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Database Management System

Normalization Process and Techniques


Assignment
Normalization is the process to create set or technique to design relational tables
or databases by converting complex data structures into simple free of redundant
data which is based upon the concepts of normal forms.
Answer 1) Normal forms of process details are mentioned below:
1 Normal Form) It must meet the following requirements to be considered
as First Normal Form:
a. Tabular design
b. Defines all key attributes
c. No repetition in groups of data in the table
d. Rows or columns intersecting must contain only one value
i. Single alue
e. !ossibility to define primary key
f. Same type value definability
g. "nique attribute name
h. No duplicate rows or columns #records$
i. No repeated groups or attributes of an entity
%. &rder of rows and columns must be insignificant
k. No redundant values or data
l. Dependent values on the primary key
m. 't is easier to identify dependent if there is one primary key for other
stated normal forms
n. !ossibility to define more than one primary key
i. Depending upon database
Zubaidah Abdul Rehman !""#!"$" %I&
Database Management System
Normalization Process and Techniques
Assignment
2 Normal Form) It must meet the following requirements to be considered
as &econd Normal Form and in addition once it is acceptable as First
Normal there will be no question whether it is &econd Normal Form:
a. No partial function dependencies
b. (ultiple fields primary keys for unique values
c. Non)key attributes*columns are dependent on all other keys
d. No attribute is dependent
e. +andidate key composed of several attributes
f. 't is easier to identify when there is only one primary key
g. No data anomalies
3 Normal Form) It must meet the following requirements to be considered
as 'hird Normal Form:
a. 't must be in Second Normal ,orm
b. Single field or primary key
c. 'f not applying create structure relations splitting the tables
d. No transitive dependencies
e. -void data anomalies
f. -bility to change data in any field #except primary key$
g. +hanges not affecting other fields
h. .ach column must depend on the primary key
Answer !) a( Relation )ompan*
+ompany Symbol /eadquarters Date Stock!rice
0N, No repeated records
Zubaidah Abdul Rehman !""#!"$" %I&
Database Management System
Normalization Process and Techniques
Assignment
No repeating values
!rimary 1eys2 #+ompany3 Symbol and Date$
Therefore it is in the 0N,
4N, 'f it is in 0N, then it is eligible to check whether it is 4N,
No partial function dependencies
(ultiple fields primary keys for unique values
Non)key attributes*columns are dependent on all other keys
No attribute is dependent
1ey composed of several attributes
't is easier to identify when there is only one primary key
No anomalies
a. Relation Company
Company Symbol Headquarters Date StockPrice
Cisco Systems, Inc csco Plano, Texas 01/0/200! 21."0
Cisco Systems, Inc csco Plano, Texas 02/0/200! 21.#$
%racle Corporation %rcl Re&'oo& S(ores, Cali)ornia 01/0/200! 13.3
%racle Corporation %rcl Re&'oo& S(ores, Cali)ornia 02/0/200! 13.00
*oo+le +oo+ ,o-nt .ie', Cali)ornia 02/0/200! 12.#/
+ependencies:
Symbol 0 +ompany3 Symbol
+ompany 0 +ompany3 Symbol3 /eadquarters
Symbol 0 Date3 Stock!rice
Table &ne2
Company Symbol
Cisco Systems, Inc csco
Cisco Systems, Inc csco
%racle Corporation %rcl
%racle Corporation %rcl
*oo+le +oo+
Table Two in relationship2
Zubaidah Abdul Rehman !""#!"$" %I&
Database Management System
Normalization Process and Techniques
Assignment
Company Symbol Headquarters
Cisco Systems, Inc csco Plano, Texas
Cisco Systems, Inc csco Plano, Texas
%racle Corporation %rcl Re&'oo& S(ores, Cali)ornia
%racle Corporation %rcl Re&'oo& S(ores, Cali)ornia
*oo+le +oo+ ,o-nt .ie', Cali)ornia
Table Three2
Symbol Date StockPrice
csco 01/0/200! 21."0
csco 02/0/200! 21.#$
%rcl 01/0/200! 13.3
%rcl 02/0/200! 13.00
+oo+ 02/0/200! 12.#/
By creating the three tables therefore dependencies can be clearly mentioned and
also there will be no data anomalies.
5N, -fter converting to 4N, we can assume2
't must be in Second Normal ,orm
!rimary 1eys
Structure determination
No transitive dependencies
-void data anomalies
-bility to change data in any field #except primary key#
+hanges not affecting other fields
.ach column must depend on the primary key
Table Two split2
Symbol Headquarters
csco Plano, Texas
csco Plano, Texas
%rcl Re&'oo& S(ores, Cali)ornia
%rcl Re&'oo& S(ores, Cali)ornia
+oo+ ,o-nt .ie', Cali)ornia
Zubaidah Abdul Rehman !""#!"$" %I&
Database Management System
Normalization Process and Techniques
Assignment
1ns'er 2) b( Relation ,mplo*ee
I+ Name -osition -a*+ate ,arnings &alar*
0N, No repeated records
No repeating values
!rimary 1eys2 #'D3 and !ayDate$
Therefore it is in the 0N,
4N, 'f it is in 0N, then it is eligible to check whether it is 4N,
No partial function dependencies
(ultiple fields primary keys for unique values
Non)key attributes*columns are dependent on all other keys
No attribute is dependent
1ey composed of several attributes
't is easier to identify when there is only one primary key
No anomalies
2. Relation 3mployee
ID Name Position PayDate Earnings Salary
12" 4o2 5(ite ,ana+er No6 2001 7/00 7#2,000
$/#3 Peter 5all Cler8 No6 2001 73200 72$,000
"!#/ ,aria ,c4ri&e Sales Rep No6 2001 73$00 72,000
#"0 9o(n :im ,ana+er No6 2001 7#00 7#2,000
/#!/ 9-ly Ryan Sales Rep No6 2001 73"00 72,000
$/#3 Peter 5all Cler8 ;ec 2001 73000 72$,000
12" 4o2 5(ite ,ana+er ;ec 2001 7!00 7#2,000
"!#/ ,aria ,c4ri&e Sales Rep ;ec 2001 7100 72,000
+ependencies:
'D 0 'D3 Name3 !osition
!ayDate 0 'D3 !ayDate3 .arnings
'D 0 Name3 Salary
Zubaidah Abdul Rehman !""#!"$" %I&
Database Management System
Normalization Process and Techniques
Assignment
Table &ne2
ID Name Position
12" 4o2 5(ite ,ana+er
$/#3 Peter 5all Cler8
"!#/ ,aria ,c4ri&e Sales Rep
#"0 9o(n :im ,ana+er
/#!/ 9-ly Ryan Sales Rep
Table Two in relationship2
ID PayDate Earnings
12" No6 2001 7/00
$/#3 No6 2001 73200
"!#/ No6 2001 73$00
#"0 No6 2001 7#00
/#!/ No6 2001 73"00
$/#3 ;ec 2001 73000
12" ;ec 2001 7!00
"!#/ ;ec 2001 7100
Table Three2
ID Name Salary
12" 4o2 5(ite 7#2,000
$/#3 Peter 5all 72$,000
"!#/ ,aria ,c4ri&e 72,000
#"0 9o(n :im 7#2,000
/#!/ 9-ly Ryan 72,000
$/#3 Peter 5all 72$,000
12" 4o2 5(ite 7#2,000
"!#/ ,aria ,c4ri&e 72,000
5N, -fter converting to 4N, we can assume2
't must be in Second Normal ,orm
!rimary 1eys
Structure determination
No transitive dependencies
-void data anomalies
-bility to change data in any field #except primary key#
+hanges not affecting other fields
.ach column must depend on the primary key
Zubaidah Abdul Rehman !""#!"$" %I&
Database Management System
Normalization Process and Techniques
Assignment
1ns'er 2) c( Relation ,mplo*ee1
,I+ Name 'itle &alar*
0N, No repeated records
No repeating values
!rimary 1eys2 #.'D$
Therefore it is in the 0N,
4N, 'f it is in 0N, then it is eligible to check whether it is 4N,
No partial function dependencies
(ultiple fields primary keys for unique values
Non)key attributes*columns are dependent on all other keys
No attribute is dependent
1ey composed of several attributes
't is easier to identify when there is only one primary key
No anomalies
c. Relation 3mployee1
+ependencies:
.'D 0 Name3 Title
.'D 0 Salary
Table &ne2
EID Name Title
1"<"<!#/$ 4o2 5(ite 1ssistant
123<!"<321 9ay 4ro'n ,ana+er
13!<22<3333 :elly *-ll Cler8
"!#<33< 9o(n 5an+ 1ssistant
"3<13<"/# ,aria 9e))orson ,ana+er
Zubaidah Abdul Rehman !""#!"$" %I&
Database Management System
Normalization Process and Techniques
Assignment
Table Two2
EID Salary
1"<"<!#/$ 30,000
123<!"<321 #2,000
13!<22<3333 ",000
"!#<33< 30,000
"3<13<"/# #2,000
5N, -fter converting to 4N, we can assume2
't must be in Second Normal ,orm
!rimary 1eys
Structure determination
No transitive dependencies
-void data anomalies
-bility to change data in any field #except primary key#
+hanges not affecting other fields
.ach column must depend on the primary key
References:
Notes2
D6(S2 Database Systems2 Design3 'mplementation3 7 (anagement3 !eter +ob 7
+arlos #+oronel3 48803 +ourse Technology$
&thers #internet links$2
(yS9: -6 22 -n 'ntroduction to Database Normali;ation
http2**www.sfsu.edu*<training*guides*access='''=instructor=guide.htm
Zubaidah Abdul Rehman !""#!"$" %I&