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4541 CHEMISTRY SirMaNaFsmki/Chapter 10

Chapter 10 Rate of Reaction


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CHAPTER 10 : RATE OF REACTION

10.1 : Meaning of Rate of Reaction
1. Rate of reaction is a measurement of the changein quantity of reactant or product in a certain
range of time.

Rate of reaction =
taken time
product / t tan reac of quantity in change


2. It is the speed at which reactants are converted into the products in a chemical reaction.
3. A rate of reaction is . if the reaction occurs fast within a short period of time.
4. A rate of reaction is. if the reaction occurs slowly within a long period of time.
5. Rate of reaction is inversely proportional with time.

Rate of reaction
taken time
1



The shorter the time taken, the higher the rate of reaction.
The longer the time taken, the lower the rate of reaction.

6. The change in amout of reactant or product that can be measured by :

increasing in volume of gas released
increasing in mass/concentration of product
decreasing in mass/concentration of reactant
Formation of precipitate
changes in pH, temperature or electrical conductivity.

Activity 1:-

Study the reaction between 2.0 g of CaCO
3
with excess of 1.0 mol dm
-3
HCl.


CaCO
3
(s) + 2HCl(aq) CaCl
2
(aq) + H
2
O(l) + CO
2
(g)
Sketch the graph below :




















Time (s)
Concentration of
HCl (mol dm
-3
)
Time (s)
Concentration of
CaCl
2
(mol dm
-3
)
Time (s)
Volume of CO
2

gas (cm
3
)
Time (s)
Mass of
CaCO
3
(g)
2
t
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Chapter 10 Rate of Reaction
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10.2 : Measuring the Rate of Reaction

1. Two ways to measure the rate of reaction :
(a) Average Rate Of Reaction

Average rate of reaction =
occur to change the for taken time
t tan reac of amount in g sin decrea // product of amount in g sin increa



Determination the averagerate of reaction from the graph :













( V
1
0) cm
3


( t
1
0 ) s

( V
2
V
1
) cm
3


( t
2
t
1
) s


(b) I nstantaneous Rate Of Reaction ( Rate of Reaction at any given time) :

= the gradient of the graph of the amount of reactant / product against time at any given time.










The averagerate of reaction in the first t
1
second =
The averagerate of reaction between t
1
second and t
2
second =
The rate of reaction at t
a
second
= the gradient of tangent to the curve at the given time
= y cm
3

x s
= V
2
- V
1


t
2
- t
1

The averagerate of reaction for the

wholereaction =


Volume of
gas/ cm
3
Time/ s
y
x
t
a

V
2

V
1

t
1
t
2

Volume of gas/cm
3

Time/s
V
2

V
1

t
1
t
2
t
3

V
3

4541 CHEMISTRY SirMaNaFsmki/Chapter 10
Chapter 10 Rate of Reaction
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Activity 2 :-





































(a) Write an equation for the above reaction.

.

(b) Draw a labeled diagram to show the set-up of the apparatus in the experiment.













Graph of the volumes of carbon dioxide gas against time
Time/s
Volume of
carbon dioxide
gas /cm
3

10
20
30
40
40 80
120 160 200
An experiment is carried out to determine the rate of reaction between calcium
carbonate and dilute hydrochloric acid. The volumes of carbon dioxide gas evolved
at fixed intervals are recorded.

Graph of the volumes of carbon dioxide gas against time are shown below.
4541 CHEMISTRY SirMaNaFsmki/Chapter 10
Chapter 10 Rate of Reaction
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(c) Calculate :

(i) the averagerate of reaction for the whole reaction.










(ii) the rate of reaction at 40 second and 80 second.

at 40 second at 80 second


















(d) Base on the answer in (c) (ii), which have the higher rate of reaction. Explain your answer.

.

.

..

..

(e) Suggest another way to increase the rate of above reaction

....

....

....




4541 CHEMISTRY SirMaNaFsmki/Chapter 10
Chapter 10 Rate of Reaction
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Activity 3 :-

20 cm
3
of 0.5 mol dm
-3
HCl is reacted with magnesium ribbon. The results are shown below.

Time /s 0 15 30 45 60 75 90 105 120 135 150
Volume of
H
2
/cm
3

0.0 8.5 16.0 22.0 27.5 32.0 36.0 39.0 42.0 44.0 46.0

(a) Draw the graph of the volume of hydrogen gas released against time.














































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Chapter 10 Rate of Reaction
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(b) From the graph, calculate :

(i) the average rate of reaction in the first 20 seconds.







(ii) the average rate of reaction between 30 seconds and 75 seconds.









(iii) the rate of reaction at 30 seconds.








(iv) the rate of reaction at 105 seconds.








(c) Compare the rate of reaction at 30 seconds and 105 seconds. Explain why?
















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Chapter 10 Rate of Reaction
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10.3 : FACTORS THAT AFFECT THE RATE OF REACTION

1. Size of Reactant / Total Surface Area
(a) [ Experiment I ]
The reaction of large pieces of calcium carbonate chips with hydrochloric acid is conducted.
The volume of gas collected in the burette are recorded at every 30 seconds.

[ Experiment II ]
This experiment is repeated using small pieces of calcium carbonate chips.
Temperature, volume and concentration of HCl acid, and the mass of calcium carbonate are
fixed.


(b) Chemical equation for the reaction :

CaCO
3
+ 2HCl CaCl
2
+ H
2
O + CO
2



(c) The graph of volume of carbon dioxide gas against time obtained is as shown below :


















Based on the graph complete the following statements :

Average rate of reaction for the wholeexperiment :
Experiment I Experiment II




The value of p is than q.

=
p
= q
Experiment II
Small pieces
Experiment I
Large pieces
Time / s
Volume of CO
2
gas / cm
3
t
x
t
y
t
z

V
4541 CHEMISTRY SirMaNaFsmki/Chapter 10
Chapter 10 Rate of Reaction
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The average rate of reaction in Experiment II is . than Experiment I throughout
the experiment.


Rate of reaction at a given time:
The gradient of the graph at t
x
seconds for Experiment II is . than the gradient of
the graph for Experiment I.
The rate of the reaction in Experiment II is . than Experiment I at t
x
seconds.

The rate of reaction of the small pieces of calcium carbonate chips is than the
rate of reaction of the large pieces.

Relationship between the size of marble chips and their total surface area :
small pieces have a total surface area than that of large pieces of marble chips of
the same mass.

The smaller the size of marble chips, the .. the total surface area of marble
chips.
The larger the total surface area of marble chips, the .. the rate of reaction.

The smaller the size of marble chips, the .. the rate of reaction.


The maximum volume of carbon dioxide gas collected for both experiments are .
because the . of the reactants are .





Activity 4 :-

A group of students was carried out two experiments to investigate the factor affecting the rate of a
reaction between zinc and hydrochloric acid.

Table below shows information about the reactants used in each experiment.

Experiment Reactants
I Excess zinc granules and 25 cm of 0.5 mol dm
-3
hydrochloric acid.
II Excess zinc powder and 25 cm of 0.5 mol dm
-3
hydrochloric acid.


(a) Write the chemical equation for the reaction occur in these experiments.

.

(b) State the factor that affecting the rate of the reaction of Experiment I and Experiment II.
4541 CHEMISTRY SirMaNaFsmki/Chapter 10
Chapter 10 Rate of Reaction
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.



The graph below shows the result obtained from these experiments.





































(c) Calculate the average rate of reaction for Experiment I and Experiment II.











(b) Based on the table and graph, compare the rate of reaction between Experiment I and Experiment II

.
Time (s)
Volume of gas
collected (cm
3
)
I
II
5
20
10
15
10
30 40 50 60
20
70 80
4541 CHEMISTRY SirMaNaFsmki/Chapter 10
Chapter 10 Rate of Reaction
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.

.


2. Concentration of Reactant
(a) An experiment to show a reaction between sodium thiosulphate solution and dilute hydrochloric
acid acid is conducted.

(b) The rate of reaction is measured by how fast yellow precipitate (sulphur) is formed.
Observation is made on the time taken for the X sign placed under the conical flask to disappear
from view.
Temperature, volume and concentration of the hydrochloric acid are fixed but the concentration
of sodium thiosulphate solution is varied.

(c) Chemical equation for the reaction :

Na
2
S
2
O
3
+ H
2
SO
4
Na
2
SO
4
+ S + SO
2
+ H
2
O

(d) The graph of concentration of sodium thiosulphate solution against time, and the graph of
concentration against 1/time are plotted.

























Time (s)
Concentration of
Na
2
S
2
O
3
(mol dm
-3
)
1/time (s
-1
)
Concentration of
Na
2
S
2
O
3
(mol dm
-3
)
Concentration is .proportional to time.
When the concentration of Na
2
S
2
O
3
increases, the time
taken for yellow precipitate formed that covers the X
mark is ..

The higher the concentration of Na
2
S
2
O
3
, (the higher
the number of moles of Na
2
S
2
O
3
, ) the
the number of particles perunit
Therefore, the the frequency of
collision between particles.
The the frequency of effective
collisions.
The the rate of reaction.

Concentration is .proportional to 1/time.
[ 1/time shows the rate of reaction ]
When the concentration of Na
2
S
2
O
3
increases, the rate
of reaction is ..

The higher the concentration of Na
2
S
2
O
3
, the
. the number of particles perunit
.
Therefore, the the frequency of
collisions between particles.
The the frequency of effective
collisions.
The the rate of reaction.
The the rate of reaction.

4541 CHEMISTRY SirMaNaFsmki/Chapter 10
Chapter 10 Rate of Reaction
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3. Temperature
(a) Study through observation to yellow precipitate (sulphur), the product of the reaction between
sodium thiosulphate solution with hydrochloric acid.

(b) In this reaction, the temperature of the sodium thiosulphate solution is changed.

(c) All other conditions such as volume and concentration of sodium thiosulphate solution and
hydrochloric acid is remain constant.

(d) Time taken for certain amount of the yellow precipitate formed and covered the X mark below
the beaker is recorded.

(e) Two graph are obtained :









































Time (s)
Temperature of
Na
2
S
2
O
3
(mol dm
-3
)
1/time (s
-1
)
Temperature of
Na
2
S
2
O
3
(mol dm
-3
)
Temperature is .proportional to time.
When the temperature of Na
2
S
2
O
3
increases, the time
taken for yellow precipitate formed that covers the X
mark is ..

The higher the temperature of Na
2
S
2
O
3
, the
the kinetic energy of S
2
O
3
2-
ions and H
+
ions.
Therefore, the the frequency of
collision between particles [ S
2
O
3
2-
ions and H
+

ions ].
The the frequency of effective
collision.
The the rate of reaction.


Temperature is . proportional to 1/time.
[ 1/time shows the rate of reaction ]
When the temperature of Na
2
S
2
O
3
increases, the rate
of reaction is ..

The higher the temperature of Na
2
S
2
O
3
, the
the kinetic energy of S
2
O
3
2-
ions and H
+
ions.
Therefore, the the frequency of
collision between particles [ S
2
O
3
2-
ions and H
+

ions ].
The the frequency of .
collision
The the rate of reaction.


4541 CHEMISTRY SirMaNaFsmki/Chapter 10
Chapter 10 Rate of Reaction
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4. Catalyst
Catayst is a chemical substance that increases the rate of reaction [change the rate of reaction],
but it does not change chemically at the end of the reaction.
Positive catalyst increase the rate of reaction while negative catalyst decrease the rate of reaction.

Characteristics of catalyst :

It does not change the quantity (amount) of the products formed.
It is unchanged chemically at the end of the reaction.
The amount of catalyst is the same before and after reaction.
It is specific.
Only small amount is needed.
It could become less effective when there are impurities.

Most catalysts are transition elements or compounds of transition elements.
The presence of catalyst affects the rate of reaction.
Quantity of catalyst also can effect the rate of reaction.

Study through :

I : The reaction between zinc with dilute sulphuric acid
[copper(II) sulphate, CuSO
4
solution as the catalyst]

II : The decomposition of hydrogen peroxide, H
2
O
2

[using different quantity of manganese(IV) oxide, MnO
2
as the catalyst]

Experiment I :

The reaction between zinc with dilute sulphuric acid [CuSO
4
as the catalyst]

(a) Chemical equation for the reaction :

Zn + H
2
SO
4
ZnSO
4
+ H
2


(b) Volume of hydrogen gas collected in a burette are recorded at every 30 seconds.
(c) This experiment is repeated by adding 2 cm
3
copper(II) sulphate solution.
(d) In this reaction, mass of zinc, volume and concentration of sulphuric acid and temperature
are remain constant.

(e) Graph of volume of hydrogen gas produced against time are obtained :










Volume of
H
2
gas /cm
3

Time/s
Without catalyst
With catalyst

4541 CHEMISTRY SirMaNaFsmki/Chapter 10
Chapter 10 Rate of Reaction
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From the graph above :

The gradient of the curve with catalyst is . than the curve without catalyst.
At the end of this reaction, the total volume of H
2
gas in both reactions is the same because
the .. of zinc and the. of sulphuric acid is the same.

Copper(II) sulphate as catalyst lowered the ..., E
a
for the reaction.

therefore, more particles will reach the same or more than the , E
a
of
the reaction.
the frequency of collision between particles ..
the frequency of effective collision
the rate of reaction ....

Experiment II :

(a) In this reaction, all other conditions such as volume and concentration of hydrogen
peroxide, temperature are remain constant.

2H
2
O
2
2H
2
O + O
2


(f) Graph of volume of oxygen gas produced againts time are obtained :

















From the graph :

The gradient of the curve using 1 spatula of MnO
2
is . than using spatula
of MnO
2
.
Volume of
O
2
gas (cm
3
)
Time (s)
spatula of
MnO
2

1 spatula of
MnO
2

An increasein the quantity of
catalyst used will increasethe rate
of reaction.

The quantity of catalyst does not
affect the total volume of gas
produced.


V
t
1
t
2

4541 CHEMISTRY SirMaNaFsmki/Chapter 10
Chapter 10 Rate of Reaction
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Optimum conditions :
Temperature : 400 - 500
o
C
Pressure : 200 400 atm
Catalyst : Iron/ferum, Fe
At the end of this reaction, the total volume of O
2
gas in both reactions is the same because
the . and of hydrogen peroxide is same.

Manganese(VI) oxide as catalyst lowered the ..., E
a
for the
decomposition of H
2
O
2
.

therefore, more particles will reach the same or more than the .., E
a

of the reaction.
the frequency of collision between particles ..
the frequency of effective collision
the rate of reaction ....

5. Pressure
Only for reactions involving reactants in gaseous state.
When the pressure of a reaction (involving gaseous reactants) increases, the rate of reaction
increases.
When the pressure of the gaseous reactants increases, the particles of the gaseous reactants are
compressed to occupy a smaller volume.
Thus, the number of gas particles per unit volume increases.
the frequency of collision between particles ..
the frequency of effective collision
the rate of reaction ....

10.5 : Application of factors that affect the Rate of Reaction
Daily lives :

Cooking of solid food in smaller size
The total surface area on a smaller cut pieces of food is larger. The food can absorbed
more heat. Hence, the time taken for the food to be cooked is lower/decrease.

Storage of food in a refrigerator
When the food kept in refrigerator, the food lasts longer. The low temperature in the
refrigerator slows down the activity of the bacteria. The bacteria produce less toxin ,
the rate of decomposition of food lower.

Cooking in a pressure cooker
The high pressure in pressure cooker increases the boiling point of water to a
temperature above 100 C. The kinetic energy of the particles in the food is
increase/higher. Hence time taken for the food to be cooked is lower/decrease.
Thus the food cooked faster at a higher temperature in a pressure cooker.


In Industry :

Haber process; manufacture of ammonia :

N
2
+ 3H
2
2NH
3


4541 CHEMISTRY SirMaNaFsmki/Chapter 10
Chapter 10 Rate of Reaction
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Contact process; manufacture of sulphuric acid [ catalyst : Vanadium(V) oxide, V
2
O
5
]
Ostwald process; manufacture of nitric acid [ catalyst : platinum, Pt ]




10.6 : The Collision Theory
For a reaction to occur, the reactants particles must collide.
Not all collisions result in chemical reactions.
For a reaction to occur, the collisions must satisfy two conditions :
(i) The colliding particles must have the right orientation of collision.
(ii) The colliding particles must have enough energy; i.e equal or morethan a minimum
amount of energy known as Activation Energy, E
a


The collisions that lead to a chemical reaction are known as effective collisions.

10.6 : Energy Profile Diagram and Activation Energy, E
a










E
a
The minimumenergy the reactant particles must possessed before collision between them
can result in a chemical reaction.

E
a
The lower activation energy in the presence of a catalyst.

Activity 5 :-


(a) Draw an Energy Profile Diagram for the reaction. On the diagram, show the :
Heat of reaction, H
Activation energy without a catalyst, E
a

Activation energy with a catalyst, E
a


(b) Explain the Energy Profile Diagram.


reactants

Energy
Progress of reaction
E
a
products
E
a

H

E
a
= Activation Energy without a catalyst

E
a

= Activation Energy with a catalyst



H = Heat of reaction
(The energy diffence in the reactants
and in the products)


Zinc powder reacts with dilute hydrochloric acid. The temperature of the mixture increases.
4541 CHEMISTRY SirMaNaFsmki/Chapter 10
Chapter 10 Rate of Reaction
16






Frequency of Effective Collision and Rate of Reaction
When the frequency of collision between particles of reactants increases, the frequency
of effective collisions between particles will also increase.

The effective collisions will result in chemical reaction. When frequency of effective
collision increases, the rate of reaction will also increase.




Collision Theory and Factors Influencing The Rate of Reaction



























The frequency of collision between particles increases.

SIZE OF
REACTANTS /
TOTAL SURFACE
AREA

The smaller the size of
reactant, the larger
is the total surface
area exposed to
collision.
CONCENTRATION
OF REACTANTS

The higher the
concentration of reactants,
the higher is the number
of particles in a unit
volume.
TEMPERATURE OF
REACTION MIXTURE

The higher the
temperature, the higher is
the kinetic energy of
reacting particles. The
reacting particles move
faster.
CATALYST
Catalyst provides an
alternative path of
reaction which needs
lower Activation
Energy, (E
a
).

More particles are
able to overcome the
new Activation
Energy, (E
a
)
The frequency of effective collision between particles increases.
The rate of reaction increases.
4541 CHEMISTRY SirMaNaFsmki/Chapter 10
Chapter 10 Rate of Reaction
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Activity 6 :-

Four experiments are carried out to study the factors that affect the rate of reaction.
The table below shows the details of each experiment.

Experiment Reactants
Temperature of HCl
/ C
I
Excess of magnesium ribbon and
50 cm
3
hydrochloric acid 1.0 mol dm
3

30
II
Excess of magnesium powder and
50 cm
3
hydrochloric acid 1.0 mol dm
3

30
III
Excess of magnesium powder and
50 cm
3
hydrochloric acid 1.0 mol dm
3

40
IV
Excess of magnesium powder and
50 cm
3
sulphuric acid 1.0 mol dm
3

40


(a) Write the chemical equation of the reaction occurred in Experiment I and IV


Experiment I : ...

Experiment IV : ..

(b) Calculate the maximum volume of gas released at room condition in :
[ Molar volume of gas at room condition = 24.0 dm
3
]

(i) Experiment II


















4541 CHEMISTRY SirMaNaFsmki/Chapter 10
Chapter 10 Rate of Reaction
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(ii) Experiment IV


















(c) Sketch the graph of the volume of gas released against time for each Experiment I, II, III and IV on
the axes provided below.
























(d) Explain the difference in the rate of reaction in the experiments below.
Use the Collision Theory in your explanation.

(i) I and II
Time / s
Volume of H
2
gas / cm
3
4541 CHEMISTRY SirMaNaFsmki/Chapter 10
Chapter 10 Rate of Reaction
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...

...

...

...


...

...




(ii) II and III

...

...

...

...

...

...



(iii) III and IV

...

...

...

...

...

...

...










4541 CHEMISTRY SirMaNaFsmki/Chapter 10
Chapter 10 Rate of Reaction
20











Activity 7 :-

Interpretation of graph.

Study the graphs below and complete the following :












































The gradient of graph I is . than graph II.
The rate of reaction for reaction I is . than reaction II.
Possibilities :
Reaction I used . size of reactants than reaction II.
Reaction I : . pieces of CaCO
3
;
Reaction II : . pieces of CaCO
3
.
Temperature of reaction I is . than reaction II.
Concentration of the reactants for reaction I is . than
reaction II.
Presence of catalyst :
Reaction I : . .
Reaction II : ..

Final quantity of product for reaction I and II are the same.
Quantity of the reactants (number of moles) for reaction I and II must be
.
Mass of the reactants used in reaction I and II is
Number of moles [ n = MV ] of the reactants used in reaction I and
II is
Quantity of product
Time

I
II
t
1
t
2

V
GRAPH 4.1

The gradient of graph I and graph II are ..
The rate of reaction for both reactions are ..
Possibilities :
Size of reactant for both reactions are ..
Temperature for both reactions are ...
Concentration of the reactants for both reaction are ...

Final quantity of product for reaction II is twice than reaction I.
Quantity of the reactants (number of moles) for reaction I must be
. than reaction II because the concentration of the reactants are
the same in both reactions.
Example :
Reaction I : 250 cm
3
of HCl 1.0 mol dm
-3
Reaction II : 1000 cm
3
of HCl 1.0 mol dm
-3

Time
V
4V
I
II
Quantity of product

GRAPH 4.2
t
1
t
2

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Chapter 10 Rate of Reaction
21



























































The gradient of graph I is than graph II.
The rate of reaction for reaction I is . than reaction II.
Possibilities :
Size of reactants for reaction I is . than reaction II.
Reaction I : . pieces of CaCO
3
;
Reaction II : . pieces of CaCO
3
.
Temperature of reaction I is . than reaction II.
Presence of catalyst :
..
Reaction I : . .
Reaction II : ..
Concentration of the reactants for reaction I is . than
reaction II

Final quantity of product for reaction II is twice than reaction I.
Quantity of the reactants for reaction II must be than reaction I.
Mass of the reactants used in reaction II is than
reaction I.
Number of moles [ n = MV ] of the reactants used in reaction II is
than reaction I.

Time

Quantity of product

I
II
V
2V
GRAPH 4.3

The gradient of graph I is . than graph II.
The rate of reaction for reaction I is . than reaction II.
Possibilities :
Size of reactants for reaction I is . than reaction II.
Reaction I : . pieces of CaCO
3
;
Reaction II : . pieces of CaCO
3
.
Temperature of reaction I is . than reaction II.
Presence of catalyst :
Reaction I : . .
Reaction II : ..
Concentration of the reactants for reaction I is . than
reaction II.

Final quantity of product for reaction II is twice than reaction I.
Quantity of the reactant for reaction II must be than reaction I.
Mass of the reactants used in reaction II is than
reaction I.
Number of moles [ n = MV ] of the reactants used in reaction II is
Time

2V II
I
t
1
t
2

Quantity of product

V
GRAPH 4.4
4541 CHEMISTRY SirMaNaFsmki/Chapter 10
Chapter 10 Rate of Reaction
22













Activity 8 :-

Rate of Reaction and Thermochemistry (Conclusion)

1. The minimum energy of a reaction is ., E
a
.
2. ., E
a
must be overcome in order for the reaction to take place.
3. Particles of reactants must achieve and with ..
to make the chemical reaction occurs.
4. The use of a . reduces the E
a
.

5. H is .

6. The the size of reactants, the the total surface area.

7. Magnesium ribbon will react with warm sulphuric acid than cool sulphuric acid.

8. The the concentration of a solution, the rate of chemical reaction.

9. A is a substance that changes the rate of a chemical reaction. It
undergo any chemical change.

10. is a chemical reaction in which a compound is broken down into simpler
substances.



Activity 9 :-

Complete the table below :

Industry process Reactants Catalyst
Haber process
4541 CHEMISTRY SirMaNaFsmki/Chapter 10
Chapter 10 Rate of Reaction
23
Contact process
Ostwald process

END OF CHAPTER 10