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# PIPING CALCULATIONS

Name

Code

Sec

Calculations

## Min Thik Pipe

B31.3

304.1.2

O.D. tm =

Pressure of Pipe
(MAWP)

570

7.2

New P =

Pressure of Pipe
(MAWP)

570

7.2

Old P =

2SE[t-(2xCRxYRS)-c]
D

Blanks

B31.3

304.5.3

tm = dg

3P
16SE

B31.3

328.5.2
328.5.4

Fillet Welds

PD
(+C)
2(SE+Py)

I.D. tm

2SE(t-c)
D

P(d+2c)
(+C)
2[SE-P(1-y0]

## (This is "Design" Pressure per B31.3)

c=corrosion allowance

Flanges

(+C)

## Allowable Press - Table 1A and Table 2

Min Thick - Table 1A and Tables 7-27

B16.5

Max Hydro Press - Par 2.5 - 1.5 x system design press rounded to 25psi
Flanged Fittings

B16.5

Annex D

Flanged Fittings

B31.3
574

304.1.2
11.2

Flanged Fittings

B16.5

Annex D

Valves
Min Thk

B31.3
574

304.1.2
11.2

Hydro
Press Pipe

B31.3

345.4.2

Hydro Press
Fittings

B16.5

B31.3

Factor

B31.3

Old/Corroded:
tm =

1.5 PD
2 SE

t=

1.5 Pcd
(2S-1.2Pc)

t m=

1.5 PD
2SE

Min press P T =

1.5 PST
S

## Use 7000 for S

if unknown (Calculated)

New/Cold:
Use 7000 for S
if unknown (Calculated)

## Use 7000 for S

if unknown (Calculated)

(+C)

## ST = Stress Value/test Temp

S = StressValue/Designe Temp

Min Press =1.5 x 100% Flange Rating (Round to the next 25PSI)
1 Min for NPS 2 and under and 2 min for NPS 2.5 - 8
345

B16.5

Corrosion Rates

570

Castings: Table 302.3.3C / Piping: Table A-1A / A-1B (Add NDE See table 302.3.4)

## Meas Thk = .75tm

A=R2
tm =Min wall from charts

6.1.1

## Dist Appart = 1.75 dtm

Tables 13-28

7.1.1

RL =

tactual - trequired
CR

d=ID

(LT)CR=

## Turn Spec. Area = A=R2

SEC. IX

3 min 10 and up

Pnuematic 1.1 x P

## Diameter = .35 dtm

Flanged Fittings
Areas Below
Min t

Tension Tests

(+C)

QW.152

tinitial - tactual
Years

(ST)CR=

or .7854 D
Reduce Spec. Area = Width x Thickness

## Load = Area x Tensile Strength

Must be 2X thickness for given material in Table 331.1.1
PWHT
(Branch
Connections)

## Sketch 1 - Branch thickness + fillet throat

B31.3

331.1.3

tprevious - tactual
Years

## Sketch 2 - header thickness + fillet throat

Sketch 3 - greater or branch + fillet throat or repad + fillet throat

PWHT
(Branch
Connections)

B31.3

331.1.3
Sketch 5 - same as sketch 1

Nominal
Composition

TYPE/

SPEC NO.

PRODUCT
FORM

MINIMUM
TENSILE,
psi

MINUMUM
YIELD, psi

-20 to 100

150

200

SA36
SA53

58,000
60,000

36,000
35,000

14.5

14.5

S/B

plate, sheet
smls. pipe

14.5

C-Mn

15.0

15.0

15.0

C-Si

SA106

smls. pipe

60,000

35,000

15.0

15.0

15.0

SA179

26,000

11.8

11.8

11.8

C-Mn-Si

smls. tube

47,000

1Cr- /5 Mo

SA193

B7

bolting (<2.5")

125,000

105,000

25.0

25.0

25.0

16Cr-12Ni-2Mo

SA193

B8M2

bolting (<2")

95,000

75,000

18.8

18.8

18.8

SA214

wld. tube

47,000

26,000

10.0

10.0

10.0

C-Si

SA234

WPB

fittings

60,000

35,000

15.0

15.0

15.0

18Cr-8Ni

SA240

304

plate

75,000

30,000

18.8

18.8

15.7

18Cr-8Ni

SA240

304H

plate

75,000

30,000

18.8

18.8

15.7

18Cr-8Ni

SA240

304L

plate

70,000

25,000

16.7

16.7

14.3

16Cr-12Ni-2Mo

SA240

316

plate

75,000

30,000

18.8

18.8

17.7

16Cr-12Ni-2Mo

SA240

316L

plate

70,000

25,000

16.7

16.7

14.1

SA283

plate

55,000

30,000

13.8

13.8

13.8

30,000

13.8

13.8

13.8

25,000

16.3

16.3

14.3

SA285

plate

55,000

18Cr-8Ni

SA312

TP304L

smls. pipe

16Cr-12Ni-2Mo

SA312

TP316L

smls. pipe

70,000

25,000

16.7

16.7

14.1

1Cr-1/5 Mo

SA320

L7

bolting

25.0

25.0

SA333

smls. pipe

105,000
35,000

25.0

C-Mn-Si

125,000
60,000

15.0

15.0

15.0

## 11/4 Cr-1/2 Mo-Si

SA335

P11

smls. pipe

60,000

30,000

15.0

15.0

15.0

1Cr-1/2 Mo

SA387

Gr12 Cl2

plate

65,000

40,000

16.3

16.3

16.3

C-Si

SA515

70

plate

70,000

38,000

17.5

17.5

17.5

C-Si

SA516

55

plate

55,000

30,000

13.8

13.8

13.8

C-Mn-Si

SA516

60

plate

60,000

32,000

15.0

15.0

15.0

C-Mn-Si

SA516

65

plate

65,000

35,000

16.3

16.3

16.3

17.5

17.5

C-Mn-Si

SA516

70,000

70

plate

70,000

38,000

17.5

5083

plate

40,000

18,000

10.0

10.0

Aluminum
Al

SB309

Hastelloy G30
40Ni-29Cr-15Fe-5Mo

SB582

N06030

plate,sheet,strip 85,000

35,000

21.3

21.3

20.0

40Ni-29Cr-15Fe-5Mo

SB626

N06030

wld. tube

85,000

35,000

18.1

18.1

17.0

Hastelloy B2
65Ni-28Mo-2Fe

SB333

N10665

plate

110,000

51,000

27.5

27.5

27.5

65Ni-28Mo-2Fe

SB619

N10665

wld. pipe

110,000

51,000

23.4

23.4

23.4

65Ni-28Mo-2Fe

SB622

N10665

smls pipe

110,000

51,000

27.5

27.5

27.5

R60705

bar

80,000

55,000

20.0

20.0

16.6

13.0

11.0

Zirconium
95.2Zr+Cb

SB550

95.2Zr+Cb

SB551

R60702

plate

55,000

30,000

13.0

95.2Zr+Cb

SB551

R60705

plate

80,000

55,000

20.0

20.0

16.6

95.2Zr+Cb

SB658

R60702

30,000

13.0

13.0

11.0

95.2Zr+Cb

SB658

R60705

55,000

20.0

20.0

16.6

250

300

400

500

600

650

700

750

800

14.5

14.5

14.5

14.5

14.5

14.5

15.0

15.0

15.0

15.0

15.0

15.0

15.0

15.0

15.0

15.0

15.0

14.4

13.0

10.8

15.0

14.4

13.0

11.8

11.8

11.8

11.8

10.8

11.8

11.8

11.5

10.6

25.0

25.0

25.0

9.2

25.0

25.0

25.0

25.0

23.6

21.0

18.8

18.8

10.0

10.0

18.8

18.8

18.8

18.8

18.8

18.8

18.8

10.0

10.0

10.0

10.0

9.8

9.1

15.0

7.8

15.0

15.0

15.0

15.0

15.0

14.4

13.0

10.8

15.7

14.1

12.9

12.1

11.4

11.2

11.1

10.8

10.6

15.7

14.1

12.9

12.1

11.4

11.2

11.1

10.8

10.6

14.3

12.8

11.7

10.9

10.3

10.1

10.0

9.8

9.7

17.7

15.6

14.3

13.3

12.6

12.3

12.1

11.9

11.7

14.1

12.7

11.7

10.9

10.4

10.2

10.0

9.8

9.6

13.8

13.8

13.8

13.8

13.8

13.8

13.8

13.8

13.8

13.8

13.8

13.8

13.3

12.1

10.0

14.3

12.8

11.7

10.9

10.3

10.1

10.0

9.8

9.7

14.1

12.7

11.7

10.9

10.4

10.2

10.0

9.8

9.6

25.0

25.0

25.0

25.0

25.0

25.0

25.0

15.0

15.0

15.0

15.0

15.0

15.0

14.4

13.0

10.8

15.0

15.0

15.0

15.0

15.0

15.0

15.0

14.8

14.4

16.3

16.3

16.3

16.3

16.3

16.3

16.3

16.3

16.3

17.5

17.5

17.5

17.5

17.5

17.5

16.6

14.8

12.0

13.8

13.8

13.8

13.8

13.8

13.8

13.3

12.1

10.0

15.0

15.0

15.0

15.0

15.0

15.0

14.4

13.0

10.8

16.3

16.3

16.3

16.3

16.3

16.3

15.5

13.9

11.4

17.5

17.5

17.5

17.5

17.5

17.5

16.6

14.8

12.0

20.0

18.3

17.2

16.4

15.8

15.5

15.2

14.9

14.6

17.0

15.6

14.6

13.9

13.4

13.2

12.9

12.7

12.4

27.5

27.5

27.5

27.5

27.2

26.8

26.6

26.1

25.6

23.4

23.4

23.4

23.4

23.1

22.8

22.6

22.2

21.8

27.5

27.5

27.5

27.5

27.2

26.8

26.6

26.1

25.6

16.6

14.2

12.5

11.3

10.4

10.4

9.9

11.0

9.3

7.0

6.1

6.0

6.0

4.8

16.6

14.2

12.5

11.3

10.4

10.4

9.9

11.0

9.3

7.0

6.1

6.0

6.0

4.8

16.6

14.2

12.5

11.3

10.4

10.4

9.9

cont'd ==>
850

900

950

1000

4.5

2.5

1050

1100

1150

1200

1250

7.8

8.7

6.5

7.9

6.5

17.0

12.5

8.5

4.5

18.8

18.8

18.8

18.8

6.7

5.5

3.8

2.1

8.7

6.6

4.6

2.5

10.4

10.2

10.0

9.8

9.5

8.9

7.7

6.1

4.7

10.4

10.2

10.0

9.8

9.5

8.9

7.7

6.1

4.7

11.6

11.5

11.4

11.3

11.2

11.0

9.8

7.4

5.5

9.4
8.4

6.5

9.4
7.8

3.0

1.5

14

13.6

9.3

6.3

4.2

2.8

1.9

1.2

15.8

15.2

11.3

7.2

4.5

2.8

1.8

1.1

9.3

6.5

4.5

2.5

8.4

6.5

4.5

2.5

8.7

6.5

4.5

2.5

9.0

6.5

4.5

2.5

9.3

6.5

4.5

2.5

1300

1350

1400

1450

1500

3.7

2.9.

2.3

1.8

1.4

3.7

2.9.

2.3

1.8

1.4

4.1

3.1

2.3

1.7

1.3

Nominal

Pipe

Size

Diameter

5S

10S

10

20

30

STD

1/8

0.405

0.049

0.068

1/4

0.540

0.065

0.088

3/8

0.675

0.065

0.091

1/2

0.840

0.065

0.083

0.109

3/4

1.050

0.065

0.083

0.113

1.315

0.065

0.109

0.133

1 1/4

1.660

0.065

0.109

0.140

1 1/2

1.900

0.065

0.109

0.145

2.375

0.065

0.109

0.154

2 1/2

2.875

0.083

0.120

0.203

3.50

0.083

0.120

0.216

3 1/2

4.00

0.083

0.120

0.226

4.50

0.083

0.120

0.237

5.563

0.109

0.134

0.258

6.625

0.109

0.134

0.280

8.625

0.109

0.148

0.250

0.277

0.322

10

10.75

0.134

0.165

0.250

0.307

0.365

12

12.75

0.156

0.180

0.250

0.330

0.375

14 O.D.

14.00

0.156

0.188

0.250

0.312

0.375

0.375

16 O.D.

16.00

0.165

0.188

0.250

0.312

0.375

0.375

18 O.D.

18.00

0.165

0.188

0.250

0.312

0.438

0.375

20 O.D.

20.00

0.188

0.218

0.250

0.375

0.500

0.375

22 O.D.

22.00

0.188

0.218

0.250

0.375

0.500

0.375

24 O.D.

24.00

0.218

0.250

0.250

0.375

0.562

0.375

26 O.D.

26.00

0.312

0.500

0.375

28 O.D.

28.00

0.312

0.500

0.625

0.375

30 O.D.

30.00

0.250

0.312

0.312

0.500

0.625

0.375

32 O.D.

32.00

0.312

0.500

0.625

0.375

34 O.D.

34.00

0.312

0.500

0.625

0.375

36 O.D.

36.00

0.312

0.500

0.375

42 O.D.

42.00

Nominal
SCHED.

40

Size

60

STRONG

80

100

120

140

0.068

1/8

0.095

0.095

0.088

1/4

0.119

0.119

0.091

3/8

0.126

0.126

0.109

1/2

0.147

0.147

0.113

3/4

0.154

0.154

0.133

0.179

0.179

0.140

1 1/4

0.191

0.191

0.145

1 1/2

0.200

0.200

0.154

0.218

0.218

0.203

2 1/2

0.276

0.276

0.216

0.300

0.300

0.226

3 1/2

0.318

0.318

0.237

0.337

0.337

0.438

0.258

0.375

0.375

0.500

0.280

0.432

0.432

0.562

0.322

0.406

0.500

0.500

0.594

0.719

0.812

0.365

10

0.500

0.500

0.594

0.719

0.844

1.000

0.406

12

0.562

0.500

0.688

0.844

1.000

1.125

0.438

14 O.D.

0.594

0.500

0.750

0.938

1.094

1.250

0.500

16 O.D.

0.656

0.500

0.844

1.031

1.219

1.438

0.562

18 O.D.

0.750

0.500

0.938

1.156

1.375

1.562

0.594

20 O.D.

0.812

0.500

1.031

1.281

1.500

1.750

22 O.D.

0.875

0.500

1.125

1.375

1.625

1.875

0.688

24 O.D.

0.969

0.500

1.218

1.531

1.812

2.062

26 O.D.

0.500

28 O.D.

0.500

30 O.D.

0.500

0.688

32 O.D.

0.500

0.688

34 O.D.

0.500

0.750

36 O.D.

0.500

42 O.D.

NESS FOR:
SCHED.

XX

160

STRONG

0.188

0.294

0.219

0.308

0.250

0.358

0.250

0.382

0.281

0.400

0.344

0.436

0.375

0.552

0.438

0.600

0.531

0.674

0.625

0.750

0.719

0.864

0.906

0.875

1.125

1.000

1.312

1.000

1.406

1.594

1.781

1.969

2.125

2.344

Length (ft)

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

Size (in)

Area (in2)

0.864

## Volume (in3) Gallons

0

3.356

10.79

28.9

50

10

78.9

12

113.1

14

137.9

16

182.7

18

233.7

20

291

22

355

24

425

26

501

TOTAL

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0

gallons
barrels

API
Remaining Life Formula
SHELL:
T-Nom.
T-Last.
Age.
Thk. Loss.
Rem. CA
T-Min.

0.75
0.65
29
0.1
0.11
0.542

in.
in.
yrs.
in.
in.
in.

T-Nom.
T-Last.
Thk. Loss.
Rem. CA.
T-Min.

Shell(ipy)

0.5
0.25
0.25
0.15
0.1

in.

Corrosion Rate =

in.

Remaining Life =

in.
in.
in.

0.003
36.00

0.008
18.75

ins.
yrs.

## CALCULATE CORR RATE & TMIN DATE

Calculated by:
2 Thickness Meas's when Corr Rate is Unknown
ENTERED DATA

Earliest

Latest

DATE

04/01/97

04/01/01

Meas

0.750

0.721

CALCULATED DATA

Date

Diff

Corr

Last UT

Tmin

Diff, yrs

mils

Rate

- tmin

0.670

4.0

29

7.2

51

ENTERED DATA

Earliest

Latest

DATE

01/31/83

02/28/90

Meas

0.460

0.460

CALCULATED DATA

Date

Diff

Corr

Last UT

Tmin

Diff, yrs

mils

Rate

- tmin

0.240

0.100

7.1

220

31.1

140

0.240

0.100

7.1

220

31.1

140

Meas
Meas
Meas
Meas
Meas
Meas
Meas

## CALCULATE TMIN DATE

(or THICKNESS at a TMIN DATE)
Calculated by:
One Thickness Meas. & a Known Corr Rate
ENTERED DATA
Date of
Last
Corr. Rate diff last
Meas
ut & tm
Meas
Tmin
(mils)
50.0
235
09/18/96
0.360
0.125

CALC'D DATA
Yrs to
days to
Tmin
tmin
4.7
1716

TMIN
DATE
05/30/01

CALCULATED DATA

Yrs to

Days to

TMIN

Tmin

Tmin

DATE

7.0

2559

01/02/07

CALCULATED DATA

Yrs to

Days to

TMIN

Tmin

Tmin

DATE

4.5

1645

07/02/04

4.5

1645

07/02/04

Pt =

1 .5 P S t
S

where
Pt =
P=
St =
S=

## minimum test gage pressure

design gage pressure
stress value at test temperature
stress value at design temperature
see table A-1 for allowable stress values
P=
St =
S=

Ptmin =
Pt =

250
23300
17800

1.31

= St/S

NOTE!!!!!!
Shall NOT exceed 6.5

375 is (1.5 x P)
491 is corrected for temperature

Pt MUST be greater than Ptmin, unless this would cause an overstress condition at test temp
verify with B16.5 for flanges, and B31.3 for pipe

on at test temp

## Maximum Allowable internal pressure calcs according to B31.3

Material Information
Pipe OD
Wall Thickness

8.63
0.409

inches
inches

Corrosion Allowance

0.000

inches

t =

where:

t=
P=
D=
S=
E=
Y=
Di=

minimum

Process Information
Operating Pressure
1480
Relief Pressure
105
Operating Temp.
160

PD
2( S E + P Y )

thickness
internal gauge pressure
outside diameter of pipe
stress value for material (table A-1)
quality factor (table 302.3.4)
coefficient (table 304.1.1)
inside diameter of pipe

t=

psig
psig
F

0.409 inches

tmin=
0.409 inches
including corrosion allowance

## max allowable WORKING pressure

for thickness specified w/out corr allowance
Thickness
0.409
P=
1572 psig
MAX allowable pressure
relief case: as per para 302.2.4
for current thickness
0.409
P=
2090 psig

1
0.4
7.807

## minimum thickness for pressure specified

or pressure specified

S allowable stress in ksi according to B31.3 tables
Temp F
carbon grB
1 1/4Cr 1/2mo

## single butt weld

as 341.5.1
100% x-ray
double butt
as 341.5.1
100% x-ray
Y Coefficient from sec 304.1.1
D/6
t
if t<D/6 use table
otherwise use value from
formula
Material
Ferritic
Austenitic

100
20
20

200
20
18.7

E
0.8
0.9
1
0.85
0.9
1

1.438
0.409

0.48
900F
or lower
0.4
0.4

Y calculated
950
0.5
0.4

300
20
18

400
20
17.5

500
18.9
17.2

600
17.3
16.7

Y calculated
1000

1050

1100

1150

0.7
0.4

0.7
0.4

0.7
0.5

0.7
0.7

700
16.5
15.6

800
10.8
15

900

1000

1100

12.8

6.3

2.8

## CALCULATE PIPING MAXIMUM PRESSURE

Chemical Plant & Petroleum Refinery Piping, ASME B31.3
Straight Pipe Under Internal Pressure, 304.1.2 - enter DATA IN BOXES FOR CALC'N
P= 2SEt/(D-2tY) Internal Design Pressure, psig
t=
0.067 Pressure Design Thickness, inches
D=
20.00 Outside Diameter of Pipe, inches
SE=
15000 Allowable Stress, excluding quality or joint factors (E=1 if seamless pipe)
Y=
0.40 Coefficient from Table 304.1.1, Y=0.4 for all Ferritic Steels up to 900 F

P=

101

psig,

## CALCULATE PIPING MAXIMUM PRESSURE

Gas Transmission and Distribution Piping Systems, ANSI B31.8
P= (2St/D)xFxExT
Internal Design Pressure, psig
S=
35000 Specified minimum yield strength
D=
16.00 Nominal outside diameter, inches
t=
0.18 Nominal wall thickness, inches
F=
0.60 Construction type design factor from Table 841.111, Construction Type B factor = 0.60, TYPE C = 0.50
E=
1.00 Lonlgitudinal joint factor from Table 841.112, 1.00 for seamless pipe
T=
1.00 Temperature derating factor from Table 841.113, for 250F or less T=1.00
P=

473

psig

## 49 CFR, Part 195, para 195.106

Straight Pipe Under Internal Pressure, 304.1.2 - enter DATA IN BOXES FOR CALC'N
P= (2St/D)xExF
Internal design pressure in psig
S=
YIELD strength in psi
t=
Nominal wall thickness of the pipe in inches
D=
Nominal outside diameter of the pipe in inches
E=
Seam joint factor, E=1 for all seamless pipe
F=
Design factor, F= 0.72, except for off-shore platforms

P=

psig

P = 1900
Do = 10.75
S = 20000
E = 0.6
CA = 0
0.594
ts = 1.000
e = 0.797

s = 29,524
1.5S = 30,000

## Pipe design pressure, psig

Outside diameter of pipe being sleeved + 1 (assume that sleeve thickness is 1/2" as initial guess and
iterate as required), in
basic allowable stress for sleeve material at pipe design temperature from ASME B31.3 Table A-1, psi
Joint Efficiency of the longitudinal welds (0.6 if no backing strip is used, 0.65 if a backing strip is used
corrosion allowance, inch
run pipe thickness, in
sleeve thickness, in
distance from the centerline of the sleeve to the centerline of the pipe (run pipe thickness + sleeve
thickness)/2

< 1.5 S

## Blind Thickness Calcuations

From ASME B31.3 Section 304.5.2

P=
S=
E=
c=
dg =

## 500 Design Pressure or Hydrostatic test pressure (psi)

23670 Allowable strss (psi) per ASME. ASME B31.3 allows 1/3 higher allowable
1 Quality factor
0 Corrosion allowance

Tm = d g

tm=

3 P
+c
16 S E

## 0.503 Minimum thickness allowed for the blind.

Note: For A36 Plate (most commonly used blind material), the allowable stress from B31.3
is 17.8 ksi. Can increase by 1/3 if they are used for short duration loads (hydrotests) to
23.67 ksi.

tm

1/8
1/4
3/8
1/2
5/8
3/4
7/8

0.125
0.25
0.375
0.5
0.625
0.75
0.875

3-00
3-00
3-00
3-00
3-00
3-00
3-00
3-00
3-00
3-00
3-00
3-00
3-00
3-00
3-00
3-00
3-00
3-00
3-00
3-00
3-00
3-00
3-00
3-00
3-00
3-00
3-00
3-00
3-00
3-00
3-00
3-00
3-00
3-00
3-00
3-00
3-00
3-00
3-00
3-00
3-00
3-00
3-00

PJP
1
2
3
3
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
10
11
12
13
14
14
15
15
15
16
16
16
18
18
19
20
20
21
21
22
23
23
23
23
25
25
26
27
27
27
30

Pressure
5246
600
3179
3179
3179
3210
4725
600
600
600
600
4598
4598
4598
3837
425
1100
1100
5400
5400
5400
1100
1100
1100
2258
2258

dia
6
2
10
8
6
12
2
2
2
2
2
10
6
10
10
6
12
6
8
4
4
12
8
6
6
4

ID
4.897
1.939
8.5
6.813
5.187
10.75
1.503
1.939
1.939
1.939
1.939
9.062
4.897
9.062
9.062
6.065
12
6.065
8.625
4.5
4.5
11.938
7.981
6.065
6.625
4.5

3390
3390
104
104
4638
3411
3411
3411
3411
6240
6240
3179
90
90
90
400

14
10
4
2.5
3
10
3
3
2
6
3
6
36
16
3
3

14
10.75
4.5
2.875
3.5
10.75
3.5
3.5
2.375
6.625
3.5
6.625
36
16
3.5
3.5

3-00 30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47

1000

18

18

class
2500
150
1500
1500
1500
900
2500
150
150
150
150
1500
1500
1500
1500
300
300
300
1500
300
1500
300
300
300
1500
1500
1500
1500
150
150
1500
1500
1500
900
300
2500
2500
2500
150
150
150
300

Min Thick
0.998
0.134
1.349
1.081
0.823
1.714
0.291
0.134
0.134
0.134
0.134
1.729
0.935
1.729
1.580
0.352
1.120
0.566
1.784
0.931
0.931
1.114
0.745
0.566
0.886
0.602
0.000
2.294
1.762
0.129
0.083
0.671
1.767
0.575
0.575
0.390
1.473
0.778
1.051
0.961
0.427
0.093
0.197

300

1.602
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000

P = 260
Do = 9.125
S = 20000
E = 0.45
CA = 0.1
0.322
ts = 0.500
e = 0.411

s = 21,249
1.5S = 30,000

s =

P Do
2 t s - CA

E
0 . 707

CA

3 P D

(t

- CA

## p 8.5 XOM Lap Patch

Fill in yellow portion

## Pipe design pressure, psig

Outside diameter of pipe being sleeved + 1 (assume that sleeve thickness is 1/2" as initial guess and
iterate as required), in
basic allowable stress for sleeve material at pipe design temperature from ASME B31.3 Table A-1, psi
Joint Efficiency of the longitudinal welds (fillet-weld joint efficiency is 0.45)
corrosion allowance, inch
run pipe thickness, in
sleeve thickness, in
distance from the centerline of the sleeve to the centerline of the pipe (run pipe thickness + sleeve
thickness)/2

## minimum thickness of the sleeve, inch

< 1.5 S

s
=

P Do
2 t s - CA

E
0 . 707

CA

3 P D

(t

- CA

Annular Space
1/8" (0.125") maximum gap

8.625 pipe OD
10.75 shroud OD
0.594 shroud thickness
0.4685 actual gap < 0.125" ?

## OD of Pipe being shrouded

Design Pressure
Design Temperature
Allowable Stress, Shroud
Allowable Stress, End Plate
Weld Efficiency
Outside diameter
Corrosion Allowance

14
675
150
20,000
20,000
0.45
14
0.1

in
psig
F
psi
A106 Gr. C
psi
A36
Fillet welds
in
in

Section 1

Tmin =

PR
+ Ca
S E + 0.4 P
tmin=

tmin

0.610

0.280

d/2
inches, t actual

c =

0.33t r

tr =
ts=

ts

## min req. thickness of shell =

Actual thickness =

0.610 in
0.280 in

c min = 0 .20
C=
C=

0.718585 calculated
0.718585 used

t =d

CP
+ Ca
SE

d=

t=

-0.030

Inches

## Use Min. Thickness, t =

Actual Corr. Allow. Shell =
Actual Corr. Allow. Ends =

0.1875
-0.230
0.318

Inches
Inches
Inches

effected distance=

-0.56 in

Rectangular Shroud
Design Pressure
Design Temperature
Allowable Stress
Weld Efficiency

100
400
20000
0.55

Corrosion Allowance

0.1

psig
F
psi
Fillet welds
in
in

d
D

10
12

in
in

Zcalculated
Zused
Tmin

1.4
1.4
0.748074
0.875

## Patch on Pipe: Weld stress

Pressure inside Pipe
Pipe diameter (OD)
% of diam. for patch
Length of patch
Weld efficiencieny
Mat. Allowable Stress
Size fillet weld
Linear weld length
Area Patch
Force on patch
Allowable Stress
Weld area
Weld stress

## Is stress Less than

Allowable?
Stress / Allowable

675
14
50
12
0.45
17500
0.375

psig
in
%
in

67.9823
263.8938
178128.3
7875
25.49336
6987.243

in
in^2
lbs
psi
in^2
psi

psi
in

Yes, area
is
sufficient.
88.72689 %

NOTE: This calculation method is based upon the use of a two-piece clamp with two sets of ears 180 degrees apart.

tc

Variables
Des_P
ID
tc
te
We
Length

480
11.626
1.125
1
2.562
12.74

Fp
Fe
Arm1
Arm2

35547.66
15667.14
1.531
0

M
I

54423.46
1.511631

sigma

20251.77

## Allowable Stress in Tension of the Cover (psi):

Allowable Bending Stress of the Cover (psi):

Sall
Sbend

16350
24525

---

Yes

## Design Pressure (psig):

Inside Diameter of Clamp (in):
Cover Thickness (in):
Ear Thickness (in):
Ear Width (in):
Clamp Length (in):

## Pressure Force Acting Inside Bore (lb):

Pressure Force Acting Between Ear Faces (lb):
Distance from Bolt Centerline to Line of Action of Fp (in):
Distance from Bolt Centerline to Line of Action of Fe (in):
Note Regarding Bolt Load (See Comment)
Bending Moment (in-lbs):
Moment of Inertia of Cover (in^4):

tc =
te =
Length =
We =
Fb =
Fp =
Arm 1=
Arm 2=

Cover Thickness
Ear Thickness
Clamp Length
Ear Width
Bolt Force
Pressure Force
Moment Arm Distance for F p
Moment Arm Distance for F e

## sets of ears 180 degrees apart.

Fb

tc

Cover Thickness
Ear Thickness
Clamp Length
Ear Width
Bolt Force
Pressure Force
Moment Arm Distance for F p
Moment Arm Distance for F e

te

Arm 1
Fp

Fe

Arm 2

Length

We

weight

oz
0.03125 pounds
0.5

diamter
area

1.130973

pressure

0.02763107 psi

1.2

inches

0.764911 in WC

Input

Input

Output
Output

## Bolt Dia Bolt Pitch Bolt Area

0.75
10
0.334
0.75
16
0.373
0.875
9
0.462
0.875
14
0.509
1
8
0.606
1
12
0.663
1.125
8
0.79
1.125
12
0.856
1.125
7
0.763
1.25
8
1
1.25
12
1.073
1.25
7
0.969
1.375
8
1.233
1.375
12
1.315
1.375
6
1.155
1.5
8
1.492
1.5
12
1.581
1.5
7
1.405
1.625
8
1.78
1.75
8
2.08
1.75
5
1.9
1.875
8
2.41
2
8
2.77
2
4
2.5
2.25
8
3.56
2.25
2.5
8
4.44
2.5
4
4
2.75
8
5.43
2.75
4
4.93
3
8
6.51
3
4
5.97
3.25
8
7.69
3.25
4
7.1
3.5
8
8.96
3.5
4
8.33
3.75
8
10.34
3.75
4
9.66
4
8
11.81
4
4
11.08

% Yield
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
50
50
50
40
40
40
40
40
40
40

Elongation (inch/inch)
1st pass 2nd pass
0.0014
0.0014
0.0014
0.0014
0.0014
0.0014
0.0014
0.0014
0.0014
0.0014
0.0014
0.0014
0.0014
0.0014
0.0014
0.0007
0.00112
0.0007
0.00112
0.0007
0.00112
0.0007
0.00112
0.0007
0.00112
0.0007
0.00112
0.0007
0.00112
0.0007
0.00112
0.0007
0.00112
0.0007
0.00112
0.0007
0.0007
0.0007
0.0007
0.000875
0.000875
0.000875
0.0007
0.0007
0.0007
0.0007
0.0007
0.0007
0.0007

0.00112
0.00112
0.00112
0.00112
0.0014
0.0014
0.0014
0.00112
0.00112
0.00112
0.00112
0.00112
0.00112
0.00112

3rd pass

0.0014
0.0014
0.0014
0.0014
0.0014
0.0014
0.0014
0.0014
0.0014
0.0014
0.0014
0.0014
0.0014
0.0014
0.00175
0.00175
0.00175
0.0014
0.0014
0.0014
0.0014
0.0014
0.0014
0.0014

## Recommended Torque (ft-lbs)

1st pass 2nd pass
149
166
241
265
361
394
529
573
511
744
798
721
1009
1076
945
666
1065
706
1129
627
1003
861
1377
1083
1733
989
1583
1344
2151
1648
2637
1488
2380
2383
3813
3302
2975
4019
3649
6571
6026
8409
6211
8441
7848
10437
9751
12715
11929

5284
4760
6431
5839
10514
9642
13454
9938
13506
12556
16699
15601
20345
19087
14979.97

## upper is halfway between 3 and 3.25 8 thread at 50%YIELD

lower is slightly lower than a 3 in 4 thread at 50% yield
area

piR^2
3 7.068583
2.75 5.939574

14.2

7.1

## ended Torque (ft-lbs)

3rd pass

1332
1411
1254
1721
2166
1978
2689
3296
2975
4766
6605
5950
8039
7298
13142
12052
16818
12422
16882
15695
20874
19501
25431
23859

K factor

multyplier

0.17
0.17
0.17
0.17
0.17
0.17
0.17
0.17
0.17
0.17
0.17
0.17
0.17
0.17
0.17
0.17
0.17
0.17
0.17
0.17
0.17
0.17
0.17
0.17
0.17
0.17
0.17
0.17
0.17
0.17
0.17
0.17
0.17
0.17
0.17
0.17
0.17
0.17
0.17
0.17

105000
105000
105000
105000
105000
105000
105000
105000
105000
105000
105000
105000
105000
105000
105000
105000
105000
105000
105000
105000
105000
105000
105000
105000
105000
105000
105000
105000
95000
95000
95000
95000
95000
95000
95000
95000
95000
95000
95000
95000

50

Yield vs elongation
yield %
20
30
40
50
60
70
80

0.00175

pipe id
10.5
pressure
3000
thrust
259770.2
bolt a
6.5
force/bolt 4995.581
rectangle
circ
32.9867
t
0.375
a
12.37001
stress
21000

lbs
in^2

eld vs elongation
elongation inch/inch
0.0007
0.00105
0.0014
0.00175
0.0021
0.00245
0.0028

Yeild Strength:
For d=<2.5"
For 2.5"<d=<4"
B7 = 105000 psi
95000 psi
B7M = 80000 psi
B16 = 105000 psi
95000 psi
Other =
0
psi (leave zero value if not used)
Bolt Dia Bolt Pitch Bolt Area
0.75
10
0.334
0.75
16
0.373
0.875
9
0.462
0.875
14
0.509
1
8
0.606
1
12
0.663
1.125
8
0.79
1.125
12
0.856
1.125
7
0.763
1.25
8
1
1.25
12
1.073
1.25
7
0.969
1.375
8
1.233
1.375
12
1.315
1.375
6
1.155
1.5
8
1.492
1.5
12
1.581
1.5
7
1.405
1.625
8
1.78
1.75
8
2.08
1.75
5
1.9
1.875
8
2.41
2
8
2.77
2
4
2.5
2.25
8
3.56
2.25
2.5
8
4.44
2.5
4
4
2.75
8
5.43
2.75
4
4.93
3
8
6.51
3
4
5.97
3.25
8
7.69
3.25
4
7.1
3.5
8
8.96
3.5
4
8.33
3.75
8
10.34
3.75
4
9.66
4
8
11.81
4
4
11.08

% Yield
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60

0.619048

## Enter Stud Type:

Enter % of Yield:

Elongation (inch/inch)
1st pass 2nd pass
0.0021
0.0021
0.0021
0.0021
0.0021
0.0021
0.0021
0.0021
0.0021
0.0021
0.0021
0.0021
0.0021
0.00063 0.00126
0.0021
0.00105 0.00168
0.00105 0.00168
0.00105 0.00168
0.00105 0.00168
0.00105 0.00168
0.00105 0.00168
0.00105 0.00168
0.00105 0.00168
0.00105 0.00168
0.00105 0.00168
0.00105
0.00105
0.00105
0.00105
0.00105
0.00105
0.00105
0.00105
0.00105
0.00105
0.00105
0.00105
0.00105
0.00105

5931

0.00168
0.00168
0.00168
0.00168
0.00168
0.00168
0.00168
0.00168
0.00168
0.00168
0.00168
0.00168
0.00168
0.00168

B7
60

## Recommended Torque (ft-lbs)

3rd pass 1st pass 2nd pass
250
279
403
444
604
661
887
961
856
1247
1338
1208
1691
0.0021
541
1082
1584
0.0021
1116
1786
0.0021
1183
1892
0.0021
1051
1682
0.0021
1443
2308
0.0021
1815
2905
0.0021
1658
2653
0.0021
2254
3606
0.0021
2763
4421
0.0021
2494
3990
0.0021
3995
6392
0.0021
0.0021
0.0021
0.0021
0.0021
0.0021
0.0021
0.0021
0.0021
0.0021
0.0021
0.0021
0.0021
0.0021

5536
4988
6738
6118
8813
8082
11278
10413
14151
13156
17497
16347
21317
19999

8858
7980
10781
9789
14101
12931
18045
16660
22642
21050
27996
26154
34107
31999
20090.78

area

piR^2
3 7.068583
2.75 5.939574
14.2

7.1

K factor:

3rd pass

Enter K:

1.625
0.875

1804
2232
2366
2102
2885
3631
3317
0
5526
4988
7990
11072
9975
13477
12236
17626
16164
22556
20825
28302
26312
34994
32693
42634
39999

0.15
0.17
0.19
0.21
0.25
K factor
0.19
0.19
0.19
0.19
0.19
0.19
0.19
0.19
0.19
0.19
0.19
0.19
0.19
0.19
0.19
0.19
0.19
0.19
0.19
0.19
0.19
0.19
0.19
0.19
0.19
0.19
0.19
0.19
0.19
0.19
0.19
0.19
0.19
0.19
0.19
0.19
0.19
0.19
0.19
0.19
0.19

## New hardware, well lubricated

Hardware in good cond., well lubr.
Hardware in fair cond., well lubr.
Hardware in bad cond., well lubr.
Bolt type

multyplier

B7
B7
B7
B7
B7
B7
B7
B7
B7
B7
B7
B7
B7
B7
B7
B7
B7
B7
B7
B7
B7
B7
B7
B7
B7
B7
B7
B7
B7
B7
B7
B7
B7
B7
B7
B7
B7
B7
B7
B7

105000
105000
105000
105000
105000
105000
105000
105000
105000
105000
105000
105000
105000
105000
105000
105000
105000
105000
105000
105000
105000
105000
105000
105000
105000
105000
105000
105000
95000
95000
95000
95000
95000
95000
95000
95000
95000
95000
95000
95000

50

0.00175

Yield vs elongation
yield %
20
30
40
50
60
70
80

eld vs elongation
elongation inch/inch
0.0007
0.00105
0.0014
0.00175
0.0021
0.00245
0.0028

## Flow through an orifice

Q
Do
h
Dp
C

= flow in gpm
= diam of orifice in inches
= differential head at orifice in feet of liquid
= diam of pipe in inches
= discharge coefficient

If Q =
20
dP =
80
Dp =
1
Do =
?
C=
0.61
SG =
1.8
Solve for h: 102.5641

gpm
psi
in
in

## Assume Do/Dp < 0.33

Do*Do =
0.164873
Do =
0.406046
So Do/Dp > 0.33 NG
Use other formula
Assume Do =
0.38
What is Q?
Do/Dp exp 4=
0.019775
Do/Dp exp 2=
0.140625
Q=
17.2298
Finally, Assume Do = 0.25 in
Q=
7.581595
Therefore, use Do = 3/8"

Steam Flow (l
Orifice
5
10
Diam.
psi
psi
1/32
0.47
0.58
1/16
1.86
2.3
3/32
4.2
5.3
1/8
7.5
9.4
5/32
11.7
14.6
3/16
16.7
21
7/32
22.9
28.7
1/4
29.8
37.4
9/32
37.8
47.4
5/16
46.6
58.5
11/32
56.4
70.7
3/8
67.1
84.2
13/32
78.8
98.8
7/16
91.4
115
15/32
105
131
1/2
119
150

## ugh Orifices Discharging To Atmosphere

Steam Flow (lbs./hr.) when steam gauge
15
25
50
75
100
psi
psi
psi
psi
psi
0.7
0.94
1.53
2.12
2.7
2.8
3.8
6.1
8.5
10.8
6.3
8.45
13.8
19.1
24.4
11.2
15
24.5
34
43.4
17.6
23.5
38.3
53.1
67.9
25.3
33.8
55.1
76.4
97.7
34.4
46
75
104
133
45
60.1
98
136
173
56.9
76.1
124
172
220
70.3
94
153
212
272
85.1
114
185
257
329
101
135
221
306
391
119
159
259
359
459
138
184
300
416
532
158
211
344
478
611
180
241
392
544
695

pressure
125
psi
3.3
13.2
29.7
52.9
82.7
119
162
212
268
331
400
476
559
648
744
847

is:
150
psi
3.9
15.6
35.1
62.4
97.4
140
191
250
316
390
472
561
659
764
877
998

200
psi
5.1
20.3
45.7
81.3
127
183
249
325
412
508
615
732
859
996
1144
1301

250
psi
6.3
25.1
56.4
100
156
226
307
401
507
627
758
902
1059
1228
1410
1604

300
psi
7.4
29.8
67
119
186
268
365
477
603
745
901
1073
1259
1460
1676
1907

Outside
Nominal Diameter
Pipe Size
(in)
0.125
0.405
0.25
0.54
0.375
0.675
0.5
0.84
0.75
1.05
1
1.315
1.25
1.66
1.5
1.9
2
2.375
2.5
2.875
3
3.5
3.5
4
4
4.5
5
5.563
6
6.625
8
8.625
10
10.75
12
12.75
14
14
16
16
18
18
20
20
22
22
24
24
26
26
28
28
30
30
32
32
34
34
36
36
42
42

Schedule

Standard
0.068
0.088
0.091
0.109
0.113
0.133
0.140
0.145
0.154
0.203
0.216
0.226
0.237
0.258
0.280
0.322
0.365
0.375
0.375
0.375
0.375
0.375
0.375
0.375
0.375
0.375
0.375
0.375
0.375
0.375
0.375

Velocity
(ft/s)
6210.2
3391.6
1848.9
1161.5
661.8
408.4
236.0
173.4
105.2
73.7
47.7
35.7
27.7
17.6
12.2
7.1
4.5
3.1
2.6
1.9
1.5
1.2
1.0
0.8
0.7
0.6
0.5
0.5
0.4
0.4
0.3

Schedule

40
0.068
0.088
0.091
0.109
0.113
0.133
0.140
0.145
0.154
0.203
0.216
0.226
0.237
0.258
0.280
0.322
0.365
0.406
0.438
0.500
0.562
0.594
0.688
0.688
0.688
0.750
-

Velocity
(ft/s)
6210.2
3391.6
1848.9
1161.5
661.8
408.4
236.0
173.4
105.2
73.7
47.7
35.7
27.7
17.6
12.2
7.1
4.5
3.2
2.6
2.0
1.6
1.3
0.9
0.5
0.4
0.4
-

Capacity (GPM)

GPM)

Schedule

XS
0.095
0.119
0.126
0.147
0.154
0.179
0.191
0.200
0.218
0.276
0.300
0.318
0.337
0.375
0.432
0.500
0.500
0.500
0.500
0.500
0.500
0.500
0.500
0.500
0.500
0.500
0.500
0.500
0.500
0.500
0.500

Velocity
(ft/s)
9721.6
4927.2
2511.5
1507.4
816.2
490.7
275.1
199.7
119.5
83.3
53.4
39.7
30.7
19.4
13.5
7.7
4.7
3.3
2.7
2.0
1.6
1.2
1.0
0.8
0.7
0.6
0.5
0.5
0.4
0.4
0.3

1,100

Schedule

80
0.095
0.119
0.126
0.147
0.154
0.179
0.191
0.200
0.218
0.276
0.300
0.318
0.337
0.375
0.432
0.500
0.594
0.688
0.750
0.844
0.938
1.031
1.125
1.218
-

Velocity
(ft/s)
9721.6
4927.2
2511.5
1507.4
816.2
490.7
275.1
199.7
119.5
83.3
53.4
39.7
30.7
19.4
13.5
7.7
4.9
3.5
2.9
2.2
1.7
1.4
1.2
1.0
-

Schedule

120
0.438
0.500
0.562
0.719
0.844
1.000
1.094
1.219
1.375
1.500
1.625
1.812
-

Velocity
(ft/s)
34.2
21.6
14.9
8.7
5.5
3.9
3.2
2.4
1.9
1.6
1.3
1.1
-

Schedule

160
0.188
0.219
0.250
0.250
0.281
0.344
0.375
0.438
0.531
0.625
0.719
0.906
1.125
1.312
1.406
1.594
1.781
1.969
2.125
2.344
-

Velocity
(ft/s)
2087.3
1199.8
676.5
334.0
251.0
157.9
99.5
65.3
38.0
24.2
16.7
9.7
6.2
4.4
3.6
2.7
2.2
1.7
1.4
1.2
-

Schedule

XXS
0.294
0.308
0.358
0.382
0.400
0.436
0.552
0.600
0.674
0.750
0.864
0.875
1.000
1.000
-

Velocity
(ft/s)
7076.4
2385.8
1252.4
559.8
371.4
198.9
143.3
84.9
45.2
27.2
18.7
9.5
5.9
3.9
-

Nominal
Pipe Size
0.125
0.25
0.375
0.5
0.75
1
1.25
1.5
2
2.5
3
3.5
4
5
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
20
22
24
26
28
30
32
34
36
42

Outside Diameter
0.405
0.54
0.675
0.84
1.05
1.315
1.66
1.9
2.375
2.875
3.5
4
4.5
5.563
6.625
8.625
10.75
12.75
14
16
18
20
22
24
26
28
30
32
34
36
42

X-Sect.
Area Sch.
Standard 60 (ft2)
0.068
0.000395
0.088
0.000723
0.091
0.001326
0.109
0.00211
0.113
0.003703
0.133
0.006002
0.14
0.010387
0.145
0.014138
0.154
0.023303
0.203
0.033248
0.216
0.051338
0.226
0.068659
0.237
0.088405
0.258
0.138929
0.28
0.200627
0.322
0.34741
0.365
0.547599
0.375
0.785398
0.375
0.957545
0.375
1.268432
0.375
1.622952
0.375
2.021105
0.375
2.462891
0.375
2.948311
0.375
3.477364
0.375
4.05005
0.375
4.66637
0.375
5.326322
0.375
6.029908
0.375
6.777127
0.375
9.280584

40
0.068
0.088
0.091
0.109
0.113
0.133
0.14
0.145
0.154
0.203
0.216
0.226
0.237
0.258
0.28
0.322
0.365
0.406
0.438
0.5
0.532
0.594
0.688
0.688
0.688
0.75
-

X-Sect.
Area Sch.
40 (ft2)
0.000395
0.000723
0.001326
0.00211
0.003703
0.006002
0.010387
0.014138
0.023303
0.033248
0.051338
0.068659
0.088405
0.138929
0.200627
0.34741
0.547599
0.777303
0.93942
1.227185
1.564405
1.930178
2.791683
5.115066
5.804994
6.491807
-

X Strong
0.095
0.119
0.126
0.147
0.154
0.179
0.191
0.2
0.218
0.276
0.3
0.318
0.337
0.375
0.432
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.5

X-Sect.
Area Sch.
XS (ft2)
0.000252
0.000497
0.000976
0.001626
0.003003
0.004995
0.008908
0.012272
0.020506
0.029432
0.045869
0.061722
0.079839
0.126345
0.181019
0.317108
0.518486
0.753014
0.921752
1.227185
1.57625
1.96895
2.405282
2.885247
3.408846
3.976078
4.586943
5.241442
5.939574
6.681339
9.168433

80
0.095
0.119
0.126
0.147
0.154
0.179
0.191
0.2
0.218
0.276
0.3
0.318
0.337
0.375
0.432
0.5
0.594
0.688
0.75
0.844
0.938
1.031
1.125
1.218
-

X-Sect.
Area Sch.
80 (ft2)
0.000252
0.000497
0.000976
0.001626
0.003003
0.004995
0.008908
0.012272
0.020506
0.029432
0.045869
0.061722
0.079839
0.126345
0.181019
0.317108
0.498683
0.705592
0.852212
1.117193
1.417989
1.754993
2.127461
2.536215

120
0.438
0.5
0.562
0.719
0.844
1
1.094
1.219
1.375
1.5
1.625
1.812
-

X-Sect.
Area Sch.
120 (ft2)

0.071631
0.113561
0.165048
0.281723
0.447894
0.630296
0.760982
1.003171
1.268432
1.57625
1.917476
2.264463

160
0.188
0.219
0.25
0.25
0.281
0.344
0.375
0.438
0.531
0.625
0.719
0.906
1.125
1.312
1.406
1.594
1.781
1.969
2.125
2.344
-

X-Sect.
Area Sch.
160 (ft2)
0.001174
0.002043
0.003623
0.007339
0.009764
0.015522
0.024629
0.037554
0.064467
0.101458
0.146744
0.253165
0.394063
0.559246
0.682704
0.895285
1.13695
1.407105
1.718399
2.034145

X-Sect.
Area Sch.
XX Strong XXS (ft2)
0.294
0.000346
0.308
0.001027
0.358
0.001957
0.382
0.004379
0.4
0.0066
0.436
0.012321
0.552
0.017107
0.6
0.028852
#VALUE!
0.674
0.054188
0.75
0.090037
0.864
0.130794
0.875
0.257794
1
0.417584
1
0.630296
-

## THERMOWELL VIBRATION AND STRESS ANALYSIS

TAG NUMBER:

JOB NUMBER:

PROCESS DATA

THERMOWELL DATA

Fluid Name:
Fluid State:
Flowrate:
(LB/HR)
Temperature: (DEG F)
Pressure:
(PSIG)
Specific Gravity:
Viscosity:
(CP)
Density: (LB/FT3)
Specific Vol (FT3/LB)
Pipe ID: (INCHES)
Velocity
(FT/SEC)
Actual U Dim:
Support Ring:

H/C
VAPOUR
144000
500
650
0.57
0.02
0.84
1.1905
10
87.26

(IN)

10
YES

Material:
304 SS
Selected [U] Dim:(IN)
8
Type of Shank:
TAPERED
Well Tip O.D.:
(IN)
7
Well Constant: [Kf]
2.08
Material Constant [Km]
9840
Natural Freq [Fn]
=
319.80
[Fn] at 1000F
=
295.82
Wake Frequency [Fw] =
32.91
Ratio = Fw/Fn <0.8 =
0.10
Ratio at 1000F <0.8
=
0.11
Max [U](Stress) (IN)
=
46.47
Max Velocity (FT/SEC)=
678.36
Length at Max V (IN) =
8.00

NOTES:
1. Ratio of Wake Frequency/Natural Frequency must not exceed 0.8.
2. Enter [Kf] and [Km] from tables.
3. Red requires entry
4. Orange is optional

ELEMENT
Kf
Kf
SIZE (IN) Tapered Straight
0.25
2.08
1.37
0.375
2.45
1.8
0.5625
3.05
2.24
0.6875
3.44
2.53
0.875
4.01
2.95

## FORMULAS - FROM ASME PERFORMANC

LIQUID VELOCITY (f/s) =
VAPOUR VELOCITY (f/s) =
NATURAL FREQ(Fn) @70F =
SQRT(E*Y) =
WAKE FREQUENCY =

## TYPICAL MAX VELOCITY TABLE

[U] DIM
4
7
10
13
16
Material

VAP VEL
LIQ VEL(f/s)
192
99
70
60
35
35
22
22
14
14
Constants
(Km)

Inconel
Aluminum
Naval Brass
CS,304,316 SS
Hast. B
Hast. C
Monel
C-1018
Titanium

9250
316
7280
9840
9640
9400
8850
9310
9940

MAX U DIM(STRESS)@1000F=
MAX VEL FOR SELECTED U =

## FROM ASME PERFORMANCE TEST CODE - TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT

0.0509*W/(d2*density)
0.051*W/(d2*density)

Q(Fn) @70F =

Kf/U^2*SQRT(E*Y) = Kf/U^2*9913.4
SQRT(28500000/0.290) = 9913.4
2.64*(VELOCITY/TIP OD)

RESS)@1000F=
SELECTED U =

37.5/V*SQRT(SV(10000-0.116*P)/(1+R^2/(1-R^2)))
0.8*TIP OD*Kf*9913.4/(2.64*U^2)

-----

91-9-20

## (1) Circum. Stress (Long. Joints)

t=PR/SE-0.6P
t= Min. req'd Thickness of shell, in.
P= internal design pressure
R= inside radius of shell course under consideration, in.
S = maximum allowable stress value, psi. at design temperature.
E = joint efficiency. See UW-12 for welded shells. See UG-53 for ligaments.

t=

165
0.375
14500
0.7

0.006

or

## (2) Longitudinal Stress (Circumferential Joints)

t=PR/2SE+0.4P
t= Min. req'd Thickness of shell, in.
P= internal design pressure
R= inside radius of shell course under consideration, in.
S= maximum allowable stress value, psi.
E= joint efficiency

t=

165
0.375
14500
0.7

0.003

## The minumum thickness will be the greater thickness circumferential stress or

longitudinal stress.

TMIN

>T

0.006 "

NOTE: The value of S is selected from the allowable stress tables and for the appropriste d
Section 2D ot the ASME code. Do not use yield or tensile
stregnth values as in API 653 calculations.

THICKNESS OF SHELLS UNDER INTERNAL PRESSURE - ASME VIII, DIV 1, UG-27 & APP. 1
& ELLIPSOIDAL HEADS, UG-32 & APP. 1

VESSEL:

7-E-3

P=
63 psi
Hs =
120 in
Sg =
1
Ps = 4.330002 psi
Ss =
13800 psi
Sh =
13800 psi
ts=
0.437 in
Act. thickness used =
0.347 in
th=
0.5 in
Act. thickness used =
0.41 in
fa =
0 in
C=
0.09 in
Es =
0.85
Eh =
0.85
Do =
121 in
D=
120 in
D=
120.18 in
Ro =
60.437 in
R=
60 in
R=
60.09 in
K=
1

Design pressure
Static head of liquid in vessel
Specific gravity of liquid
Maximum allowable stress, shell
Thickness shell, new or as inspected
Thickness shell, corroded
Thickness head, new or as inspected
Forming allowance
Corrosion allowance
Joint efficiency, shell
ID for head at skirt, new or as inspected
ID for head at skirt, corroded
Factor for ellipsoidal heads, = 1.83 for 3:1, 1.0 for 2:1, .5 for 1:1
See App. 1-4, tbl. 1-4.1 for other K values.

## Circumferential Stress (Longitudinal joints), corroded

t = PR/(SE-.6P) =
Use App. 1 in
P = SEt/(R+.6t) =
Use App. 1 psi

## Longitudinal Stress (Circumferential joints), corroded

t = PR/(2SE+.4P) =
Use App. 1 in
P = SEt/(R-.4t) =
Use App. 1 psi

## Circumferential Stress (Longitudinal joints), new

t = PR/(SE-.6P) =
Use App. 1 in
P = SEt/(R+.6t) =
Use App. 1 psi

## Longitudinal Stress (Circumferential joints), new

t = PR/(2SE+.4P) =
Use App. 1 in
P = SEt/(R-.4t) =
Use App. 1 psi

## APPENDIX 1 CALCULATIONS (using OD) FOR SHELL

t = PRo/(SE+.4P) =
P = SEt/(Ro+.4t) =
P = SEt/(Ro+.4t) =

Use App. 1 in
Use App. 1 psi
Use App. 1 psi

Corroded
New

## Using ID, corroded

t = PDK/(2SE-.2P) =
P = 2SEt/(KD+.2t) =
Using ID, new
t = PDK/(2SE-.2P) =
P = 2SEt/(KD+.2t) =

#DIV/0!
#DIV/0!

in
psi

## Using OD, corroded

t = PDoK/(2SE+2P(K-.1)) =
P = 2SEt/(KDo-2t(K-.1)) =

#DIV/0!

in
0 psi

## Using OD, new

t = PDoK/(2SE+2P(K-.1)) =
P = 2SEt/(KDo-2t(K-.1)) =

#DIV/0!
#DIV/0!

in
psi

#DIV/0!

in
0 psi

## MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE PRESSURE (MAP), HEAD

P = SEt/(R-.4t) - Ps =

P = 2SEt/(KD+.2t)-Ps =

#VALUE!

-4.33 psi

## MAX ALLOWABLE WORKING PRES. (MAWP), HEAD

P = SEt/(R-.4t) - Ps =

P = 2SEt/(KD+.2t)-Ps = #DIV/0!

#VALUE! psi

## DESIGN THICKNESS SHELL

t = PRo/(SE+.4P)+C = #VALUE! in

t = PDoK/(2SE+2P(K-.1))+C+fa =

psi

#DIV/0!

## (1) Circum. Stress (Long. Joints)

P= SEt/R+0.6t
t= Min. req'd Thickness of shell, in.
P= internal design pressure
R= inside radius of shell course under consideration, in.
S= maximum allowable stress value, psi.
E= joint efficiency

0.14
23.25
48000
1

P= 289.1163
or

## (2) Longitudinal Stress (Circumferential Joints)

P=2SEt/R+0.2t
t= Min. req'd Thickness of shell, in.
P= internal design pressure
R= inside radius of shell course under consideration, in.
S= maximum allowable stress value, psi.
E= joint efficiency

P= 577.3692
The design pressure will be the lesser pressure of circumferential stress or
longitudinal stress.

MAWP =

<P

289.1 psig

yield or tensile

0.14
23.25
48000
1

## tial joints), new

in

Thickness of cylindrical shells under external pressure. ASME Sect. VIII, paragraph UG-28.

This work sheet calculates the allowable external pressure for a cylindrical vessel having a known outside
diameter, wall thickness, and length between lines of support. It is assumed that external stiffeners are
Gather the following information and reference materials prior to using the worksheet.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

## Material designation for the vessel

Design temperature
Outside diameter
Vessel shell thickness
Section ll, Part D of the ASME Code opened to Subpart 3 (page 621)

## Step 1. Enter known values.

Outside diameter, Do =
Shell thickness,
t =
Section length between
lines of support,
L=

132 inches
0.25 inches
135 inches
Do / t =

## Note: For definition of a line of support, see

ASME Section VIII, paragraph UG-28(b).
528

L / Do =

1.023

## Step 3. Determine factor A

a. Go to ASME Section II, Part D, Subpart 3, Figure G (page 622 & 623).
b. Enter Figure G at the value of L / Do in Step 2 above. If L / Do is greater than 50, enter the chart
at L / Do = 50. If L / Do is less than 0.05, enter the chart at L / Do = 0.05.
c. Move horizontally to the line for the value of Do / t calculated above. From this point of intersection,
move vertically downward to determine the value of factor A.
d. Enter the value for factor A at cell B29 below. (scroll down)
Value of factor A =

0.00011

## Step 4. Determine factor B

a. Using the value of A from step 3, enter the applicable material chart in Section II, Part D, Subpart 3
for the material being considered. The material charts start on page 624.
b. Move vertically upward to an intersection with the material/temperature line for the design
temperature. If A falls to left of the material/temperature line, skip this step and scroll down to step 6.
If A falls past the right end of a material/temperature line, use the horizontal projection of the end of
the line as the point of intersection.
c. From the point of intersection in step b, move horizontally to the right and read the value for B.
Enter this value in cell B41 below. (scroll down)
Value of factor B =

2000

## Step 5. Maximum allowable external pressure using factor B.

Pa = (4B) / 3(Do/t) =

5.05 psi

## Step 6. Select modulus of elasticity, E. No factor B.

If factor A falls to the left of the material/temperature line, Pa is calculated using the modulus of elasticity, E, at

If factor A falls to the left of the material/temperature line, Pa is calculated using the modulus of elasticity, E, at
the design temperature. Select the modulus of elasticity and enter its value in cell B52 below.
E=

2.90E+07

## Step 7. Maximum allowable external pressure using modulus of elasticity.

Pa = (2AE) / 3(Do / t) =

4.03 psi

asticity, E, at

Do

Pa internal

P external

asticity, E, at

## Calculation for Clamp Evaluation for Maximum Localized External Pressures

(Thin tube under uniform lateral external pressure, Roark's Formulas for Stress, Sixth Edition)
Define Given Parameters
L
1.25 in
Length of shell
2
E 2.90E+07 lbs/in
Modulus
r
4.326 in
t
? in
Wall Thickness
v
0.3 unitless
Poisson's Ratio (for Steel)
Define Maximum External Pressure Equation

## qmax=0.807*(E*t2)/(L*r)*( ((1/(1-v2))3 * t2/r2)1/4

(Formula 19, Table 35 -- Formulas for elastic stability of shells)
Define Constants:
A=0.807*E/(L*r)

A=

B=(1/(1-v2))3

B= 1.327015 unitless

C=r2

2
C= 18.71428 in

4
4327878 lbs/in

Then
qmax=(A4B/C *t10 )1/4
Define Constant K:
K= (A4B/C)
4
18
K= 2.49E+25 lbs /in
Define Maximum External Pressure in terms of Wall Thickness
Then

qmax=(K*t10)1/4
Thickness
Max External
t (in) Pressure (psi)
0.35
161853
0.30
110092
0.25
69791
0.20
39951
0.15
19462
0.10
7062

## Horizontal Cylindrical Tanks

All Units are in feet
Diameter, D
18
T/T Length, L
100
b
5
H1
18

K1
Ze
Zc
f(Ze)
f(Zc)

Volume

0.555556
1
1
0.9999768
1.0019362

Liquid Level
H1

203415 gallons
4843 barrels

Liquid Level

## Vertical Cylindrical Tanks

All Units are in feet
Diameter, D
18
b
5
H1
5
H2
5
H3
100

D
K1
Ze
f(Ze)

0.555555556
1
0.9999768
Liquid Level

Volume

## 27143 cubic feet

203046 gallons
4834 barrels

Liquid Level

51.00 in

H/D
L/D
As/At
0.8500
0.7141
0.9059
************ ***************** ************

60.00 in

19.63

(L) =

42.85 in

17.79

## Vessel Length (TT) =

228.00 in

Liq Height
Diameter

(H) =
(D) =

Chord Length

Liquid Volume =

337.97

Not toScale
Estimated
Dished Only
ASME flanged & dished
2: 1 Ellipsoidal
Hemispherical

## 5C-31 Liquid Volume

Gallons
Pounds

12.65
18.97
30.64
61.29

cu ft
cu ft
cu ft
cu ft

2757.264
22968.01

Estimated
13.47
20.20
32.63
65.25

cu ft
cu ft
cu ft
cu ft

Dished Only
ASME flanged & dished
2:1 Ellipsoidal
Hemispherical

Liquid Level

H2

H3

b
H1

INCHES FROM
BTOM OF DRM

228 inches

Horizontal Drum
Liquid

60
________ inches
51
inches

Not toScale
Two Heads + partial Drum Vol. = cubic feet
12.65
18.97
30.64
61.29

+
+
+
+

337.97
337.97
337.97
337.97

=
=
=
=

350.62
356.95
368.62
399.26

## INCHES FROMLIQ VOL

BTOM OF DRMCU. FT.
0
0
5
58
10
163
15
20
25
30
35

297
454
628
817
1017

LIQ VOL
GALS
0
432
1218
2224
3395
4699
6110
7609

40
45
50
55
60

1227
1444
1667
1893
2121

9178
10801
12465
14157
15864

35000

30000

VOLUME (GALS)

25000

20000

15000

10000

5000

0
0

50

100

WEIGHT (LBS)

0
0

10

5C45 Deprop
C
P
S
E
m
Am

0.3
375
15000
1
3
10.505

Sa 23000
Sb
y
Bolt D
Rf OD
G ID

23000
10000
24.75
21
18.688
1.064

## C = factor for attachment method, 0.3 for bolted flat head

P = design pressure; 210 psi for pressure case, 0 psi for gasket seating case
S = allowable stress of manway cover material; 15,000 psi for SA-181
E = Joint Efficiency; 1 (no welds)
m = gasket factor; 3 for Monel/Teflon
Am = larger of Wm1 /Sb or Wm2/Sa
Sa = allowable bolt stress at ambient temp.; 23,000 psi for SA-193 B7
Sb = allowable bolt stress at operating temperature.; 23,000 psi for SA193 B7
y = gasket seating stress ( on surface of gasket); 10,000 for Monel/Teflon spiral wound
Bolt D-bolt circle dia.
Raised face OD
Root dia. of bolt

## 1. Determine required manway thickness

1a. Calculate effective gasket width (b), reaction diameter (G or d) and moment arm (hg) per Table 2.5.2
b 0.380
b = 0.5 x (N/2)1/2
N 1.156
N=(Rf OD-G ID)/2: Distance of id of gasket to OD of flange
G 20.240
G = Rf - 2b: diameter of effective gasket reaction point (same as d)
hg 2.255
hg = (Bolt D - G)/2: hg = gasket moment arm; distance from bolts to effective gasket reaction point
1b. Calculate Bolt Load (W) for pressure condition
W ######### W = Wm1 = 0.785G2P + (2b x 3.14GmP)
Wm1 ######### Wm1 = (0.785 x (20.24) 2 x 210) + (2 x 0.380 x 3.14 x 20.24 x 3 x 210)
Ab 21.329
Ab = available root area of bolts: 24 x 3.14 x (1.064/2)2
Wm2 ######### Wm2 = 3.14 x 0.380 x 20.24 x 10,000 = 241,626 lb
Wm1/Sb 7.607
Wm1 / Sb = 97,961.5 /23,000 = 4.26 in2
Wm2/Sa 10.505
Wm2 / Sa = 241,626 / 23,000 = 10.51 in2
W ######### W = (Am + Ab) x Sa/2 = (10.51 + 21.34) x 23,000/2 = 366,275 lb
1d. Calculate required flange thickness for pressure
t 2.354
t = d(CP/SE + 1.9Whg/SEd3)1/2:= required thickness for pressure
1e. Calculate required thickness for gasket seating
t 2.2731
t = 20.24 x [(0 + 1.9 x 366,275 x 2.26/(15,000 x 1 x 20.243 )] 1/2t = 2.276" = required thickness for gasket seati

on spiral wound

## tmin => = d(CP/SE + 1.9Whg/SEd3)1/2

Where: t = required manway thickness; calculated for both design pressure and gasket seating conditions; use higher value

76" = required thickness for gasket seating, this is the controlling thickness

## t seating conditions; use higher value

Formed vessel heads in Sterling Chemicals will generally fall into one of three categories: ellipsoidal, torispherical,
or hemispherical.
Ellipsoidal: Inside depth of the head minus the skirt is equal to one fourth of the inside diameter of the skirt.
These are also commonly refered to as 2:1 elliptical heads.
Torispherical: Inside crown radius is equal to the outside diameter of the skirt and the knuckle radius is 0.06 times
It will not be readily apparent in the field whether a head is ellipsoidal or torispherical so it's best to consult vendor
drawings and data.
The calculations below are for pressure on the concave side.
Thickness calculation for torispherical head. Based on ASME Section VIII, paragraph UG-32(e)
t = (.885PL)/(SE-0.1P)

## where t = minimum required thickness of head, inches

L = inside spherical or crown radius, inches
P = internal design pressure, psi
E = joint efficiency
S = maximum allowable stress value, psi

Enter values:

P=
L=
S=
E=

35 psi
146 inches
13800 psi
1

Calculated thickness,

t=

0.328 inches

ellipsoidal, torispherical,

## 's best to consult vendor

Formed vessel heads in Sterling Chemicals will generally fall into one of three categories: ellipsoidal, torispherical,
or hemispherical.
Ellipsoidal: Inside depth of the head minus the skirt is equal to one fourth of the inside diameter of the skirt.
These are also commonly refered to as 2:1 elliptical heads.
Torispherical: Inside crown radius is equal to the outside diameter of the skirt and the knuckle radius is 0.06 times
It will not be readily apparent in the field whether a head is ellipsoidal or torispherical so it's best to consult vendor
drawings and data.
The calculations below are for pressure on the concave side.
Thickness calculation for hemispherical heads. Based on ASME Section VIII, paragraph UG-32(f)
t = (PL)/(2SE-0.2P)

## where t = minimum required thickness of head, inches

L = inside spherical or crown radius, inches
P = internal design pressure, psi
E = joint efficiency
S = maximum allowable stress value, psi

Enter values:

P=
L=
S=
E=

4500 psi
6.8 inches
30000 psi
1

Calculated thickness,

t=

0.518 inches

t is less than 0.365L or P is less than 0.665SE; therefore, code formula is valid.

: ellipsoidal, torispherical,

## t's best to consult vendor

CALCULATION FOR THICKNESS OF BOLTED, FLAT UNSTAYED CIRCULAR HEADS, COVERS, AND BLIND FLANGES
Enter values:
Bolt circle diameter
Nominal bolt size
Number of bolts
m=
Seating stress,
y=
Go =
Gi =
Sealing Face O.D.,
Fo =
Sealing Face I.D.,
Fi =
Design pressure,
P=
Allowable bolt stress at ambient
temperature,
Sb =
Allowable stress for head at design
temp,
S=
Calculated values:
Bolt area, single bolt
Total bolt area
reaction

48.625
0.75
52
3.75
9000
47.375
46.375
47.375
44.5
115

inches
inches

NOTE:

## 1. This program calculates the minimum require

circular heads, covers, and blind flanges of the t
Fig. UG-34, sketch (j) and sketch (k) of Part UG
Vessel Code, Section VIII, Division 1.

psi
inches
inches
inches
inches
psi

## 3. Gasket Factor, m, and Seating Stress, y, for

from table 2-5.1 in Appendix 2 of the ASME Cod

20000 psi

## 4. The basic gasket seating width, b

in Appendix 2 of the ASME Code or table UA
and manually entered at the cell location.

17500 psi

A=
Ab =

## 5. All formulas and tables in the Lamons Hand

the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Se

2
0.334 in
2
17.368 in

G=

46.88 inches

## Width used to determine basic

seating width, bo

N=

0.50 inches

## Basic seating width, table 2-5.2,

Appedix 2, ASME Sect. VIII

bo =

0.25

b=

0.25

Effective gasket seating width, table 25.2, App. 2 ASME Sect VIII

W m2 = 3.14bGy =

## Bolt load required for operating

conditions

W m1 =

331340 lbs.

.785G2P + 6.28bGmP

## Head thickness based on operating

conditions

t1 =

seating

t2 = 0.8865659 inches

therefore use t1

2.191 inches

2.191 inches

230212 lbs.

## lates the minimum required thickness for bolted, flat unstayed

and blind flanges of the type shown in
and sketch (k) of Part UG-34 in the ASME Boiler and Pressure
VIII, Division 1.

## and Seating Stress, y, for a given gasket material are obtained

pendix 2 of the ASME Code or table UA-49.1 in the Lamons

eating width, bO, in cell C24 must be selected from table 2-5.2
SME Code or table UA-49.2 in the Lamons Gasket Handbook
at the cell location.

## ables in the Lamons Handbook are taken from Appendix 2 of

Pressure Vessel Code, Section Vlll, Division 1.

for seating

Am2 = W m2/Sb =

16.57 in2

## Bolt area req'd

for operating

Am1 = W m1/Sb =

11.51 in2

Bolt area
selected

16.567 in2

Formed vessel heads in Sterling Chemicals will generally fall into one of three categories: ellipsoidal, torispherical,
or hemispherical.
Ellipsoidal: Inside depth of the head minus the skirt is equal to one fourth of the inside diameter of the skirt.
These are also commonly refered to as 2:1 elliptical heads.
Torispherical: Inside crown radius is equal to the outside diameter of the skirt and the knuckle radius is 0.06 times
It will not be readily apparent in the field whether a head is ellipsoidal or torispherical so it's best to consult vendor
drawings and data.
The calculations below are for pressure on the concave side.
Thickness calculation for ellipsoidal head. Based on ASME Section VIII, paragraph UG-32(d)
t=(PD)/(2SE - 0.2P)

where

## t = minimum required thickness of head, inches

D = inside diameter of head at skirt, inches
P = internal design pressure, psi
E = joint efficiency
S = maximum allowable stress value, psi

Enter values:

P=
D=
S=
E=

220 psi
120 inches
13750 psi
0.92

Calculated thickness,

t=

1.045 inches

psoidal, torispherical,

## est to consult vendor

This worksheet calculates the required moment of inertia for a stiffening ring attached to a cylindrical shell
under external pressure. The calculated moment of inertia can be compared to the moment of inertia of a
corroded or damaged stiffening.The calculation is performed in accordance to ASME Sect. VIII, paragraph
UG-29.
Information and reference material needed to perform this calculation include:
* ASME Section II, Part D, Subpart 3
* modulus of elasticity, E, for stiffening ring material at design temperature
* outside diameter of shell
* shell thickness
* distance between lines of support (see ASME Sect. VIII, paragraph UG-28(b))
* cross sectional area of existing stiffening ring

## Step 1. Enter known values.

Shell O.D.
Do =
169
Shell thickness
t=
0.3125
External pressure
P=
15
Modulus of elasticity for
material
E=
2.45E+07
Cross sectional area of
stiffener,
As =
Ls=

inches
inches
psi
psi

2
2.39 in
40 inches

## L s is defined as one half the distance from the stiffener

center line to the next line of support above plus one
half the distance from the stiffener center line to the next
line of support below. (ASME VIII, UG-29)

B=

5107

## Step 3. Determine factor A

a. Open ASME Section II, Part D, Subpart 3 to the applicable chart for the stiffener material under
consideration. The charts begin on page 624.
b. Enter the right hand side of the applicable chart at the value of B determined in step 2 above.
c. Move left horizontally to the material/temperature line for the design metal temperature. For values
of B falling below the left end of the chart, go to step 5.
d. At the point of intersection, move down vertically for the value of A. Enter that value in cell B38
below.
Factor A =

0.0004

Is=

4
12.15 in

A=

0.00042

## Step 6. Required moment of inertia using A from step 5.

Is=

4
12.67 in

ndrical shell
inertia of a
I, paragraph

he stiffener

e to the next

Reinforcement requirement for openings in shells without reinforcing elements. Reference ASME Sect. VIII, paragrap
following constraints apply to the use of this work sheet: 1) only circular openings in straight cylindrical shells, 2) axi
perpindicular to shell axis, and 3) axis of opening intersects shell axis.
Given values:
Design pressure

Inside diameter of
vessel,

40 psi

Corrosion allowance

0.125 in.

Nominal thickness of
shell,
t =
Nominal thickness of
nozzle wall,
tn =

## Allowable stress for

nozzle mat'l
Sn =

15000 psi

Finished diameter of
opening,
d=

Design temperature

## Allowable stress for

shell mat'l
Sv =
Calculated values:
required shell
thickness
Required nozzle
thickness
Area available in shell
Area available in
nozzle projecting
outward
Area available in
nozzle projecting
inward
A3 =

480

96 in.

0.375 in.
0.216 in.
3.5 in.

13800 psi

0.164 in.

strength reduction
factor,
fr1 =

0.005 in.

Reinforcing area
required,
A=

1.00
2
0.574 in

A1 =

0.542

or

A1 =

0.183

A2 =

0.396

or

A2 =

0.23

2
0.770 in

## rence ASME Sect. VIII, paragraph UG-37. The

straight cylindrical shells, 2) axis of opening is

## Shell joint efficiency

Nozzle inserted through shell, y
or n
Nozzle abutting shell,
y
or n
Distance nozzle projects beyond
inner wall,
h=

0.85
n
y

1.00

0.542

0.23
SCROLL
DOWN

20 E 5
10"

VESSEL:
NOZZLE:

## VESSEL PARAMETERS (at Nozzle Location)

P = 1975 psi
Design pressure
R = 4.313 in
S = 20000 psi
Allowable stress value in tension
E=
1
Joint efficiency, Table UW-12
t=
0.6 in
Nom. thickness vessel wall, new or as measured
t = 0.538 in
Nom. thickness vessel wall, corroded
tr = PR/(SE-.6P) = 0.396 in
Req. thickness based on circ. stress
NOZZLE PARAMETERS
O. D. =
3.62
d=
2.62
d = 2.745
tn =
0.5
tn = 0.438
trn = PRn/(Sn-.6P) = 0.129
F=
1
E1 =
1
h noz =
0
h=
0
h=
0
weld leg =
weld leg =

in
in
in
in
in
in

## Nozzle outside diameter

Finished diam. of circ. opening (noz. ID, as is)
Finished diam. of circ. opening (noz. ID corroded)
Nominal nozzle wall thickness, new (or as inspected)
Nominal nozzle wall thickness, corroded
Req. thickness of seamless nozzle wall
Correction factor = 1 for all; integrally reinforced openings (see fig UG-37)
= 1, for opening in plate, see UW-12 if any part passing through welds
dist. nozzle projects beyond inner surface of vessel
dist. noz. projects (use for calcs, no reinforcement element)
dist. noz. projects (use for calcs, with reinforcement element)

in
in
in

0.5 in
0.5 in

## Outward nozzle leg weld (in)

Inward nozzle leg weld (in)

## ALLOWABLE STRESS & CORROSION ALLOWANCE

Sn = 21300 psi
Allowable stress in nozzle @ temperature
Sv = 20000 psi
Allowable stress in vessel @ temperature
Sp =
0 psi
Allowable stress in reinforcing element plate @ temperature
c = 0.063 in
Corrosion allowance
STRENGTH REDUCTION FACTORS
N
1.00
1.00
0.00
0.00

fr1 =
fr2 =
fr3 =
fr4 =

For nozzle abutting vessel wall (Enter Y for yes, or N for no)
= Sn/Sv for nozzle through vessel wall
= Sn/Sv
= (lesser of Sn or Sp)/Sv
= Sp/Sv

## AREA CALCULATIONS - NO REINFORCING ELEMENT, CORRODED

A41 =
A43 =
A1 =
A1 =

0.25000
0.00000
0.38770
0.29307

in^2
in^2
in^2 *
in^2

A1+A2+A3+A41+A43=

A2 =
A2 =
A3 =
A=

0.83011
0.67567
0.00000
1.08773

in^2
in^2 *
in^2
in^2

## " * " Denotes value used in

area calculations for A1, A2

Dp =
te =

0 in
0 in

## Outside diam. of reinforcing element

Thickness reinforcing element

A=
A1 =
A1 =
A2 =
A2 =

1.08773
0.38770
0.29307
0.83011
0.67567

in^2
in^2 *
in^2
in^2
in^2

A1+A2+A3+A41+A42+A43+A5 =

A3 =
A41 =
A42 =
A43 =
A5 =

0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000

in ^2
in ^2
in ^2
in ^2
in ^2

## openings (see fig UG-37)

passing through welds

ent element)

Date: 7/14/2014
Where:

F.I. No.

## t = minumum acceptable thickness in inches

D = nominal diameter of tank in feet
H = liquid height from bottom of corroded area or floor in feet
C = course number ( C=1 for bottom course )
G = specific gravity relative to water (G = 1.0 for water)
S = maximum allowab le stress in psi. Use smaller of 0.8Y or 0.426T for bottom and 2nd course.
Use smaller of 0.88Y or 0.472T for all other courses.
Y = minimum yield strength
rength
in in
psipsi
T = minimum tensile strength
trengthininpsi
psi
E = joint efficiency
Use E=0.7 if original E is unknown. Use E=1.0 when away from welds by 1 inch or 2t.

Calculation based on this formula: t = (2.6 D H G)/S E from 2.3.3.1 of API 653
Enter Values
D=
H=
C=
Y=
T=
G=
E=
Value of S selected,
Calculated minimum thickness,

38
24
1
13000
21000
1
0.7

ft.
ft.
psi
psi

0.8Y =
0.426T =

8946 psi

S=
t=

0.379 in.

10400 psi
8946 psi

0.88Y =
0.472T =

11440
9912

psi
psi