke structures of damonds.
Namba, Zamba s famous for Auva damonds. Auva type of damonds at rver
basns found n Inda especay at Panna-Ken rver basn.
Its ore s caeed as wofarmte.
In Inda t s produced at Degna, Ra|asthan.
!oal :
Ores are
Anthracte - Superor quaty, more than 65% carbon content and hgh
caorc vaue.
Btumnous - Superor quaty, more than 65% carbon content and hgh
caorc vaue.
Lgnte - caed as brown coa-caorc vaue s ow and carbon content s
ow used for therma power generaton and steam generaton.
Peat - Immature coa .e Process of coa formaton not yet competed
from organc matter
In Inda, 250 bon tones of Btumnous coa reserves, 25 mon tones of gnte
Bitu(inous coal:
Coa s of two types :
Cockn coa.
Non-cockn coa - Inda has more, whch are not used bastng furnace.
Indas coa beongs to Gondwana coa.98% of Indas coa formed n Godwana
era.2% of coa of terrtory era many found n Northern Inda.
Coa s aways found n sedmentary rocks of rver basn.
In Inda, coa s found n
Dhamodar basn of |harkhand - |hara, Gnd, Bokaro, Karanpura coa eds.
Dhamodar basn of West Benga - Rangu| coa eds.
Mahanand Basn of Orssa - Tachar coa ed IB vaey coa ed.
Mahanand-sen Basn of Madhya Pradesh and Chattsgarh - Korba oca ed
Sngra, Pench Vaey coa eds.
Godavar-Wardha rver basns of Maharashtra and A.P.
Maharashtra - Kamptee coa ed
Andhra Pradesh - Sngaren coa ed
Terrtary coa found n north eastern Inda ke
Makun coa ed of Assam
Nazra vaey coa ed of Assam
Lgnte coa found many n Tamnadu, Paana of Ra|asthan, Dar|eeng and
|apabur of West Benga and Skkm.
Anthraste coa found n |ammu and Kashmr state.
Peat type of coa foundng Cochn and Aepy of Keraa.
Oil and -atural gas:
Formed n sedmentary rocks ether on the and and sea oor .e., contnenta shore
on and caed as Onshore reserves and n sea caed as Ohshore reserves.
Most reserves ocated at

Mumba ohshore (Snge argest productve of o eds).
Basn o ed
Guf of Cambay (Gu|arath)-Gandhara, Vasna, Luna| basn.
#as ?elds:
Important gas eds of nda are :
Ankaeshwar gas ed
Kao gas ed
Mazra gas ed
Mehsana gas ed
Brahmaputra basn (Assam) caed Tpan seres (o and natura gas).
Dgba (rst o reserve n Inda).
Rnery (rst o Commssoned)
Noharkutya o reserve
Rudhrasgar o ed
guek o ed
North East Inda (Arunacha Pradesh) - Karsang o ed
East coast Kaver basn (Tamnadu) - Narmannam o ed
Andhra Pradesh-K.G. Basn, Ravva O ed , Narsapur O ed, Pasarapud Gas ed,
Amban O and gas ed.
Western Ra|asthan - Thar desert regon
|asamer Basn-Mangaa, Ashwarya, Ragn, Saraswath
Bamer basn
-e0 oil E$plored and )icensing Policy (-E)P:%
Attractng and aowng FDI n o exporaton.
Increase domestc o exporaton.
Acqurng stakes n foregn o eds (ONGC-Vdesh).
-uclear ?elds:%
Ore found n utra basc gntous rocks.
Rch reserves n |harkhand-|aduguda.
Western Kas hs of Meghaaya-Domostat (but recenty stopped due to ess
Andhra Pradesh-Kada, Kurnoo, Nagonda.
It s a compound of uranum, thorum, curum, anthanum, partcuary rch n
Avaabe n coasta areas of Inda.
Inda has words argest monazte reserves, not exportng any amount due to ack
of technoogy.
Reserves found at Keraa, Tamnadu, Andhra Pradesh, Orssa.
VirconB ,l(eniteB Rutile:%
Found n coasta sands especay at Manavaa Kurch (Tamnadu), Ouon (Keraa),
Chotanagpur (Orssa), Ratnagr (Maharashtra).
For extractng and processng of these mneras IRE (Indan Rare Earth Lmted) was


'ineral production in ,ndia
'ineral .uantity Unit 'ineral type
Coa 403 Mon tonnes Fue
Lgnte 29 Mon tonnes Fue
Natura Gas 31,007 Mon cubc metres Fue
Crude Petroeum 32 Mon tonnes Fue
Bauxte 11,278 Thousand tonnes Metac Mnera
Copper 125 Thousand tonnes Metac Mnera
God 3,048 Thousand grammes Metac Mnera
Iron Ore 140,131 Thousand tonnes Metac Mnera
Lead 93 Thousand tonnes Metac Mnera
Manganese Ore 1,963 Thousand tonnes Metac Mnera
Znc 862 Thousand tonnes Metac Mnera
Damond 60,155 Carats Non Metac Mnera
Gypsum 3,651 Thousand tonnes Non Metac Mnera
Lmestone 170 Thousand tonnes Non Metac Mnera
Phosphorte 1,383 Thousand tonnes Non Metac Mnera
e$ported in
Aumna 896,518 tonnes
Bauxte 1,131,472 tonnes
Coa 1,374 tonnes
Copper 18,990 tonnes
Gypsum & paster 103,003 tonnes
Iron ore 83,165 tonnes
Lead 81,157 tonnes
Lmestone 343,814 tonnes
Manganese ore 317,787 tonnes
Marbe 234,455 tonnes
Mca 97,842 tonnes
Natura gas 29,523 tonnes

Suphur 2,465 tonnes
Znc 180,704 tonnes
-ational 'ineral Policy
A natona mnera pocy has evoved over the years n Inda. The pocy
emphaszes the need for conservaton and |udcous expotaton of nte mnera
resources through scentc methods of mnng, benecaton and economc
utsaton. Smutaneousy, t keeps n vew the present & future needs of defence
and deveopment of Inda and strves to ensure ndgenous avaabty of basc and
strategc mneras to avod dsrupton of core ndustra producton n tmes of
nternatona strfe.
The basc ob|ectves of the mnera pocy n respect of mneras are:
(a) to expore for dentcaton of mnera weath n the and and n oh-shore areas;
(b) to deveop mnera resources takng nto account the natona and strategc
consderatons and to ensure ther adequate suppy and best use keepng n
vew the present needs and future requrements;
(c) to promote necessary nkages for smooth and unnterrupted deveopment of
the mnera ndustry to meet the needs of Inda;
(d) to promote research and deveopment n mneras;
(e) to ensure estabshment of approprate educatona and tranng factes for
human resources deveopment to meet the manpower requrements of the
mnera ndustry;
(f) to mnmse adverse ehects of mnera deveopment on the forest, envronment
and ecoogy through approprate protectve measures; and
(g) to ensure conduct of mnng operatons wth due regard to safety and heath of
a concerned.

TR*-SPORT *-D !O''U-,!*T,O- ,- ,-D,*
Transport and Communcaton factes are necessary for the heathy growth of
country. Road and ra transport are we deveoped n Inda wth ampe scope for the
deveopment of water transport. Ocean waterways are aready we deveoped.
Inand waterways requre mprovement.
They account for neary three-fourth-of the passenger tramc and four-fth of the
freght tramc n Inda raways system s the argest n Asa and the fourth argest
n the word. It s the bggest departmenta pubc undertakng n the country.
It s aso the words second argest raway system under a snge management.
The rst tran n Inda steamed oh from Bombay to Thane, a stretch of 34 km. n
1853. The network of raway has ncreased upto 62,809 Km.
#*U#ES O3 ,-D,*- R*,)/*4
Length track
Route track
Runnng (km) Tota
Broad Guage 1.7m 44,216 62,184 85,429
Metre Guage 1m 15,178 15,875 19,158
0.7 & 0.6m 3,415 3,452 3,826
Tota 62,809 81,311 1,08,413
The Indan raways operate n three dherent gauges many-Broad Guage, Metre
Guage, Narrow Guage.
The broad guage accounts for neary 50% foowed by metre guage 43% of the
tota route ength.
Raways are dvded nto 16 zones headed by a Genera Manager who s
responsbe to the Raway Board for operaton, mantenance and nanca
Out of the 16 zones, Northern Raways havng ength 10,995 km s the ongest
!ontainer Service:
Indan Raway has ntroduced a new marketng strategy of contaner servces n
1980 wth 7 contaner depots whch n 1996 has expanded to 32 ocatons.
The contaner Corporaton of Inda (CONCOR), pubc sector undertakng, provde
door to door servces for domestc users, transportaton n buk for sma
customers and Internatona transport n Internatona Standards Organsaton
(ISO) contaners.
Konkan Raway pan: In March 1990, the Konkan Raway pan was started to
provde a nk by the shortest ra route between the states of Goa, Maharashtra,
Karnataka and Keraa.
Ths ncudes the 760 km dstance between Apta and Mangaore. The regstraton
of Konkan Ra Corporaton was made on 26 |uy, 1990 under the company aw.
51% share equty of the Corporaton beongs to Indan Raways.
The Konkan Raway Pro|ect has been competed on |anuary 26, 1998 wth the
tota nvestment of Rs.3,500 crore on |anuary 26, 1998.

The ra tramc has been started between Roha (Maharashtra) and Mangaore
(Keraa). Konkan Raways ensures maxmum speed of 160 km per hour.
The Konkan Raway has been connected wth 92 tunnes whch have the tota
ength of 6.5 km.
,ndian Raili0ay Vones
Vones 2ead5uarters
Centra : Mumba Vctora termnus
Eastern : Cacutta
Northern : New Deh
North Eastern : Gorakhpur
North-East Fronter : Magaon-Guwahat
Southern : Chenna
South Centra : Secunderabad
South-Eastern : Cacutta
Western : Mumba-Churchgate
East Coast : Bhubaneswar
East Centra : Ha|pur
North Centra : Aahabad
North Western : |apur
South Western : Bangaore
West Centra : |abapur
South East Centra : Baspur
Road Transport
Indas road network s one of the argest n the word; the tota ength of the
roads beng more than 33 akh km on March 1996. Karnataka, wth a tota road
ength of about 64,000 km., eads foowed by Madhya Pradesh and Uttar
Pradesh Roads are most sutabe for short and medum dstance.
For the purpose of mantenance and constructon, roads are cassed nto
Natona Hghways, State Hghways, Vage Roads, Border Roads, Internatona
There are about 30 Natona Hghways connectng state captas and have been
constructed by the Centra Government. The present Natona Hghway system
ncudes a tota ength of 38517 km.
It consttutes ony 2% of tota road ength and carres neary 40% of the road
tramc. Some of the most mportant Natona Hghways are sted beow. Some
mportant natona hghways are as foows:
-ational 2igh0ay Places !onnected
No.1 : New Deh-Ambaa-|aandhar-Amrtsar
No.2 : Deh-Mathura-Agra-Kanpur-Aahabad-Varanas-Cacutta
No.3 : Agra-Gwaor-Nask-Bombay
No.4 : Thana and Madras va Pune and Begaum
No.5 : Cacutta and Madras

No.6 : Cacutta-Dhue
No.7* : Varanas-Kanyakumar
No.8 : Deh-Bombay (Va |apur, Baroda & Ahmedabad)
No.9 : Bombay-V|ayawada
No.10 : Deh-Fazka
No.11 : |apur-Bkaner
No.22 : Ambaa-Kaka-Shma-Rampur-Chn (Indo-Tbet Border)
No.24 : Deh-Barey-Lucknow
* The Natona Hghway No. 7 s the ongest hghways of Inda.
At present Inda has 5 express hghways. They are Western, Eastern, between
Cacutta Dumdum (v) between Sukda mnes and Pradeep (v) between Durgapur
and Cacutta.
The Plan of Super -ational 2igh0ays:
After the Natona Hghways, there s a pan under the consderaton of Centra
Road Transport Mnstry to create Super Natona Hghways.
Through these Super Natona Hghways of about 14,000 km ength, there s a
pan to nk bg sea ports of the country wth mportant ctes. In the budng of
these Hghways, the roe of Prvate Sector w be mportant.
Ths w be done on the bass of BOT (Bud Operate Transfer) by Prvate Sector.
The Government of Inda has receved 22 Feasbty Reports for the budng of
Super Natona Hghways estmated to cost about Rs.1,50,000 crore.
Out of these, 10 proposas have come from mutnatona companes.
After the amendment n cause 9 of Natona Hghway Ordnance 1956, has gven
the rght to the Centra Government enactng aws regardng the and acquston
for the deveopment of Natona Hghways. By ths, the process of and
acquston has been smped.
The Natona Hghways Authorty of Inda (NHAI) was consttuted under the
Natona Hghways Authorty of Inda Act, 1988 and was made operatona n
February, 1995. Intay t was entrusted wth the task of mpementng ve
externay aded NH mprovement pro|ects.
Subsequenty t has been mandated to mpement the Natona Hghways
Deveopment Pro|ect (NHDP) comprsng 4/6 Lanng of 13252 km of natona
hghways havng two components: (a) The Goden Ouardratera and (b) North-
South and East-West corrdors (7300 km.), connectng Srnagar to Kanya Kumar
and Sture to Saurashtra respectvey and Saem to Cochn.
#olden .uadrilateral Pro@ect:
NHAI has been mandated to mpement Natona Hghways Deveopment Pro|ect
(NHDP) whch consttutes 4/6 anng of Goden Ouadratera connectng Deh-
Mumba-Chenna-Kokata-Deh and North0-South and East-West Corrdors
connectng Kashmr to Kanya Kumar and Schar to Saurashtra respectvey and
Saem to Cochn. A task force headed by Deputy Charman pannng commsson s
montorng ths programme. NDHP s estmated to cost Rs.54,000 crore (1999
prces). The Goden Ouadratera part s to be competed by 2003 and North-South
and East-West corrdor by 2007.
The NHAI has aready started upgradaton of Natona Hghways on the goden
Ouadratera and North-South and East-West corrdors.
On the Goden Ouadratera, 588 km. have aready been four aned, constructon s
n progress on 911 km. and pro|ect preparaton actvtes are n progress n the

=I -E/ -*T,O-*) 2,#2/*4S PROPOS*)
-ational 2igh0ay
)ength State
NH-81 100 Bhar, West Benga
NH-82 130 Bhar
NH-83 130 Bhar
NH-84 60 Bhar
NH-85 95 Bhar
NH-86 360 UP, MP
NH-87 83 UP
NH-88 115 Hmacha Pradesh
NH-89 300 Ra|astan
NH-152 40 Assam
NH-212 250 Keraa, Karnataka
NH-213 130 Keraa
NH-214 270 Andhra Pradesh
NH-215 348 Orssa
Total <I==
The rst 6 ane express way between Mumba-Pune s n progress 30 km route of
ths Express way between Kon to Adosh has become operatona.
There are 11 ma|or ports and 148 mnor workng ports n Inda. Ma|or ports are the
drect responsbty of the Centra Government whe mnor ports ncudng the
ntermedate ports fa n the concurrent st of the Inda Consttuton and are
managed and admnstered by the respectve martme state governments.
Ma|or Ports on the Western Coast: Kanda (Gu|arat); Mumba (Maharashtra);
Marmugao (Goa); New Mangaore (Karnataka); Cochn (Keraa); |awahara Nehru
Port (Nhava Sheva, Maharashtra)
Ma|or Ports on the Eastern Coast: Tutcoron (Tamnadu), Chenna (Tamnadu),
Vshakapatnam(Andhra Pradesh) , paradeep (Orssa) and Cacutta-Hada (West
Among ma|or ports Mumba s the bggest. Kanda s a tda port, Marmugoa
En|oys the second poston by vaue of the tonnage of tramc, buk of whch s export
of ron ore. Vshakapatnam s the deepest andocked and protected port.Chenna
has an artca harbour. Cacutta s rverne port. Hada has a fuy equpped
contanerzed berth. The 12
ma|or port s under constructon of Ennore near
Chenna wth the nanca ad of Asan Deveopment Bank.
-ational /ater0ays:
The Inand Waterways Authorty of Inda was setup on October 27, 1986. Ths
statutory body s entrusted wth the responsbty of deveopment, mantenance
and reguaton of natona waterways.
The Government has dented 10 mportant waterways for consderaton to decare
them as Natona Waterways. The foowng have so far been decared as Natona

Waterways and the same are beng deveoped for navgaton by Inand Waterways
Authorty of Inda. The Ganga between Aahabad and Hada (1620 km) on October
27, 1986, the Sada-Dhubr-stretch of rver Brahmaputra (891 km) on October 26,
1988 and the Koam-Kottapuram stretch of west coast cana (168 km) aong wth
Champakare cana (14 km) and Udyogmanda cana (22 km) n Keraa wth ehect
from February 1, 1993. It s aso proposed to consder the decaraton of some more
waterways ke the rver Godavar, Sunderbhans and waterways n Goa.
Overseas shppng has an extremey mportant roe to pay n Indas
nternatona trade. The country has the argest merchant shppng eet among
deveopng countres and ranks 17
n the word n shppng tonnage.
There were 102 shppng companes n the country operatng as on 31
2000, ncudng shppng Corporaton of Inda a pubc sector company.
*ir Transport
There are ve nternatona arports-Deh (Indra Gandh Internatona Arport-aem);
Cacutta (Dum Dum) Mumba (Santa Cruz) and Chenna (Meenambakkam) and
Keraa (Thruvananthapuram)
The Cv Avaton Centre n Fursatagan| near Aahabad provdes, among the other
thngs, ground tranng to the pots.
*ir ,ndia estabshed n 1953 s havng batera ar servces agreement wth 90
countres as on |anuary 1, 1998.
,ndian *irlines estabshed n 953, operates to 72 domestc (ncudng Aance Ar
operatons) and 16 Internatona statons n 14 countres. Indan Arnes, n 1999,
wth a eet of 52 arcraft handed 200 ghts a day.
Ar Inda and Indan arnes merged formng Ar Inda Authorty Of Inda n 2009
Pa0an 2ans )i(ited bascay provdes hecopter support servces to o sector,
h staton and remote areas. It aso provdes ar support servces to severa
customers whch ncudes ONGC, Pun|ab, M.P., Lakshdweep Admnstraton, GAIL,
BSF and aso caters to prvate sector.
Private *ir Ta$i:
The berazaton process n cv avaton took wng n Apr 1990 wth the cargo
open skes poces. The Ar Corporaton Act, 1953, repeaed on March 1, 1994,
ended the monopoy of IA, AI and Vayudoot over schedued ar transport servces.
Posts and Telegraphs
The rst Indan posta stamp was ssued n 1852 n Karach.
The Posta department was set up n 1854 when neary 700 post omces were
aready functonng.
Today, there are about 1,53,454 post omces. For the emcent and correct
handng of the voume of ma, a numerca posta address code, known as the
Posta Index Number (PIN), was ntroduced wth dgts whch hep to dentfy and
ocate every departmenta devery post omces excudng branch post omces.
The rst dgt ndcates the regon, the second the sub-regon and the thrd the
sortng dstrct whereas the ast three dgts ndcate a partcuar devery zone of
the post omce n the areas served by the sortng dstrct. The entre country has
been dvded nto the PIN code zones as gven beow.
a. Deh, Haryana, Pun|ab, Chandgarh, Hmacha Pradesh
b. Uttar Pradesh

c. Ra|asthan, Gu|arat, Daman and Du, Dadra and Nagar Have
d. Maharashtra, Goa, Madhya Pradesh
e. Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka
f. Tamnadu, Keraa, Pondcherry, Lakshadweep
g. West Benga, Assam, Arunacha Pradesh, Meghaaya, Mzoram, Nagaand,
Trpura, Skkm, Orssa, Andaman and Ncobar Isands
h. Bhar

De(ography of ,ndia
,-D,*- TR,BES
Abhors : North-eastern Inda (Mongood stock)
Advass : Bastar Dstrct
Angam : Manpur & Nagaand
Bhys : Madhya Pradesh and Ra|asthan (Dravdan)
Garos : H trbe of Assam and Meghaaya
Gonds : Forest Trbes of Madhya Pradesh
|antas : H trbe of Meghaaya
Lusa : Trbas of Trpura and Mzoram
Nagas : Trbas of Nagaand
Mopahs : Musms of the Maabar dstrct n Keraa
Santhas : Trbas vng n West Benga, Bhar and Orssa
Todas : Trbas of the Ngr Hs n Tamnadu
Chenchus : Andhra Pradesh and Orssa
Lepchas : Skkm
Ko : Madhya Pradesh
Khonds : Orssa
Apatams : Arunacha Pradesh
Bagas : Ngr Hs n Tamnadu
Baga : Madhya Pradesh
Bhotas : Garhwa and Kumaon regons of U.P.
Gadds : Hmacha Pradesh
Wars : Maharashtra
Uras : Keraa
Shompens : Andaman and Ncobar Isands
Sentneese : Sentne Isand, Andaman and Ncobar Isands
Kotras : Ngr Hs (Tamnadu)
Kuk: Maneur
Oraons : (aso caed Kurukh): Bhar and Orssa
|arawas : Ltte Andaman
Muras : Bastar regon n Madhya Pradesh
Mkrs : Assam
Mundas : |harkhand
Khas: |aunsar-Babar area n Uttarancha
The most remarkabe news about the 2001 census s that there s a sgncant
ncrease n both the teracy rates and number of terate persons. In Inda as a
whoe, the proporton of terate persons among the popuaton aged 7 years and
above s reported to be 65.38 percent whch represent a |ump of 13.17 percent
ponts over the actua of 1991. The femae teracy rate has ncreased even more
rapdy, by 14.87 percentage ponts to teach 54.16 per cent, whe mae teracy has
ncreased by 11.77 percentage ponts, to reach 75.85 percent. Accordngy the
mae-femae gape n the teracy rate has decned to 21.70 percent, the owest
snce 1951 census. Among the ma|or states, Keraa predctaby eads the pack wth
a teracy rate of 90.92 percent and fary sma mae-femae gap of 6.34 percent. A

remarkabe feature of the mprovement n teracy s the sharp ncrease n the
teracy rate Chatsgarh (22.27) , Ra|asthan (23.90) and Madyha Pradesh (20.73).
Numercay, Schedued Castes are argest n Uttar Pradesh foowed by West
Benga and Bhar. There are no schedued castes n Nagaand, Andaman and
Ncobar Isands and Lakshdweep. Largest popuaton of Schedued Castes of the
tota popuaton s n Pun|ab (26.87%).
Madhya Pradesh has the argest number of Schedued Trbes foowed by Bhar.
Bastar Dstrct of Madhya Pradesh conssts of argest number of Schedued Trbes.
Schedued Trbes form the argest proporton of the tota popuaton n Lakshadweep
(93.82%) and Mzoram (93.55%) foowed by Nagaand (83.99%) and Meghaaya
(80.58%). There are no Schedued Trbes n Pun|ab, Deh,Haryana, Chandgarh,
Pondchery and |ammu and Kashmr.
R*!,*) #ROUPS ,- ,-D,*
Anthropoogsts dvde Indans nto sx raca groups:
=& -egritos:
They are beeved to be the odest nhabtants but are now amost extnct, found
ony n sma numbers n Andaman and Ncobar Isands.
<& Proto%*ustraloids:
It ncudes the trba peope of Centra and Southern Inda.
9& 'ongoloids:
It ncudes the nhabtants of the mountanous zone n the North Eastern parts of
the country.
I& 'editerranean:
Ths group s dvded nto Paeo-Medterranean nhabtng the Southern parts
(Tamnadu, Keraa, Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka). Pae-Medterranean are aso
caed Dravdans. The other type of ths group known as True Medterranean or
European type are nhabtng the northern and western parts (Pun|ab, U.P. and
:& /estern Brachyeephals:
Incude the peope of West Benga, Orssa, Gu|arat and parts of Maharashtra,
Karnataka and Tamnadu.
J& -ordics or ,ndo%*ryan:
Inhabt parts of Northern Inda (|ammu and Kashmr, Western Ra|asthan and
Upper Gangetc vaey regon).
)*-#U*#ES ,- ,-D,*
The Indan anguages may be cassed nto four ma|or groups:
i& *ryan )anguage (,ndo%European:
Account for 73% of popuaton. Two man branches are Dradc and Indo-Aryan.
Dardc ncudes many Kashmr. Indo-Aryan group ncudes Sanskrt. Sndh,
Marath, Konkano. Benga, Assamese, Orya, Bho|pur, Hnd, Pun|ab, Ra|asthan,
Gu|arat, Pahar and Nepa.
ii& Dravidian )anguage:

Account for 20% of the popuaton. Man anguages-Tam, Maayaam, Kannada
and Teugu. The Dravdan group s the east dspersed among the four fames.
iii& Sino%T"ietan )anguages:
account for 0.85% of the popuaton. Spread throughout the Hmaayan ranges
and ncude Tbetan, Lepcha, Bhuta, Naga, Manpur etc.
iv& *ustro%*siatic )anguages:
Mnor anguage group n Inda represented by two branches Munda or Ko
anguage s spoken by the h trbes n Bhar, Orssa and Centra Inda and the other
branch Monkhmer anguage s spoken n North-eastern Inda and Andaman and
Ncobar Isands.
The Consttuton of Inda, however, recognzes ony 18 anguages.
RE),#,O-S ,- ,-D,*
The ma|or regous communtes of Inda are the Hndus, Musms, Chrstans,
Skhs, Buddhsts, |ans and Zorastrans. Hndus form the over-whemng ma|orty
(82.63%). Musms form the second bggest communty of Inda (11.36%), Chrstans
form the thrd bggest communty (2.43%), Skhs (1.96%) are concentrated argey
n the Pun|ab. Buddhst form ony 0.71% Maharashtra accounts for over 85% of the
Buddhsts. In Arunacha Pradesh 13% of the popuaton are Buddhsts. |ans form
(0.48%) of the tota popuaton and are spread argey n Maharsthra, Ra|asthan and
Gu|arat Zoroastrans are concentrated n Bombay.

Distri"ution of populationB se$ ratioB density and decadal gro0th rate of
population : <D==
te +
Union Territory
Total population Se$
h rate
Persons 'ales 3e(ale
= < 9 I : J K 6
,-D,* =B<=DB=;9B
;ID 96<
01 |ammu & Kashmr 12,548,926 6,665,561 5,883,365 883 124
02 Hmacha Pradesh 6,856,509 3,473,892 3,382,617 974 123
03 Pun|ab 27,704,236
893 550
04 Chandgarh 1,054,686 580,282 474,404 818 9,252
05 Uttarakhand 10,116,752 5,154,178 4,962,574 963 189
06 Haryana 25,353,081
877 573
07 NCT of Deh 16,753,235 8,976,410 7,776,825 866
08 Ra|asthan 68,621,012
926 201
09 Uttar Pradesh
908 828
10 Bhar
916 1,102
11 Skkm 607,688 321,661 286,027 889 86
12 Arunacha Pradesh 1,382,611 720,232 662,379 920 17
13 Nagaand 1,980,602 1,025,707 954,895 931 119 -0.47
14 Manpur 2,721,756 1,369,764 1,351,992 987 122
15 Mzoram 1,091,014 552,339 538,675 975 52
16 Trpura 3,671,032 1,871,867 1,799,165 961 350
17 Meghaaya 2,964,007 1,492,668 1,471,339 986 132
18 Assam 31,169,272
954 397
19 West Benga 91,347,736
947 1,029
20 |harkhand 32,966,238
947 414
21 Orssa 41,947,358
978 269
22 Chhattsgarh 25,540,196 12,827,91 12,712,28 991 189 22.5

5 1 9
23 Madhya Pradesh 72,597,565
930 236
24 Gu|arat 60,383,628
918 308
25 Daman & Du 242,911 150,100 92,811 618 2,169
Dadra & Nagar
342,853 193,178 149,675 775 698
27 Maharashtra
925 365
28 Andhra Pradesh 84,665,533
992 308
29 Karnataka 61,130,704
968 319
30 Goa 1,457,723 740,711 717,012 968 394 8.17
31 Lakshadweep 64,429 33,106 31,323 946 2,013 6.23
32 Keraa 33,387,677
1,084 859 4.86
33 Tam Nadu 72,138,958
995 555
34 Puducherry 1,244,464 610,485 633,979 1,038 2,598
Andaman &
379,944 202,330 177,614 878 46 6.68
Top Ten States of highest Population in ,ndia as per ,ndia
!encus <D==
State -a(e Population
Percent(N of
100 382
1 Uttar Pradesh 19,95,81,477 16.49 828
2 Maharashtra 11,23,72,972 9.29 365
3 Bhar 10,38,04,637 8.58 1,102
4 West Benga 9,13,47,736 7.55 1,029
8,46,65,533 7.00 308
7,25,97,565 6.00 236
7 Tam Nadu 7,21,38,958 5.96 555
8 Ra|asthan 6,86,21,012 5.67 201
9 Karnataka 6,11,30,704 5.05 319
10 Gu|arat 6,03,83,628 4.99 308
!ensus%<D==%Population (in crore:
<DD= <D== Diferenc
Inda 102.9 121.0 18.1
Rura 74.3 83.3 9.0

Urban 28.6 37.7 9.1
For the rst tme snce ndependence, the absoute ncrease n popuaton s more
than n urban areas that n rura areas.
Rura-Urban dstrbuton: 68.84% and 31.16%.
Leve of urbanzaton ncreased from 27.81% n 2001 census to 31.16% n 2011
The proporton of rura popuaton decned from 72.19% to 68.84%.
#ro0th rate of population (in N:
Inda 21.5 17.6 -3.9
Rura 18.1 12.2 -5.9
Urban 31.5 31.8 +0.3
The mprovement n teracy rate n rura area s two tmes that n urban areas.
The rura urban teracy gap whch was 21.2 percentage ponts n 2001, has come
down to 16.1 percentage ponts n 2011.
Child population in age group 6-7 3ears:
The tota number of chdren n the age-group 0-6 years, as per the provsona
popuaton totas of Census 2011, s 158.8 mon. It s sgncant that out of the
absoute ncrease of 181 mon n the countrys popuaton durng the decade
2001-2011, 88 percent has been contrbuted by the Chd Popuaton n the age
group of 0-6 years. In Census 2001, the tota number of chdren n the age-group 0-
6 years was about 163.8 mon, about 5 mon more than the number recorded n
2011. Ths reducton s ndcatve of a fa n fertty and s a postve sgn.
!hild population in the age group D%J yearsB ,ndia: <D==:

Uttar Pradesh, Bhar, Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh and Ra|asthan have the
argest number of chdren n the age group of 0-6 years. Lakshadweep, Daman &
Du, Andaman & Ncobar Isands, Dadra & Nagar Have and Skkm, on the other
hand have the east number of chdren n the age group 0-6 years.
A comparson wth the gures of Census 2001 reveas that the maxmum decne
n absoute numbers of chdren has been n the State of Uttar Pradesh. Ths s
foowed by Andhra Pradesh, West Benga, Maharashtra and Keraa. At the other end
of the spectrum are the States of Bhar, |ammu & Kashmr, |harkhand, Meghaaya
and Chhattsgarh, where there has been the maxmum ncrease n the chd
popuaton n the age group 0-6 years.
An anayss of the gender composton of the decne shows that the decne n
femaes s much more than that among maes. Whe there was a decne of
29,91,976 femaes, the decne among maes was ony 20,56,132. The rankng of
States and Unon Terrtores as far as the rst and ast ve ranks are concerned
remans the same for maes as we as femaes. The mpcatons of ths dherenta
on the sex rato w be anaysed ater on.
8tates and 9nion :erritories *3 ranges of se; ratio:
It s nterestng to note that athough the number of States and Unon Terrtores
wth sex rato ess than 916 decned from tweve to ten n 2011 but percentage
share of these States popuaton has remaned amost constant. In contrast, the
number of States and Unon Terrtores wth hgh sex rato of 986 and above rose
sharpy from four n 2001 to seven n 2011 wth correspondng ncreases n the
share of popuaton. Movement of arge States (Andhra Pradesh) n ths category
resuted n the ncrease n the popuaton share. However, overa ncreasng trend n
the sex rato at the Census 2011 has boosted the sex rato of Inda.

Any one above age 7 who can read and wrte n any anguage wth an abty to
understand was consdered a terate. In censuses before 1991, chdren beow the
age 5 were treated as terates. The teracy rate takng the entre popuaton nto
account s termed as "crude teracy rate", and takng the popuaton from age 7
and above nto account s termed as "ehectve teracy rate". Ehectve teracy rate
ncreased to a tota of 74.04% wth 82.14% of the maes and 65.46% of the femaes
beng terate.
!ensus year Total (N 'ale (N 3e(ale (N
1901 5.35 9.83 0.60
1911 5.92 10.56 1.05
1921 7.16 12.21 1.81
1931 9.5 15.59 2.93
1941 16.1 24.9 7.3
1951 16.67 24.95 9.45
1961 24.02 34.44 12.95
1971 29.45 39.45 18.69
1981 36.23 46.89 24.82
1991 42.84 52.74 32.17
2001 64.83 75.26 53.67
2011 74.04 82.14 65.46
)iteracy Rates (in N:
<DD= <D==
Inda 64.8 74.0 +9.2
Rura 58.7 68.9 +10.2
Urban 79.9 85.0 +5.1
The sowng down of the overa growth rate of popuaton s due to the sharp
decne n the growth rate n r ura areas, whe the growth rate n urban areas
remans amost the same.

)iteracy Rates in detail (in N:
<DD= <D==
Inda 75.3 82.1 +6.8
Rura 70.7 78.6 +7.9
Urban 86.3 89.7 +3.4
Inda 53.7 65.5 +11.8
Rura 46.1 58.8 +12.7
Urban 72.9 79.9 +7.0
Improvememnt n femae teracy s more than maes n b oth rura and urban areas.
The gender gap n teracy has come down from 24.6 n 2001 to 19.8 n 2011 n
areas and from 13.4 n 2001 to 9.8 n 2011 n urban areas.