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Momentum

Momentum is a property of moving matter.

Momentum describes the tendency of objects

to keep going in the same direction with the

same speed.

Changes in momentum result from forces or

create forces.

We dont want to lose our momentum

In everyday language something with a lot of momentum is hard to stop

Momentum Defined

p = m v

p = momentum vector

m = mass

v = velocity vector

Momentum Facts

p = m v

Momentum is a vector quantity!

SI unit for momentum: kg m /s (no special name).

Momentum is directly proportional to both mass and speed.

Something big and slow could have the same momentum as

something small and fast.

Equivalent Momenta

Bus: m = 9000 kg; v = 16 m /s

p = 1.44 10

5

kg m /s

Train: m = 3.6 10

4

kg; v = 4 m /s

p = 1.44 10

5

kg m /s

Car: m = 1800 kg; v = 80 m /s

p = 1.44 10

5

kg m /s

continued on next slide

Question 1

Which has the greater

momentum, an 18-wheeler

parked at the curb or a

Volkswagen rolling down a hill?

Equivalent Momenta (cont.)

The train, bus, and car all have different masses and

speeds, but their momenta are the same in magnitude. N

Note: We can only say that the magnitudes of their

momenta are equal since theyre arent moving in the

same direction.

The difficulty in bringing each vehicle to rest--in terms of a

combination of the force and time required--would be the

same, since they each have the same momentum.

Change in Momentum = F t

Impulse

Impulse is an interaction that changes an

objects momentum. It is a force acting for a

certain time.

So an impulse equals the change in

momentum

Ft = (mv) and we get F= (mv)/t

(the units of impulse are equal equivalent to those of momentum)

Question 2

Which of the following will cause

the larger change in the

momentum of an object- a force

of 2 newtons acting for 10

seconds or a force of 3 newtons

acting for 6 seconds?

Question 3

Now take an instance where you

are in a car crash. Are you safer

when the impulse takes longer or

shorter?

Conservation on Momentum

In the absence of an external net force the

momentum of a closed system is conserved

We assume frictional forces are negligible.

Scientists use this find out a lot of information

like how fast a car was going before it crashed.

Conservation of linear momentum

If the net external force on a system is zero,

the total linear momentum of the system

does not change.

Person standing on giant skateboard at rest

Rifle and bullet

What is total momentum of person on skateboard?

What happens to the skateboard when the person walks

to the right? To the left? (Newtons 3

rd

law: For every

force there is always an equal and opposite force)

Law of Conservation of Momentum

In a closed system, the vector sum of

the momenta before and after an

impact must be equal.

Before After

m

1

v

1

+m

2

v

2

= m

1

v

1

+ m

2

v

2

Even though the person and the

skateboard are moving and,

individually, have momentum, the

total momentum remains zero.

m(person)*v(person) + m(skateboard)*v(skateboard) = 0

Example 1: Recoiling Cannon

A cannon of mass 750kg shoots a cannon

ball of mass 30kg with a velocity of 20m/s.

Find the recoil velocity of the cannon.

m

1

v

1

+m

2

v

2

= m

1

v

1

+ m

2

v

2

Answer: -0.8m/s

Problem 3

A 45 kg student is riding on a 7kg scateboard

with a velocity of +4m/s. The student jumps of

the cart with a velocity of -1m/s. Find the

velocity of the scateboard after the student

jumped off.

Answer: +36m/s

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