Certificate Mathematics in Action Full Solutions 4B

9 More about Trigonometry (II)
• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •
Activity
Activity 9.1 (p. 202)
1. (a) Yes
(b) YP
(c) Slope of PF =
DP
FD
, slope of PX =
YP
XY
,
slope of PE =
CP
EC
2. PX. Since FD = XY = EC and YP is the shortest in
length among line segments between AB and DC,
therefore
YP
XY
has the greatest value.
Follow-up Exercise
p. 168
Sides Angle Area
1. a = 4 cm, b = 6 cm C = 30° 6 cm
2

2. a = 5 cm, b = 8 cm C = 45° 14.1 cm
2

3. b = 7 cm, c = 9 cm A = 102° 30.8 cm
2

4. a = 7 cm, c = 9 cm B = 110° 29.6 cm
2

5. a = 12 cm, c = 9 cm B = 90 ° 54 cm
2
p. 175
1. By the sine formula,
fig.) sig. 3 to (cor. 87 . 5
43 sin
30 sin 8
43 sin
cm 8
30 sin
cm
sin sin
·
°
°
·
°
·
°
·
x
x
B
AC
C
AB
2.
° ·
° · ° + + °
° · + +
56
180 54 70
180
B
B
C B A

(

sum of △)
By the sine formula,
°
·
°
·
56 sin
cm 7
54 sin
cm
sin sin
x
B
AC
C
AB

fig.) sig. 3 to (cor. 83 . 6
56 sin
54 sin 7
·
°
°
· x
3.
° ·
° · ° + ° +
° · + +
53
180 51 76
180
A
A
C B A
(

sum of △)
By the sine formula,
fig.) sig. 3 to (cor. 9 . 27
53 sin
76 sin 23
76 sin
cm
53 sin
cm 23
sin sin
·
°
°
·
°
·
°
·
x
x
B
AC
A
BC
4.
° ·
° · ° + + °
° · + +
70
180 62 48
180
B
B
C B A
(

sum of ) △
By the sine formula,
fig.) sig. 3 to (cor. cm 4.21
cm
62 sin
48 sin 5
62 sin
cm 5
48 sin
sin sin
·
°
°
·
°
·
°
·
a
a
C
AB
A
a
fig.) sig. 3 to (cor. cm 5.32
cm
62 sin
70 sin 5
62 sin
cm 5
70 sin
sin sin
·
°
°
·
°
·
°
·
b
b
C
AB
B
b
5.
° ·
° · + ° + °
° · + +
37
180 115 28
180
C
C
C B A
(

sum of ) △
By the sine formula,
fig.) sig. 3 to (cor. cm 7.02
cm
37 sin
28 sin 9
37 sin
cm 9
28 sin
sin sin
·
°
°
·
°
·
°
·
a
a
C
AB
A
a
fig.) sig. 3 to (cor. cm 13.6
cm
37 sin
115 sin 9
37 sin
cm 9
115 sin
sin sin
·
°
°
·
°
·
°
·
b
b
C
AB
B
b
1
9 Basic Properties of CirclesMore about Trigonometry (II)
6.
° ·
° · + ° + °
° · + +
70
180 50 60
180
C
C
C B A
(

sum of ) △
2
Certificate Mathematics in Action Full Solutions 4B
By the sine formula,
fig.) sig. 3 to (cor. cm 8.85
cm
60 sin
50 sin 10
60 sin
cm 10
50 sin
sin sin
·
°
°
·
°
·
°
·
b
b
A
BC
B
b
fig.) sig. 3 to (cor. cm 10.9
cm
60 sin
70 sin 10
60 sin
cm 10
70 sin
sin sin
·
°
°
·
°
·
°
·
c
c
A
BC
C
c
p. 178
1. By the sine formula,
or fig.) sig. 3 to (cor. 3 . 61
8769 . 0
7
43 sin 9
sin
sin
cm 9
43 sin
cm 7
sin sin
° ·
·
°
·
·
°
·
B
B
B
B
b
A
a

° 119
(cor. to 3 sig. fig.)
When B = 61.3°,
fig.) sig. 3 to (cor. 7 . 75
180 265 . 61 43
) of sum ( 180
° ·
° · + ° + °
∠ ° · + +
C
C
C B A
By the sine formula,
fig.) sig. 3 to (cor. cm 9.95
cm
43 sin
75.735 sin 7
43 sin
cm 7
75.735 sin
sin sin
·
°
°
·
°
·
°
·
c
c
A
a
C
c
When B = 119°,
° ·
° · + ° + °
° · + +
3 . 18
180 73 . 118 43
180
C
C
C B A
fig.) sig. 3 to (cor.
) of sum (∠
By the sine formula,
fig.) sig. 3 to (cor. cm 3.22
cm
43 sin
18.265 sin 7
43 sin
cm 7
18.265 sin
sin sin
·
°
°
·
°
·
°
·
c
c
A
a
C
c
3
9 Basic Properties of CirclesMore about Trigonometry (II)
2. By the sine formula,
(rejected) 152.7 or fig.) sig. 3 to (cor. 3 . 27
4589 . 0
10
35 sin 8
sin
sin
cm 8
35 sin
cm 10
sin sin
° ° ·
·
°
·
·
°
·
B
B
B
B
b
A
a
fig.) sig. 3 to (cor. 118
180 27.314 35
) of sum ( 180
° ·
° · + ° + °
∠ ° · + +
C
C
C B A
By the sine formula,
fig.) sig. 3 to (cor. cm 15.4
cm
35 sin
117.69 sin 10
35 sin
cm 10
117.69 sin
sin sin
·
°
°
·
°
·
°
·
c
c
A
a
C
c
3. By the sine formula,
fig.) sig. 3 to (cor. 02 . 1
6
130 sin 8
sin
sin
cm 8
130 sin
cm 6
sin sin
·
°
·
·
°
·
B
B
B
b
A
a
∵ sin B ≤ 1 for all values of B.
∴ There are no solutions for B.
4. By the sine formula,
1
6
30 sin 12
sin
sin
cm 12
30 sin
cm 6
sin sin
·
°
·
·
°
·
B
B
B
b
A
a

° ·90 B
° ·
° · + ° + °
° · + +
60
180 90 30
180
C
C
C B A
(

sum of △)
By the sine formula,
fig.) sig. 3 to (cor. cm 10.4
cm
30 sin
60 sin 6
30 sin
cm 6
60 sin
sin sin
·
°
°
·
°
·
°
·
c
c
A
a
C
c
4
Certificate Mathematics in Action Full Solutions 4B
p. 185
1. (a) By the cosine formula,
fig.) sig. 3 to (cor. 8 . 32
125 cos ) 20 )( 17 ( 2 20 17
cos 2
2 2
2 2 2
·
° − + ·
− + ·
x
B ac c a b
(b) By the cosine formula,
fig.) sig. 3 to (cor. 1 . 17
42 cos ) 22 )( 25 ( 2 22 25
cos 2
2 2
2 2 2
·
° − + ·
− + ·
x
C ab b a c
2. (a) By the cosine formula,
) 0.1 nearest the to (cor. 7 . 37
168
133
) 14 )( 18 ( 2
11 14 18
2
cos
2 2 2
2 2 2
° ° ·
·
− +
·
− +
·
θ
θ
ab
c b a
(b) By the cosine formula,
) 0.1 nearest the to (cor. 7 . 124
51
29
) 17 )( 18 ( 2
31 17 18
2
cos
2 2 2
2 2 2
° ° ·
− ·
− +
·
− +
·
θ
θ
ac
b c a
3. By the cosine formula,
degree) nearest the to (cor. 52
1820
1117
) 35 )( 26 ( 2
28 35 26
2
cos
2 2 2
2 2 2
° ·
·
− +
·
− +
·
A
bc
a c b
A
degree) nearest the to (cor. 47
1960
1333
) 35 )( 28 ( 2
26 35 28
2
cos
2 2 2
2 2 2
° ·
·
− +
·
− +
·
B
ac
b c a
B

degree) nearest the to (cor. 81
15 . 47 14 . 52 180
180
° ·
° − ° − ° ·
− − ° · B A C
4. By the cosine formula,
d.p.) 1 to (cor. cm 4 . 73
cm 100 cos ) 55 )( 40 ( 2 55 40
cos 2
2 2
2 2 2
·
° − + ·
− + ·
c
C ab b a c
d.p.) 1 to (cor. 5 . 47
) 410 . 73 )( 40 ( 2
55 410 . 73 40
2
cos
2 2 2
2 2 2
° ·
− +
·
− +
·
B
ac
b c a
B
d.p.) 1 to (cor. 5 . 32
547 . 47 100 180
° ·
° − ° − ° · A
p. 189
1. Let
2
c b a
s
+ +
·
, where a = 14 m, b = 8 m and c = 10 m.


m 16
m
2
10 8 14
·
+ +
· s
m 6 m ) 10 16 (
m 8 m 8) (16
m 2 m ) 14 16 (
· − · −
· − · −
· − · −
c s
b s
a s
∴ Area of △ABC
fig.) sig. 3 to (cor. m 2 . 39
m 6 8 2 16
) )( )( (
2
2
·
× × × ·
− − − · c s b s a s s
2. Let
2
c b a
s
+ +
·
, where a = 33 m, b = 29 m and c = 24 m.


m 43
m
2
24 29 32
·
+ +
· s
m 19 m ) 24 43 (
m 14 m 29) (43
m 10 m ) 33 43 (
· − · −
· − · −
· − · −
c s
b s
a s
∴ Area of △ABC
fig.) sig. 3 to (cor. m 338
m 19 14 10 43
) )( )( (
2
2
·
× × × ·
− − − · c s b s a s s
3. Let
2
c b a
s
+ +
·
, where a = 26 m, b = 37 m and c = 21 m.


m 42
m
2
21 37 26
·
+ +
· s
m 21 m ) 21 42 (
m 5 m 37) (42
m 16 m ) 26 42 (
· − · −
· − · −
· − · −
c s
b s
a s
5
9 Basic Properties of CirclesMore about Trigonometry (II)
∴ Area of △ABC
fig.) sig. 3 to (cor. m 66 2
m 21 5 16 42
) )( )( (
2
2
·
× × × ·
− − − · c s b s a s s
4. Let
2
c b a
s
+ +
·
, where a = 17 m, b = 27 m and c = 17
m.

m 5 . 30
m
2
17 27 17
·
+ +
· s
m 5 . 13 m ) 17 5 . 30 (
m 5 . 3 m 27) (30.5
m 13.5 m ) 17 5 . 30 (
· − · −
· − · −
· − · −
c s
b s
a s
∴ Area of △ABC
fig.) sig. 3 to (cor. m 139
m 5 . 13 5 . 3 5 . 13 5 . 30
) )( )( (
2
2
·
× × × ·
− − − · c s b s a s s
p. 192
1.
With the
notations in the figure,
(a)
° ·
° + ° ·
∠ + ∠ · ∠
55
35 20
ACB BAC ABD
∴ The angle of elevation of A from B is 55°.
(b)
° ·
∠ · ∠
35
ACB EAC
° ·
° + ° ·
∠ + ∠ · ∠
55
20 35
BAC EAC EAB
∴ The angle of depression of B from A is 55°.
(c) ° · ∠ 35 EAC
∴ The angle of depression of C from A is 35°.
2. (a)
∴ The required compass bearing is N80°E.
(b)
180° −120°= 60°
∴ The required compass bearing is S60°E.
(c)
6
Certificate Mathematics in Action Full Solutions 4B
250° −180°= 70°
∴ The required compass bearing is S70°W.
(d)
360° −330°= 30°
∴ The required compass bearing is N30°W.
3. (a)
∴ The required true bearing is 048°.
(b)
180° −57°= 123
∴ The required true
bearing is 123°.
(c)
180° + 62° = 242°
∴ The required true bearing is 242°.
(d)
360° −28°= 332
∴ The required true
bearing is 332°.
7
9 Basic Properties of CirclesMore about Trigonometry (II)
4.
With the notations in the figure,
(a)
° ·
∠ · ∠
30
BAF DBA
(alt.

s, DG // AF)
∴ The compass bearing of A from B is S30°E.
(b)
° ·
° + ° ·
∠ + ∠ · ∠
65
30 35
ABD CBA CBD
° ·
° − ° ·
∠ − ° · ∠
115
65 180
180 CBD GBC
∴ The true bearing of C from B is 115°.
(c)
° ·
∠ · ∠
65
CBD BCH
(alt.

s, IH // DG)
∴ The compass bearing of B from C is N65°W.
(d)
° ·
∠ · ∠
50
FAC ACI
(alt.

s, IH // AF)
Reflex
° ·
° + ° ·
∠ + ° · ∠
230
50 180
180 ACI HCA
∴ The true bearing of A from C is 230°.
p. 195
1. By the cosine formula,
km) nearest the to (cor. km 17
km 55 cos ) 15 )( 20 ( 2 15 20
cos ) )( ( 2
2 2
2 2 2
·
° − + ·
∠ − + ·
QR
QPR PR PQ PR PQ QR
∴ The distance between town Q and town R is 17 km.
2.
With the notations
in the figure,
° ·
° − ° ·
∠ − ∠ · ∠
30
35 65
ECA ECB ACB
° ·
∠ · ∠
35
ECA CAB
(alt.

s, AD // EC)
By the sine formula,
° ·
∠ · ∠
°
°
·
°
·
°
65
m
30 sin
35 sin 200
30 sin
m 200
35 sin
ECB CBD
CB
CB
(alt.

s, AD // EC)
In △CBD,
fig.) sig. 4 to (cor. m 207.9
m 65 sin
30 sin
35 sin 200
sin
sin
·

,
`

.
|
° ×
°
°
·
∠ ·
· ∠
CBD CB CD
CB
CD
CBD
∴ The height of the building is 207.9 m.
p. 201
1. (a) ∵ ∠ HAD is the angle between planes ABGH
and ABCD.
∴ The angle between planes ABGH and
ABCD is 40°.
(b) ∵ ∠ AHD is the angle between planes ABGH
and DCGH.
° · ∠
° · ° + ° + ∠
° · ∠ + ∠ + ∠
50
180 90 40
180
AHD
AHD
ADH HAD AHD
(

sum of △)
∴ The angle between planes ABGH and
DCGH is 50°.
(c) ∵ ∠ EAH is the angle between planes ABGH
and ABFE.
° ·
∠ · ∠
50
AHD EAH
(alt.

s, EA // HD)
∴ The angle between planes ABGH and
ABFE is 50°.
(d) ∵ ∠ EHA is the angle between planes ABGH
and EFGH.
° ·
∠ · ∠
40
HAD EHA
(alt.

s, EA // HD)
∴ The angle between planes ABGH and
EFGH is 40°.
(e)
With the notations in the figure,
∵ ∠ EJA is the angle between planes ABGH
and EFCD.
JA = JD (property of rectangle)
° ·
∠ · ∠
40
JDA JAD
(base

s, isos. △)
8
Certificate Mathematics in Action Full Solutions 4B
° ·
° + ° ·
∠ + ∠ · ∠
80
40 40
JDA JAD EJA
(ext.

of
△)
∴ The angle between planes ABGH and
EFCD is 80°.
2. (a) (i) ∵ VH is the height of the pyramid.
∴ H is the projection of V on plane
ABCD.
∴ HA is the projection of VA on plane
ABCD.
∴ ∠ VAH is the angle between VA and
plane ABCD.
(ii) ∵ VH is the height of the pyramid.
∴ H is the projection of V on plane
ABCD.
∴ HM is the projection of VM on plane
ABCD.
∴ ∠ VMH is the angle between VM and
plane ABCD.
(b) (i) ∵ VM ⊥ AB and HM ⊥ AB
∴ ∠ VMH is the angle between planes
VAB and ABCD.
(ii) ∵ DH ⊥ VH and AH ⊥ VH
∴ ∠ DHA is the angle between planes
VHA and VHD.
p. 208
1. (a) (i)
(ii)
The angle between HB and plane HDCG is
∠ BHC.
m 136
m 10 6
2 2
·
+ · CH (Pyth.
theorem)
Consider △BCH.
fig.) sig. 3 to (cor. 4 . 34
136
8
tan
° · ∠
· ∠
BHC
BHC
∴ The angle between HB and plane
HDCG is 34.4°.
(b) The angle between HB and BD is ∠ HBD.
m 6
m 164
m 10 8
2 2
· ·
·
+ ·
GC HD
BD
(Pyth. theorem)
9
9 Basic Properties of CirclesMore about Trigonometry (II)
Consider △BDH.
fig.) sig. 3 to (cor. 1 . 25
164
6
tan
° · ∠
·
· ∠
HBD
BD
HD
HBD
∴ The angle between HB and BD is 25.1°.
2. (a)
(b)
The angle between the planes ACFD and
BCFE is ∠ ACB.
Consider △ABC.
fig.) sig. 3 to (cor. 1 . 28
280
247
) 20 )( 28 ( 2
14 20 28
2
cos
2 2 2
2 2 2
° · ∠
·
− +
·

− +
· ∠
ACB
BC AC
AB BC AC
ACB
∴ The angle between the planes ACFD and
BCFE is 28.1°.
3. (a) The angle between VA and plane ABCD is
∠ VAO.
cm 29
cm 20 21
2 2
·
+ · AC

cm 5 . 14
2
1
· · AC OA
(property
of rectangle)
Consider △VAO.
fig.) sig. 4 to (cor. 06 . 54
14.5
20
tan
° · ∠
· ∠
VAO
VAO
∴ The angle between VA and plane ABCD is
54.06°.
(b)
Let M be the mid-point of AB.
∵ △VAB is an isosceles triangle.
∴ VM ⊥ AB
10
Certificate Mathematics in Action Full Solutions 4B
∵ △OAB is an isosceles triangle.
∴ OM ⊥ AB
∴ AB is the line of intersection of the planes
VAB and ABCD.
∴ The angle between planes VAB and ABCD
is ∠ VMO.
cm 10.5
cm
2
21
·
· OM
Consider △VOM.
fig.) sig. 4 to (cor. 30 . 62
10.5
20
tan
° · ∠
· ∠
VMO
VMO
∴ The angle between the planes VAB and
ABCD is 62.30°.
(c) VO is the line of intersection of the planes VAO
and VDO.
∵ DO ⊥ VO and AO ⊥ VO
∴ The angle between the planes VAO and
VDO is ∠ DOA.
Consider △DOA.
cm 5 . 14 ·
· OA OD (property of rectangle)
By the cosine formula,
fig.) sig. 4 to (cor. 79 . 92
841
41
) 5 . 14 )( 5 . 14 ( 2
21 5 . 14 5 . 14
2
cos
2 2 2
2 2 2
° · ∠
− ·
− +
·

− +
· ∠
DOA
OA OD
DA OA OD
DOA
∴ The angle between the planes VAO and
VDO is 92.79°.
p. 216
1. (a) Consider △TOA.
fig.) sig. 3 to (cor. m 115
m 30 tan 200
30 tan
·
° ·
· °
TO
AO
TO
∴ The height of the tower TO is 115 m.
(b) Consider △OAB.
∵ The man walks westwards to a point B.
∴ B is due west of A.
∴ ∠ OAB = 90°
m 360.555
m 300 200
2 2
2 2 2
·
+ ·
+ ·
OB
AB OA OB
(Pyth. theorem)
Consider △TOB.
fig.) sig. 3 to (cor. 8 . 17
m 360.555
m 470 . 115
tan
° · ∠
·
· ∠
TBO
OB
TO
TBO
∴ The angle of elevation of T from B is
17.8°.
11
9 Basic Properties of CirclesMore about Trigonometry (II)
(c)
With the notations in the figure, consider
△OAB.
° · ∠
·
· ∠
310 . 56
m 200
m 300
tan
AOB
OA
AB
AOB
Reflex

fig.) sig. 3 to (cor. 236
310 . 56 180
° ·
° + ° ·
∠ + ∠ · ∠ AOB COA COB
∴ The true bearing of B from O is 236°.
2.
Let h m be the height of the tower TO.
Consider △TAO.
m
50 tan
m
50 tan
°
·
· °
h
OA
OA
h
Consider △TBO.
m
30 tan
m
30 tan
°
·
· °
h
OB
OB
h
With the notations in the figure,
° ·
° − ° ·
∠ − ° · ∠
50
40 90
90 BOC AOB
Consider △OAB.
fig.) sig. 3 to (cor. 258
50 tan 30 tan
50 cos 2
30 tan
1
50 tan
1
500 122

50 tan 30 tan
50 cos 2
30 tan
1
50 tan
1
500 122
50 cos
30 tan 50 tan
2
30 tan 50 tan
350
cos ) )( ( 2
2 2
2
2 2
2 2
2
2 2 2
·
° °
°

°
+
°
·

,
`

.
|
° °
°

°
+
°
·
°
,
`

.
|
°

,
`

.
|
°

,
`

.
|
°
+
,
`

.
|
°
·
∠ − + ·
h
h
h h h h
AOB OB OA OB OA AB
∴ The height of the tower TO is 258 m.
Exercise
Exercise 9A (p. 169)
Level 1
1. (a) Area of △ABC
fig.) sig. 3 to (cor. cm 3 . 92
cm 74 sin 12 16
2
1
2
2
·

,
`

.
|
° × × × ·
(b) Area of △ABC
fig.) sig. 3 to (cor. cm 6 . 24
cm 142 sin 8 10
2
1
2
2
·

,
`

.
|
° × × × ·
(c) BC = BA = 7 cm
Area of △ABC
fig.) sig. 3 to (cor. cm 7 . 16
cm 43 sin 7 7
2
1
2
2
·

,
`

.
|
° × × × ·
(d) ∵ △ABC is an equilateral triangle.
∴ B = 60°and BC = AC = 4 cm
Area of △ABC
fig.) sig. 3 to (cor. cm 93 . 6
cm 60 sin 4 4
2
1
2
2
·

,
`

.
|
° × × × ·
2. (a) Area of △
fig.) sig. 3 to (cor. 3.31
65 sin 5
2
1
5 . 7
sin
2
1
·
° × × × ·
× × × ·
x
x
C BC AC ABC
(b) Area of △
fig.) sig. 3 to (cor. 7.22
138 sin 12
2
1
29
sin
2
1
·
° × × × ·
× × × ·
x
x
A AC AB ABC
12
Certificate Mathematics in Action Full Solutions 4B
3. (a) Area of △
(rejected) 131
or fig.) sig. 3 to (cor. 48.6
sin 5 8
2
1
15
sin
2
1
°
° ·
× × × ·
× × × ·
θ
θ
R QR PR PQR
(b) Area of △
(rejected) 154
or fig.) sig. 3 to (cor. 26.1
sin 3 . 12 4 . 7
2
1
20
sin
2
1
°
° ·
× × × ·
× × × ·
θ
θ
P PR PQ PQR
4. Area of △
BAC
BAC AC AB ABC
∠ × × × ·
∠ × × × ·
sin 10 12
2
1
55
sin
2
1

fig.) sig. 3 to (cor. 114
or (rejected) 4 . 66
12
11
sin
°
° · ∠
· ∠
BAC
BAC
5.
fig.) sig. 3 to (cor. 124
or fig.) sig. 3 to (cor. 2 . 6 5
56.22 180 or 22 . 56
77
64
sin
sin 11 7
2
1
32
sin
2
1
of Area
°
° ·
° − ° ° · ∠
· ∠
∠ × × × ·
∠ × × × · ∆
BAC
BAC
BAC
BAC AC AB ABC
6. (a)
Join BD.
Area of △ABD
2
cm 68 sin 7 5
2
1

,
`

.
|
° × × × ·
∴ Area of ABCD
= 2 × area of △ABD
=
2
cm 68 sin 7 5
2
1
2
,
`

.
|
° × × × ×
=
fig.) sig. 3 to (cor. cm 5 . 32
2
(b)
Join AC.
° ·
∠ · ∠
132
ABC ADC (opp.

s of // gram)
Area of △ACD =
2
cm 132 sin 6 8
2
1

,
`

.
|
° × × ×
∴ Area of ABCD
= 2 × area of △ACD
=
2
cm 132 sin 6 8
2
1
2
,
`

.
|
° × × × ×
=
fig.) sig. 3 to (cor. cm 7 . 35
2
7.
Join BD.
cm 14 ·
· AD AB (property of rhombus)
Area of △ABD =
13
9 Basic Properties of CirclesMore about Trigonometry (II)
2
cm 48 sin 14 14
2
1

,
`

.
|
° × × ×
∴ Area of rhombus ABCD
= 2 × area of △ABD
=
2
cm 48 sin 14 14
2
1
2
,
`

.
|
° × × × ×
=
fig.) sig. 3 to (cor. cm 46 1
2
8.
Join AC.
° · ∠
° · ° + ∠
° · ∠ + ∠
20
180 160
180
CBA
CBA
DAB CBA
(int.

s, CB //
DA)
Area of parallelogram ABCD
CBA BC AB
ABC
∠ × × × × ·
× ·
sin
2
1
2
of area 2

fig.) sig. 3 to (cor. cm 7.94
cm
20 sin 14
38
20 sin cm 14
2
1
2 cm 38
2
·
°
·
° × × × × ·
BC
BC
9. ∵ △ABC is an isosceles triangle.

cm 5 . 6 ·
· AB AC
° ·
∠ · ∠
28
ABC ACB
(base

s, isos.

)
° · ∠
° · ° + ° + ∠
° · ∠ + ∠ + ∠
124
180 28 28
180
BAC
BAC
ACB ABC BAC
(

sum of

) △
Area of the triangle
fig.) sig. 3 to (cor. cm 5 . 17
cm 124 sin 5 . 6 5 . 6
2
1
sin
2
1
2
2
·

,
`

.
|
° × × × ·
∠ × × × · BAC AC AB
10. Area of quadrilateral ABCD
= area of △ACD + area of △ABC
=
CAB AB AC
CAD AC AD
∠ × × ×
+ ∠ × × ×
sin
2
1
sin
2
1
=
2
cm 52 sin 10 7
2
1
28 sin 7 5
2
1

,
`

.
|
° × × × + ° × × ×
=
fig.) sig. 3 to (cor. cm 8 . 35
2
11. (a) Area of the shaded segment
= area of sector OAB −area of △OAB

fig.) sig. 3 to (cor. cm 330
cm 135 sin 20 20
2
1
360
135
20
2
2 2
·

,
`

.
|
° × × × −
°
°
× × · π
(b) ∵ DE CD BC AB EA · · · ·
(given)

° ·
°
· ∠
∠ ∠ · ∠ ·
∠ · ∠ · ∠
72

5
360
s) equal chords, (equal
EOA
DOE COD
BOC AOB EOA
14
Certificate Mathematics in Action Full Solutions 4B
Area of the shaded segment
= area of sector OAE −area of △OAE

fig.) sig. 3 to (cor. cm 78 . 9
cm 72 sin 8 8
2
1
360
72
8
2
2 2
·

,
`

.
|
° × × × −
°
°
× × · π
12. Let AB = x cm and BC = (x + 2) cm, where x is an
integer.
∵ 10 cm
2
< area of △ABC < 20 cm
2

80 ) 2 ( 40
20 ) 2 (
4
1
10
20 30 sin ) 2 (
2
1
10
cm 20 sin
2
1
cm 10
2 2
< + <
< + <
< ° + <
< ∠ × × × <
x x
x x
x x
ABC AC AB

∴ x must satisfy the inequality 40 < x(x + 2) < 80.
Take x = 6,
48
) 2 6 ( 6 ) 2 (
·
+ · + x x
∴ The possible lengths of AB and BC are 6 cm and
8 cm respectively. (or any other reasonable
answers)
13. ∵ The areas of △ABC and △XYZ are the same.

XYZ ABC
XYZ ABC
XYZ YZ XY ABC BC AB
∠ · ∠
∠ × × × · ∠ × × ×
∠ × × × · ∠ × × ×
sin sin
sin 2 6
2
1
sin 4 3
2
1
sin
2
1
sin
2
1
∠ ABC = ∠ XYZ (rejected) or ∠ ABC = 180°−∠ XYZ
Take ∠ ABC = 30°,
° · ∠
∠ − ° · °
150
180 30
XYZ
XYZ
∴ The possible values of ∠ ABC and ∠ XYZ are
30° and 150°respectively. (or any other
reasonable answers)
Level 2
14.
° ·
° + ° ·
∠ + ∠ · ∠
85
50 35
BCD DBC ADB
(ext.

of
) △
Area of △ABC
= area of △BCD + area of △ABD

f i g . ) s i g . 3 t o ( c o r . c m 8 . 1 8
c m
8 5 s i n 3 8 . 5 3
2
1
3 5 s i n 3 8 . 5 7
2
1
s i n
2
1

s i n
2
1
2
2
·

,
`

.
|
° × × ×
+ ° × × ×
·
∠ × × ×
+ ∠ × × × ·
A D B B D A D
D B C B D B C
15. ∵ △ABC is an isosceles triangle.
∴ AC = BC = 9 cm
° ·
∠ · ∠
70
ABC BAC
(base

s, isos.

)
° · ∠
° · ° + ° + ∠
° · ∠ + ∠ + ∠
40
180 70 70
180
ACB
ACB
ABC BAC ACB

(

sum
of

△)
° ·
∠ · ∠
40
ACB DAC
(alt.

s, AD //
BC)
Area of trapezium ABCD
= area of △ABC + area of △ACD

fig.) sig. 3 to (cor. cm 4 . 43
cm 40 sin 9 6
2
1
40 sin 9 9
2
1
sin
2
1

sin
2
1
2
2
·

,
`

.
|
° × × × + ° × × × ·
∠ × × ×
+ ∠ × × × ·
DAC AC AD
ACB BC AC
16. Consider △ABD.
cm 13
cm 12 5
2 2
2 2 2
·
+ ·
+ ·
BD
AD AB BD

(Pyth. theorem)
∵ Area of △ABD = area of △BCD
15
9 Basic Properties of CirclesMore about Trigonometry (II)

(rejected) fig.) sig. 3 to (cor. 145
or fig.) sig. 3 to (cor. 2 . 35
23 . 35 180 or 23 . 35
26
15
sin
sin 8 13
2
1
12 5
2
1
sin
2
1
2
1
°
° ·
° − ° ° · ∠
· ∠
∠ × × × · × ×
∠ × × × · × ×
DBC
DBC
DBC
DBC BC BD AD AB

17.
cm 5
cm 10
2
1
2
1
·

,
`

.
|
× ·
·
·
AC
AK KC
(diags. of // gram)
cm 7
cm 14
2
1
2
1
·

,
`

.
|
× ·
·
·
BD
BK KD
(diags. of // gram)
Area of parallelogram ABCD
= 4 × area of △CDK

fig.) sig. 3 to (cor. cm 8 . 65
cm 70 sin 7 5
2
1
4
sin
2
1
4
2
2
·

,
`

.
|
° × × × × ·
∠ × × × × · DKC KD KC
18. Reflex
° ·
° − ° · ∠
230
130 360 AOB
(

s at a pt.)
Area of major segment BAC
= area of sector OACB + area of △OAB

fig.) sig. 3 to (cor. cm 344
cm 130 sin 12 12
2
1
360
230
12
2
2 2
·

,
`

.
|
° × × × +
°
°
× × · π
19.
cm 4
cm
2
8
·
·
· CA OC
(given)
Area of the shaded region
= area of sector OAB −area of △OCB

fig.) sig. 3 to (cor. cm 8 . 13
cm 45 sin 8 4
2
1
360
45
8
2
2 2
·

,
`

.
|
° × × × −
°
°
× × · π
20.
Join OC.
∵ OA OC · (radii)

° ·
∠ · ∠
35
CAB ACO
(base

s, isos.

)
° ·
° + ° ·
∠ + ∠ · ∠
70
35 35
CAB ACO BOC
(ext.

of
) △
Area of the shaded region
= area of sector OBC −area of △OBC

fig.) sig. 3 to (cor. cm 91 . 6
cm 70 sin 7 7
2
1
360
70
7
2
2 2
·

,
`

.
|
° × × × −
°
°
× × · π
21. (a) Consider △ABC and △ADE.
° · ∠ · ∠ 70 DAE BAC (common
angle)
ADE ABC ∠ · ∠ (corr. ∠ s, BC // DE)
AED ACB ∠ · ∠ (corr. ∠ s, BC // DE)
∴ △ABC ~ △ADE (AAA)
cm 3
cm 9 cm 6
2 4
4
cm 6
cm 6
s) ~ sides, (corr.
·
· +
+
·
+
+
·
+
·
BD
BD
BD
CE AC
AC
BD AB
AB
AE
AC
AD
AB
(b)
16
Certificate Mathematics in Action Full Solutions 4B
Area of BDEC
= area of △ADE −area of △ABC

f i g . ) s i g . 3 t o ( c o r . c m 1 . 1 4
c m
7 0 s i n 4 6
2
1
7 0 s i n ) 2 4 ( ) 3 6 (
2
1
2
2
·
]
]
]
]
]

° × × ×
− ° × + × + ×
·
22. (a)
cm 10 ·
·
·
BC
OQ OP
(radii)
(b)
cm 5
cm 10
2
1
2
1
(given)
·

,
`

.
|
× ·
·
·
CD
OC OD
Consider △POD.
° · ∠
·
· ∠
60
10
5
cos
POD
OP
OD
POD
(c) By similar argument, ∠ ROC = 60°.
° · ∠
° · ° + ∠ + °
° · ∠ + ∠ + ∠
60
180 60 60
180
POR
POR
ROC POR POD
(adj.
on st. line)
Area of the shaded region
= area of sector OPR −area of △OPR

fig.) sig. 3 to (cor. cm 06 . 9
cm 60 sin 10 10
2
1
360
60
10
2
2 2
·

,
`

.
|
° × × × −
°
°
× × · π

Exercise 9B (p. 178)
Level 1
1. By the sine formula,
fig.) sig. 3 to (cor. 56 . 5
44 sin
75 sin 4
44 sin
cm 4
75 sin
cm
sin sin
·
°
°
·
°
·
°
·
x
x
B
AC
A
BC
2. By the sine formula,
fig.) sig. 3 to (cor. 4 . 13
28 sin
116 sin 7
28 sin
cm 7
116 sin
cm
sin sin
·
°
°
·
°
·
°
·
x
x
A
BC
B
AC
3. By the sine formula,
(rejected) fig.) sig. 3 to (cor. 131
or fig.) sig. 3 to (cor. 2 . 49
7 . 14
68 sin 2 1
sin
sin
cm 12
68 sin
cm 7 . 14
sin sin
°
° ·
°
·
·
°
·
x
x
x
C
AB
B
AC
17
9 Basic Properties of CirclesMore about Trigonometry (II)
4. By the sine formula,
(rejected) fig.) sig. 3 to (cor. 138
or fig.) sig. 3 to (cor. 0 . 42
10
48 sin 9
sin
48 sin
cm 10
sin
cm 9
sin sin
°
° ·
°
·
°
·
·
x
x
x
C
AB
B
AC
5. By the sine formula,
fig.) sig. 3 to (cor. 73 . 1
6
60 sin 2 1
sin
sin
cm 12
60 sin
cm 6
sin sin
·
°
·
·
°
·
B
B
B
b
A
a
∵ sin B ≤ 1 for all values of B.
∴ There are no solutions for B.
6. By the sine formula,
° ·
·
°
·
·
°
·
90
1
3
60 sin 2
sin
sin
cm 2
60 sin
cm 3
sin sin
B
B
B
B
b
A
a
7. By the sine formula,
(rejected) fig.) sig. 3 to (cor. 154
or fig.) sig. 3 to (cor. 7 . 25
12
60 sin 6
sin
sin
cm 6
60 sin
cm 2 1
sin sin
°
° ·
°
·
·
°
·
B
B
B
B
b
A
a
8. By the sine formula,
(rejected) 110 or 70
6
70 sin 6
sin
sin
cm 6
70 sin
cm 6
sin sin
° ° ·
°
·
·
°
·
B
B
B
B
b
A
a
9.
° ·
° · ° + + °
° · + +
42
180 81 57
180
B
B
C B A
(

sum of ) △
18
Certificate Mathematics in Action Full Solutions 4B
By the sine formula,
fig.) sig. 3 to (cor. cm 0 . 10
cm
42 sin
57 sin 8
42 sin
cm 8
57 sin
sin sin
·
°
°
·
°
·
°
·
a
a
B
b
A
a
By the sine formula,
fig.) sig. 3 to (cor. cm 8 . 11
cm
42 sin
81 sin 8
2 4 sin
cm 8
81 sin
sin sin
·
°
°
·
°
·
°
·
c
c
B
b
C
c
10.
° ·
° · ° + ° +
° · + +
44
180 26 110
180
A
A
C B A

(

sum of ) △
By the sine formula,
fig.) sig. 3 to (cor. cm 12 . 8
cm
44 sin
110 sin 6
4 4 sin
cm 6
110 sin
sin sin
·
°
°
·
°
·
°
·
b
b
A
a
B
b
By the sine formula,
fig.) sig. 3 to (cor. cm 79 . 3
cm
44 sin
26 sin 6
4 4 sin
cm 6
26 sin
sin sin
·
°
°
·
°
·
°
·
c
c
A
a
C
c
11.
° ·
° · + ° + °
° · + +
23
180 32 125
180
C
C
C B A

(

sum of ) △
By the sine formula,
fig.) sig. 3 to (cor. cm 5.5 1
cm
32 sin
125 sin 10
32 sin
cm 10
125 sin
sin sin
·
°
°
·
°
·
°
·
a
a
B
b
A
a
By the sine formula,
fig.) sig. 3 to (cor. cm 37 . 7
cm
32 sin
23 sin 10
32 sin
cm 10
23 sin
sin sin
·
°
°
·
°
·
°
·
c
c
B
b
C
c
12. By the sine formula,
fig.) sig. 3 to (cor. 121 or fig.) sig. 3 to (cor. 8 . 58
5.5
36 sin 8
sin
36 sin
cm 5 . 5
sin
cm 8
sin sin
° ° ·
°
·
°
·
·
C
C
C
B
b
C
c
When C = 58.8°,
f i g . ) s i g . 3 t o ( c o r . 2 . 8 5
1 8 0 7 5 5 . 5 8 3 6
1 8 0
° ·
° · ° + ° +
° · + +
A
A
C B A
By the sine formula,
fig.) sig. 3 to (cor. cm 9.32
cm
36 sin
85.245 sin 5 . 5
36 sin
cm 5 . 5
85.245 sin
sin sin
·
°
°
·
°
·
°
·
a
a
B
b
A
a
When C = 121°,
fig.) sig. 3 to (cor. 8 . 22
180 245 . 121 36
180
° ·
° · ° + ° +
° · + +
A
A
C B A

By the sine formula,
fig.) sig. 3 to (cor. cm 3.62
cm
36 sin
22.755 sin 5 . 5
36 sin
cm 5 . 5
22.755 sin
sin sin
·
°
°
·
°
·
°
·
a
a
B
b
A
a
13. By the sine formula,
19
(∠ sum of △)
(∠ sum of △)
9 Basic Properties of CirclesMore about Trigonometry (II)
c b
c
b
c b
C
c
B
b
2

30 sin
45 sin
30 sin 45 sin
sin sin
·
°
°
·
°
·
°
·
Take b =
2
,
1
2 2
·
·
c
c
∴ The possible values of b and c are
2
and 1
respectively. (or any other reasonable answers)
14. Take B = 90°, and by the sine formula,
cm 12
cm
30 sin
90 sin 6
30 sin
cm 6
90 sin
sin sin
·
°
°
·
°
·
°
·
b
b
A
a
B
b
° ·
° · + ° + °
° · + +
60
180 90 30
180
C
C
C B A
By the sine formula,
cm 3 6
cm
30 sin
60 sin 6
30 sin
cm 6
60 sin
sin sin
·
°
°
·
°
·
°
·
c
c
A
a
C
c
∴ The possible values for b, c, B and C are 12 cm,
cm 3 6
, 90° and 60°respectively. (or any
other reasonable answers)
Level 2
15.
° · ∠
° · ∠ + °
∠ · ∠ + ∠
20
50 30
BAC
BAC
ACD BAC ABC

(ext.

of

) △
Consider △ACD.
cm
50 sin
50 sin
°
·
· °
x
AC
AC
AD
By the sine formula,
fig.) sig. 3 to (cor. 8 . 44
20 sin
50 sin 30 sin 40
20 sin
cm 40
30 sin
cm
50 sin
sin sin
·
°
° °
·
°
·
°
°

·

x
x
BAC
BC
ABC
AC
16.
° · ∠
° · ° + ° + ∠
° · ∠ + ∠ + ∠
50
180 30 100
180
ABD
ABD
ADB BAD ABD
(

sum
of

) △
° ·
∠ · ∠
30
ADB DBC

(alt.

s, BC // AD)
° · ∠
° · ∠ + ° + °
° · ∠ + ∠ + ∠
70
180 80 30
180
BCD
BCD
BCD BDC DBC
(

sum
of

) △
By the sine formula,
cm
50 sin
100 sin 18
50 sin
cm 18
100 sin
sin sin
°
°
·
°
·
°

·

BD
BD
ABD
AD
BAD
BD
By the sine formula,
fig.) sig. 3 to (cor. 3 . 24
70 sin 50 sin
80 sin 100 sin 18
70 sin
cm
50 sin
100 sin 18
80 sin
cm
sin sin
·
° °
° °
·
°
°
°
·
°

·

x
x
BCD
BD
BDC
BC
17. In △ABM,
° · ∠
° · ° + ∠ + °
° · ∠ + ∠ + ∠
105
180 45 30
180
AMB
AMB
ABM AMB BAM
(

sum
of ) △
By the sine formula,
fig.) sig. 3 to (cor. 6 . 11
30 sin
105 sin 6
30 sin
cm 6
105 sin
cm
sin sin
·
°
°
·
°
·
°

·

x
x
BAM
BM
AMB
AB
20
(∠ sum of △)
Certificate Mathematics in Action Full Solutions 4B
fig.) sig. 3 to (cor. 49 . 8
30 sin
45 sin 6
30 sin
cm 6
45 sin
cm
sin sin
·
°
°
·
°
·
°

·

y
y
BAM
BM
ABM
AM
° ·
° + ° ·
∠ + ∠ · ∠
75
45 30
ABM BAM AMC

(ext.

of

) △
In △AMC,
° · ∠
° · ∠ + ° + °
° · ∠ + ∠ + ∠
75
180 75 30
180
ACM
ACM
ACM AMC MAC

(

sum of

) △

AM AC
AMC ACM
·
∠ · ∠
s) equal
opp. (sides


fig.) sig. 3 to (cor. 49 . 8

·
·y z

18. In △ACD,

° ·
∠ · ∠
·
65
ADC ACD
AD AC

) isos. s, (base
given) (

° · ∠
° · ° + ° + ∠
° · ∠ + ∠ + ∠
50
180 65 65
180
CAD
CAD
ADC ACD CAD

) of sum (∠
By the sine formula,

fig.) sig. 3 to (cor. 92 . 5
65 sin
50 sin 7
65 sin
cm 7
50 sin
cm
sin sin
·
°
°
·
°
·
°

·

x
x
ADC
AC
CAD
CD
In △ABC,
° · ∠
° · ∠ + °
∠ · ∠ + ∠
25
65 40
BAC
BAC
ACD BAC ABC
(ext.

of

) △
° · ∠
° · ∠ + ° + °
° · ∠ + ∠ + ∠
115
180 25 40
180
ACB
ACB
ACB BAC ABC
(

sum of

) △
21
9 Basic Properties of CirclesMore about Trigonometry (II)
By the sine formula,
fig.) sig. 3 to (cor. 60 . 4
40 sin
25 sin 7
40 sin
cm 7
25 sin
cm
sin sin
·
°
°
·
°
·
°

·

y
y
ABC
AC
BAC
BC
fig.) sig. 3 to (cor. 87 . 9
40 sin
115 sin 7
40 sin
cm 7
115 sin
cm
sin sin
·
°
°
·
°
·
°

·

z
z
ABC
AC
ACB
AB
19. By the sine formula,
(rejected) fig.) sig. 3 to (cor. 131
or (rejected) fig.) sig. 3 to (cor. 6 . 48
4
3
8
150 sin 12
sin
150 sin
cm 8
sin
cm 12
sin sin
°
° ·
·
°
·
°
·
·
B
B
B
A
a
B
b
∴ There are no solutions for B.
20. By the sine formula,
7
6
3.5
30 sin 6
sin
30 sin
cm 5 . 3
sin
cm 6
sin sin
·
°
·
°
·
·
B
B
A
a
B
b

fig.) sig. 3 to (cor. 121
or fig.) sig. 3 to (cor. 0 . 59
°
° · B
21. By the sine formula,
fig.) sig. 3 to (cor. 25 . 1
9
70 sin 12
sin
70 sin
cm 9
sin
cm 12
sin sin
·
°
·
°
·
·
B
B
A
a
B
b
∵ sin B ≤ 1 for all values of B.
∴ There are no solutions for B.
(cor. to 3 sig. fig.)
Q sin B ?1 for all values of B.
\ There are no solutions for B.
22
Certificate Mathematics in Action Full Solutions 4B
22. By the sine formula,
8
2 5
12
45 sin 15
sin
sin
cm 15
45 sin
cm 12
sin sin
·
°
·
·
°
·
B
B
B
b
A
a

fig.) sig. 3 to (cor. 118
or fig.) sig. 3 to (cor. 1 . 62
°
° · B
23. By the sine formula,
(rejected) fig.) sig. 3 to (cor. 139
or fig.) sig. 3 to (cor. 0 . 41
7
50 sin 6
sin
50 sin
cm 7
sin
cm 6
sin sin
°
° ·
°
·
°
·
·
B
B
B
C
c
B
b
fig.) sig. 3 to (cor. 0 . 89
180 50 042 . 41
180
° ·
° · ° + ° +
° · + +
A
A
C B A
By the sine formula,
fig.) sig. 3 to (cor. cm 14 . 9
cm
50 sin
88.958 sin 7
50 sin
cm 7
88.958 sin
sin sin
·
°
°
·
°
·
°
·
a
a
C
c
A
a
24. By the sine formula,
fig.) sig. 3 to (cor. 55 . 1
8
62 sin 14
sin
62 sin
cm 8
sin
cm 14
sin sin
·
°
·
°
·
·
A
A
B
b
A
a
∵ sin A ≤ 1 for all values of A.
∴ There are no solutions for A.
∴ No triangle can be formed.
(cor. to 3 sig. fig.)
sin A ?1 for all values of A.
\ There are no solutions for A.
\ No triangle can be formed.
25. By the sine formula,
9
55 sin 6.5
sin
55 sin
cm 9
sin
cm 5 . 6
sin sin
°
·
°
·
·
B
B
C
c
B
b

(rejected) fig.) sig. 3 to (cor. 144
or fig.) sig. 3 to (cor. 3 . 36
°
° · B

fig.) sig. 3 to (cor. 7 . 88
180 55 271 . 36
180
° ·
° · ° + ° +
° · + +
A
A
C B A
\ (cor. to 3 sig. fig.) or
144?(cor. to 3 sig. fig.) (rejected)
(?sum of ) △
(cor. to 3 sig. fig.)
By the sine formula,
fig.) sig. 3 to (cor. cm 11.0
cm
55 sin
88.729 sin 9
55 sin
cm 9
88.729 sin
sin sin
·
°
°
·
°
·
°
·
a
a
C
c
A
a
(cor. to 3 sig. fig.)
26. By the sine formula,
fig.) sig. 3 to (cor. 115
or fig.) sig. 3 to (cor. 65.4

7.5
43 sin 10
sin
43 sin
cm 5 . 7
sin
cm 10
sin sin
°
° ·
°
·
°
·
·
C
C
C
A
a
C
c
\ (cor. to 3 sig. fig.) or
(cor. to 3 sig. fig.)
When C = 65.4°,
fig.) sig. 3 to (cor. 6 . 71
180 413 . 65 43
180
° ·
° · ° + + °
° · + +
B
B
C B A
?
(?sum of ) △
(cor. to 3 sig. fig.)
By the sine formula,
23
(∠ sum of ) △
(∠ sum of ) △
(∠ sum of ) △
9 Basic Properties of CirclesMore about Trigonometry (II)
fig.) sig. 3 to (cor. cm 4 . 10
cm
43 sin
71.587 sin .5 7
43 sin
cm 5 . 7
71.587 sin
sin sin
·
°
°
·
°
·
°
·
b
b
A
a
B
b
When C = 115°,
fig.) sig. 3 to (cor. 4 . 22
180 587 . 114 43
180
° ·
° · ° + + °
° · + +
B
B
C B A
By the sine formula,
fig.) sig. 3 to (cor. cm 19 . 4
cm
43 sin
22.413 sin 5 . 7
43 sin
cm 5 . 7
22.413 sin
sin sin
·
°
°
·
°
·
°
·
b
b
A
a
B
b
(cor. to 3 sig. fig.)
27.
° · ∠
° · ° + ∠ + °
° · ∠ + ∠ + ∠
107
180 48 25
180
ACB
ACB
CBA ACB CAB

(?sum of ) △
By the sine formula,
cm
107 sin
25 sin 10
107 sin
cm 10
25 sin
sin sin
°
°
·
°
·
°

·

BC
BC
ACB
AB
CAB
BC

° ·
∠ · ∠
25
CAB BCT (



(?in alt. segment)

° · ∠
° · ∠ + °
∠ · ∠ + ∠
23
48 25
CTB
CTB
CBA CTB BCT

(ext.

?of

) △

° · ∠
° · ∠ + °
° · ∠ + ∠
132
180 48
180
CBT
CBT
CBT CBA

(adj.

s 苫
on st. line)

By the sine formula,
fig.) sig. 3 to (cor. cm 8.41
cm
107 sin 23 sin
132 sin 25 sin 10
23 sin
cm
107 sin
25 sin 10
132 sin
sin sin
·
° °
° °
·
°
°
°
·
°

·

CT
CT
CTB
BC
CBT
CT
(cor. to 3 sig. fig.)
28. ∵ ABGF and CDEG are two squares.
∴ ∠ BGF = 90°, ∠ CGE = 90°, BG = FG and
CG = EG =
2
cm
Consider △BCG.
° · ∠
° · ° + ° + ∠
° · ∠ + ∠ + ∠
45
180 30 105
180
CBG
CBG
BCG BGC CBG

(

sum of

) △
By the sine formula,
cm 1
cm
45 sin
30 sin 2
45 sin
cm 2
30 sin
sin sin
·
°
°
·
°
·
°

·

BG
BG
CBG
CG
BCG
BG
° · ∠
° · ° + ∠ + ° + °
° · ∠ + ∠ + ∠ + ∠
75
360 90 90 105
360
FGE
FGE
CGE FGE BGF BGC

Area of the hexagon ABCDEF
= area of △BCG + area of ABGF + area of △EFG +
area of CDEG

24
(∠ sum of ) △
(∠ sum of ) △
(∠ s at
a pt.)
Certificate Mathematics in Action Full Solutions 4B
f i g . ) s i g . 3 t o ( c o r . c m 3 7 . 4
c m
) 2 ( 7 5 s i n 2 1
2
1
1 1 0 5 s i n 2 1
2
1
s i n
2
1

s i n
2
1
2
2
2
2
2
2
·
]
]
]
]
]

+ ° × × ×
+ + ° × × ×
·
+ ∠ × × ×
+ + ∠ × × × ·
C G F G E E G F G
B G B G C C G B G
Exercise 9C (p. 185)
Level 1
1. By the cosine formula,
fig.) sig. 3 to (cor. 44 . 6
40 cos ) 8 )( 10 ( 2 8 10
cm 40 cos ) 8 )( 10 ( 2 8 10
cos 2
2 2
2 2
2 2 2
·
° − + ·
° − + ·
− + ·
x
b
B ac c a b
25
9 Basic Properties of CirclesMore about Trigonometry (II)
2. By the cosine formula,
fig.) sig. 3 to (cor. 0 . 22
145 cos ) 9 )( 14 ( 2 9 14
cm 45 1 cos ) 9 )( 14 ( 2 9 14
cos 2
2 2
2 2
2 2 2
·
° − + ·
° − + ·
− + ·
x
a
A bc c b a
3. By the cosine formula,
fig.) sig. 3 to (cor. 1 . 58
) 7 )( 5 . 4 ( 2
6 7 5 . 4
cos
2
cos
2 2 2
2 2 2
° ·
− +
·
− +
·
θ
θ
bc
a c b
A
4. By the cosine formula,
fig.) sig. 3 to (cor. 1 . 92
27
1
) 6 )( 9 ( 2
11 6 9
cos
2
cos
2 2 2
2 2 2
° ·
− ·
− +
·
− +
·
θ
θ
ac
b c a
B
5. The largest angle of △ABC is C.
By the cosine formula,
fig.) sig. 3 to (cor. 0 . 66
32
13
) 5 . 8 )( 8 ( 2
9 5 . 8 8
2
cos
2 2 2
2 2 2
° ·
·
− +
·
− +
·
C
ab
c b a
C
∴ The largest angle of △ABC is 66.0°.
6.
° · ∠
° · ° + ∠
° · ∠ + ∠
120
180 60
180
BAD
BAD
ABC BAD
(int.

s, AD //
BC)
AD = BC = 12 cm (opp. sides of // gram)
Consider △ABC.
fig.) sig. 3 to (cor. cm 6 . 10
cm 60 cos ) 12 )( 8 ( 2 12 8
cos ) )( ( 2
2 2
2 2 2
·
° − + ·
∠ − + ·
AC
ABC BC AB BC AB AC
Consider △ABD.
fig.) sig. 3 to (cor. cm 4 . 17
cm 120 cos ) 12 )( 8 ( 2 12 8
cos ) )( ( 2
2 2
2 2 2
·
° − + ·
∠ − + ·
BD
BAD AD AB AD AB BD
7. By the cosine formula,
fig.) sig. 3 to (cor. cm 1 . 14
cm 5 5 cos ) 12 )( 17 ( 2 12 17
cos 2
2 2
2 2 2
·
° − + ·
− + ·
a
A bc c b a

fig.) sig. 3 to (cor. 8 . 80
) 12 )( 106 . 14 ( 2
17 12 106 . 14
2
cos
2 2 2
2 2 2
° ·
− +
·
− +
·
B
ac
b c a
B
fig.) sig. 3 to (cor. 2 . 44
180 825 . 80 55
180
° ·
° · + ° + °
° · + +
C
C
C B A
8. By the cosine formula,
fig.) sig. 3 to cor. ( cm 55 . 4
cm 21 cos ) 8 )( 11 ( 2 8 11
cos 2
2 2
2 2 2
·
° − + ·
− + ·
b
B ac c a b
) 8 )( 5486 . 4 ( 2
11 8 5486 . 4
2
cos
2 2 2
2 2 2
− +
·
− +
·
bc
a c b
A

fig.) sig. 3 to (cor. 120 ° · A
fig.) sig. 3 to (cor. 1 . 39
180 21 93 . 119
180
° ·
° · + ° + °
° · + +
C
C
C B A
9. By the cosine formula,
fig.) sig. 3 to (cor. 5 . 85
240
19
) 10 )( 12 ( 2
15 10 12
2
cos
2 2 2
2 2 2
° ·
·
− +
·
− +
·
A
bc
a c b
A
fig.) sig. 3 to (cor. 9 . 52
300
181
) 10 )( 15 ( 2
12 10 15
2
cos
2 2 2
2 2 2
° ·
·
− +
·
− +
·
B
ac
b c a
B
fig.) sig. 3 to (cor. 6 . 41
180 8910 . 52 4593 . 85
180
° ·
° · + ° + °
° · + +
C
C
C B A
10. By the cosine formula,
26
(

sum of △)
(

sum of △)
(

sum of △)
Certificate Mathematics in Action Full Solutions 4B
fig.) sig. 3 to cor. ( 6 . 46
16
11
) 5 )( 10 ( 2
5 . 7 5 10
2
cos
2 2 2
2 2 2
° ·
·
− +
·
− +
·
A
bc
a c b
A
fig.) sig. 3 to (cor. 104
4
1
) 5 )( 5 . 7 ( 2
10 5 5 . 7
2
cos
2 2 2
2 2 2
° ·
− ·
− +
·
− +
·
B
ac
b c a
B
fig.) sig. 3 to (cor. 0 . 29
180 478 . 104 567 . 46
180
° ·
° · + ° + °
° · + +
C
C
C B A
Level 2
11. By the cosine formula,
fig.) sig. 3 to cor. ( 77 . 7
cm 100 cos ) 6 )( 4 ( 2 6 4
cos ) )( ( 2
2 2
2 2 2
·
° − + ·
∠ − + ·
x
AC
ABC BC AB BC AB AC
By the cosine formula,
fig.) sig. 3 to cor. ( 5.34
cm 2 4 cos ) 7 )( 7676 . 7 ( 2 7 .7676 7
cos ) )( ( 2
2 2
2 2 2
·
° − + ·
∠ − + ·
y
AD
ACD DC AC DC AC AD
12. By the cosine formula,
fig.) sig. 3 to cor. ( cm 57 . 4
cm 8 4 cos ) 6 )( 3 ( 2 6 3
cos ) )( ( 2
2 2
2 2 2
·
° − + ·
∠ − + ·
AD
ABD BD AB BD AB AD
∵ ABCD is a parallelogram.
∴ BC = AD and DC = AB = 3 cm
fig.) sig. 3 to (cor. 57 . 4 ·
·
x
AD BC
By the cosine formula,
fig.) sig. 3 to cor. ( 2 . 29
) 6 )( 5729 . 4 ( 2
3 6 5729 . 4
cos
) )( ( 2
cos
2 2 2
2 2 2
° ·
− +
·
− +
· ∠
θ
θ
BD BC
DC BD BC
CBD
13. By the cosine formula,
16
9
) 6 )( 4 ( 2
5 6 4
) )( ( 2
cos
2 2 2
2 2 2
·
− +
·
− +
· ∠
BC AC
AB BC AC
ACB
16
9
cos cos
·
∠ · ∠
∠ · ∠
ACB ECD
ACB ECD
(vert. opp.

s)
By the cosine formula,
fig.) sig. 3 to (cor. 07 . 7
cm
16
9
) 8 )( 7 ( 2 8 7
cos ) )( ( 2
2 2
2 2 2
·

,
`

.
|
− + ·
∠ − + ·
x
ED
ECD CD CE CD CE ED
14.
Join AC.
By the cosine formula,
cm 15.240
cm 75 cos ) 13 )( 12 ( 2 13 12
cos ) )( ( 2
2 2
2 2 2
·
° − + ·
∠ − + ·
AC
ABC AB BC AB BC AC
By the cosine formula,
fig.) sig. 3 to (cor. 9 . 92
) 10 )( 11 ( 2
240 . 15 10 11
cos
) )( ( 2
cos
2 2 2
2 2 2
° ·
− +
·
− +
· ∠
θ
θ
AD CD
AC AD CD
ADC
15. Consider △ABD.
By the cosine formula,
144
109
) 8 )( 5 4 ( 2
6 8 ) 5 4 (
) )( ( 2
cos
2 2 2
2 2 2
·
+
− + +
·
− +
· ∠
AD BD
AB AD BD
ADB
Consider △ACD.
By the cosine formula,
27
(

sum of △)
9 Basic Properties of CirclesMore about Trigonometry (II)
fig.) sig. 3 to (cor. 33 . 5
cm
144
109
) 8 )( 5 ( 2 8 5
cos ) )( ( 2
2 2
2 2 2
·

,
`

.
|
− + ·
∠ − + ·
x
AC
ADC AD CD AD CD AC
16. Consider △ABD.
By the cosine formula,
fig.) sig. 3 to (cor. 06 . 7
cm 36 cos ) 10 )( 5 7 ( 2 10 ) 5 7 (
cos ) )( ( 2
2 2
2 2 2
·
° + − + + ·
∠ − + ·
x
AD
ABD AB BD AB BD AD
Consider △ABC.
By the cosine formula,
cm 9781 . 5
cm 36 cos ) 10 )( 7 ( 2 10 7
cos ) )( ( 2
2 2
2 2 2
·
° − + ·
∠ − + ·
AC
ABC AB BC AB BC AC
Consider △ACD.
By the cosine formula,
fig.) sig. 3 to (cor. 1 . 44
) 9781 . 5 )( 0595 . 7 ( 2
5 9781 . 5 7.0595
cos
) )( ( 2
cos
2 2 2
2 2 2
° ·
− +
·
− +
· ∠
θ
θ
AC AD
CD AC AD
CAD
17. (a) Consider △ABC.
By the cosine formula,
11
7
) 3 7 )( 6 5 ( 2
9 ) 3 7 ( ) 6 5 (
) )( ( 2
cos
2 2 2
2 2 2
·
+ +
− + + +
·
− +
·
AC BC
AB AC BC
C

11
7
cos · C
(b) Consider △CMN.
By the cosine formula,
fig.) sig. 3 to (cor. cm 70 . 4
cm
11
7
) 3 )( 6 ( 2 3 6
cos ) )( ( 2
2 2
2 2 2
·

,
`

.
|
− + ·
− + ·
MN
C MC NC MC NC MN
18. (a) Consider △ABC.
By the cosine formula,
fig.) sig. 3 to (cor. cm 1.2 1
cm 70 cos ) 11 )( 8 ( 2 11 8
cos ) )( ( 2
2 2
2 2 2
·
° − + ·
∠ − + ·
AC
ABC AB BC AB BC AC
∵ ABCD is a parallelogram.
∴ DC = AB = 11 cm
° · ∠
° · ° + ∠
° · ∠ + ∠
110
180 70
180
BCD
BCD
ABC BCD
(int.

s,
AB // DC)
Consider △BCD.
fig.) sig. 3 to (cor. cm 5.7 1
cm 110 cos ) 8 )( 11 ( 2 8 11
cos ) )( ( 2
2 2
2 2 2
·
° − + ·
∠ − + ·
BD
BCD BC DC BC DC BD
(b) ∵ ABCD is a parallelogram.

cm 830 . 7
cm 659 . 15
2
1
2
1
·

,
`

.
|
× ·
·
·
BD
KD BK
cm 586 . 5
cm 172 . 11
2
1
2
1
·

,
`

.
|
× ·
·
·
AC
KA CK
Consider △BCK.
By the cosine formula,
fig.) sig. 3 to (cor. 0 . 71
) 830 . 7 )( 586 . 5 ( 2
8 830 . 7 586 . 5
) )( ( 2
cos
2 2 2
2 2 2
° · ∠
− +
·
− +
· ∠
BKC
BK CK
BC BK CK
BKC
∴ The acute angle between the diagonals is
71.0°.
19. ∵ b : c = 3 : 2


c b
c
b
2
3
2
3
·
·
By the cosine formula,
28
Certificate Mathematics in Action Full Solutions 4B
cm 7 6
cm 7 4
2
3
2
3
cm 7 4
cm
7
28
cm
7
784
4
7
cm 196
2
3
4
9
cm 196
60 cos ) (
2
3
2
2
3
cm 14
cos 2
2 2
2 2 2 2
2
2
2 2
2 2 2
·

,
`

.
|
× ·
·
·
·
·
·
− + ·
°
,
`

.
|
− +
,
`

.
|
·
− + ·
c b
c
c
c c c
c c c c
A bc c b a
20. (a) Consider △ABC.
By the cosine formula,
2
2 2 2
2 2 2
cm ) cos 24 25 (
cm ] cos ) 4 )( 3 ( 2 4 3 [
cos ) )( ( 2
θ
θ
− ·
− + ·
∠ − + · ABC AB BC AB BC AC
Consider △ADC.
θ
θ
− ° · ∠
° · ∠ +
° · ∠ + ∠
180
180
180
ADC
ADC
ADC ABC
(opp.

s,
cyclic quad.)
By the cosine formula,
2
2 2 2
2 2 2
cm ) cos 60 61 (
cm ] ) (180 cos ) 5 )( 6 ( 2 5 6 [
cos ) )( ( 2
θ
θ
+ ·
− ° − + ·
∠ − + · ADC AD DC AD DC AC

7
3
cos
cos 84 36
cos 60 61 cos 24 25
− ·
· −
+ · −
θ
θ
θ θ
(b)
fig.) sig. 3 to (cor. cm 94 . 5
cm
7
247
cm
7
3
24 25
·
·

,
`

.
|
− − · AC
29
9 Basic Properties of CirclesMore about Trigonometry (II)
Exercise 9D (p. 189)
Level 1
1. a = b = c = 6 cm
Let
2
c b a
s
+ +
· .

cm 9
cm
2
6 6 6
·
+ +
· s
s – a = (9 – 6) cm = 3 cm
s – b = (9 – 6) cm = 3 cm
s – c = (9 – 6) cm = 3 cm
∴ Area of △ABC
fig.) sig. 3 to (cor. cm 6 . 15
cm 3 3 3 9
) )( )( (
2
2
·
× × × ·
− − − · c s b s a s s
2. a = 30 cm, b = c = 19 cm
Let
2
c b a
s
+ +
· .

cm 4 3
cm
2
19 19 30
·
+ +
· s
s – a = (34 – 30) cm = 4 cm
s – b = (34 – 19) cm = 15 cm
s – c = (34 – 19) cm = 15 cm
∴ Area of △ABC
fig.) sig. 3 to (cor. cm 175
cm 15 15 4 34
) )( )( (
2
2
·
× × × ·
− − − · c s b s a s s
3. Let
2
c b a
s
+ +
· , where a = 14 cm, b = 15 cm
and
c = 13 cm.

cm 21
cm
2
13 15 14
·
+ +
· s
s – a = (21 – 14) cm = 7 cm
s – b = (21 – 15) cm = 6 cm
s – c = (21 – 13) cm = 8 cm
∴ Area of △ABC
2
2
cm 4 8
cm 8 6 7 21
) )( )( (
·
× × × ·
− − − · c s b s a s s
4. Let
2
c b a
s
+ +
· , where a = 9 cm, b = 12 cm and
c = 7 cm.

cm 14
cm
2
7 12 9
·
+ +
· s
s – a = (14 – 9) cm = 5 cm
s – b = (14 – 12) cm = 2 cm
s – c = (14 – 7) cm = 7 cm
∴ Area of △ABC
fig.) sig. 3 to (cor. cm 1.3 3
cm 7 2 5 14
) )( )( (
2
2
·
× × × ·
− − − · c s b s a s s
5. Let
2
c b a
s
+ +
· , where a = 25 m, b = 23 m and
c = 18 m.

m 33
m
2
18 23 25
·
+ +
· s
s – a = (33 – 25) m = 8 m
s – b = (33 – 23) m = 10 m
s – c = (33 – 18) m = 15 m
Area of △ABC

2
2
m 11 60
m 15 10 8 33
) )( )( (
·
× × × ·
− − − · c s b s a s s
Area of △ABC AD BC × × ·
2
1

fig.) sig. 3 to (cor. m 9 . 15
m
25
2 11 60
m 25
2
1
m 11 60
2
·
×
·
× × ·
h
h
6. Let
2
c b a
s
+ +
· , where a = 10 cm, b = 14 cm
and
c = 20 cm.

cm 22
cm
2
20 14 10
·
+ +
· s
s – a = (22 – 10) cm = 12 cm
s – b = (22 – 14) cm = 8 cm
s – c = (22 – 20) cm = 2 cm
Area of △ABC

2
2
cm 66 8
cm 2 8 12 22
) )( )( (
·
× × × ·
− − − · c s b s a s s
Area of △ABC AD BC × × ·
2
1
fig.) sig. 3 to (cor. cm 0 . 13
cm
10
2 66 8
cm 10
2
1
cm 66 8
2
·
×
·
× × ·
h
h
Level 2
7.
30
Certificate Mathematics in Action Full Solutions 4B
Join PR.
cm 10
cm 8 6
2 2
2 2 2
·
+ ·
+ ·
PR
SP RS PR
(Pyth. theorem)
Consider △PQR.
Let
2
r q p
s
+ +
· , where p = 6 cm, q = 10 cm
and
r = 7 cm.

cm 11
cm
2
7 10 5
·
+ +
· s
s – p = (11 – 5) cm = 6 cm
s – q = (11 – 10) cm = 1 cm
s – r = (11 – 7) cm = 4 cm
Area of quadrilateral PQRS
·
area of △PQR + area of △PRS
fig.) sig. 3 to (cor. cm 0.2 4
cm 8 6
2
1
4 1 6 11
2
1
) )( )( (
2
2
·

,
`

.
|
× × + × × × ·
× × + − − − · PS RS r s q s p s s
8.
Join OB.
Consider △OBA.
OB = OA = 8 cm
Let
2
1
OA OB AB
s
+ +
· .

cm 13
cm
2
8 8 10
1
·
+ +
· s
s1 – AB = (13 – 10) cm = 3 cm
s1 – OB = (13 – 8) cm = 5 cm
s1 – OA = (13 – 8) cm = 5 cm
Consider △OCB.
OC = OB = 8 cm
Let
2
2
OB OC BC
s
+ +
· .

cm 5 . 10
cm
2
8 8 5
2
·
+ +
· s
s2 – BC = (10.5 – 5) cm = 5.5 cm
s2 – OC = (10.5 – 8) cm = 2.5 cm
s2 – OB = (10.5 – 8) cm = 2.5 cm
Area of quadrilateral OCBA
·
area of △OBA + area of △OCB
fig.) sig. 3 to (cor. cm 2 . 50
cm ) 5 . 2 5 . 2 5 . 5 5 . 10 5 5 3 13 (
) )( )( (
) )( )( (
2
2
2 2 2 2
1 1 1 1
·
× × × + × × × ·
− − −
+ − − − ·
OB s OC s BC s s
OA s OB s AB s s
9.
Draw
AE ⊥
BC and DF ⊥ BC.
∵ AD // BC
∴ AE = DF
Area of △ABC
DF BC
AE BC
× × ·
× × ·
2
1
2
1
· area of △BCD
Consider △ABC.
Let
2
c b a
s
+ +
· , where a = 12 cm, b = 10 cm
and
c = 6 cm.

cm 14
cm
2
6 10 12
·
+ +
· s
s – a = (14 – 12) cm = 2 cm
s – b = (14 – 10) cm = 4 cm
s – c = (14 – 6) cm = 8 cm
Area of △BCD · area of △ABC
fig.) sig. 3 to (cor. cm 9.9 2
cm 8 4 2 14
) )( )( (
2
2
·
× × × ·
− − − · c s b s a s s
10. Consider △ACD.
° · ∠
° · ° + ∠ + °
° · ∠ + ∠ + ∠
63
180 80 37
180
ADC
ADC
ACD ADC DAC
(

sum of △)
By the sine formula,
cm 844 . 11
cm
37 sin
63 sin 8
sin sin
·
°
°
·

·

AC
DAC
CD
ADC
AC
Let
2
AB AC BC
s
+ +
· .
31
9 Basic Properties of CirclesMore about Trigonometry (II)

cm 422 . 18
cm
2
10 844 . 11 15
·
+ +
· s
s – BC = (18.422 – 15) cm = 3.422 cm
s – AC = (18.422 – 11.844) cm = 6.578 cm
s – AB = (18.422 – 10) cm = 8.422 cm
Area of △ABC
fig.) sig. 3 to (cor. cm 59.1
cm 422 . 8 578 . 6 422 . 3 422 . 18
) )( )( (
2
2
·
× × × ·
− − − · AB s AC s BC s s
11.
32
Certificate Mathematics in Action Full Solutions 4B
Join BE and BD.
Consider △ABE.
By the cosine formula,
km 047 . 5
km 110 cos ) 4 )( 2 ( 2 4 2
cos ) )( ( 2
2 2
2 2 2
·
° − + ·
∠ − + ·
BE
EAB AB AE AB AE BE
Consider △BCD.
By the cosine formula,
km 717 . 5
km 130 cos ) 8 . 2 )( 5 . 3 ( 2 8 . 2 5 . 3
cos ) )( ( 2
2 2
2 2 2
·
° − + ·
∠ − + ·
BD
BCD CD BC CD BC BD
Consider △BDE.
Let
2
BD BE DE
s
+ +
· .

km 382 . 6
km
2
717 . 5 047 . 5 2
·
+ +
· s
s – DE = (6.382 – 2) km = 4.382 km
s – BE = (6.382 – 5.047) km = 1.335 km
s – BD = (6.382 – 5.717) km = 0.665 km
Area of the lake
· area of △ABE + area of △BDE + area of △BCD
f i g . ) s i g . 3 t o ( c o r . k m 1 2 . 5
k m
1 3 0 s i n 8 . 2 5 . 3
2
1
0 . 6 6 5 1 . 3 3 5 4 . 3 8 2 6 . 3 8 2
1 1 0 s i n 2 4
2
1
s i n
2
1
) ) ( ) ( (
s i n
2
1
2
2
·

,
`

.
|
° × × ×
+ × × ×
+ ° × × ×
·
∠ × × × +
− − − +
∠ × × × ·
B C D C D B C
B D s B E s D E s s
E A B E A A B
Exercise 9E (p. 196)
Level 1
1. By the cosine formula,
fig.) sig. 3 to (cor. 8 . 28
) 15 )( 12 ( 2
32 . 7 15 12
) )( ( 2
cos
2 2 2
2 2 2
° · ∠
− +
·
− +
· ∠
APB
BP AP
AB BP AP
APB
2.
33
9 Basic Properties of CirclesMore about Trigonometry (II)
With the notations in the figure, consider △APH.
° ·
° − ° · ∠
50
130 180 PAH
By the cosine formula,
fig.) sig. 3 to (cor. m 309
m 50 cos ) 300 )( 400 ( 2 300 400
cos ) )( ( 2
2 2
2 2 2
·
° − + ·
∠ − + ·
HP
PAH AP AH AP AH HP
∴ Harry is 309 m away from the park.
3.
With the notations in the figure,
° ·
° − ° · ∠
30
150 180 BCD
Consider △ABC.
° · ∠
− +
·
− +
· ∠
° · ∠
− +
·
− +
· ∠
103 . 49
) 55 )( 60 ( 2
48 55 60
) )( ( 2
cos
011 . 60
) 60 )( 48 ( 2
55 60 48
) )( ( 2
cos
2 2 2
2 2 2
2 2 2
2 2 2
CAB
AB CA
BC AB CA
CAB
ACB
CA BC
AB CA BC
ACB
° ·
° − ° ·
∠ − ∠ · ∠
011 . 30
30 011 . 60
BCD ACB ACD
° ·
∠ · ∠
011 . 30
ACD FAC (alt.

s, FA // CD)
fig.) sig. 3 to (cor. 1 . 79
103 . 49 011 . 30
° ·
° + ° ·
∠ + ∠ · ∠ CAB FAC FAB
∴ The true bearing of B from A is 079.1°.
4.
° ·
° − ° · ∠
° ·
° + ° · ∠
42
48 90
120
90 30
ABD
DAB
In △ABD,
° ·
° − ° − ° ·
∠ − ∠ − ° · ∠
18
42 120 180
180 ABD DAB ADB
(

sum of △)
34
Certificate Mathematics in Action Full Solutions 4B
By the sine formula,
m
18 sin
120 sin 50
18 sin
m 50
120 sin
sin sin
°
°
·
°
·
°

·

DB
DB
ADB
AB
DAB
DB
In △BDC,
fig.) sig. 3 to (cor. m 104
m 48 sin
18 sin
120 sin 50
sin
sin
·

,
`

.
|
° ×
°
°
·
∠ ·
· ∠
DBC DB DC
DB
DC
DBC
∴ The height of the hill is 104 m.
5. In △ABT,
° · ∠
° · ∠ + °
∠ · ∠ + ∠
35
60 25
ATB
ATB
TBH ATB TAB
(ext.

of △)
By the sine formula,
m
35 sin
25 sin 200
35 sin
m 200
25 sin
sin sin
°
°
·
°
·
°

·

TB
TB
ATB
AB
TAB
TB
In △TBH,
fig.) sig. 3 to (cor. m 128
m 60 sin
35 sin
25 sin 200
sin
sin
·

,
`

.
|
° ×
°
°
·
∠ ·
· ∠
TBH TB TH
TB
TH
TBH
∴ The height of the tower is 128 m.
6.
Join AC.
In △ABD,
° · ∠
° · ° + ° + ∠
° · ∠ + ∠ + ∠
95
180 50 35
180
BAD
BAD
ADB ABD BAD
(

sum of △)
By the sine formula,
m
95 sin
35 sin 200
95 sin
m 200
35 sin
sin sin
°
°
·
°
·
°

·

AD
AD
BAD
BD
ABD
AD
35
9 Basic Properties of CirclesMore about Trigonometry (II)
In △ACD,
fig.) sig. 3 to cor. ( m 88.2
m 50 sin
95 sin
35 sin 200
sin
sin
·

,
`

.
|
° ×
°
°
·
∠ ·
· ∠
ADC AD AC
AD
AC
ADC
∴ The height of the building is 88.2 m.
7. In △ABD,
m
25 sin
40
sin

sin
°
·

·
· ∠
ADB
AB
AD
AD
AB
ADB
In △ADC,
° · ° − ° · ∠
° · ° − ° · ∠
55 35 90
65 25 90
ACD
ADC
° · ∠
° · ° + ° + ∠
° · ∠ + ∠ + ∠
60
180 55 65
180
CAD
CAD
ACD ADC CAD
(

sum of △)
By the sine formula,
fig.) sig. 3 to (cor. m 100
m 60 sin
55 sin
25 sin
40
55 sin
m
25 sin
40
60 sin
sin sin
·

,
`

.
|
° ×
°
°
·
°
°
·
°

·

CD
CD
ACD
AD
CAD
CD
8.
With the notations in the figure,
° ·
∠ · ∠
50
CPA PAB (alt.

s, CP // AB)
In △APB,
° · ° − ° · ∠ 60 50 110 APB
° · ∠
° · ∠ + ° + °
° · ∠ + ∠ + ∠
70
180 60 50
180
ABP
ABP
ABP APB PAB
(

sum of △)
36
Certificate Mathematics in Action Full Solutions 4B
By the sine formula,
fig.) sig. 3 to (cor. km 68 . 8
km
60 sin
70 sin 8
60 sin
km 8
70 sin
sin sin
·
°
°
·
°
·
°

·

PA
PA
APB
AB
ABP
PA
∴ The distance between P and A is 8.68 km.
9.
With the notations
in the figure,
° ·
∠ · ∠
35
ALC BAL (alt.

s, DA // LC)
° · ∠
° · ∠ + °
∠ · ∠ + ∠
25
60 35
BLA
BLA
DBL BLA BAL
(ext.

of △)
° · ∠
° · ° + ° + ∠
° · ∠ + ∠ + ∠
120
180 25 35
180
ABL
ABL
BLA BAL ABL
(

sum of △)
By the sine formula,
km 400 . 24
km
120 sin
25 sin 50
120 sin
km 50
25 sin
sin sin
·
°
°
·
°
·
°

·

BA
BA
ABL
AL
BLA
BA
∴ The average speed of the ship
fig.) sig. 3 to (cor. km/h 2 . 12
h 2
km 400 . 24
·
·
Level 2
10. (a)
° ·
° + ° · ∠
99
33 66 DPC
DP = (40 × 2) km = 80 km
CP = (30 × 2) km = 60 km
By the cosine formula,
fig.) sig. 3 to (cor. km 107
km 99 cos ) 60 )( 80 ( 2 60 80
cos ) )( ( 2
2 2
2 2 2
·
° − + ·
∠ − + ·
DC
DPC CP DP CP DP DC
∴ The distance between C and D is 107 km.
37
9 Basic Properties of CirclesMore about Trigonometry (II)
(b)
With the notations in the figure,
° ·
∠ · ∠
66
DPF GDP (alt.

s, GD // PF)
Consider △DCP.
By the sine formula,
107.25
99 sin 60
sin
99 sin
km 25 . 107
sin
km 60
sin sin
°
· ∠
°
·


·

PDC
PDC
DPC
DC
PDC
CP

(rejected) 456 . 146 or 544 . 33 ° ° · ∠PDC
fig.) sig. 3 to (cor. 5 . 80
180 544 . 33 66
180
° · ∠
° · ∠ + ° + °
° · ∠ + ∠ + ∠
CDH
CDH
CDH PDC GDP
∴ The compass bearing of C from D is
S80.5°E.
11. (a)
With the notations in the figure,
° ·
∠ · ∠
48
DAB ABF (alt.

s, BF // DA)
° · ∠
° · ° + ∠ + °
° · ∠ + ∠ + ∠
67
180 48 65
180
CBA
CBA
ABF CBA CBG
(adj.

s on st. line)
Consider △ABC.
By the cosine formula,
fig.) sig. 3 to (cor. km 9 . 18
km 67 cos ) 20 )( 12 ( 2 20 12
cos ) )( ( 2
2 2
2 2 2
·
° − + ·
∠ − + ·
AC
CBA BC AB BC AB AC
∴ The distance between A and C is 18.9 km.
(b) By the sine formula,
18.880
67 sin 20
sin
67 sin
km 880 . 18
sin
km 20
sin sin
°
· ∠
°
·


·

CAB
CAB
CBA
AC
CAB
BC
(rejected) 808 . 102 or 192 . 77 ° ° · ∠CAB
fig.) sig. 3 to (cor. 2 . 29
48 192 . 77
° ·
° − ° ·
∠ − ∠ · ∠ DAB CAB CAD
∴ The compass bearing of C from A is N29.2°W.
12. (a)
With the notations in the figure,
° ·
° − ° · ∠
50
130 180 BCD (adj.

s on
st. line)
By the cosine formula,
° · ∠
− +
·
− +
· ∠
782 . 118
) 45 )( 30 ( 2
65 45 30
) )( ( 2
cos
2 2 2
2 2 2
ACB
CA BC
AB CA BC
ACB
° ·
° − ° ·
∠ − ∠ · ∠
782 . 68
50 782 . 118
BCD ACB ACD
° ·
∠ · ∠
782 . 68
ACD FAC (alt.

s, FA // CD)
By the cosine formula,
° · ∠
− +
·
− +
· ∠
861 . 23
) 65 )( 45 ( 2
30 65 45
) )( ( 2
cos
2 2 2
2 2 2
CAB
AB CA
BC AB CA
CAB
fig.) sig. 3 to (cor. 6 . 92
861 . 23 782 . 68
° ·
° + ° ·
∠ + ∠ · ∠ CAB FAC FAB
∴ The true bearing of B from A is 092.6°.
(b) The shortest distance of the ship to island C is
CG, such that CG ⊥ AB.
Let
2
c b a
s
+ +
· , where a = 30 km, b = 45
km and c = 65 km.
38
(adj. ∠ s on st. line)
Certificate Mathematics in Action Full Solutions 4B

km 70
km
2
65 45 30
·
+ +
· s
s – a = (70 – 30) km = 40 km
s – b = (70 – 45) km = 25 km
s – c = (70 – 65) km = 5 km
Area of △ABC
2
km 5 25 40 70
) )( )( (
× × × ·
− − − · c s b s a s s
∵ Area of △ABC CG AB × × ·
2
1

fig.) sig. 3 to (cor. km 2 . 18
km
65
2 5 25 40 70
km 5 25 40 70 km 65
2
1
2
·
× × × ×
·
× × × · × ×
CG
CG
∴ The shortest distance of the ship to island C is
18.2 km.
13. (a)
With the notations in the figure,
° ·
∠ · ∠
20
AQC QAP (alt.

s, PA // QC)
° ·
° − ° ·
∠ − ∠ · ∠
35
20 55
QAP BAP BAQ
° ·
° + ° · ∠
70
20 50 AQB
° · ∠
° · ° + ° + ∠
° · ∠ + ∠ + ∠
75
180 35 70
180
ABQ
ABQ
BAQ AQB ABQ
(

sum of △)
Consider △APQ.
m
20 sin
10
m 10
20 sin
sin
°
·
· °
· ∠
AQ
AQ
AQ
PQ
QAP
By the sine formula,
fig.) sig. 3 to (cor. m 4 . 28
m 70 sin
75 sin
20 sin
10
75 sin
m
20 sin
10
70 sin
sin sin
·

,
`

.
|
° ×
°
°
·
°
°
·
°

·

AB
AB
ABQ
AQ
AQB
AB
∴ The length of the string AB is 28.4 m.
39
9 Basic Properties of CirclesMore about Trigonometry (II)
40
Certificate Mathematics in Action Full Solutions 4B
(b) Draw BD ⊥ AP.
In △ADB,
fig.) sig. 3 to (cor. m 3 . 23
m 55 sin 444 . 28
sin
sin
·
° ·
∠ ·
· ∠
BAD AB BD
AB
BD
BAD
∴ The height of the balloon above the road AP is
23.3 m.
14.
Join BA.
With the notations in the figure,
° ·
∠ · ∠
35
BCF ABC (alt.

s, BA // FC)
Consider △ABC.
By the sine formula,
km 0718 . 3
km
35 sin
50 sin 3 . 2
35 sin
km 3 . 2
50 sin
sin sin
·
°
°
·
°
·
°

·

BC
BC
ABC
AC
BAC
BC
° · ∠
° · ° + ∠ + °
° · ∠ + ∠ + ∠
95
180 50 35
180
ACB
ACB
BAC ACB ABC
(

sum of
By the sine formula,
km
35 sin
95 sin 3 . 2
35 sin
km 3 . 2
95 sin
sin sin
°
°
·
°
·
°

·

AB
AB
ABC
AC
ACB
AB
Consider △ADB.
By the cosine formula,
km 7271 . 2
km
43 cos ) 8 . 2 (
35 sin
95 sin 3 . 2
2
8 . 2
35 sin
95 sin 3 . 2
cos ) )( ( 2
2
2
2 2 2
·
°
,
`

.
|
°
°
− +
,
`

.
|
°
°
·
∠ − + ·
BD
BAD AD AB AD AB BD
Length of path I
km 3718 . 5
km ) 0718 . 3 3 . 2 (
·
+ ·
+ · BC AC
Length of path II
km 5271 . 5
km ) 7271 . 2 8 . 2 (
·
+ ·
+ · BD AD
Difference between the two paths
fig.) sig. 3 to (cor. km 155 . 0
km ) 3718 . 5 5271 . 5 (
·
− ·
∴ The first path is shorter, the difference between
the two paths is 0.155 km.
15.
° ·
° − ° · ∠
25
15 40 HAB
° ·
° − ° · ∠
40
15 55 HBK
° · ∠
° · ∠ + °
∠ · ∠ + ∠
15
40 25
AHB
AHB
HBK AHB HAB
(ext.

of △)
By the sine formula,
m
15 sin
25 sin 10
15 sin
m 10
25 sin
sin sin
°
°
·
°
·
°

·

HB
HB
AHB
AB
HAB
HB
Consider △BKH.
° ·
° − ° · ∠
35
55 90 BHK
° · ∠
° · ∠ + ° + °
° · ∠ + ∠ + ∠
105
180 40 35
180
BKH
BKH
BKH HBK BHK
(

sum of △)
By the sine formula,
fig.) sig. 3 to (cor. m 9 . 10
m 40 sin
105 sin
15 sin
25 sin 10
105 sin
m
15 sin
25 sin 10
40 sin
sin sin
·

,
`

.
|
° ×
°
°
°
·
°
°
°
·
°

·

HK
HK
BKH
HB
HBK
HK
∴ The height of the lamppost is 10.9 m.
16. (a)
° · ∠
° · ° + ∠
∠ · ∠ + ∠
23
65 42
PHQ
PHQ
HPA HQP PHQ
(ext.

of △)
Consider △HPQ.
By the sine formula,
41
9 Basic Properties of CirclesMore about Trigonometry (II)
m
23 sin
42 sin 80
23 sin
m 80
42 sin
sin sin
°
°
·
°
·
°

·

HP
HP
PHQ
PQ
HQP
HP
42
Certificate Mathematics in Action Full Solutions 4B
In △HAP,
fig.) sig. 3 to (cor. m 124
m 65 sin
23 sin
42 sin 80
sin
sin
·

,
`

.
|
° ×
°
°
·
∠ ·
· ∠
HPA HP HA
HP
HA
HPA
° · ∠
° · ° + ∠
∠ · ∠ + ∠
25
60 35
PKQ
PKQ
KQB KPQ PKQ
(ext.

of △)
Consider △KPQ.
By the sine formula,
m
25 sin
35 sin 80
25 sin
m 80
35 sin
sin sin
°
°
·
°
·
°

·

KQ
KQ
PKQ
PQ
KPQ
KQ
In △KBQ,
fig.) sig. 3 to (cor. m 0 . 94
m 60 sin
25 sin
35 sin 80
sin
sin
·

,
`

.
|
° ×
°
°
·
∠ ·
· ∠
KQB KQ KB
KQ
KB
KQB
(b) In △HAP,
m 65 cos
23 sin
42 sin 80
cos
cos

,
`

.
|
° ×
°
°
·
∠ ·
· ∠
HPA HP AP
HP
AP
HPA
In △KBQ,
m 60 cos
25 sin
35 sin 80
cos
cos

,
`

.
|
° ×
°
°
·
∠ ·
· ∠
KQB KQ QB
KQ
QB
KQB
f i g . ) s i g . 3 t o ( c o r . m 1 9 2
m
6 0 c o s
2 5 s i n
3 5 s i n 8 0
8 0 6 5 c o s
2 3 s i n
4 2 s i n 8 0
·

,
`

.
|
° ×
°
°
+ + ° ×
°
°
·
+ + · Q B P Q A P A B
∴ The distance between A and B is 192 m.
(c)
43
9 Basic Properties of CirclesMore about Trigonometry (II)
With the notations in the figure,
m 1 3 5 . 3 0
m
6 0 s i n
2 5 s i n
3 5 s i n 8 0
6 5 s i n
2 3 s i n
4 2 s i n 8 0
·

,
`

.
|
° ×
°
°
− ° ×
°
°
·
− ·
− ·
K B H A
C A H A H C
m 187 . 192 ·
· AB CK
In △HCK,
fig.) sig. 3 to cor. ( 91 . 8
m 192.187
m 135 . 30
tan
° · ∠
·
· ∠
HKC
CK
HC
HKC
∴ The angle of elevation of H from K is
8.91°.
17.
Join BP.
° · ∠
° · ° + ° + ° + ° + ∠
° · ∠ + ∠ + ∠ + ∠
72
360 ) 38 90 ( 90 70
360
ABQ
ABQ
BQP APQ BAP ABQ
Consider △APB.
By the cosine formula,
m 2268 . 5
m 70 cos ) 5 )( 4 ( 2 5 4
cos ) )( ( 2
2 2
2 2 2
·
° − + ·
∠ − + ·
BP
BAP AB AP AB AP BP
By the sine formula,
(rejected) 134.017 or 983 . 45
5.2268
70 sin 4
sin
70 sin
m 2268 . 5
sin
m 4
sin sin
° ° · ∠
°
· ∠
°
·


·

ABP
ABP
ABP
BAP
BP
ABP
AP
° ·
° − ° ·
∠ − ∠ · ∠
017 . 26
983 . 45 72
ABP ABQ PBQ
Consider △BPQ.
fig.) sig. 3 to (cor. m 91 . 2
m
128 sin
26.017 sin 2268 . 5
128 sin
m 2268 . 5
26.017 sin
sin sin
·
°
°
·
°
·
°

·

PQ
PQ
BQP
BP
PBQ
PQ
Exercise 9F (p. 209)
Level 1
1. (a)
fig.) sig. 3 to (cor. cm 8.49
cm 72
cm 6 6
theorem) (Pyth.
2 2
2 2 2
·
·
+ ·
+ ·
BG
CG BC BG
fig.) sig. 3 to (cor. cm 10.4
cm 108
cm 6 ) 72 (
theorem) (Pyth.
2 2
2 2 2
·
·
+ ·
+ ·
BH
HG BG BH
(b) The angle between BG and plane ABCD is
∠ GBC.
° · ∠
·
· ∠
45
6
6
tan
GBC
BC
GC
GBC
∴ The angle between BG and plane ABCD is
45°.
(c) The angle between BH and plane BCGF is
∠ HBG.
fig.) sig. 3 to cor. ( 3 . 35
72
6
tan
° · ∠
·
· ∠
HBG
BG
HG
HBG
∴ The angle between BH and plane BCGF is
35.3°.
44
Certificate Mathematics in Action Full Solutions 4B
2. (a)
The angle between AG and GC is ∠ AGC.
cm 10
cm 6 8
theorem) (Pyth.
2 2
2 2 2
·
+ ·
+ ·
AC
BC AB AC
fig.) sig. 3 to (cor. 4 . 63
5
10
tan
° · ∠
·
· ∠
AGC
CG
AC
AGC
∴ The angle between AG and GC is 63.4°.
(b)
The angle between AG and plane ADHE is
∠ GAH.
cm 61
cm 5 6
theorem) (Pyth.
2 2
2 2 2
·
+ ·
+ ·
AH
DH AD AH
fig.) sig. 3 to (cor. 7 . 45
61
8
tan
° · ∠
·
· ∠
GAH
AH
HG
GAH
∴ The angle between AG and plane ADHE is
45.7°.
3. (a)
The angle between HB and DB is ∠ HBD.
cm 74
cm 5 7
theorem) (Pyth.
2 2
2 2 2
·
+ ·
+ ·
BD
AD AB BD
fig.) sig. 3 to (cor. 9 . 24
74
4
tan
° · ∠
·
· ∠
HBD
BD
HD
HBD
∴ The angle between HB and DB is 24.9°.
(b)
The angle between HB and plane CGHD is
∠ BHC.
cm 65
cm 4 7
theorem) (Pyth.
2 2
2 2 2
·
+ ·
+ ·
HC
GC HG HC
fig.) sig. 3 to (cor. 8 . 31
65
5
tan
° · ∠
·
· ∠
BHC
HC
BC
BHC
∴ The angle between HB and plane CGHD is
31.8°.
45
9 Basic Properties of CirclesMore about Trigonometry (II)
4. (a) The angle between the planes ACFD and BCFE
is ∠ ACB.
Consider △ABC.
fig.) sig. 3 to (cor. 4 . 41
4
3
) 12 )( 10 ( 2
8 12 10
) )( ( 2
cos
2 2 2
2 2 2
° · ∠
·
− +
·
− +
· ∠
ACB
BC CA
AB BC CA
ACB
∴ The angle between the planes ACFD and
BCFE is 41.4°.
(b) The angle between the planes ACFD and
BCFE is ∠ ACB.
Consider △ABC.
By the sine formula,
(rejected) fig.) sig. 3 to (cor. 135
or fig.) sig. 3 to (cor. 5 . 44
9
35 sin 11
sin
35 sin
cm 9
sin
cm 11
sin sin
°
° · ∠
°
· ∠
°
·


·

ACB
ACB
ACB
BAC
BC
ACB
AB
∴ The angle between the planes ACFD and
BCFE is 44.5°.
5. (a) The angle between the planes ABQP and ACRP
is ∠ BAC.
Consider △ABC.
fig.) sig. 3 to (cor. 106
25
7
) 5 )( 5 ( 2
8 5 5
) )( ( 2
cos
2 2 2
2 2 2
° · ∠
− ·
− +
·
− +
· ∠
BAC
AC AB
BC AC AB
BAC
∴ The angle between the planes ABQP and
ACRP is 106°.
(b)
Let M be the mid-point of QR.
cm 4
cm 8
2
1
2
1
·

,
`

.
|
× ·
· QR QM

theorem) (Pyth.
theorem) (Pyth.
2 2
2 2
2 2 2
AR
CR AC
BQ AB AQ
BQ AB AQ
·
+ ·
+ ·
+ ·
∴ △AQR is an isosceles triangle.
∴ AM ⊥ QR
∵ PQ = PR = 5 cm
∴ △PQR is an isosceles triangle.
∴ PM ⊥ QR
∴ QR is the line of intersection of the planes
AQR and PQR.
∴ The angle between the planes AQR and
PQR is ∠ AMP.
Consider △PQM.
cm 3
cm 4 5
theorem) (Pyth.
2 2
2 2 2
·
− ·
+ ·
PM
QM PM PQ
fig.) sig. 3 to (cor. 3 . 73
3
10
tan
° · ∠
·
· ∠
AMP
PM
AP
AMP
∴ The angle between the planes AQR and
PQR is 73.3°.
6. (a) In △CBE,
m
30 sin
700
m 700
30 sin
°
·
· °
BC
BC
Consider △DBC.
fig.) sig. 3 to (cor. m 2440
m
55 cos
30 sin
700
55 cos
55 cos
·
°
°
·
°
·
· °
BC
BD
BD
BC
(b)
46
Certificate Mathematics in Action Full Solutions 4B
The angle between the path BD and plane ABEF
is ∠ DBF.
Consider △DBF.
fig.) sig. 3 to (cor. 7 . 16
m 2440.826
m 700
sin
° · ∠
·
· ∠
DBF
BD
DF
DBF
∴ The angle between the path BD and plane
ABEF is 16.7°.
7. (a) In △FBE,
cm
50 tan
60
cm 60
50 tan
°
·
· °
BE
BE
In △EBC,
fig.) sig. 3 to (cor. cm 2 . 25
cm 30 sin
50 tan
60
30 sin
30 sin
·

,
`

.
|
° ×
°
·
° ·
· °
BE EC
BE
EC
(b)
The
angle between BF and plane ABCD is ∠ FBD.
In △FBE,
cm
50 sin
60
cm 60
50 sin
°
·
· °
BF
BF
In △FBD,
fig.) sig. 3 to (cor. 7 . 18
cm
50 sin
60
cm 30 sin
50 tan
60
sin
° · ∠
°

,
`

.
|
° ×
°
·
·
· ∠
FBD
BF
EC
BF
FD
FBD
∴ The angle between BF and plane ABCD is
18.7°.
8. (a) The angle between VA and plane ABCD is
∠ VAN.
cm 10
theorem) (Pyth. cm 6 8
2 2
·
+ · AC
∴ cm 5
2
1
· · AC AN (property of
rectangle)
Consider △VAN.
fig.) sig. 3 to cor. ( 4 . 67
5
12
tan
° · ∠
· ∠
VAN
VAN
∴ The angle between VA and plane ABCD is
67.4°.
47
9 Basic Properties of CirclesMore about Trigonometry (II)
(b)
Let M be the mid-point of AB.
∵ △VAB is an isosceles triangle.
∴ VM ⊥ AB
∵ △NAB is an isosceles triangle.
∴ NM ⊥ AB
∴ AB is the line of intersection of the planes
VAB and ABCD.
∴ The angle between the planes VAB and
ABCD is ∠ VMN.
cm 3
cm
2
6
·
· MN
Consider △VMN.
fig.) sig. 3 to (cor. 0 . 76
3
12
tan
° · ∠
· ∠
VMN
VMN
∴ The angle between the planes VAB and
ABCD is 76.0°.
9. (a) The angle between VC and plane ABCD is
∠ VCM.
cm 4
cm 8
2
1
2
1
·

,
`

.
|
× ·
· AB MB
In △CMB,
cm 52
cm 6 4
theorem) Pyth. (
2 2
2 2 2
·
+ ·
+ ·
MC
BC MB MC
In △VCM,
fig.) sig. 3 to (cor. 2 . 54
cm 52
cm 10
tan
° · ∠
·
· ∠
VCM
MC
VM
VCM
∴ The angle between VC and plane ABCD is
54.2°.
(b)
48
Certificate Mathematics in Action Full Solutions 4B
Let N be the mid-point of DC.
The angle between the planes VDC and ABCD
is ∠ VNM.
In △VNM,
fig.) sig. 3 to (cor. 0 . 59
cm 6
cm 10
tan
° · ∠
·
·
· ∠
VNM
BC
VM
MN
VM
VNM
∴ The angle between the planes VDC and
ABCD is 59.0°.
10. (a) The angle between the covers ABCD and BCEF
is ∠ DCE.
Consider △DCE.
fig.) sig. 3 to (cor. 4 . 18
625
593
) 25 )( 25 ( 2
8 25 25
) )( ( 2
cos
2 2 2
2 2 2
° · ∠
·
− +
·
− +
· ∠
DCE
CE CD
DE CE CD
DCE
∴ The angle between the covers ABCD and
BCEF is 18.4°.
(b)
The angle between BD and plane BCEF is
∠ DBE.
cm 1025
cm 25 20
theorem) (Pyth.
cm 1025
cm 20 25
theorem) (Pyth.
2 2
2 2 2
2 2
2 2 2
·
+ ·
+ ·
·
+ ·
+ ·
BE
CE BC BE
BD
AD AB BD
Consider △BED.
By the cosine formula,
fig.) sig. 3 to (cor. 4 . 14
1025
993
) 1025 ( ) 1025 ( 2
8 ) 1025 ( ) 1025 (
) )( ( 2
cos
2 2 2
2 2 2
° · ∠
·
− +
·
− +
· ∠
DBE
BE BD
DE BE BD
DBE
∴ The angle between BD and plane BCEF is
14.4°.
11. (a)
m 25
m 15 20
theorem) (Pyth.
2 2
2 2 2
·
+ ·
+ ·
BD
CD BC BD


m 5 . 12
m
2
25
2
1
·
·
· BD BK
Consider △VBK.
m 15 tan 5 . 12
tan
tan
° ·
∠ ·
· ∠
VBK BK VK
BK
VK
VBK
fig.) sig. 3 to (cor. m 3 . 10
m 7) 15 tan 5 . 12 (
house the of Height
·
+ ° ·
+ · DE VK
(b)
Let M and N be the mid-points of AD and
HE respectively.
The angle between the planes VAD and ADEH is
∠ VMN.
∵ △VAD is an isosceles triangle.
∴ VM ⊥ AD
∵ △KAD is an isosceles triangle.
∴ KM ⊥ AD
∴ AD is the line of intersection of the planes
VAD and ABCD.
∴ The angle between planes VAD and
ABCD is ∠ VMK.
49
9 Basic Properties of CirclesMore about Trigonometry (II)
cm 7.5
cm 15
2
1
2
1
·

,
`

.
|
× ·
· FE KM
Consider △VMK.
° · ∠
°
·
· ∠
065 . 24
7.5
15 tan 5 . 12
tan
VMK
KM
VK
VMK
fig.) sig. 3 to cor. ( 114
90 065 . 24
° ·
° + ° ·
∠ + ∠ · ∠ KMN VMK VMN
∴ The angle between the planes VAD and
ADEH is 114°.
50
Certificate Mathematics in Action Full Solutions 4B
12. (a)
Consider △EFG.
cm 424
cm 18 10
theorem) (Pyth.
2 2
2 2 2
·
+ ·
+ ·
EG
FG EF EG
Consider △AEG.
cm 620
cm 424 14
theorem) (Pyth.
2
2 2 2
·
+ ·
+ ·
AG
EG AE AG
Consider ABGH.
∵ BA = GH, AH = BG and ∠ ABG = 90°
∴ ABGH is a rectangle.
∴ AK = KG = BK = KH (property of rectangle)

cm
2
620
2
1
·
·
·
AG
KH KG
Consider △KGH.
fig.) sig. 3 to (cor. 47.4
31
21
2
620
2
620
2
10
2
620
2
620
) )( ( 2
cos
2
2 2
2 2 2
° · ∠
·

,
`

.
|

,
`

.
|

,
`

.
|
+

,
`

.
|
·
− +
· ∠
GKH
KH KG
GH KH KG
GKH
(b) ∵ The angle between the planes KGH and
EFGH = the angle between the planes
ABGH and EFGH
∴ The angle between the planes KGH and
EFGH is ∠ BGF.
Consider △BFG.
fig.) sig. 3 to (cor. 9 . 37
18
14
tan
° · ∠
·
· ∠
BGF
FG
BF
BGF
∴ The angle between the planes KGH and
EFGH is 37.9°.
51
9 Basic Properties of CirclesMore about Trigonometry (II)
Level 2
13. (a) Consider △BDC.
fig.) sig. 3 to (cor. cm 225
cm 500 50
cm 190 120
theorem) (Pyth.
2 2
2 2 2
·
·
+ ·
+ ·
BD
CD BC BD
(b)
Join CE and
DF.
Distance between D and F
= distance between C and E
Consider △BEC.
By the cosine formula,
fig.) sig. 3 to (cor. cm 101
cm 50 cos ) 120 )( 120 ( 2 120 120
cos ) )( ( 2
2 2
2 2 2
·
° − + ·
∠ − + ·
CE
CBE BE BC BE BC CE
∴ The distance between D and F is 101 cm.
(c)
Join BD and
BF.
The angle between BF and DF is ∠ BFD.
cm 500 50 · ·BD BF
Consider △BFD.
By the cosine formula,
fig.) sig. 3 to (cor. 0 . 77
) 428 . 101 ( ) 500 50 ( 2
) 500 50 ( 428 . 101 ) 500 50 (
) )( ( 2
cos
2 2 2
2 2 2
° ·
− +
·
− +
· ∠
DF BF
BD DF BF
BFD
∴ The angle between BF and DF is 77.0°.
14. (a) The angle between the planes AFGD and ABCD
is ∠ FAB.
52
Certificate Mathematics in Action Full Solutions 4B
Consider △FAB.
fig.) sig. 3 to cor. ( 7 . 33
9
6
tan
° · ∠
·
· ∠
FAB
AB
FB
FAB
∴ The angle between the planes AFGD and
ABCD is 33.7°.
(b)
The angle between the planes ABCD and EPQH
is ∠ EPA.
∵ P is the mid-point of AB.


cm 5 . 4
cm
2
9
·
· AP
Consider △EAP.
fig.) sig. 3 to (cor. 53.1
5 . 4
6
tan
° · ∠
·
· ∠
EPA
AP
EA
EPA
∴ The angle between the planes ABCD and
EPQH is 53.1°.
15. (a) ∵ ABCD is a regular tetrahedron.
∴ AB = AC = AD = BC = BD = CD = 10 cm
∵ M is the mid-point of BC.

cm 5
cm
2
10
2
1
·
·
·
·
BC
MC BM
Consider △ABM and △ACM.
side) (common
(given)
(given)
AM AM
CM BM
AC AB
·
·
·
∴ △ABM ≅ △ACM (SSS)
° ·
°
·
∠ · ∠
90
2
180
AMC AMB
(corr.

s,

△s)
By similar argument, ∠ BMD = ∠ CMD = 90°
Consider △ABM.
fig.) sig. 3 to (cor. cm 8.66
cm 75
cm 5 10
theorem) (Pyth.
2 2
2 2 2
·
·
− ·
+ ·
AM
BM AM AB
Consider △DBM.
fig.) sig. 3 to (cor. cm 66 . 8
cm 75
cm 5 10
theorem) (Pyth.
2 2
2 2 2
·
·
− ·
+ ·
MD
MD BM BD
(b) The angle between AD and plane BCD is
∠ ADM.
Consider △AMD.
By the cosine formula,
fig.) sig. 3 to (cor. 7 . 54
75
5
) 75 )( 10 ( 2
) 75 ( ) 75 ( 10
) )( ( 2
cos
2 2 2
2 2 2
° · ∠
·
− +
·
− +
· ∠
ADM
MD AD
AM MD AD
ADM
∴ The angle between AD and plane BCD is
54.7°.
(c) BC is the line of intersection of the planes ABC
and BCD.
∵ ∠ AMB = 90°and ∠ DMB = 90°
∴ The angle between the planes ABC and
BCD is ∠ AMD.
Consider △AMD.
fig.) sig. 3 to (cor. 5 . 70
3
1
) 75 )( 75 ( 2
10 ) 75 ( ) 75 (
) )( ( 2
cos
2 2 2
2 2 2
° · ∠
·
− +
·
− +
· ∠
AMD
MD AM
AD MD AM
AMD
∴ The angle between the planes ABC and
BCD is 70.5°.
16. (a) Consider △HCA.
cm 3 20
cm
30 tan
20
cm 20
30 tan
tan
·
°
·
· °
· ∠
CA
CA
CA
HA
HCA
Consider △HBA.
53
9 Basic Properties of CirclesMore about Trigonometry (II)
cm
3
20
cm
60 tan
20
cm 20
60 tan
tan
·
°
·
· °
· ∠
BA
BA
BA
HA
HBA
54
Certificate Mathematics in Action Full Solutions 4B
Consider △ACB.
By the cosine formula,
fig.) sig. 3 to (cor. 104
3 12
5
) 30 (
3
20
2
) 3 20 ( 30
3
20
) )( ( 2
cos
2 2
2
2 2 2
° · ∠
− ·

,
`

.
|
− +

,
`

.
|
·
− +
· ∠
ABC
BC BA
CA BC BA
ABC
(b) ∵ M is the mid-point of BC.

cm 15
cm
2
30
·
·
· MC BM
Consider △AMB.
By the cosine formula,
cm 21.016
cm
103.920 cos ) 15 (
3
20
2
15
3
20
cos ) )( ( 2
2
2
2 2 2
·
°

,
`

.
|
− +

,
`

.
|
·
∠ − + ·
AM
ABC BM BA BM BA AM
The angle between HM and plane ABC is
∠ HMA.
Consider △HMA.
fig.) sig. 3 to (cor. 6 . 43
016 . 21
20
tan
° · ∠
·
· ∠
HMA
AM
HA
HMA
∴ The angle between HM and plane ABC is
43.6°.
17. (a) The angle between DB and plane ABC is
∠ DBC.
Consider △DBC.
fig.) sig. 3 to (cor. 1 . 53
10
8
sin
° · ∠
· ∠
DBC
DBC
∴ The angle between DB and plane ABC is
53.1°.
(b
)
Draw CE ⊥ BA and DE ⊥ BA.
The angle between the planes BDA and ABC is
∠ DEC.
55
9 Basic Properties of CirclesMore about Trigonometry (II)
Consider △BCD.
cm 6
cm 8 10
theorem) (Pyth.
2 2
2 2 2
·
− ·
+ ·
BC
CD BC BD
By similar argument, AC = 6 cm
Consider △CBE and △CAE.
side) common (
d) constructe (as 90
(proved) cm 6
CE CE
AEC BEC
AC BC
·
° · ∠ · ∠
· ·
∴ △CBE ≅ △CAE (RHS)
BE = AE (corr. sides, ≅ △s)
Consider △ACB.
cm 72
cm 6 6
theorem) (Pyth.
2 2
2 2 2
·
+ ·
+ ·
AB
CB AC AB

cm
2
72
2
1
·
· AB BE
Consider △BEC.
cm 18
cm
2
72
6
theorem) (Pyth.
2
2
2 2 2
·

,
`

.
|
− ·
+ ·
CE
CE BE BC
Consider △DEC.
fig.) sig. 3 to (cor. 1 . 62
18
8
tan
° · ∠
·
· ∠
DEC
CE
DC
DEC
∴ The angle between the planes BDA and
ABC is 62.1°.
18. (a)
Join
AE.
∠ BAE = 90°
Consider △ABE.
cm 8
cm 6 10
theorem) (Pyth.
2 2
2 2 2
·
− ·
+ ·
AE
AE AB BE
The angle between the planes ABDC and CDFE
is ∠ ACE.
56
Certificate Mathematics in Action Full Solutions 4B
Consider △AEC.
) fig. sig. 3 to cor. ( 5 . 75
4
1
) 8 )( 4 ( 2
8 8 4
) )( ( 2
cos
2 2 2
2 2 2
° · ∠
·
− +
·
− +
· ∠
ACE
CE AC
AE CE AC
ACE
∴ The angle between the planes ABDC and
CDFE is 75.5°.
(b)
Let G be the projection of E on plane ABDC.
∴ ∠ CGE = 90°and ∠ BGE = 90°
Consider △CGE.
cm 75.522 sin 8
cm 8
75.522 sin
sin
° ·
· °
· ∠
EG
EG
CE
EG
GCE
The angle between BE and plane ABDC is
∠ EBG.
Consider △BEG.
fig.) sig. 3 to (cor. 8 . 50
10
75.522 sin 8
sin
° · ∠
°
·
· ∠
EBG
BE
EG
EBG
∴ The angle between BE and plane ABDC is
50.8°.
19. (a) Consider △ABC.
cm
2
32
square) of (property
cm
2
32
square) of (property
2
1
cm 32
cm 4 4
theorem) (Pyth.
2 2
2 2 2
·
·
·
·
·
+ ·
+ ·
AN BN
AC AN
AC
BC AB AC
VN is the line of intersection of the planes VAN
and VBN.
∵ AN ⊥ VN and BN ⊥ VN
∴ The angle between the planes VAN and
VBN is ∠ ANB.
57
9 Basic Properties of CirclesMore about Trigonometry (II)
Consider △ABN.
By the cosine formula,
° · ∠
·

,
`

.
|

,
`

.
|

,
`

.
|
+

,
`

.
|
·
− +
· ∠
90
0
2
32
2
32
2
4
2
32
2
32
) )( ( 2
cos
2
2 2
2 2 2
ANB
BN AN
AB BN AN
ANB
∴ The angle between the planes VAN and
VBN is 90°.
(b)
Let E
be the mid-point of AB.
∵ △VAB is an isosceles triangle.
∴ VE ⊥ AB
∵ △NAB is an isosceles triangle.
∴ NE ⊥ AB
∴ AB is the line of intersection of the planes
VAB and ABCD.
∴ The angle between the planes VAB and
ABCD is ∠ VEN.
cm 2
cm 4
2
1
2
1
·

,
`

.
|
× ·
· BC EN
Consider △VEN.
fig.) sig. 3 to (cor. 6 . 71
2
6
tan
° · ∠
·
· ∠
VEN
EN
VN
VEN
∴ The angle between the planes VAB and
ABCD is 71.6°.
(c)
Let F be the mid-point of DC.
58
Certificate Mathematics in Action Full Solutions 4B
By similar argument as in (b),
∠ VFN = 71.6°(cor. to 3 sig. fig.)
The angle between the planes VAB and VCD is
∠ EVF.
Consider △VEF.
° · ∠
° · ° + ° + ∠
° · ∠ + ∠ + ∠
9 . 36
180 565 . 71 565 . 71
180
EVF
EVF
VFN VEN EVF
∴ The angle between the planes VAB and
VCD is 36.9°.
20. (a) Consider △FAP and △HCQ.
(given)
(given)
(given) 90
CH AF
CQ AP
CHQ AFP
·
·
° · ∠ · ∠
∴ △FAP ≅ △HCQ (RHS)
∴ FP = HQ
PE = QE
Consider △PQE.
cm
2
3
2 cm 3
theorem) (Pyth.
2 2 2
2 2 2
·
·
+ ·
QE
QE
QE PE PQ
cm
2
3
6

,
`

.
|
− ·
− · QE HE HQ
Consider △HCQ.
fig.) sig. 3 to cor. ( cm 14 . 7
cm 6
2
3
6
theorem) (Pyth.
2
2
2 2 2
·
+

,
`

.
|
− ·
+ ·
QC
HC HQ QC
(b)
Let M
and N be the mid-points of PQ and AC
respectively. Join MN, ND and ME. Draw a
perpendicular PR ⊥ ND.
The angle between the planes APQC and ABCD
is ∠ MND.
∵ M is the mid-point of PQ.
∴ EM ⊥ PQ
cm
2
3
· MQ
Consider △EMQ.
cm
2
3
cm
2
3
2
3
theorem) (Pyth.
2
2
2 2 2
·

,
`

.
|

,
`

.
|
·
+ ·
EM
MQ EM QE
Consider △BCD.
cm
2
) 1 2 3(2
cm
2
3
2 3
cm 2 3
2
1
cm 2 6
cm 6 6
theorem) (Pyth.
2 2
2 2 2

·

,
`

.
|
− ·
− ·
− ·
·
·
·
+ ·
+ ·
EM ND
RD ND NR
BD ND
BD
CD BC BD
MR = ED = 6 cm
Consider △MNR.
fig.) sig. 3 to (cor. 4 . 65
cm
2
) 1 2 3(2
cm 6
tan
° · ∠

·
· ∠
MNR
NR
MR
MNR
∴ The angle between the planes APQC and
ABCD is 65.4°.
Exercise 9G (p. 216)
Level 1
1. (a) Consider △ACB.
m 30 cos 100
m 100
30 cos
cos
° ·
· °
· ∠
AB
AB
BC
AB
ABC
Consider △TBA.
fig.) sig. 3 to (cor. m 5 . 31
m 20 tan 30 cos 100
m 30 cos 100
20 tan
tan
·
° ° ·
°
· °
· ∠
TA
TA
AB
TA
TBA
∴ The height of the tower TA is 31.5 m.
59
(∠ sum of △)
(cor. to 3 sig. fig.)
9 Basic Properties of CirclesMore about Trigonometry (II)
(b) Consider △ACB.
m 50
m 30 sin 100
m 100
30 sin
sin
·
° ·
· °
· ∠
AC
AC
BC
AC
ABC
Consider △TCA.
fig.) sig. 3 to (cor. 2 . 32
50
20 tan 30 cos 100
tan
° · ∠
° °
·
· ∠
TCA
AC
TA
TCA
∴ The angle of elevation of T from C is
32.2°.
2. (a) Consider △TAO.
fig.) sig. 3 to cor. ( m 0 . 42
m 40 tan 50
m 50
40 tan
tan
·
° ·
· °
· ∠
TO
TO
AO
TO
TAO
∴ The height of the tower TO is 42.0 m.
(b) Consider △OAB.
fig.) sig. 3 to cor. ( m 6 . 59
m 50 tan 50
m 50
50 tan
tan
·
° ·
· °
· ∠
OB
OB
OA
OB
BAO
∴ The distance between B and O is 59.6 m.
(c) Consider △TOB.
fig.) sig. 3 to (cor. 1 . 35
50 tan 50
40 tan 50
tan
° · ∠
°
°
·
· ∠
TBO
OB
TO
TBO
∴ The angle of elevation of T from B is
35.1°.
3. (a) ∠ TCA = 40°
∠ TBA = 60°
Consider △TAC.
fig.) sig. 3 to (cor. m 596
m
40 tan
500
m 500
40 tan
tan
·
°
·
· °
· ∠
AC
AC
AC
TA
TCA
60
Certificate Mathematics in Action Full Solutions 4B
Consider △TAB.
fig.) sig. 3 to (cor. m 289
m
60 tan
500
m 500
60 tan
tan
·
°
·
· °
· ∠
AB
AB
AB
TA
TBA
Consider △ACB.
fig.) sig. 3 to cor. ( m 662
m
40 tan
500
60 tan
500
theorem) (Pyth.
2 2
2 2 2
·

,
`

.
|
°
+
,
`

.
|
°
·
+ ·
BC
AC AB BC
(b)
With the notations in the figure, consider
△ACB.
° · ∠
− +
·
− +
· ∠
849 . 25
) 12 . 662 )( 88 . 595 ( 2
68 . 288 12 . 662 88 . 595
) )( ( 2
cos
2 2 2
2 2 2
ACB
BC AC
AB BC AC
ACB
fig.) sig. 3 to (cor. 2 . 64
849 . 25 90
90
° ·
° − ° ·
∠ − ° · ∠ ACB BCP
∴ The compass bearing of B from C is
N64.2°W.
4. (a)
° · ∠
° · ° + ° + ∠
° · ∠ + ∠ + ∠
74
180 70 36
180
ACB
ACB
CBA CAB ACB

(

sum of △)
By the sine formula,
m
74 sin
70 sin 200
74 sin
m 200
70 sin
sin sin
°
°
·
°
·
°

·

AC
AC
ACB
AB
CBA
AC
Consider △XAC.
fig.) sig. 3 to (cor. 3 . 14
74 sin
70 sin 200
50
tan
° · ∠
°
°
·
· ∠
XAC
AC
XC
XAC
61
9 Basic Properties of CirclesMore about Trigonometry (II)
∴ The angle of elevation of X from A is
14.3°.
(b) Consider △ABC.
By the sine formula,
m
74 sin
36 sin 200
74 sin
m 200
36 sin
sin sin
°
°
·
°
·
°

·

BC
BC
ACB
AB
CAB
BC
Consider △XBC.
fig.) sig. 3 to (cor. 2 . 22
74 sin
36 sin 200
50
tan
° · ∠
°
°
·
· ∠
XBC
BC
XC
XBC
∵ The angle of depression of B from X
= the angle of elevation of X from B
∴ The angle of depression of B from X is
22.2°.
5. (a) Consider △ABH.
m 150
m 60 cos 300
m 300
60 cos
cos
·
° ·
· °
· ∠
AH
AH
AB
AH
BAH
Consider △LAH.
fig.) sig. 3 to (cor. m 9 . 9 6
m 25 tan 150
m 150
25 tan
tan
·
° ·
· °
· ∠
LH
LH
AH
LH
LAH
∴ The height of the lighthouse LH is 69.9 m.
(b) Consider △ABH.
fig.) sig. 3 to (cor. m 260
m 60 sin 300
m 300
60 sin
sin
·
° ·
· °
· ∠
HB
HB
AB
HB
BAH
(c) Consider △LHB.
fig.) sig. 3 to (cor. 1 . 15
60 sin 300
25 tan 150
tan
° · ∠
°
°
·
· ∠
LBH
HB
LH
LBH
∴ The angle of elevation of L from B is
15.1°.
62
Certificate Mathematics in Action Full Solutions 4B
6. (a) Consider △OAB.
m 3 1000
m
30 tan
1000
m 1000
30 tan
tan
·
°
·
· °
· ∠
OA
OA
OA
BA
AOB
Consider △ODC.
m
20 tan
1000
m 1000
20 tan
tan
°
·
· °
· ∠
OD
OD
OD
CD
DOC
Consider △AOD.
fig.) sig. 3 to (cor. 9 . 50
20 tan
1000
30 tan
1000
cos
° · ∠
°
°
·
· ∠
AOD
OD
OA
AOD
∴ The compass bearing of C from O is
N50.9°E.
(b) Distance travelled by the helicopter
= BC
= 20v m
Consider △AOD.
fig.) sig. 3 to (cor. 107
30 tan
1
20 tan
1
2500
30 tan
1000
20 tan
1000
400
) 20 (
30 tan
1000
20 tan
1000
theorem) (Pyth.
2 2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2 2
2 2
2 2 2
·

,
`

.
|
°

°
·
°

°
·
+
,
`

.
|
°
·
,
`

.
|
°
+ ·
+ ·
v
v
v
BC OA
AD OA OD
7. (a)
Join AB.
63
9 Basic Properties of CirclesMore about Trigonometry (II)
Consider △TAC.
m
30 tan
50
m 50
30 tan
tan
°
·
· °
· ∠
AC
AC
AC
TC
TAC
Consider △TBC.
m
20 tan
50
m 50
20 tan
tan
°
·
· °
· ∠
BC
BC
BC
TC
TBC
° ·
° − ° · ∠
30
90 120 ACB
Consider △ACB.
By the cosine formula,
fig.) sig. 3 to (cor. m 9 . 75
m
30 cos
20 tan
50
30 tan
50
2
20 tan
50
30 tan
50
cos ) )( ( 2
2 2
2 2 2
·
°
,
`

.
|
°

,
`

.
|
°

,
`

.
|
°
+
,
`

.
|
°
·
∠ − + ·
AB
ACB BC AC BC AC AB
∴ The distance between A and B is 75.9 m.
(b)
With the notations in the figure,
° ·
∠ ∠ · ∠
30
) // s, (alt. CA DB ACB CBD
Consider △ACB.
By the sine formula,
° · ∠
°
°
· ∠
°
·

°

·

769 . 34
931 . 75
30 tan
30 sin 50
sin
30 sin
m 931 . 75
sin
m
30 tan
50
sin sin
CBA
CBA
CBA
ACB
AB
CBA
AC
fig.) sig. 3 to (cor. 335
769 . 34 30 270
270 Reflex
° ·
° + ° + ° ·
∠ + ∠ + ° · ∠ CBA CBD ABF
∴ The true bearing of A from B is 335°.
8. (a) Consider △TAO.
m
30 tan
20
m 20
30 tan
tan
°
·
· °
· ∠
OA
OA
OA
TO
TAO
Consider △OAC.
m 45
m ) 15 30 (
·
+ ·
+ · BC AB AC
fig.) sig. 3 to cor. ( 7 . 39
45
30 tan
20
cos
° · ∠
°
·
· ∠
OAC
AC
OA
OAC
∴ The true bearing of C from A is 39.7°.
(b) Consider △OAC.
m 825
m
30 tan
20
45
theorem) (Pyth.
2
2
2 2 2
·

,
`

.
|
°
− ·
+ ·
OC
OC OA AC
Consider △TCO.
fig.) sig. 3 to (cor. 8 . 34
825
20
tan
° · ∠
·
· ∠
TCO
OC
TO
TCO
∴ The angle of elevation of T from C is
34.8°.
(c) Consider △OAB.
64
Certificate Mathematics in Action Full Solutions 4B
By the cosine formula,
m 500
m
39.664 cos ) 30 (
30 tan
20
2
30
30 tan
20
cos ) )( ( 2
2
2
2 2 2
·
°
,
`

.
|
°
− +
,
`

.
|
°
·
∠ − + ·
OB
OAB AB OA AB OA OB
Consider △TBO.
fig.) sig. 3 to (cor. 8 . 41
500
20
tan
° · ∠
·
· ∠
TBO
OB
TO
TBO
∴ The angle of elevation of T from B is
41.8°.
65
9 Basic Properties of CirclesMore about Trigonometry (II)
Level 2
9. (a)
With the notations in the figure,
° · ° − ° · ∠ 40 30 70 ABC
° ·
° + ° ·
∠ + ∠ · ∠
° ·
° − ° · ∠
° ·
∠ · ∠
100
70 30
70
110 180
30
DAC BAD BAC
DAC
FBA BAD
(alt.

s. AD
// FB)
Consider △ABC.
° · ∠
° · ∠ + ° + °
° · ∠ + ∠ + ∠
40
180 100 40
180
ACB
ACB
ACB BAC ABC

(

sum of △)
By the sine formula,
fig.) sig. 3 to cor. ( m 6 . 32
m
100 sin
40 sin 50
100 sin
m 50
40 sin
sin sin
·
°
°
·
°
·
°

·

BA
BA
BAC
BC
ACB
BA
(b) Consider △TBA.
fig.) sig. 3 to (cor. m 38.9
m
100 sin
50 tan 40 sin 50
m
100 sin
40 sin 50
50 tan
tan
·
°
° °
·
°
°
· °
· ∠
TA
TA
BA
TA
TBA
(c) Consider △ABC.
∵ ∠ ACB = ∠ ABC = 40°
∴ CA = BA
TBA
BA
TA
CA
TA
TCA
∠ ·
·
· ∠
tan
tan

° ·
∠ · ∠
50
TBA TCA
∵ The angle of depression of C from T
= the angle of elevation of T from C
∴ The angle of depression of C from T is 50°.
10. (a)
With the notations in the figure, when the man
is at A, let the length of his shadow be x cm.
∵ △GAF ~ △TOF (AAA)

8 . 4
5 . 1 60 14
14
5 . 1
40
·
+ ·
·
+
·
x
x x
x
x
TO
GA
OF
AF
∴ The length of the shadow of the man is
4.8 m when he is at A.
(b)
With the notations in the figure,
∠ HDC = 28°
Consider △HCD.
fig.) sig. 3 to (cor. m 82 . 2
m
28 tan
5 . 1
m 5 . 1
28 tan
tan
·
°
·
· °
· ∠
CD
CD
CD
HC
HDC
∴ The length of his shadow CD is 2.82 m.
(c)
66
Certificate Mathematics in Action Full Solutions 4B
Let J be a point on AB such that OJ ⊥ BA.
When the man is at J, his shadow is the shortest.
With the notations in the figure,
m 89 5
m 2225
m 25 40
2 2
2 2 2
·
·
+ ·
+ ·
BA
OB OA BA

(Pyth. theorem)
Consider △OAJ and △BAO.
ABO
BOA BAO
OJA OAJ AOJ
BOA OJA
BAO OAJ
∠ ·
∠ − ∠ − ° ·
∠ − ∠ − ° · ∠
° · ∠ · ∠
∠ · ∠
180
180
90
angle) (common
∴ △OAJ ~ △BAO (AAA)

m
89
200
89 5
40
m 25
·
·
·
OJ
OJ
BA
OA
BO
OJ
Consider △LJK and △TOK.
∵ △LJK ~ △TOK (AAA)

fig.) sig. 3 to (cor. 54 . 2
89
24
5 . 1
89
300
14
14
5 . 1
89
200
·
·
+ ·
·
+
·
y
y y
y
y
TO
LJ
OK
JK
∴ The shortest length of his shadow is
2.54 m during his walk from A to B.
11. (a)
Draw a perpendicular from K to HA at J.
m 25
m 120
· ·
· ·
KB JA
AB JK
∠ HKJ = 15°
Consider △HKJ.
m 15 tan 120
m 120
15 tan
tan
° ·
· °
· ∠
HJ
HJ
JK
HJ
HKJ
fig.) sig. 3 to cor. ( m 57.2
m 25) 15 tan 120 (
·
+ ° ·
+ · JA HJ HA
67
9 Basic Properties of CirclesMore about Trigonometry (II)
(b) Consider △KPB.
m
20 tan
25
m 25
20 tan
tan
°
·
· °
· ∠
BP
BP
BP
KB
KPB
° ·
° − ° · ∠
40
50 90 ABP
Consider △APB.
By the cosine formula,
m 559 . 80
m
40 cos
20 tan
25
) 120 ( 2
20 tan
25
120
cos ) )( ( 2
2
2
2 2 2
·
°
,
`

.
|
°

,
`

.
|
°
+
·
∠ − + ·
AP
ABP BP AB BP AB AP
Consider △HPA.
fig.) sig. 3 to (cor. 4 . 35
559 . 80
25 15 tan 120
tan
° · ∠
+ °
·
· ∠
HPA
AP
HA
HPA
∴ The angle of elevation of H from P is
35.4°.
(c)
With the notations in the figure, consider
△APB.
By the cosine formula,
° · ∠

,
`

.
|
°
− +
·
− +
· ∠
234 . 33
) 559 . 80 )( 120 ( 2
20 tan
25
559 . 80 120
) )( ( 2
cos
2
2 2
2 2 2
BAP
AP AB
BP AP AB
BAP
fig.) sig. 3 to (cor. 8 . 56
234 . 33 90
90
° ·
° − ° ·
∠ − ° · ∠ BAP LAP
∴ The compass bearing of P from A is
S56.8°E.
68
Certificate Mathematics in Action Full Solutions 4B
12. (a) Consider △TAG.
m
25 tan
m
25 tan
tan
°
·
· °
· ∠
h
AG
AG
h
AG
TG
TAG
Consider △TBG.
m
15 tan
m
15 tan
tan
°
·
· °
· ∠
h
BG
BG
h
BG
TG
TBG
(b) Consider △ABG.
fig.) sig. 3 to (cor. 105
450
25 tan
29.882 sin
sin
882 . 29
25 tan
15 tan
15 tan
25 tan
tan
·
°
· °
· ∠
° · ∠
°
°
·
°
°
·
· ∠
h
h
AB
AG
ABG
ABG
h
h
BG
AG
ABG
(c)
With the notations in the figure,
fig.) sig. 3 to (cor. 9 . 29 ° ·
∠ · ∠ ABG HAB
∴ The compass bearing of B from A is
S29.9°E.
13. (a) Consider △PAO.
m 3
m
30 tan
m
30 tan
tan
h
h
OA
OA
h
OA
PO
PAO
·
°
·
· °
· ∠
69
9 Basic Properties of CirclesMore about Trigonometry (II)
Consider △PBO.

,
`

.
|
·
°
·
· °
· ∠
m
3
3
or m
3
m
60 tan
m
60 tan
tan
h h
h
OB
OB
h
OB
PO
PBO
Consider △PCO.
m
m
45 tan
m
45 tan
tan
h
h
OC
OC
h
OC
PO
PCO
·
°
·
· °
· ∠
(b) (i) Consider △OAB.
By the cosine formula,

,
`

.
|
+ +
·
− +
·

,
`

.
|
− +
·
− +
· ∠
h
h
h
h
h
h
h
h
h
h
AB OA
OB AB OA
OAB
135
) 1350 ( 3
or
3 45
1350
3 120
3
3600 3
) 60 )( 3 ( 2
3
60 ) 3 (
) )( ( 2
cos
2 2
2
2
2
2 2
2 2 2
(ii)
m 100
m ) 40 60 (
·
+ ·
+ · BC AB AC
Consider △OAC.
By the cosine formula,

,
`

.
|
+ +
·
− +
·
− +
·
− +
· ∠
h
h
h
h
h
h h
h
h h
AC OA
OC AC OA
OAC
300
) 5000 ( 3
or
3 100
5000
3 200
000 10 3
) 100 )( 3 ( 2
100 ) 3 (
) )( ( 2
cos
2 2
2 2
2 2 2
2 2 2
(c)
With the notations in the figure,
∵ OAC OAB ∠ · ∠ cos cos

fig.) sig. 3 to (cor. 5 . 40
000 18 11
000 45 9 000 27 20
3 100
5000
3 45
1350
2
2 2
2 2
·
·
+ · +
+
·
+
h
h
h h
h
h
h
h
m 452 . 40
m
m 065 . 70
m 3
·
·
·
·
h OC
h OA
Consider △OAC.
By the cosine formula,
° · ∠
− +
·
− +
· ∠
548 . 127
) 452 . 40 )( 065 . 70 ( 2
100 452 . 40 065 . 70
) )( ( 2
cos
2 2 2
2 2 2
AOC
OC OA
AC OC OA
AOC
fig.) sig. 3 to (cor. 5 . 52
548 . 127 180
180
° ·
° − ° ·
∠ − ° · ∠ AOC DOC
∴ The compass bearing of C from O is
N52.5°E.
14. (a) Consider △XAC.
fig.) sig. 3 to (cor. m 7 . 49
m 35 tan 71
m 71
35 tan
tan
·
° ·
· °
· ∠
XC
XC
AC
XC
XAC
∴ The height of the tower XC is 49.7 m.
(b)
° ·
° − ° · ∠
47
38 85 CAB
Consider △CAB.
By the cosine formula,
m 56.231
m 47 cos ) 71 )( 70 ( 2 71 70
cos ) )( ( 2
2 2
2 2 2
·
° − + ·
∠ − + ·
BC
CAB AC AB AC AB BC
Consider △XBC.
fig.) sig. 3 to (cor. 5 . 41
56.231
35 tan 71
tan
° · ∠
°
·
· ∠
XBC
BC
XC
XBC
70
Certificate Mathematics in Action Full Solutions 4B
∴ The angle of elevation of X from B is
41.5°.
(c)
With the notations in the figure,
° ·
° + ° ·
∠ + ∠ ·
∠ ∠ · ∠
° ·
° − ° · ∠
52
5 47
) // s, (alt.
5
85 90
BAF CAB
AF DC CAF DCA
BAF
Consider △CAB.
° · ∠
− +
·
− +
· ∠
566 . 65
) 231 . 56 )( 71 ( 2
70 231 . 56 71
) )( ( 2
cos
2 2 2
2 2 2
ACB
BC AC
AB BC AC
ACB
fig.) sig. 3 to cor. ( 152
566 . 65 52 270
270
° ·
° − ° − ° ·
∠ − ∠ − ° · ∠ ACB DCA GCB
∴ The true bearing of B from C is 152°.
Revision Exercise 9 (p. 221)
Level 1
1. (a) Area of △ABC
fig.) sig. 3 to cor. ( cm 298
cm 56 sin 24 30
2
1
2
2
·

,
`

.
|
° × × × ·
(b) Area of △ABC
fig.) sig. 3 to cor. ( cm 9 . 10
cm 102 sin 6 7 . 3
2
1
2
2
·

,
`

.
|
° × × × ·
(c) Let
2
c b a
s
+ +
· , where a = 5.1 cm, b =
7.4 cm and c = 4.1 cm.

cm 3 . 8
cm
2
1 . 4 4 . 7 1 . 5
·
+ +
· s
s – a = (8.3 – 5.1) cm = 3.2 cm
s – b = (8.3 – 7.4) cm = 0.9 cm
s – c = (8.3 – 4.1) cm = 4.2 cm
∴ Area of △ABC
71
9 Basic Properties of CirclesMore about Trigonometry (II)
fig.) sig. 3 to (cor. cm 0 . 10
cm 2 . 4 9 . 0 2 . 3 3 . 8
) )( )( (
2
2
·
× × × ·
− − − · c s b s a s s
(d) Let
2
c b a
s
+ +
· , where a = 31 cm, b = 29
cm and c = 20 cm.

cm 40
cm
2
20 29 31
·
+ +
· s
s – a = (40 – 31) cm = 9 cm
s – b = (40 – 29) cm = 11 cm
s – c = (40 – 20) cm = 20 cm
∴ Area of △ABC
fig.) sig. 3 to (cor. cm 81 2
cm 20 11 9 40
) )( )( (
2
2
·
× × × ·
− − − · c s b s a s s
2. (a) Let
2
c b a
s
+ +
· , where a = 35 cm, b = 31
cm and c = 24 cm.

cm 45
cm
2
24 31 35
·
+ +
· s
s – a = (45 – 35) cm = 10 cm
s – b = (45 – 31) cm = 14 cm
s – c = (45 – 24) cm = 21 cm
Area of △ABC
2
2
cm 3 210
cm 21 14 10 45
) )( )( (
·
× × × ·
− − − · c s b s a s s
Area of △ABC AD BC × × ·
2
1

fig.) sig. 3 to (cor. cm 8 . 20
cm
35
2 3 210
cm 35
2
1
cm 3 210
2
·
×
·
× × ·
h
h
(b) Let
2
c b a
s
+ +
· , where a = 42 cm, b = 50
cm and c = 80 cm.

cm 86
cm
2
80 50 42
·
+ +
· s
s – a = (86 – 42) cm = 44 cm
s – b = (86 – 50) cm = 36 cm
s – c = (86 – 80) cm = 6 cm
Area of △ABC
2
2
cm 1419 24
cm 6 36 44 86
) )( )( (
·
× × × ·
− − − · c s b s a s s
Area of △ABC AD BC × × ·
2
1

fig.) sig. 3 to (cor. cm 3.1 4
cm
42
2 1419 24
cm 42
2
1
cm 1419 24
2
·
×
·
× × ·
h
h
3. (a) Consider △AEF.
cm 5
cm 3 4
2 2
2 2 2
·
+ ·
+ ·
AE
FE AF AE
(Pyth. theorem)
Consider △AGF.
cm 52
cm 6 4
2 2
2 2 2
·
+ ·
+ ·
AG
FG AF AG
(Pyth. theorem)
fig.) sig. 3 to (cor. cm 21 . 7 ·
Consider △GEH.
cm 45
cm 3 6
2 2
2 2 2
·
+ ·
+ ·
EG
HG EH EG
(Pyth. theorem)
fig.) sig. 3 to (cor. cm 71 . 6 ·
(b) Let
2
EG AG AE
s
+ +
· .

cm 460 . 9
cm
2
45 52 5
·
+ +
· s
s – AE = (9.460 – 5) cm = 4.460 cm
s – AG = (9.460 – 52 ) cm = 2.249 cm
s – EG = (9.460 – 45 ) cm = 2.752 cm
Area of △AEG
fig.) sig. 3 to cor. ( cm 16.2
cm 752 . 2 249 . 2 460 . 4 460 . 9
) )( )( (
2
2
·
× × × ·
− − − · EG s AG s AE s s
4.
° · ∠
° · ° + ∠
° · ∠ + ∠
115
180 65
180
ADB
ADB
ADC ADB
(adj.

s on st.
line)
Area of △ABC
·
area of △ABD + area of △ADC
72
Certificate Mathematics in Action Full Solutions 4B
fig.) sig. 3 to cor. ( cm 70.7
cm 65 sin 5 12
2
1
115 sin 8 12
2
1
sin
2
1
sin
2
1
2
2
·

,
`

.
|
° × × × + ° × × × ·
∠ × × × + ∠ × × × · ADC DC AD ADB BD AD
5. (a) BC = AD = 20 cm (opp. sides of // gram)
Consider △ABC.
By the sine formula,
(rejected) 119.736 or 264 . 60
16
44 sin 20
sin
44 sin
cm 16
sin
cm 20
sin sin
° ° · ∠
°
· ∠
°
·


·

BAC
BAC
BAC
ACB
AB
BAC
BC
° · ∠
° · ° + ° + ∠
° · ∠ + ∠ + ∠
736 . 75
180 264 . 60 44
180
ABC
ABC
BAC ACB ABC
(

sum of △)
73
9 Basic Properties of CirclesMore about Trigonometry (II)
Area of ABCD
·
2 × area of △ABC
fig.) sig. 3 to cor. ( cm 310
cm 75.736 sin 20 16
2
1
2
sin
2
1
2
2
2
·

,
`

.
|
° × × × × ·
∠ × × × × · ABC BC AB
(b)
Join
BD.
DC = AB = 11 cm
Area of ABCD
·
2 × area of △BCD
fig.) sig. 3 to cor. ( cm 135
cm 125 sin 11 15
2
1
2
sin
2
1
2
2
2
·

,
`

.
|
° × × × × ·
∠ × × × × · BCD DC BC
6. Area of △ABC B BC AB sin
2
1
× × × ·
(rejected) 5 or 4
0 ) 5 )( 4 (
0 20
30 sin ) 1 (
2
1
5
2
− · ·
· + −
· − +
° × + × × ·
x x
x x
x x
x x
7. (a) By the cosine formula,
fig.) sig. 3 to (cor. 6 . 28
) 2 . 5 )( 9 . 8 ( 2
5 2 . 5 9 . 8
cos
2
cos
2 2 2
2 2 2
° ·
− +
·
− +
·
θ
θ
ac
b c a
B
fig.) sig. 3 to (cor. 122
) 2 . 5 )( 5 ( 2
9 . 8 2 . 5 5
cos
2
cos
2 2 2
2 2 2
° ·
− +
·
− +
·
φ
φ
bc
a c b
A
(b) By the sine formula,
10
120 sin 5
sin
120 sin
cm 10
sin
cm 5
sin sin
°
·
°
·
·
θ
θ
A
a
B
b
(rejected) fig.) sig. 3 to (cor. 154
or fig.) sig. 3 to (cor. 7 . 25
°
° · θ
° ·
° · + ° + °
° · + +
341 . 34
180 659 . 25 120
180
C
C
C B A
(

sum of
△)
By the sine formula,
fig.) sig. 3 to (cor. 51 . 6
120 sin
34.341 sin 10
120 sin
cm 10
34.341 sin
cm
sin sin
·
°
°
·
°
·
°
·
x
x
A
a
C
c
(c) By the cosine formula,
fig.) sig. 3 to (cor. 58 . 4
21
60 cos ) 4 )( 5 ( 2 4 5
cos 2
2 2
2 2 2
·
·
° − + ·
− + ·
x
A bc c b a
fig.) sig. 3 to (cor. 1 . 49
21
3
) 5 )( 21 ( 2
4 5 ) 21 (
cos
2
cos
2 2 2
2 2 2
° ·
·
− +
·
− +
·
θ
θ
ab
c b a
C
(d) By the sine formula,
3.2
66 sin 8 . 2
sin
66 sin
cm 2 . 3
sin
cm 8 . 2
sin sin
°
·
°
·
·
θ
θ
A
a
C
c

(rejected) fig.) sig. 3 to (cor. 127
or fig.) sig. 3 to (cor. 1 . 53
°
° · θ
° ·
° · ° + + °
° · + +
932 . 60
180 068 . 53 66
180
B
B
C B A
(

sum of
△)
By the sine formula,
74
Certificate Mathematics in Action Full Solutions 4B
fig.) sig. 3 to (cor. 06 . 3
66 sin
60.932 sin 2 . 3
66 sin
cm 2 . 3
60.932 sin
cm
sin sin
·
°
°
·
°
·
°
·
x
x
A
a
B
b
8. (a)
° ·
° · ° + + °
° · + +
70
180 68 42
180
B
B
C B A

(

sum of △)
75
9 Basic Properties of CirclesMore about Trigonometry (II)
By the sine formula,
fig.) sig. 3 to (cor. cm 8 . 20
cm
42 sin
68 sin 5 1
42 sin
cm 15
68 sin
sin sin
·
°
°
·
°
·
°
·
c
c
A
a
C
c
fig.) sig. 3 to (cor. cm 1 . 21
cm
42 sin
70 sin 5 1
42 sin
cm 15
70 sin
sin sin
·
°
°
·
°
·
°
·
b
b
A
a
B
b
(b)
° ·
° · ° + ° +
° · + +
42
180 100 38
180
A
A
C B A

(

sum of △)
By the sine formula,
fig.) sig. 3 to (cor. cm 4 . 30
cm
38 sin
42 sin 28
38 sin
cm 28
42 sin
sin sin
·
°
°
·
°
·
°
·
a
a
B
b
A
a
fig.) sig. 3 to (cor. cm 8 . 44
cm
38 sin
100 sin 28
38 sin
cm 28
100 sin
sin sin
·
°
°
·
°
·
°
·
c
c
B
b
C
c
(c) By the cosine formula,
fig.) sig. 3 to (cor. cm 6 . 14
cm 54 cos ) 18 )( 12 ( 2 18 12
cos 2
2 2
2 2 2
·
° − + ·
− + ·
c
C ab b a c
fig.) sig. 3 to (cor. 6 . 41
) 631 . 14 )( 18 ( 2
12 631 . 14 18
2
cos
2 2 2
2 2 2
° ·
− +
·
− +
·
A
bc
a c b
A
fig.) sig. 3 to (cor. 4 . 84
180 54 569 . 41
180
° ·
° · ° + + °
° · + +
B
B
C B A
(d) By the sine formula,
(rejected) fig.) sig. 3 to (cor. 133
or fig.) sig. 3 to (cor. 47.1
26
120 sin 22
sin
120 sin
cm 26
sin
cm 22
sin sin
°
° ·
°
·
°
·
·
A
A
A
B
b
A
a
fig.) sig. 3 to (cor. 9 . 12
180 120 121 . 47
180
° ·
° · + ° + °
° · + +
C
C
C B A
By the sine formula,
fig.) sig. 3 to (cor. cm 6.69
cm
120 sin
12.879 sin 26
120 sin
cm 26
879 . 12 sin
sin sin
·
°
°
·
°
·
°
·
c
c
B
b
C
c
(e) By the cosine formula,
fig.) sig. 3 to (cor. 8 . 58
56
29
) 20 )( 35 ( 2
30 20 35
2
cos
2 2 2
2 2 2
° ·
·
− +
·
− +
·
A
bc
a c b
A
fig.) sig. 3 to (cor. 4 . 86
16
1
) 20 )( 30 ( 2
35 20 30
2
cos
2 2 2
2 2 2
° ·
·
− +
·
− +
·
B
ac
b c a
B
fig.) sig. 3 to (cor. 8 . 34
180 417 . 86 811 . 58
180
° ·
° · + ° + °
° · + +
C
C
C B A
9. (a) Consider △ACD.
By the cosine formula,
76
(∠ sum of △)
(∠ sum of △)
(∠ sum of △)
Certificate Mathematics in Action Full Solutions 4B
fig.) sig. 3 to (cor. 1 . 32
72
61
) 4 )( 9 ( 2
6 4 9
) )( ( 2
cos
2 2 2
2 2 2
° · ∠
·
− +
·
− +
· ∠
ACD
CD AC
AD CD AC
ACD
(b)
° · ∠
° · ° + ∠
° · ∠ + ∠
911 . 147
180 089 . 32
180
ACB
ACB
ACD ACB
(adj.

s on
st. line)
77
9 Basic Properties of CirclesMore about Trigonometry (II)
Consider △ABC.
By the sine formula,
(rejected) fig.) sig. 3 to (cor. 158
or fig.) sig. 3 to (cor. 6 . 21
13
147.911 sin 9
sin
147.911 sin
cm 3 1
sin
cm 9
sin sin
°
° · ∠
°
· ∠
°
·


·

ABD
ABD
ABD
ACB
AB
ABD
AC
10. Consider △ABC.
By the cosine formula,
fig.) sig. 3 to (cor. cm 9 . 15
cm 252
cm 60 cos ) 18 )( 12 ( 2 18 12
cos ) )( ( 2
2 2
2 2 2
·
·
° − + ·
∠ − + ·
AC
ABC BC AB BC AB AC
∵ ABCD is a parallelogram.
∴ DC = AB = 12 cm and ∠ BCD = 180° – 60°=
120°
Consider △BCD.
By the cosine formula,
fig.) sig. 3 to (cor. cm 6.2 2
cm 684
cm 120 cos ) 12 )( 18 ( 2 12 18
cos ) )( ( 2
2 2
2 2 2
·
·
° − + ·
∠ − + ·
BD
BCD DC BC DC BC BD
11. (a) Consider △BCK.
° ·
° + ° ·
∠ + ∠ · ∠
110
80 30
KBC BCK AKB

(ext.

of △)
Consider △ABK.
By the sine formula,
fig.) sig. 3 to (cor. cm 31 . 7
cm
40 sin
110 sin 5
40 sin
cm 5
110 sin
sin sin
·
°
°
·
°
·
°

·

AB
AB
KAB
KB
AKB
AB
(b) Consider △ABK.
° · ∠
° · ° + ∠ + °
° · ∠ + ∠ + ∠
30
180 110 40
180
ABK
ABK
AKB ABK KAB
(

sum of △)
By the sine formula,
cm
40 sin
30 sin 5
40 sin
cm 5
30 sin
sin sin
°
°
·
°
·
°

·

AK
AK
KAB
KB
ABK
AK
78
Certificate Mathematics in Action Full Solutions 4B
Consider △AKD.
° · ∠
° + ∠ · °
∠ + ∠ · ∠
35
75 110
ADK
ADK
DAK ADK AKB

(ext.

of △)
By the sine formula,
fig.) sig. 3 to (cor. cm 6.55
cm
40 sin 35 sin
75 sin 30 sin 5
35 sin
cm
40 sin
30 sin 5
75 sin
sin sin
·
° °
° °
·
°
°
°
·
°

·

KD
KD
ADK
AK
DAK
KD
12.
With the notations in the figure,
° ·
∠ · ∠
54
CAB ABD (alt.

s, DB // AC)
° ·
° − ° ·
∠ − ∠ · ∠
24
54 78
ABD CBD ABC
Consider △ACB.
° · ∠
° · ° + ∠ + °
° · ∠ + ∠ + ∠
102
180 24 54
180
ACB
ACB
ABC ACB CAB

(

sum of △)
By the sine formula,
m
24 sin
54 sin 400
24 sin
m 400
54 sin
sin sin
m
24 sin
102 sin 400
24 sin
m 00 4
102 sin
sin sin
°
°
·
°
·
°

·

°
°
·
°
·
°

·

BC
BC
ABC
AC
CAB
BC
AB
AB
ABC
AC
ACB
AB
Total distance ran by the man
fig.) sig. 3 to (cor. m 1760
m
24 sin
54 sin 400
24 sin
102 sin 400
·

,
`

.
|
°
°
+
°
°
·
+ · BC AB
13.
° ·
° − ° · ∠
35
25 60 ADB
° ·
° − ° · ∠
30
60 90 DAB
79
9 Basic Properties of CirclesMore about Trigonometry (II)
Consider △ADB.
By the sine formula,
fig.) sig. 3 to (cor. m 10.3
m
30 sin
35 sin 9
30 sin
m 9
35 sin
sin sin
·
°
°
·
°
·
°

·

AB
AB
DAB
DB
ADB
AB
∴ The height of the flagstaff is 10.3 m.
14.
With the notations in the figure,
° ·
∠ · ∠
42
FAC ACB (alt.

s, BC // AF)
Consider △ACB.
m
42 sin
50
m 50
42 sin
sin
°
·
· °
· ∠
AC
AC
AC
AB
ACB
° ·
° − ° ·
∠ − ∠ · ∠
22
20 42
FAD FAC DAC
° ·
∠ · ∠
20
FAD ADC (alt.

s, AF // CD)
Consider △ACD.
By the sine formula,
fig.) sig. 3 to (cor. m 8 . 81
m
42 sin 20 sin
22 sin 50
20 sin
m
42 sin
50
22 sin
sin sin
·
° °
°
·
°
°
·
°

·

CD
CD
ADC
AC
DAC
CD
∴ The distance between the two landmarks is
81.8 m.
15. (a)
Distance travelled by boy X = (5 × 2) km = 10
km
Distance travelled by boy Y = (6 × 2) km = 12
km
Hence, at 2 p.m., boys X and Y reach points G
and H respectively, as shown in the figure.
° ·
° − ° · ∠
120
60 180 GOH
km 2
km 10
·
·
OH
OG
Consider △OGH.
By the cosine formula,
fig.) sig. 3 to (cor. km 11.1
km 124
km 120 cos ) 2 )( 10 ( 2 2 10
cos ) )( ( 2
2 2
2 2 2
·
·
° − + ·
∠ − + ·
GH
GOH OH OG OH OG GH
∴ The distance between the two boys at 2 p.m.
is 11.1 km.
(b)
With the notations in the figure, by the cosine
formula,
124
11
) 124 )( 10 ( 2
2 ) 124 ( 10
) )( ( 2
cos
2 2 2
2 2 2
·
− +
·
− +
· ∠
GH OG
OH GH OG
OGH
fig.) sig. 3 to (cor. 9 . 38
948 . 8 30
30
60 90
948 . 8
° ·
° + ° ·
∠ + ∠ · ∠
° ·
° − ° · ∠
° · ∠
OGH KGO KGH
KGO
OGH
∴ The true bearing of Y from X at 2 p.m. is
038.9°.
16. (a)
80
Certificate Mathematics in Action Full Solutions 4B
81
9 Basic Properties of CirclesMore about Trigonometry (II)
With the notations in the figure,
° ·
∠ · ∠
60
DAB ABF (alt.

s, BF // DA)
° ·
° − ° ·
∠ − ° · ∠
45
135 180
180 GBC CBF
(adj.

s on
st. line)
° ·
° + ° ·
∠ + ∠ · ∠
105
45 60
CBF ABF ABC
Consider △ACB.
By the cosine formula,
fig.) sig. 3 to (cor. km 17 . 7
km 105 cos ) 5 )( 4 ( 2 5 4
cos ) )( ( 2
2 2
2 2 2
·
° − + ·
∠ − + ·
AC
ABC BC AB BC AB AC
(b)
° · ∠
− +
·
− +
· ∠
374 . 42
) 166 . 7 )( 4 ( 2
5 166 . 7 4
) )( ( 2
cos
2 2 2
2 2 2
BAC
AC AB
BC AC AB
BAC
fig.) sig. 3 to cor. ( 6 . 77
180 42.374 60
line) st. on s adj. ( 180
° · ∠
° · ∠ + ° + °
∠ ° · ∠ + ∠ + ∠
HAC
HAC
HAC BAC DAB
∴ The compass bearing of C from A is
S77.6°E.
17. (a) The angle between BD and BA is ∠ ABD.
Consider △ABD.
fig.) sig. 3 to (cor. 3 . 51
40
50
tan
° · ∠
·
· ∠
ABD
AB
AD
ABD
∴ The angle between BD and BA is 51.3°.
(b) The angle between BD and plane BCEF is
∠ DBE.
Consider △ABD.
cm
51.340 cos
40
cm 40
340 . 51 cos
cos
°
·
· °
· ∠
BD
BD
BD
AB
ABD
Consider △DCE.
cm 10 sin 40
cm 40
10 sin
sin
° ·
· °
· ∠
DE
DE
DC
DE
DCE
82
Certificate Mathematics in Action Full Solutions 4B
Consider △DBE.
fig.) sig. 3 to (cor. 23 . 6
51.340 cos
40
10 sin 40
sin
° · ∠
°
°
·
· ∠
DBE
BD
DE
DBE
∴ The angle between BD and plane BCEF is
6.23°.
18. (a)
Join AC and BD.
AQ is the projection of AP on plane ABCD.
The angle that PA makes with the base ABCD is
∠ PAQ.
Consider △ABC.
cm 20
cm 16 12
2 2
2 2 2
·
+ ·
+ ·
AC
BC AB AC
(Pyth. theorem)

cm 10
cm 20
2
1
2
1
·

,
`

.
|
× ·
· AC AQ
(property of rectangle)
PQ = GA = 5 cm
Consider △PAQ.
fig.) sig. 3 to cor. ( 6 . 26
10
5
tan
° · ∠
·
· ∠
PAQ
AQ
PQ
PAQ
∴ The angle that PA makes with the base
ABCD is 26.6°.
(b)
Join PA
and PB.
Let M and N be the mid-points of AB and GF
respectively.
The angle between the planes PAB and ABFG is
∠ PMN.
cm 8
cm 16
2
1
2
1
·

,
`

.
|
× ·
· EF PN
Consider △PMN.
fig.) sig. 3 to cor. ( 0 . 58
5
8
tan
° · ∠
·
· ∠
PMN
NM
PN
PMN
∴ The angle between the planes PAB and
ABFG is 58.0°.
19. (a) Consider △ABC.
° · ∠
° · ∠ + ° + °
° · ∠ + ∠ + ∠
48
180 72 60
180
BAC
BAC
BAC ACB ABC

(

sum of △)
By the sine formula,
fig.) sig. 3 to (cor. cm 17.9
cm
48 sin
72 sin 14
48 sin
cm 14
72 sin
sin sin
·
°
°
·
°
·
°

·

AB
AB
BAC
BC
ACB
AB
Consider △PBA.
fig.) sig. 3 to cor. ( cm 3 . 10
cm
48 sin
30 tan 72 sin 14
cm
48 sin
72 sin 14
30 tan
tan
·
°
° °
·
°
°
· °
· ∠
PA
PA
AB
PA
PBA
(b) Area of △ABC
fig.) sig. 3 to cor. ( cm 109
cm 60 sin 14 917 . 17
2
1
sin
2
1
2
2
·

,
`

.
|
° × × × ·
∠ × × × · ABC BC AB
(c) Volume of the tetrahedron PBCA
3
1
· × area of △ABC × PA
fig.) sig. 3 to cor. ( cm 375
cm 344 . 10 616 . 108
3
1
3
3
·

,
`

.
|
× × ·
83
9 Basic Properties of CirclesMore about Trigonometry (II)
20. (a) Consider △TBP.
m
40 tan
45
m 45
40 tan
tan
°
·
· °
· ∠
BP
BP
BP
TP
TBP
Consider △TAP.
m
30 tan
45
m 45
30 tan
tan
°
·
· °
· ∠
AP
AP
AP
TP
TAP
° ·
° − ° · ∠
50
150 200 BPA
Consider △BAP.
By the cosine formula,
fig.) sig. 3 to (cor. m 8 . 59
m
50 cos
30 tan
45
40 tan
45
2
30 tan
45
40 tan
45
cos ) )( ( 2
2 2
2 2 2
·
°
,
`

.
|
°

,
`

.
|
°

,
`

.
|
°
+
,
`

.
|
°
·
∠ − + ·
AB
BPA AP BP AP BP AB
(b)
With the notations in the figure,
∠ BPQ = 200° – 180°= 20°
° ·
∠ · ∠
20
BPQ RBP (alt.

s, RB // PQ)
Consider △BAP.
By the cosine formula,
84
Certificate Mathematics in Action Full Solutions 4B
° · ∠

,
`

.
|
°

,
`

.
|
°
− +
,
`

.
|
°
·
− +
· ∠
618 . 86
) 811 . 59 (
40 tan
45
2
30 tan
45
811 . 59
40 tan
45
) )( ( 2
cos
2
2
2
2 2 2
PBA
AB BP
AP AB BP
PBA
fig.) sig. 3 to (cor. 107
618 . 86 20
° ·
° + ° ·
∠ + ∠ · ∠ PBA RBP RBA
∴ The true bearing of A from B is 107°.
21. (a)
With the notations in the figure,
AG = BH = 800 m
Consider △ACG.
m
50 tan
800
m 800
50 tan
tan
°
·
· °
· ∠
CG
CG
CG
AG
ACG
Consider △CHG.
m
50 tan
70 tan 800
m
50 tan
800
70 tan
tan
°
°
·
°
· °
· ∠
GH
GH
CG
GH
HCG
∴ The speed of the aeroplane
fig.) sig. 3 cor to ( m/s 369
s 5
m
50 tan
70 tan 800
·
°
°
·
(b) Consider △CHG.
m
70 cos 50 tan
800
m
50 tan
800
70 cos
cos
° °
·
°
· °
· ∠
CH
CH
CH
CG
HCG
Consider △BCH.
fig.) sig. 3 to (cor. 2 . 22
70 cos 50 tan
800
800
tan
° · ∠
° °
·
· ∠
BCH
CH
BH
BCH
∴ The angle of elevation of B from C is
22.2°.
85
9 Basic Properties of CirclesMore about Trigonometry (II)
22. Since A is an obtuse angle, cos A < 0.
By the cosine formula,
c
c
c
c
bc
a c b
A
40
500
) )( 20 ( 2
30 20
2
cos
2
2 2 2
2 2 2

·
− +
·
− +
·

0
40
500
0 cos
2
<

<
c
c
A
∵ c > 0


500 0
500
0 500
2
2
< <
<
< −
c
c
c
∴ A possible integral value of c is 15 cm. (or any
other reasonable answers)
23.
Assume the required triangle is ABC.
∵ Area of △ABC = 24 cm
2
Take C = 45°, we have
2
2
2
2
cm 2 48
cm 24
2
1
2
1
cm 24 45 sin
2
1
cm 24 sin
2
1
·
·

,
`

.
|
· °
·
ab
ab
ab
C ab
Take a = 8 cm, then
cm 2 6
cm
8
2 48
·
· b
By the cosine formula,
2
2 2 2
2
2 2 2 2 2
2 2
2 2 2
cm 72
cm ) 2 6 (
cm 104
cm ] ) 10 2 ( 8 [
cm 10 2
cm 45 cos ) 2 6 )( 8 ( 2 ) 2 6 ( 8
cos 2
·
·
·
+ · +
·
° − + ·
− + ·
b
c a
c
C ab b a c
∴ a
2
+ c
2
≠ b
2
∴ ∠ B ≠ 90°
i.e. △ABC is not a right-angled triangle.
∴ The lengths of the sides of a triangle which
satisfies the required two conditions are 8 cm,
2 6
cm and 10 2 cm. (or any other
reasonable answers)
Level 2
24. (a) Consider △ACD.
° · ∠
° · ° + ∠ + °
° · ∠ + ∠ + ∠
45
180 90 45
180
ACD
ACD
ADC ACD CAD
Consider △ABC.
° · ∠
° · ° + ∠
∠ · ∠ + ∠
15
45 30
BAC
BAC
ACD ABC BAC
(ext.

of
) △
By the sine formula,
cm
15 sin
30 sin 25
15 sin
cm 25
30 sin
sin sin
°
°
·
°
·
°

·

AC
AC
BAC
BC
ABC
AC
Consider △ACD.
fig.) sig. 3 to (cor. 2 . 34
15 sin
30 sin 25
45 cos
cm
15 sin
30 sin 25
cm
45 cos
cos
·
°
°
× ° ·
°
°
· °
· ∠
x
x
AC
AD
CAD
(b) Consider △ACD.
° · ∠
° · ° + ° + ∠
° · ∠ + ∠ + ∠
72
180 68 40
180
ADC
ADC
ACD DAC ADC
(

sum of ) △
By the sine formula,
cm
68 sin
72 sin 7
68 sin
cm 7
72 sin
sin sin
°
°
·
°
·
°

·

AC
AC
ACD
AD
ADC
AC
Consider △ABC.
By the cosine formula,
86
(∠ sum of △)
Certificate Mathematics in Action Full Solutions 4B
fig.) sig. 3 to (cor. 78 . 9
cm
80 cos
68 sin
72 sin 7
) 8 ( 2
68 sin
72 sin 7
8
cos ) )( ( 2
2
2
2 2 2
·
°
,
`

.
|
°
°

,
`

.
|
°
°
+
·
∠ − + ·
x
BC
BAC AC AB AC AB BC
(c) Consider △ABC.
By the cosine formula,
16
11
) 7 )( 8 ( 2
6 7 8
) )( ( 2
cos
2 2 2
2 2 2
·
− +
·
− +
· ∠
BC AB
AC BC AB
ABC
Consider △ABD.
BD = (7 + 5) cm = 12 cm
By the cosine formula,
fig.) sig. 3 to (cor. 72 . 8
76
cm
16
11
) 12 )( 8 ( 2 12 8
cos ) )( ( 2
2 2
2 2 2
·
·

,
`

.
|
− + ·
∠ − + ·
x
AD
ABD BD AB BD AB AD
(d) Consider △AMC.
AC = AM = 8 cm (given)
∠ ACM = ∠ AMC (base ∠ s, isos. ) △
° · ∠
° · ∠ + °
° · ∠ + ∠ + ∠
70
180 2 40
180
ACM
ACM
ACM AMC MAC
(

sum of ) △
By the cosine formula,
cm 10.944
cm ) 472 . 5 472 . 5 (
cm 5.472
cm 5.472
cm 40 cos ) 8 )( 8 ( 2 8 8
cos ) )( ( 2
2 2
2 2 2
·
+ ·
+ ·
· ·
·
° − + ·
∠ − + ·
MC BM BC
MC BM
MC
MAC AC AM AC AM MC
Consider △ABC.
By the cosine formula,
fig.) sig. 3 to (cor. 11.1
cm 70 cos ) 944 . 10 )( 8 ( 2 944 . 10 8
cos ) )( ( 2
2 2
2 2 2
·
° − + ·
∠ − + ·
x
AB
ACB BC AC BC AC AB
25. Consider △AOC.
° · ∠
° · ∠ + ° + °
° · ∠ + ∠ + ∠
100
180 50 30
180
ACO
ACO
ACO AOC OAC

(

sum of ) △
By the sine formula,
cm
100 sin
30 sin 13
100 sin
cm 13
30 sin
sin sin
°
°
·
°
·
°

·

OC
OC
ACO
OA
OAC
OC
Area of the shaded region
= area of sector OAB −area of △AOC
fig.) sig. 3 to (cor. cm 9 . 40
cm 50 sin
100 sin
30 sin 13
13
2
1
360
50
13
2
2 2
·

,
`

.
|
° ×
°
°
× × −
°
°
× × · π
26. Let OC = x cm.
87
9 Basic Properties of CirclesMore about Trigonometry (II)
Area of the shaded region
= area of sector OAB −area of △AOC
2 2
cm 50 sin 25
2
1
360
50
25
,
`

.
|
° × × × −
°
°
× × · x π
∵ Area of the shaded region = 160 cm
2

160 50 sin 25
2
1
360
50
25
2
· ° × × × −
°
°
× × x π
x = 11.8 (cor. to 3 sig. fig.)
∴ OC =
cm 8 . 11
27. (a) Consider △OAC.
By the cosine formula,
fig.) sig. 3 to (cor. 119
27
13
) 9 )( 6 ( 2
13 9 6
) )( ( 2
cos
2 2 2
2 2 2
° · ∠
− ·
− +
·
− +
· ∠
AOC
OC OA
AC OC OA
AOC
fig.) sig. 3 to (cor. 4 . 37
39
31
) 13 )( 6 ( 2
9 13 6
) )( ( 2
cos
2 2 2
2 2 2
° · ∠
·
− +
·
− +
· ∠
OAC
AC OA
OC AC OA
OAC
(b)
Join OB.
∵ AC is the tangent to the circle at B.
∴ OB ⊥ AC
Consider △OAB.
fig.) sig. 3 to (cor. cm 3.64
cm 37.357 sin 6
cm 6
37.357 sin
sin
·
° ·
· °
· ∠
OB
OB
OA
OB
OAB
(c)
With the notations in the figure,
total area of the shaded regions
= area of △OAC −area of sector ODE
fig.) sig. 3 to (cor. cm 93 . 9
cm
360
20 782 . 118
66 640 . 3
20 118.782 sin 9 6
2
1
2
2 2
·

,
`
°
°
× ×

.
|
− ° × × × ·
π
88
Certificate Mathematics in Action Full Solutions 4B
28. (a)
Join AC.
Consider △ABC.
fig.) sig. 3 to (cor. cm 8.54
cm 73
cm 60 cos ) 8 )( 9 ( 2 8 9
cos ) )( ( 2
2 2
2 2 2
·
·
° − + ·
∠ − + ·
AC
ABC BC AB BC AB AC
(b) Consider △ABC.
Let s1 =
2
AC BC AB + +
.
∴ s1 = cm
2
544 . 8 8 9 + +
= 12.772 cm
s1 −AB = (12.772 −9) cm = 3.772 cm
s1 −BC = (12.772 −8) cm = 4.772 cm
s1 −AC = (12.772 −8.544) cm = 4.228 cm
Consider △ACD.
Let s2 =
2
DA CD AC + +
.
∴ s2 = cm
2
6 7 544 . 8 + +
= 10.772 cm
s2 −AC = (10.772 −8.544) cm = 2.228 cm
s2 −CD = (10.772 −7) cm = 3.772 cm
s2 −DA = (10.772 −6) cm = 4.772 cm
Area of ABCD
= area of △ABC + area of △ACD
fig.) sig. 3 to (cor. cm 0 . 52
cm ) 772 . 4 772 . 3 228 . 2 772 . 10
228 . 4 772 . 4 772 . 3 772 . 12 (
) )( )( (
) )( )( (
2
2
2 2 2 2
1 1 1 1
·
× × ×
+ × × × ·
− − −
+ − − − ·
DA s CD s AC s s
AC s BC s AB s s
29. (a)
° · ° + ° · ∠
° · ° + ° · ∠
50 20 30
60 25 35
ACB
ABC
° · ∠
° · ° + ° + ∠
° · ∠ + ∠ + ∠
70
180 50 60
180
BAC
BAC
ACB ABC BAC
(

sum of ) △
Consider △ABC.
By the sine formula,
fig.) sig. 3 to (cor. cm 9.78
cm
70 sin
50 sin 12
70 sin
cm 12
50 sin
sin sin
·
°
°
·
°
·
°

·

AB
AB
BAC
BC
ACB
AB
89
9 Basic Properties of CirclesMore about Trigonometry (II)
(b) Consider △BCD.
° · ∠
° · ° + ° + ∠
· ∠ + ∠ + ∠
135
180 20 25
180
BDC
BDC
BCD DBC BDC
(

sum of ) △
By the sine formula,
cm
135 sin
20 sin 12
135 sin
cm 12
20 sin
sin sin
°
°
·
°
·
°

·

BD
BD
BDC
BC
BCD
BD
Consider △ABD.
fig.) sig. 3 to (cor. cm 03 . 6
cm
35 cos
135 sin
20 sin 12
70 sin
50 sin 12
2
135 sin
20 sin 12
70 sin
50 sin 12
cos ) )( ( 2
2 2
2 2 2
·
°
,
`

.
|
°
°

,
`

.
|
°
°

,
`

.
|
°
°
+
,
`

.
|
°
°
·
∠ − + ·
AD
ABD BD AB BD AB AD
30. Consider △ABD.
By the sine formula,
AB
ADB BD
BAD
ADB
AB
BAD
BD

· ∠

·

sin
sin
sin sin
Consider △ADC.
By the sine formula,
AC
ADC DC
DAC
ADC
AC
DAC
DC

· ∠

·

sin
sin
sin sin
ADC
ADC ADB
ADC ADB
ADC ADB
∠ ·
∠ − ° · ∠
∠ − ° · ∠
° · ∠ + ∠
sin
) (180 sin sin
180
180
∵ AD is the angle bisector of ∠ BAC.

AC
AB
DC
BD
AC
DC
AB
BD
AC
ADC DC
AB
ADB BD
DAC BAD
DAC BAD
·
·

·

∠ · ∠
∠ · ∠
sin sin
sin sin
31. (a) Let AD = x cm.
∵ ABCD is a cyclic quadrilateral.

θ − ° · ∠
° · ∠ + ∠
180
180
ADC
ADC ABC

90
(adj. ∠ s on st. line)
(opp. ∠ s, cyclic quad.)
Certificate Mathematics in Action Full Solutions 4B
∵ Area of △ABC = area of △ADC
cm 3
3
sin 2 sin 6
) sin(180
4
2
1
sin 6 2
2
1
sin
2
1
sin
2
1
·
·
·
− °
× × × · × × ×
∠ ×
× × · ∠ × × ×
AD
x
x
x
ADC CD
AD ABC BC AB
θ θ
θ
θ
(b) Consider △ABC.
cm cos ) 6 )( 2 ( 2 6 2
cos ) )( ( 2
2 2
2 2 2
θ − + ·
∠ − + ·
AC
ABC BC AB BC AB AC
Consider △ACD.
cm ) (180 cos ) 4 )( 3 ( 2 4 3
cos ) )( ( 2
2 2
2 2 2
θ − ° − + ·
∠ − + ·
AC
ADC CD AD CD AD AC
∴ θ cos ) 6 )( 2 ( 2 6 2
2 2
− +
) (180 cos ) 4 )( 3 ( 2 4 3
2 2
θ − ° − + ·
16
5
cos
15 cos 48
cos 24 25 cos 24 40
·
·
+ · −
θ
θ
θ θ
(c)
16
231
256
231
16
5
1
cos 1 sin
2
2
·
·

,
`

.
|
− ·
− · θ θ
Area of quadrilateral ABCD
= area of △ABC + area of △ADC
= 2 × area of △ABC
fig.) sig. 3 to (cor. cm 4 . 11
cm
16
231
6 2
2
1
2
sin
2
1
2
2
2
·

,
`

.
|
× × × × ·
∠ × × × × · ABC BC AB
32. Consider △PBA.
° ·
° − ° · ∠
10
50 60 BPA
By the sine formula,
m
10 sin
50 sin 100
10 sin
m 100
50 sin
sin sin
°
°
·
°
·
°

·

AP
AP
BPA
BA
PBA
AP
91

9 Basic Properties of CirclesMore about Trigonometry (II)
Consider △AQP.
° ·
° − ° · ∠
° ·
° − ° · ∠
30
60 90
20
40 60
APQ
PAQ
° · ∠
° · ° + ∠ + °
° · ∠ + ∠ + ∠
130
180 30 20
180
AQP
AQP
APQ AQP PAQ

(

sum of ) △
By the sine formula,
fig.) sig. 3 to (cor. m 197
m 20 sin
130 sin 10 sin
50 sin 100
130 sin
m
10 sin
50 sin 100
20 sin
sin sin
·

,
`

.
|
° ×
° °
°
·
°
°
°
·
°

·

PQ
PQ
AQP
AP
PAQ
PQ
∴ The height of the church is 197 m.
33. (a) Consider △DCE.
°
·
· °
· ∠
20 sin
20 sin
sin
DE
CD
CD
DE
CD
DE
DCE
(b)
Draw PQ ⊥ FE. Join QC.
The angle between CP and plane BCEF is
∠ PCQ.
Consider △PCD.
° °
·
°
· °
· ∠
50 cos 20 sin
20 sin
50 cos
cos
DE
PC
PC
DE
PC
CD
PCD
PQ = DE
Consider △PCQ.
fig.) sig. 3 to (cor. 7 . 12
50 cos 20 sin
50 cos 20 sin
sin
° · ∠
° ° ·
° °
·
· ∠
PCQ
DE
DE
PC
PQ
PCQ
∴ The angle between CP and plane BCEF is
12.7°.
92
Certificate Mathematics in Action Full Solutions 4B
34. (a)
With the notations in the figure, consider
△AFB.
fig.) sig. 3 to (cor. m 2.31
m
60 tan
4
m 4
60 tan
tan
·
°
·
· °
· ∠
FB
FB
FB
AB
AFB
° ·
° − ° ·
∠ − ° · ∠
° · ∠
60
30 90
90
30
GBF CBF
GBF
Consider △BFC.
By the cosine formula,
fig.) sig. 3 to (cor. m 9.07
m
60 cos

60 tan
4
) 10 ( 2
60 tan
4
10
cos ) )( ( 2
2
2
2 2 2
·
°

,
`

.
|
°

,
`

.
|
°
+
·
∠ − + ·
FC
CBF FB BC FB BC FC
(b) Consider △BFC.
By the cosine formula,
fig.) sig. 3 to (cor. 107
) 0686 . 9 )( 3094 . 2 ( 2
10 0686 . 9 3094 . 2
) )( ( 2
cos
2 2 2
2 2 2
° · ∠
− +
·
− +
· ∠
BFC
FC FB
BC FC FB
BFC
35. (a)
Let E be the mid-point of DC. Join AE and BE.
The angle between the planes ACD and BCD is
∠ AEB.
Consider △ABD and △ABC.
AB = AB (common side)
BC BD
ABC ABD
·
° · ∠ · ∠ 90
(given)
given) (
∴ △ABD ≅ △ABC (SAS)
AD = AC
∵ AD = AC and DE = EC = 3 cm
∴ AE ⊥ DC
∵ BD = BC and DE = EC = 3 cm
∴ BE ⊥ DC
Consider △ABD.
cm 41 2
cm 8 10
2 2
2 2 2
·
+ ·
+ ·
AD
BD AB AD
(Pyth. theorem)
Consider △ADE.
cm 155
cm 3 ) 41 2 (
2 2
2 2 2
·
− ·
+ ·
AE
DE AE AD
(Pyth.
theorem)
Consider △BDE.
cm 55
cm 3 8
2 2
2 2 2
·
− ·
+ ·
BE
DE BE BD
(Pyth. theorem)
Consider △ABE.
fig.) sig. 3 to (cor. 4 . 53
31
11
155
55
cos
° · ∠
·
·
· ∠
AEB
AE
BE
AEB
∴ The angle between the planes ACD and
BCD is 53.4°.
(b)
Let F be the
mid-point of MN.
The angle between the planes ANM and BNM is
∠ AFB.
93
9 Basic Properties of CirclesMore about Trigonometry (II)
∵ M and N are the mid-points of AD and AC
respectively.
∴ AM = MD and AN = NC
∵ AD = AC
∴ AM = AN
∵ AM = AN and MF = FN
∴ AF ⊥ MN
Consider △AFN and △AEC.
ACE
AEC EAC
AFN FAN ANF
AEC AFN
EAC FAN
∠ ·
∠ − ∠ − ° ·
∠ − ∠ − ° · ∠
° · ∠ · ∠
∠ · ∠
180
180
90
∴ △AFN ~ △AEC (AAA)
cm
2
155
cm
2
155
2
1
2
1
·
·
·
·
·
FE
AE AF
AE
AF
AC
AN
AE
AF
Consider △BEF.
cm
2
155
cm
31
11
2
155
) 55 ( 2
2
155
) 55 (
cos ) )( ( 2
2
2
2 2 2
·

,
`

.
|

,
`

.
|

,
`

.
|
+
·
∠ − + ·
BF
FEB FE BE FE BE BF
Consider △ABF.
fig.) sig. 3 to (cor. 107
31
9
2
155
2
155
2
10
2
155
2
155
) )( ( 2
cos
2
2 2
2 2 2
° · ∠
− ·

,
`

.
|

,
`

.
|

,
`

.
|
+

,
`

.
|
·
− +
· ∠
AFB
BF AF
AB BF AF
AFB
∴ The angle between the planes ANM and
BNM is 107°.
36. (a)
Draw XG ⊥ AD.
94
(common angles)
Certificate Mathematics in Action Full Solutions 4B
GX = AB
= 15 m
YG = (30 −10 −10) m
= 10 m
Consider △YGX.
m 13 5
m 10 15
2 2
2 2 2
·
+ ·
+ ·
XY
YG GX XY
(Pyth. theorem)
The total distance travelled by the man
fig.) sig. 3 to (cor. m 38.0
m ) 10 13 5 10 (
·
+ + ·
+ + · YA XY CX

(b)
With the notations in the figure,
JX = 10 m
∠ JXK = 25°
Consider △JXK.
m 25 sin 10
m 10
25 sin
sin
° ·
· °
· ∠
JK
JK
JX
JK
JXK
m 25 sin 10 ° ·
· JK YL
The angle between the path XY and the
horizontal ground is ∠ YXL.
Consider △YXL.
fig.) sig. 3 to (cor. 6 . 13
13 5
25 sin 10
sin
° · ∠
°
·
· ∠
YXL
XY
YL
YXL
∴ The angle between the path XY and the
horizontal ground is 13.6°.
37. (a)
Let D be the mid-point of BC. With the
notations in the figure, the angle that the sheet
makes with the horizontal ground is ∠ ADF.
∵ AB = AC = 7 m and BD = DC = 5 m
∴ AD ⊥ BC
95
9 Basic Properties of CirclesMore about Trigonometry (II)
Consider △ABD.
m 1
m ) 4 5 (
m 24
m 5 7
2 2
2 2 2
·
− ·
− ·
− ·
·
− ·
+ ·
CR AP
FP AP AF
AD
BD AD AB
(Pyth. theorem)
Consider △ADF.
fig.) sig. 3 to (cor. 8 . 11
m 24
m 1
sin
° · ∠
·
· ∠
ADF
AD
AF
ADF
∴ The angle that the sheet makes with the
horizontal ground is 11.8°.
(b)
With the notations in the figure, consider
△ABF.
m 48
m 1 7
2 2
2 2 2
·
− ·
+ ·
BF
BF AF AB
(Pyth. theorem)
Similarly, CF = BF =
48
m
Consider △BFC.
24
1
) 48 )( 48 ( 2
10 ) 48 ( ) 48 (
) )( ( 2
cos
2 2 2
2 2 2
− ·
− +
·
− +
· ∠
CF BF
BC CF BF
BFC
24
23 5
24
1
1
cos 1 sin
2
2
·

,
`

.
|
− − ·
∠ − · ∠ BFC BFC
Area of the shadow of the sheet at noon

·
area of △BFC
fig.) sig. 3 to (cor. m 0 . 24
m
24
23 5
48 48
2
1
sin
2
1
2
2
·

,
`

.
|
× × × ·
∠ × × × · BFC CF BF

(c) (i)
With the notations in the figure, consider
△ADF.
m 48
m 23
m 23
m 1 ) 24 (
2
2 2 2
·
·
·
·
·
·
·
− ·
+ ·
2
CF RP
PX GH
DF
HX GP
DF
DF AF AD
(Pyth. theorem)
Consider △GPR.
m 5
m ) 23 ( ) 48 (
2 2
2 2 2
·
− ·
+ ·
GR
GP GR RP

(Pyth. theorem)
Consider △CRZ.
m 10
tan
4
m
tan
4
tan

,
`

.
|
− ·
− ·
·
·
θ
θ
θ
YZ RZ RY
RZ
RZ
CR
96
Certificate Mathematics in Action Full Solutions 4B
Consider △APX.
m
tan
5
tan
θ
θ
·
·
PX
PX
AP
m 5
tan
1
m 10
tan
4
5
tan
5

,
`

.
|
+ ·
]
]
]

,
`

.
|
− − − ·
− − ·
θ
θ θ
RY GR GH YH
m
tan
1
5
m 5
tan
1
10

,
`

.
|
− ·
]
]
]

,
`

.
|
+ − ·
− ·
θ
θ
YH YZ HZ
Consider △XHY.
m 5
tan
1
23
m ) 23 ( 5
tan
1
2
2
2
2 2 2

,
`

.
|
+ + ·
+
,
`

.
|
+ ·
+ ·
θ
θ
YX
HX YH YX
Consider △XHZ.
m
tan
1
5 23
m ) 23 (
tan
1
5
2
2
2
2 2 2

,
`

.
|
− + ·
+
,
`

.
|
− ·
+ ·
θ
θ
ZX
HX HZ ZX
When YX = ZX,
(rejected) 270 or 90
0
tan
2
tan
1
5 5
tan
1
tan
1
5 23 5
tan
1
23
2 2
° ° ·
·
− · +

,
`

.
|
− + ·
,
`

.
|
+ +
θ
θ
θ θ
θ θ
∴ The shape of the shadow of the sheet
is not an isosceles triangle.
(ii) The area of the shadow is equal to the area
of △PQR. It is because the bases and the
heights of the two shadows are the same.
38. (a) The angle between AC and the horizontal
ground is ∠ CAE.
∵ ∠ ADB = ∠ AEC = 90°
∴ BD // CE (corr. ∠ s equal)
∵ BD // CE and AB = BC = 5 cm
∴ AD = DE (intercept theorem)
Consider △AEC.
cm 8
cm 6 10
2 2
2 2 2
·
− ·
+ ·
AE
CE AE AC
(Pyth. theorem)

cm 4
cm 8
2
1
2
1
·

,
`

.
|
× ·
·
·
AE
D E AD
Consider △DAE.
By the cosine formula,
cm 2.7362
cm 40 cos ) 4 )( 4 ( 2 4 4
cos ) )( ( 2
2 2
2 2 2
·
° − + ·
∠ − + ·
EA
ADE DE AD DE AD EA
Consider △CAE.
97
(Pyth. theorem)
(Pyth. theorem)
9 Basic Properties of CirclesMore about Trigonometry (II)
fig.) sig. 3 to (cor. 5 . 65
cm 2.7362
cm 6
tan
° · ∠
·
· ∠
CAE
EA
CE
CAE
∴ The angle between AC and the horizontal
ground is 65.5°.
(b) Consider △CAE.
cm
65.485 sin
6
cm 6
65.485 sin
sin
°
·
· °
· ∠
AC
AC
AC
CE
CAE
Consider △ACB.
By the cosine formula,
fig.) sig. 3 to (cor. 5 . 82
2(5)(5)
65.485 sin
6
5 5
) )( ( 2
cos
2
2 2
2 2 2
° · ∠

,
`

.
|
°
− +
·
− +
· ∠
CBA
BC AB
AC BC AB
CBA
39. (a)
With the notations in the figure, let HQ = x m.
Then QK = (600 −x) m.
Consider △HPQ.
m
65 tan
m
65 tan
tan
°
·
· °
· ∠
x
PQ
PQ
x
PQ
HQ
HPQ
Consider △KPQ.
742 . 168 600
258 . 431
65 tan 40 tan
65 tan 600
65 tan 65 tan 600 40 tan
40 tan
600
65 tan
m
40 tan
600
m ) (600
40 tan
tan
· −
·
° + °
°
·
° − ° · °
°

·
°
°

·

· °
· ∠
x
x
x x
x x
x
PQ
PQ
x
PQ
QK
KPQ
98
Certificate Mathematics in Action Full Solutions 4B
Consider △HPQ.
fig.) sig. 3 to (cor. m 476
m
65 sin
258 . 431
m 431.258
65 sin
sin
·
°
·
· °
· ∠
PH
PH
PH
HQ
HPQ
Consider △KPQ.
fig.) sig. 3 to (cor. m 263
m
40 sin
742 . 168
m 168.742
40 sin
sin
·
°
·
· °
· ∠
PK
PK
PK
QK
KPQ
(b) Consider △APH.
fig.) sig. 3 to (cor. m 460
m 44 tan 841 . 475
m 475.841
44 tan
tan
·
° ·
· °
· ∠
AH
AH
PH
AH
APH
Consider △BPK.
fig.) sig. 3 to (cor. m 170
m 33 tan 516 . 262
m 262.516
33 tan
tan
·
° ·
· °
· ∠
BK
BK
PK
BK
BPK
(c)
With the notations in the figure,
RB = HK = 600 m
m 289.034
m ) 33 tan 516 . 262 44 tan 841 . 475 (
·
° − ° ·
− ·
− ·
BK AH
RH AH AR
Consider △ABR.
fig.) sig. 3 to (cor. 7 . 25
m 600
m 034 . 289
tan
° · ∠
·
· ∠
ABR
RB
AR
ABR
∵ The angle of depression of B from A
= the angle of elevation of A from B
∴ The angle of depression of B and A is
25.7°.
40. (a) Consider △DOC.
m 3
m
30 tan
m
30 tan
tan
h
h
OC
OC
h
OC
DC
DOC
·
°
·
· °
· ∠
Consider △DAC.
m
3
m
60 tan
m
60 tan
tan
h
h
AC
AC
h
AC
DC
DAC
·
°
·
· °
· ∠
Consider △COA.
h
h
h
h
h
h
h
h
OA OC
AC OA OC
COA
3 45
1350
3 120
3
3600 3
) 60 )( 3 ( 2
3
60 ) 3 (
) )( ( 2
cos
2
2
2
2
2 2
2 2 2
+
·
− +
·

,
`

.
|
− +
·
− +
· ∠
(b) Consider △DBC.
m
m
45 tan
m
45 tan
tan
h
h
BC
BC
h
BC
DC
DBC
·
°
·
· °
· ∠
Consider △COB.
99
9 Basic Properties of CirclesMore about Trigonometry (II)
h
h
h
h
h
h h
OB OC
BC OB OC
COB
3 90
4050
3 180
8100 2
) 90 )( 3 ( 2
90 ) 3 (
) )( ( 2
cos
2
2
2 2 2
2 2 2
+
·
+
·
− +
·
− +
· ∠
(c) ∵ COB COA ∠ · ∠ cos cos

fig.) sig. 3 to (cor. 7 . 36
1350
4050 2700 2
3 90
4050
3 45
1350
2
2 2
2 2
·
·
+ · +
+
·
+
h
h
h h
h
h
h
h
(d)
fig.) sig. 3 to (cor. 5 . 19
) 1350 ( 3 45
1350 1350
3 45
1350
cos
2
° · ∠
+
·
+
· ∠
COA
h
h
COA
∴ The compass bearing of B from O is
N19.5°E.
41. (a) The angle between DF and BF is ∠ DFB.
Consider △BFG.
cm 10
cm 8 6
2 2
2 2 2
·
+ ·
+ ·
BF
FG BG BF
(Pyth. theorem)
Consider △DFE.
cm 0 1
cm 8 6
2 2
2 2 2
·
+ ·
+ ·
DF
EF DE DF
(Pyth. theorem)
Consider △DAB.
cm 128
cm 8 8
2 2
2 2 2
·
+ ·
+ ·
DB
AB DA DB
(Pyth. theorem)
Consider △DFB.
By the cosine formula,
fig.) sig. 3 to (cor. 9 . 68
25
9
) 10 )( 10 ( 2
) 128 ( 10 10
) )( ( 2
cos
2 2 2
2 2 2
° · ∠
·
− +
·
− +
· ∠
DFB
DF BF
DB DF BF
DFB
∴ The angle between DF and BF is 68.9°.
(b)
Let EG and FH intersects at N. Join FM and
MN.
The angle between FM and plane EFGH is
∠ MFN.
Consider △FGH.
cm 2 8
cm 8 8
2 2
2 2 2
·
+ ·
+ ·
FH
GH FG FH
(Pyth. theorem)
100
Certificate Mathematics in Action Full Solutions 4B
∵ EFGH is a square.

cm 2 4
cm 2 8
2
1
2
1
·

,
`

.
|
× ·
·
·
FH
NH FN
(property of
square)
MN = CH = 6 cm
Consider △MFN.
fig.) sig. 3 to (cor. 7 . 46
cm 2 4
cm 6
tan
° · ∠
·
· ∠
MFN
FN
MN
MFN
∴ The angle between FM and plane EFGH is
46.7°.
(c)
Join CM.
∵ DFB is an isosceles triangle.
∴ FM ⊥ DB
∵ CDB is an isosceles triangle.
∴ CM ⊥ DB
The angle between the planes FDB and DBC is
∠ FMC.
Consider △MFN.
° · ∠
° · ° + ° + ∠
° · ∠ + ∠ + ∠
314 . 43
180 90 686 . 46
180
FMN
FMN
FNM MFN FMN

fig.) sig. 3 to (cor. 133
90 314 . 43
90
° ·
° + ° ·
∠ + ∠ · ∠
° · ∠
CMN FMN FMC
CMN
∴ The angle between the planes FDB and
DBC is 133°.
Multiple Choice Questions (p. 229)
1. Answer: B
DC = AB = 6 cm (opp. sides of // gram)
Consider △BCD.
° · ∠
− ·
− +
·
− +
· ∠
280 . 117
24
11
) 6 )( 8 ( 2
12 6 8
) )( ( 2
cos
2 2 2
2 2 2
BCD
CD BC
BD CD BC
BCD
degree) nearest the to (cor. 63
180 280 . 117
180
° · ∠
° · ° + ∠
° · ∠ + ∠
ABC
ABC
BCD ABC
2. Answer: C
° · ∠
° · ° + ° + ∠
° · ∠ + ∠ + ∠
45
180 75 60
180
A
A
C B A
(

sum of ) △
By the sine formula,
2
6
2
1
2
3
45 sin
60 sin
45 sin 60 sin
sin sin
·
·
°
°
·
°
·
°
·
BC
AC
BC AC
A
BC
B
AC
3. Answer : C
By the cosine formula,
7
7
49 10 3
6
49 10
2
1
) )( 3 ( 2
7 ) 3 (
60 cos
) )( ( 2
cos
2
2 2
2
2
2 2 2
2 2 2
·
·
− ·

·
− +
· °
− +
· ∠
x
x
x x
x
x
x x
x x
BC AB
AC BC AB
ABC
4. Answer : D
101
(∠ sum of △)
9 Basic Properties of CirclesMore about Trigonometry (II)
With the notations in the figure,
by the sine formula,
(rejected) 162.076 or 924 . 17
96
100 sin 30
sin
100 sin
m 96
sin
m 30
sin sin
° ° · ∠
°
· ∠
°
·


·

PQR
PQR
PQR
PRQ
PQ
PQR
PR
° · ∠
° · ° + ° + ∠
° · ∠ + ∠ + ∠
076 . 62
180 100 924 . 17
180
RPQ
RPQ
PRQ PQR RPQ
(

sum
of ) △
° ·
° + ° ·
∠ + ∠ · ∠
1 . 117
076 . 62 55
RPQ TPR TPQ
∴ The true bearing of Q from P is 117.1°.
5. Answer : B
With the notations in the figure,
by the cosine formula,
° · ∠
− ·
− +
·
− +
· ∠
6 . 106
7
2
) 7 )( 4 ( 2
9 7 4
) )( ( 2
cos
2 2 2
2 2 2
BAC
AC AB
BC AC AB
BAC
degree) nearest the to (cor. 37
6 . 106 36 180
180
° ·
° − ° − ° ·
∠ − ∠ − ° · ∠ BAC DAB FAC
∴ The compass bearing of C from A is S37°W.
6. Answer : A
° · ° − ° · ∠
° · ° − ° · ∠
65 25 90
60 30 90
BAC
ABC
Consider △ABC.
° · ∠
° · ° + ° + ∠
° · ∠ + ∠ + ∠
55
180 60 65
180
ACB
ACB
ABC BAC ACB

(

sum of ) △
By the sine formula,
m
55 sin
3 6
m
55 sin
2
3
12
m
55 sin
60 sin 12
55 sin
m 12
60 sin
sin sin
°
·
°
×
·
°
°
·
°
·
°

·

AC
AC
ACB
AB
ABC
AC
7. Answer : D
Consider △BDC.
By the cosine formula,
cm 5
cm 45 cos ) 2 3 )( 7 ( 2 ) 2 3 ( 7
cos ) )( ( 2
2 2
2 2 2
·
° − + ·
∠ − + ·
BC
BDC CD BD CD BD BC
Consider △ABC.
Let s =
2
BC AC AB + +
.
102
Certificate Mathematics in Action Full Solutions 4B
∴ s = cm
2
5 4 7 + +
= 8 cm
s −AB = (8 −7) cm = 1 cm
s −AC = (8 −4) cm = 4 cm
s −BC = (8 −5) cm = 3 cm
Area of △ABC
2
2
cm 6 4
cm 3 4 1 8
) )( )( (
·
× × × ·
− − − · BC s AC s AB s s
8. Answer: B
Area of ABDE = area of △ACE −area of △BCD
2
2
m sin 18
m sin 3 4
2
1
sin
) 5 3 ( ) 2 4 (
2
1
sin
2
1

sin
2
1
θ
θ θ
·
]
]
]
× × × −

× + × + × ·
∠ × × ×
− ∠ × × × ·
BCD CD BC
ACE CE AC
∵ Area of ABDE = 14 m
2

° ·
·
·
51
9
7
sin
14 sin 18
θ
θ
θ

(cor. to the nearest
degree)
9. Answer : C
Consider △ACD.
γ
γ
cos
cos
cos
x
AC
AC
x
AC
AD
CAD
·
·
· ∠
Consider △ABC.
By the sine formula,
γ β
α
β
γ
α
cos sin
sin
sin
cos
sin
sin sin
x
BC
x
BC
ABC
AC
BAC
BC
·
·

·

10. Answer : A
Let N be the mid-point of DE.
Join MN and HN.
The angle between MH and plane CDEH is ∠ MHN.
cm 5
cm 10
2
1
2
1
cm 4
·

,
`

.
|
× ·
·
· ·
DE NE
AD MN
Consider △NHE.
cm 41
cm 5 4
2 2
2 2 2
·
+ ·
+ ·
HN
NE HE HN
(Pyth. theorem)
Consider △MHN.
degree) nearest the to (cor. 32
cm 41
cm 4
tan
° · ∠
·
· ∠
MHN
HN
MN
MHN
∴ The angle between MH and plane CDEH is 32°.
11. Answer : C
AD = BC = 4 cm
Consider △ACD.
cm 20
cm 4 6
2 2
2 2 2
·
− ·
+ ·
CD
CD AD AC
(Pyth. theorem)
The angle between CD and plane BCEF is ∠ DCE.
Consider △DCE.
degree) nearest the to (cor. 48
cm 20
cm 3
cos
° · ∠
·
· ∠
DCE
CD
CE
DCE
∴ The angle between CD and plane BCEF is 48°.
12. Answer : A
Let J be the
mid-point of BC.
Joint HJ and JK.
103
9 Basic Properties of CirclesMore about Trigonometry (II)
cm 2
cm 4
2
1
2
1
·

,
`

.
|
× ·
·
·
AD
KD AK
Consider △HAK.
cm 4
cm 5
cm 2 3
2 2
2 2 2
·
·
·
− ·
+ ·
DC KJ
HK
AK HK HA

(Pyth. theorem)
The angle between the planes HBC and ABCD is
∠ HJK.
Consider △HJK.
degree) nearest the to (cor. 29
4
5
tan
° · ∠
·
· ∠
HJK
JK
HK
HJK
∴ The angle between the planes HBC and ABCD
is 29°.
HKMO (p. 231)
1.
Join OA, OF, OB and OE.
Let OA = y cm,
then OA = OB = OE = OF = y cm.
° ·
°
· ∠
60
6
360
AOF
Consider △AOF.
Area of △AOF
2
2
2 2
cm
4
3
cm 60 sin
2
1
sin
2
1
y
y
AOF OF OA
·
° ·
∠ × × × ·
Area of ABCDEF = 6 × area of △AOF
2
4
3
6 3 3
2
·
× ·
y
y
cm 2 2
cm 2
·
·
·
y
BE QP
Area of square PQRS
2 2
2
cm ) 2 2 ( ·
· QP
∵ Area of square PQRS = X cm
2
104
Certificate Mathematics in Action Full Solutions 4B

8
) 2 2 (
2
·
· X
105
9 Basic Properties of CirclesMore about Trigonometry (II)
2. By the cosine formula,
ab c b a
ab b a c
ab b a c
C ab b a c
+ · +
− + ·
° − + ·
∠ − + ·
2 2 2
2 2 2
2 2 2
2 2 2
60 cos 2
cos 2

1
) )( (
) )( (
) )( (
) ( ) (
) )( (
) )( (
) )( (
) ( ) (
2
2 2
·
·
+ +
+ +
·
+ +
+ + +
·
+ +
+ + +
·
+ +
+ + +
·
+ +
+ + +
·
+
+
+
P
P
c b c a
c b c a
P
c b c a
c a c c a b
P
c b c a
bc ac ab c
P
c b c a
bc b ac a
P
c b c a
c b b c a a
P
c a
b
c b
a
3.
Consider △ABD.
By the cosine formula,
θ
θ
cos 180 181
cos ) 10 )( 9 ( 2 10 9
cos ) )( ( 2
2 2
2 2 2
− ·
− + ·
∠ − + · DAB AB AD AB AD BD
θ − ° · ∠
° · ∠ + ∠
180
180
BCD
BCD BAD (opp.

s, cyclic
quad.)
Consider △BCD.
By the cosine formula,
θ
θ
cos 420 541
) (180 cos ) 21 )( 10 ( 2 21 10
cos ) )( ( 2
2 2
2 2 2
+ ·
− ° − + ·
∠ − + · BCD DC BC DC BC BD

5
3
cos
360 cos 600
cos 420 541 cos 180 181
− ·
− ·
+ · −
θ
θ
θ θ

17
5
3
180 181
cos 180 181
·

,
`

.
|
− − ·
− · θ BD
Consider △ABD.
Let s1 =
2
BD AB AD + +
.
∴ s1 =
2
17 10 9 + +
= 18
1 17 18
8 10 18
9 9 18
1
1
1
· − · −
· − · −
· − · −
BD s
AB s
AD s
Consider △BCD.
Let s2 =
2
BD DC BC + +
.
∴ s2 =
2
17 21 10 + +
= 24
s2 −BC = 24 −10 = 14
s2 −DC = 24 −21 = 3
s2 −BD = 24 −17 = 7
Area of the cyclic quadrilateral
= area of △ABD + area of △BCD
120
84 36
7 3 14 24 1 8 9 18
) )( )( (
) )( )( (
2 2 2 2
1 1 1 1
·
+ ·
× × × + × × × ·
− − −
+ − − − ·
BD s DC s BC s s
BD s AB s AD s s
106

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