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WEAVING

WEAVING DEPARTMENT

STANDARD OPERATING MANUAL


PROCESS DEFINITION

1.0 Weaving Process

Weaving is a process of interlacement of two sets of threads namely the warp and
weft threads in lengthwise and crosswise respectively to form a fabric. The Weaving loom introduces
machine settings like warp and weft tension, speed, fabric design, ends per inch, pick per inch and many
other loom settings to achieve the denim fabric property like width, twill design and weight of fabric in
Oz/yds. Hence, relatively Weaving runs:

That the fabric construction runs according to customer specifications
Ensure fabric loom setting is repeatable in terms of loom efficiency and quality.


2.0 Methodology


The Fabric is weaved from different types of looms like Air jet looms, Projectile and
Rapier looms correspond from any desired fabric design like plain weave, twill weave and satin weave

3.1 Loom Definitions:

S # Looms Definitions

1.0

Air Jet

- A loom in which the weft yarn is propelled through the shed
by means
of a jet of air.

2.0

Rapier

- One type has a long rapier that reaches across the looms
width to
carry the filling to the other side.
Another type has two small rapiers, one of each side. One
rapier
carries the filling yarn halfway through the shed, where it is
met by
the other rapier, which carries the filling the rest of the way
across the
loom.

3.0

Projectile

- A shuttle-less loom method of filling yarn insertion using a
small metal
device resembling a bullet in appearance with clamp for
gripping the
yarn at one end, which is then propelled into and through the
shed.


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3.2 Weave Definitions:

S# Weave Definitions

1.0

Plain Weave

1 x 1 weave


- Consist of one thread over and one thread
under.
This type is found in shirting goods.


2.0

Twill Weave

3/1- RHT / LHT
2/1- RHT / LHT
3/1 Broken Twill
3/1 Hearing Bone


- Has each warp thread passing over two or
more
filling threads, with the interlacing
advancing one
thread on successive warps. This type, with
its diagonal line is found in denim.


3.0

Satin Weave

4/1 RH/LH weave

- Has few interlacing widely but regularly
spaced,
resulting in a lustrous right side and dull
back.
This weave usually found in dress goods



4.0 Loom Machine Process Flow:

Sequence Terms
Definitions


1.

Sized Warp

- Sized warp/threads from sizing are wound into loom beams




2.


Drop wires







- Sized threads are inserted and pass to the drop wire with stop motion device incase individual
thread breaks.
- The device will prevent further fabric defects like miss-end or loose ends when sized thread
breaks


4.

Harness



- Elevates the warp threads to build-up shed opening for weft insertion according to twill





5.


Reeds







- Used according to number of warp ends in a dent and the units is dent per inch or meter



6.

Weft Thread



- Loom device that would carry the weft threads and inserted across when warp is open
to achieve required twill pattern of fabric.



7.

Leno Selvedge



- Poly fiber yarn used and weave to strengthen the picking side selvedge of
fabric and let the selvedge get more stronger to avoid folding in finishing process.



9.


Greige Fabric


- A product of weaving after two yarns warp and weft are being weave according to pattern
and wound into batching and ready for greige inspection or right into finishing.


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5.0 Product Working Procedure








































5.1 Definitions

Terms
Procedures


1. Running Product

- Threads of new sized warp are directly knotted to the threads of running out warp by
means of
warp tying machine and run in loom according to set pattern.


2. New Product

- Sized warps are brought to the Draw-In room, and each warp threads are inserted
manually into the
drop wires, heddle and reed to meet the required pattern of greige cloth.


3. Sample Product

- If the pattern of new sample is the same in running article then do the knotting of
sample
according to running article pattern.
- If the new sample is not same pattern in running article then follow new article
working methods


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6.0 PROCESS REQUIREMENTS

6.1 Equipment Used

The details of Weaving looms used in BDL are as follows

Toyota Looms Air Jet
Tsudakoma Looms Air jets
Manufacturer : Japan

6.2 Key Accessories:

Key accessories used for Weaving Process are:

Draw in machine
Knotting Machine
Loom Beam Carrier
Warp Comb for knotting
Reeds
Traveler Cleaner
Scissor
Measuring Tape
Pick Counter
GSM Cutter
Weighing scale
Thread hook
Humidifier / Chiller
Humidity tester
Thermometer
Loom Beam
Cloth barrel
Cloth carrier

6.3 Materials / Chemical used

The following Materials are used for Weaving Process

Leno Selvage

Sized warp

Colored yarn for Selvage

Weft Yarn

Masking Tape

Fabric Marker


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7.0 SAFETY

In order to ensure floor and personal safety, floor personnel are instructed to follow the safety guidelines
given below:

Smoking is strictly prohibited in the factory premises.

Follow the safety instructions mentioned on the machine.

Put in a sign on when the maintenance work of the machine is going on.

Do not operate the machine wearing loose dress that could get entangled in the rotating parts.

Put mask on nose and mouth while running the machine.

Be careful in handling batching roller.

Do not touch the weft device when in motion.

Do not clean the loom while the machine is running.

For any unexpected electrical switch in absence of any electrician or responsible person.

Never touch the panel board without the help of Engineer or Production Executive

Carefully handle the batcher while inserting or releasing during operation


8.0 OPERATION PROCEDURE:

8.1 Operation Staff

Weaving Operation staff includes:

1. Production Executive

2. Loom Operator

3. Assistant Operator

4. Fabric Doffer

5. Sized beam and Weft yarn Hauler

6. Fabric Quality Inspector

7. Loom Mechanics

8. Production Planner

9. Warp tier

10. Helpers


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9.0 Standard Operating Procedures



S #
Tasks

1
Get Production Plan from Planning Manager.

2
Review the production plan according to loom assignments, sized warp and weft availability and
no. of days to weave the fabric

3
Review loom settings according to article code like Reed availability, pick gear combination,
tension settings and other important set up to run the looms according to required quality.

4
Prepare accessories of sized warp in-case for draw-in pattern.

5
Check knotting group personnel and knotting machines and accessories availability.

6
Prepare manpower availability in running the planned looms

7
Plan for overtime hours and its cost and cost to produce if necessary.

8
Review plan for loom efficiency and productivity

9
Check loom utility requirements like power and air

10
Check loom shed humidification and ensure that relative humidity and temperature are being met
inside the loom shed.

11
Prepare manpower to task of checking loom fabric quality

12
Check batching motion and cloth barrel availability

13
Loom is now ready for production

14
When loom is running check the first three meters of fabric according to target weave quality like
Weight. Width, color and yarn/slub appearance, design and boil-off report.

15
Prepare daily loom production report, loom efficiency and greige fabric quality


16

Deliver greige fabric in batch roll to greige inspection according to roll length specified

17

Greige Inspection must report immediately whatever fabric faults arises so as looms can rectify
quickly.




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10.0 Loom Checklists



Draw-in Pattern

No. of Frames

Size of Headle wire

Reed Width setting

Pick gear setting

Back rest height

Distance between drop wire and harness

Shedding height and opening

Selvedge type

Crossing point opening

Weft Selector

Drafting setting

Tension setting




11.0 Fabric Properties checking


EPI

PPI

Design

Color

Width

Weight

Warp & Weft yarn appearance

Slub yarn appearance


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12.0 Product Quality Checking


Weaving Fabric Faults: Descriptions, Causes and Actions



Weaving Faults


Descriptions

Causes

Action

1. Abrasion Mark

- Area of the cloth or yarn being damaged
by
friction that is rubbing against any sharp
objects or rough surfaces along its travel
path.


- Defective reed or drop wires

- Broken guide tooth and
heddle


- Replacement of defective
parts


2. Cut- Pick

- A discontinuity of weft direction caused
by
a break or cut of weft yarn

- Dropped pick
- Improper setting of weft
tension
- Weak weft yarn

- Check air supply
- Check weft setting
- Replace weak weft yarn


3. Double Ends

- Double strands woven in one loop of
weft

- Mis-drawn ends on the same
warp line position


- Counter check Draw-in
method

4. Double Pick

- Two picks interlaced in the same shed

- Double end during winding

- Use correct pick finding
after
weft break


5 Weft Loose

- A short length of weft yarn that has
spontaneously doubled back on itself and
forming like loop


- Improper weft setting tension
- Low Air supply

- Correct Weft insertion
settings
- Check air supply
requirements

6. Mis-pick

- Pick not properly interlaced along its
weft
travel path.


- Wrong pick -finding
- Low Air supply

- Check pick finding after
break
- Check air supply
requirements

7. Reed Mark

- Marks on the cloth caused by damage

- Damage reed

- Change Reed
reed
tooth


8. Oil Stains


- Contaminated substance mark on fabric

- Oil leak from loom machine

- Notify Mechanic

9. Starting Mark

- Likely stop mark across the width of
fabric

- Warp tension not properly
adjusted after loom
has stopped


- Check level tension
adjustments

10. Temple Mark


- Abrasion on fabric from temple rings

- Improper setting of temple
rolls

- Set temple rolls accordingly

11. Stop Mark

- Likely dark mark across the width of
fabric

-Loom stop from different
causes

- Avoid prolong loom stops
- Check Auto - leveler







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13.0 Griege Fabric Quality Determination and Standard



Loom Breaks/stops is a benchmark performance of fabric quality in weaving to measure initially the
fabric faults
Whether it passes under export points grading system


13.1 Loom Standard Air jet

Parameters
STANDARD
Breaks per 100,000 picks
(CMPX)
Breaks/
Hour
Breaks/ 8
hrs Efficiency Points /100-mtr
1. Warp Breaks- Std 2.60CMPX 1.12 9

Loom
Shed

92.0 %

28 defect
points
Average

2. Weft Breaks -Std 3.20 CMPX 1.37 11
3. Mech/Elec stops-
Std 0.40 CMPX 0.25 1.5
4. Leno Stops - Std 0.40 CMPX 0.25 1.5

Total Stops

6.6 CMPX

3.00


23


13.2 Loom Yarn Breaks Analysis & Standard


Warp Breaks = 9 warp breaks std x 100, 000 picks
No. of picks run - 8-hrs

= 9 x 100,000 picks - Constant
335,000 picks Pick reading in loom after 8 hrs run

Warp Breaks (Std) = 2.60 breaks or CMPX = (1.12 breaks per hr or 9 breaks per 8 hrs)



Weft Breaks = 11 weft breaks std x 100,000 picks
335,000 picks

Weft Breaks - Std = 3.20 breaks or CMPX = ( 1.37 breaks per hr or 11 breaks per 8 hrs)


Loom Stops = 1.5 stops std x 100,000 picks
335,000 picks

Loom stops - Std = 0.40 stops or CMPX or ( 1.5 stops per 8 hrs)


Leno Breaks = 1.5 breaks std x 100,000 pick
335,000 picks

Leno Breaks - Std = 0.40 breaks or CMPX or ( 1.5 stops per 8 hrs)
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13.3 Loom: Waste Standard



Parameters
Waste Allocation per Sized loom Beam

Meters per Beam %

1. Warp out left over on beam

2.5

0.078

2. Warp Knotting

2.0

0.062

3. Pull over start new beam

2.5

0.078

4. Re-knotting /damage warp

0.5

0.016

5. Reserved ends

3.0

0.100

6. Total warp meters - waste

10.5



7. Average meters / Beam

3,200



Standard Warp Waste



0.33%


13.4 Shed Loom Efficiency


Required Running Loom Picks per day = 1,005,100 picks


Loom Shed Efficiency = 1,005,100 picks x 100
24 hrs x 60 mins/hr x 760 Rev/min

= 92.00 %


13.5 Production Efficiency


A. Average running Pick = 57
B. Average Speed (RPM) = 750

Production Efficiency = RPM x 60 mins/hr x 24 hrs
( Loom Wise) Picks/inch x 39.37 inch/meter


= 760 x 60 x 24
57 x 39.37

= 488 meters @ 100 %

= 448 meters @ 92 % per loom/day



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W o v e n F a b r i c C a l c u l a t i o n
C o v e r F a c t o r
D e f i n i t i o n : C o v e r f a c t o r i n d i c a t e s t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h t h e a r e a o f a f a
b r i c i s c o v e r e d b y o n e s e t o f t h r e a d s .
F o r a n y f a b r i c t h e r e a r e t w o c o v e r f a c t o r s : t h e w a r p c o v e r f - a c t o r a n d t
h e w e f t c o v e r f ' a c t o r .' l ' h e
c l o t h c o v e r f - a c t o r i s o b t a i n e d b y a d d i n g t h e w e f t c o v e r f a c t o r t o t h e w
a r p c o v e r .
C a l c L r l a t i o n : T h e c o v e r f - a c t o r i n S I u n i t s i s c a l c u l a t e d a s :
( ' o v e r F a c t o r 1 S l )
l l t r c u J s I c ' n t . . - -
' { r / /c' r
l 0
I l x a r n p l e : ' l ' c x - 2 0 . t h r c a d s / c n r : 2 [ l
C o v e r f a c t o r ( S I )
: ( 2 S x r / Z O ; l l 0
: 1 2 . 5
C o v e r F a c t o r ( P i e r c e )
o v c r [ : a c t o t ' ( P i e r c c )
n
l v h c r e n : t h r e a d s / i n c h a n d N i s c o t t o n c o L l l l t
t : r a r n p l c ' f e x : 2 0 c o L l n t . t h r e a d s / c m - 2 8
C l o t t o n C o L r n t : 5 9 0 . 5 1 2 0
: 2 9 . 5 ' s
- l ' h r e a d s / i n c h
: 2 8
x 2 . 5 4
- l
I
C o v e r F a c t o r ( P i e r c e )
: 1
| I \ 1 2 9 . 5
: 1 2 . 9
' l ' l r c
r e s u l t a l t t c o v e r f a c t o r b e t w e e n S l r - r n i t s a n d P i e r c e i s l e s s t h a n 5 o / o .
F o r a n y g i v e n t h r e a d s p a c i n g , p l a i n r v e a v e h a s t h e l a r g e s t n u m b e r i n t e r
s e c t i o n s p e r t t n i t
a r e a . A l l o t h e r w e a v e s h a v e f - e w e r i n t e r s e c t i o n s t h a n p l a i n w e a v e . - f h
e l i k e l y w e a v a b i l i t l '
o f a l l l a b r i c s w o v e n w i t h t h e s a m e w e a v e a n d f i o r n s i r n i l a r y a r n s c a n b
e f o r e c a s t l i o l n
t h e i r c o v e r f - a c t o r .
P l a i n w e a v e f - a b r i c s w i t h r v a r p a n d r v e f t c o v e r f a c t o r s o f l 2 i n e a c h d i
r e c t i o n a r e e a s y t o
w e a v e . T h e r e a f t e r w e a v i n g b e c o m e s m o r e d i f f i c u l t a n d f b r c o v e r f a c t o r
s o f l 4 + 1 4 f a i r l y
s t r o n g w e a v i n g m a c h i n e s a r e r e q u i r e d . A t a c o v e r f - a c t o r o f l 6 + 1 6 , t h
e p l a i n s t r u c t u r e
j a r n s a n d a v e r y s t r o n g l o o r r - r w i t h h e a v y b e a t - L r p i s n e e d e d t o d e f
b r r n t h e y a r n s
s u f f i c i e n t l y t o o b t a i n a s a t i s f a c t o r y b e a t i n g - u p o f t h e w e f t .T h r e e c l o t
h s w i t h t h e s a m e c o v e r f a c t o r ( K : 1 2 ) w o v e n r v i t h y a r r r s o f d i f l - e r e n t l i
r r e a r
d e n s i t i e s a r e s h o r . v n i n T a b l e l . l t c a n b e s e e n t h a t h o r v t h r e a d s p a c i n
g a n d l i n e a r d e n s i t y
h a v e t o b e a d j L r s t e d t o m a i n t a i n t h e r e q u i r e d c o v e r f a c t o r a n d h o w c l o
t h a r e a d e n s i t y a n d
t h i c k n e s s a r e a f ' f e c t e d .
T a b l e I C o r n p a r i s o n o f f a b r i c s w i t h i d e n t i c a l w a r p a n d w e f t c o v e r f a c t o
r s w o v e r r w i t h
y a r n s o f d i f f e r e n t l i n e a r d e n s i t i e s ( S I L r n i t s )
C l o t h T h r e a d s D e r c m L i n e a r d e n s i t v C o v e r f a c t o r W e i s h t t h i c k n e s s
I l l rl2 Nr Nz K r K ; ( g / m ' ) m m
.,,
A 1 A
- a 25 25 t 2 t2 l 3 t ) 0 . 2 8
B t 2 t2 t 0 0 1 0 0 t2 t2 2 6 0 0 5 6
( l o () , + 0 0 4 0 0 t 2 t 2 5 2 0 l . 1 2F r a c t i o n a l C o v e r
I p f a b r i c s c o n s t r u c t c d f i o r n y a r n s , c o v e r m a y b e c o n s i d e r e d a s t h e f r a c
t i o r r o f t h e t o t a l
f a b r i c a r e a t h a t
" c o v e r e d " b 1 , t h e c o m p o n e n t y a r n s . A n o v e r - s i l n p l i f i c a t i o n o f t h e i d e
a f b r
w o v e n f a b r i c i s s h o r v n i n F i g l l r e l .
I : i g u r c I : I r r a c t i o n a l C o v e r
' l ' h c
r a r r r h a s a c i r c u l a r c r o s s - s e c t i o n o l - d i a n r c t e r . r / . a r r c l a d . i a c c n t
) ' a r n s a r e c l i s p l a c c d b 1 ' a
d i s t a n c e s . I ' h e f l ' a c t i o n a l c o v e r i s t h e n d / s .
I n t h c i d e a l r n o d c l . s r v i l l b e e q u a l t o l / n . w h c r e r i s t h e n u m b e r o l - t h r e a d s
p c r u n i t I c - n g t h
l l r c l i a c t i o n a l c o v e r c o u l d b e e x o r e s s c d i n t c r m s o f d a r r d n
l r r a c t i o n a l c o v e r : c l X n
G r o s b e r g s h o w e d t h a t y a r n d i a r n c t c r d - 1 . 4 4 l i ( t c x / l i b c r d c r r s i t l ' x l 0
r
.
F r a c t i o n a l c o v e r .
C - 4 . , 4 4 r ( t c x / [ i b e r d e n s i t y ) x t h r e a d s / c r r r x l 0 - '
l r x a m p l e : W h a t i s t l i e f i a c t i o n a l c o v c r t b r t h c w a r p i n a l ' a b r i c w i t h 3
5 e n d s / c r n . \ \ o v e n
t i o m y a r n o f 3 0 t e x ' l ' l ' h e f l b r e d e n s i t y i s 1 . 5 g / c m 3 .
C r : 4 . 4 4 ! 3 0 / 1 . 5 x 3 5 x l 0 l
c t r : 0 . 6 9 5
l e . 6 9 0 / o i s c o v e r e d b y w a r p y a r n .
W O V h ] N - T A I ] R I C S ' I R U ( ' T U R L
) f ) ( )
'
\,-____-,/ \*-/
IT o t a l C o v e r
l - h e t o t a l a r e a c o v e r e d b y t h e f a b r i c ( P l a i n r . v e a v e ) i s A B C D .
' T ' h e
s h a d e d a r e a i s t h e p a r t
o f t h e t o t a l a r e a . o u . r . d b y b o t h y a r n s , a n d . b e c a u s e o f t h i s , i t w o r - r l
d n o t b e s t r i c t l y '
a c c u r a t e m e r e l y t o a d d t h e i v a r p a n d w e f t c o v e r v a l u e s t o g e t h e r a n d q r
- r o t e t h e m a s t h e
t o t a l c o v e r .
rT
,
- - !
:
- i
F i g u r e l : l . J n i t c c l l o f P l a i n l r a b r i c
f l t e s f t a d e c l a r c a s a r c e a c l t d r x d : a l l d t h c t o t a l a t ' c a o l ' t h e c e l l i s s
1 x
B y d e f i n i t i o n . l i a c t i o n a l c o v e r . C .
- d / s . H c n c c
d r
: C r s r
d :
- C : s :
d r d : : C 1 s 1 C i : s l
I : x p r c s s e d a s a l p a c t i o l o f t o t a l : l l ' e 3 S 1 r s 2 . t h e s h a c l e d a r c a b c c o n t c
s :
5 a
h , x a r r p l e :
A p l a i l c o t t o r r f a b r i c i s w o v e n t o t h c f b l l o w i r r g d c t a i l s : r v a r p : 2 0 t e x
, 2 8 e n d s / c m .
W e f i : 3 5 t e x , 2 5 p i c k s / c m ( d e n s i t y o f c o t t o n 1 . 5 2 g / c m 3 )
W h a t i s t h e t o t a l c o v e r f - a c t o r ?
W a r p c o v e r : C r : 4 . 4 4 x r / : O l t . S U x 2 8 x l 0 - 3
: 0 . 4 5 1 ;
W e f l c o v e r : C z : 4 . 4 4 x r / : S l t . S Z x 2 5 x l 0 - 3 - 0 ' 5 3 3
T o t a l f r a c t i o n a l c o v e r i s c 1 + c :
- C r c - - r : 0 . 4 5 1 + 0 . 5 3 3
- 0 . 4 5 1 x 0 , 5 3 3 : 0 ' 1 4 4
l ' h e o r e t i c a l l y , a b o u t 7 4 o / o o f t h e t o t a l a r e a o f t h i s c o t t o n s h e e t i n g i
s t h e r e f b r e c o v e r e d b y
v a r n .
d r d : : C l s y C 2 s 1 / s 1 x s 2
- C r C :
b e d e d u c t e d f i o r n t h e s u l n o f ' C l a n d C 2 ,
T o t a l f i a c t i o n a l c o v e r
= C t * C :
- C r C :




14.0 Q.C. Fabric Testing:

All Greige fabric must undergo Quality Assurance Grading and testing to ensure that all fabrics are on
the right track of quality prior to Finishing.


14.1 Response to Equipment Faults:

Following are the response to be taken in case of any equipment faults:

Equipment Response
Loom power faults
Call Electrical Maintenance

Loom and fabric Settings
Call Mechanical Maintenance
Batching device, Weft settings

Call Mechanical Maintenance

Any other mechanical fault
Call Mechanical Maintenance
Any other electrical fault Call Electrical Maintenance


Loom air problem

Call Utility Maintenance

14.0 Machine / Area Cleaning:

To ensure complete cleanliness on the floor as well as Loom machines, following measures are taken:

Clean all parts of loom and free from any cotton fluffs..

Loom reeds, harness and drop wires must be maintained clean through out run

Clean the entire loom shed, floor, walls, mezzanine and air humidification system

The Maintenance Department performs the preventive maintenance task as per the PM schedule. Refer to
maintenance Specifications (Document No.) for details.

15.0 APPLICABLE FORMS & DOCUMENTS

Forms & Documents Used
The necessary forms & documents used for Weaving process are listed below:
1. Knotting Report (form no._____________)
2. Beam Gaiting Report (form no._____________)
3. Production Report ( form no.____________)
4. Maintenance Report ( form no.____________)
5. Draw-in Report ( form no.____________ )

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16.0 Document Flow


The document flow of the above documents is as follows:


Production and Maintenance activities in Weaving department shall be recorded and make reports in daily
basis and send it in all department concerns and to Factory General Manager.

Knotting report (Form no.) is prepared by the Knotting officer everyday where all details of the fabric
knotting are being specified according to Article code and send copy to Factory General Manager.

Gaiting Report ( Form no. ) is prepared by the concerned Weaving Gating Officer signs on it and send copy to
the Factory General Manager.

Production Report ( Form no.) is used to record details of production output and efficiency on daily basis
including Loss Production and Fabric Faults report and send copy to the Factory General Manager.

Maintenance Report (Form no. ) is prepared by the concerned Weaving Maintenance officer and send it to all
department managers and copy to Factory General Manager
.
Draw-in Report ( Form no. ) is prepared daily by Draw-in officer and send copy to Factory General Manager


Attachments:

Examples of all applicable forms and documents are attached.