CONTROLLER DESIGN FOR DISTILLATION COLUMN

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CONTROLLER DESIGN FOR DISTILLATION COLUMN

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Takao Sato

University of Hyogo

2167 Shosha, Himeji

Hyogo

671-2201 Japan

Akira Inoue

Okayama University

3-1-1, Tsushima-naka

Okayama

700-8530 Japan

Toru Yamamoto

Hiroshima University

1-1-1 Kagamiyama,

Higashi-Hiroshima

739-8524 Japan

Abstract

This paper discusses the design methods of Generalized

Mininum Variance Control (GMVC)-based PID controllers

in a two-degree-of-freedom (2DOF) system. The PID pa-

rameters of PID controllers are designed based on GMVC,

and the PID controllers are designed as self-tuning con-

trollers. In design of a 2DOF PID controller based on

GMVC with a feed-forward compensator (abbreviated as

FF-type GMVC), because the order of a feed-forward com-

pensator depends on a dead-time, the longer the dead-time

is, the worse approximation error is. Therefore, in this

paper, to obtain better approximation, GMVC with a pre-

compensator (PC-type GMVC) is approximated by a 2DOF

PID controller. Further, to improve control performance,

a 2DOF PID controller having time-varying proportional

gain is designed based on strongly stable GMVCwith a pre-

compensator.

1. Introduction

This paper discusses the way to realize the performance

of advanced control by using a PID controller. Hence, in

this paper, the PID parameters of a PID controller are de-

signed based on Generalized Minimum Variance Control

(GMVC) [1, 7]. In design of GMVC, a cost function in

which control error and control input are evaluated using

weighting factors is minimized, and a control lawis derived.

So as to obtain the control performance of GMVC by using

a PID controller, the design methods of a GMVC-based PID

controller have been proposed [7, 4, 3].

At rst a GMVC-based PID controller has been de-

signed in a one-degree-of-freedom (1DOF) system [7, 4],

next it has been extended into a two-degree-of-freedom

(2DOF) system [3]. However, a GMVC-based PID con-

troller has been designed using approximation because gen-

erally the order of the coefcient polynomials of GMVC

is higher than that of a PID controller. The conventional

2DOF GMVC-based PID controller has been designed us-

ing a feed-forward compensator [3], and the order of a feed-

forward compensator of 2DOF GMVC [6] depends on a

dead-time. Hence, in design of the conventional 2DOF

GMVC-based PID controller, 2DOF GMVC cannot be ap-

proximated precisely by a 2DOF PID controller when a

dead-time is long. There are several notation for designing

a 2DOF system, and two design methods in a 2DOF system

have been proposed so far in design of GMVC. The one

utilizes a feed-forward compensator (FF-type GMVC) [6],

and the other is designed using a pre-compensator (PC-type

GMVC) [8]. Hence, even if the PC-type and the FF-type

2DOF GMVC are designed equivalently, designed PC-type

and FF-type 2DOF GMVC-based PIDcontrollers are not al-

ways equivalent beacuse in a 2DOF system the number of a

compensator approximated by a PID compensator is larger

than that of a 1DOF system.

In this paper, to improve the performance of a 2DOF

GMVC-based PID controller and approximation error, a

2DOF PID controller is designed newly based on PC-

type 2DOF GMVC [8]. Because the order of the pre-

compensator of PC-type GMVCdoes not depend on a dead-

time, 2DOF GMVCis approximated by the proposed 2DOF

GMVC-based PID controller better than the conventional

2DOF GMVC-based PID controller in case of a long dead-

time. Furthermore, because the proportional gain of the

proposed PID controller is time-varying, the control perfor-

mance is higher than that of xed proportional gain. To

obtain stable time-varying proportional gain, the proposed

PID controller is designed based on strongly stable GMVC

with a pre-compensator.

2. Controlled Plant and PID Controllers

Consider a plant model described by the following.

A[z

1

]y(t) = z

km

B[z

1

]u(t 1) +

(t)

(1)

0-7695-2882-1/07 $25.00 2007 IEEE

where, y(t), u(t), (t) and k

m

are the plant output, the con-

trol input, white Gaussian noise and the dead-time, respec-

tively. A[z

1

] and B[z

1

] are a second-order monic poly-

nomial and an mth-order polynomial, respectively. z

1

de-

notes the backward shift operator.

A 1DOF PID controller is given by

u(t) = k

c

(t)C[z

1

](w(t) y(t)) (2)

C[z

1

] =

+

T

s

T

I

+

T

D

T

s

. (3)

w(t) is the reference input. k

c

(t), T

I

and T

D

are time-

varying proportional gain, integral time and derivative time,

respectively. T

s

denotes a sampling time.

Using a pre-compensator C

p

[z

1

], the 1DOF PID con-

troller is extended to a PC-type 2DOF PID controller given

by the following.

u(t) = k

c

(t)C[z

1

](k

cp

(t)C

p

[z

1

]w(t) y(t)) (4)

C

p

[z

1

] =

1 +

T

Dp

T

s

(5)

where, k

cp

(t) and T

Dp

are time-varying proportional gain

and derivative time, respectively.

3. 1DOF GMVC-Based PID Controller

GMVC derives a control law which minimizes a cost

function expressed as follows.

J = E[(t +k

m

+ 1)

2

] (6)

(t +k

m

+ 1) = P[z

1

]y(t +k

m

+ 1)

+Q[z

1

]u(t) R[z

1

]w(t) (7)

where, P[z

1

], Q[z

1

] and R[z

1

] are the design polyno-

mials of GMVC. To calculate predictive output y(t+k

m

+1)

in Eq. (7), the following Diophantine equation is solved.

P[z

1

] = A[z

1

]E[z

1

] +z

(km+1)

F[z

1

] (8)

E[z

1

] = e

0

+e

1

z

1

+ +e

km

z

km

(9)

F[z

1

] = f

0

+f

1

z

1

+f

2

z

2

(10)

Then, a GMVC law is derived as follows.

u(t) =

R[z

1

]w(t) F[z

1

]y(t)

G[z

1

]

(11)

G[z

1

] = E[z

1

]B[z

1

] +Q[z

1

] (12)

The use of the derived GMVC law gives a closed-loop sys-

tem described by the following.

y(t) =

z

(km+1)

B[z

1

]R[z

1

]

T[z

1

]

w(t) +

G[z

1

]

T[z

1

]

(t)

(13)

T[z

1

] = P[z

1

]B[z

1

] + Q[z

1

]A[z

1

] (14)

In design of a PID controller, to obtain stable time-

varying proportional gain, the controller of a control law to

be compared with a PID controller has to be stable. Hence,

the derived control law is extended as follows [2].

G

e

[z

1

]u(t) = R

e

[z

1

]w(t) F

e

[z

1

]y(t) (15)

G

e

[z

1

] = U

d

[z

1

]G[z

1

] U

n

[z

1

]z

(km+1)

B[z

1

]

(16)

R

e

[z

1

] = U

d

[z

1

]R[z

1

] (17)

F

e

[z

1

] = U

d

[z

1

]F[z

1

] U

n

[z

1

]A[z

1

] (18)

where, U

d

[z

1

] and U

n

[z

1

] are new design polynomials.

Substituting the extended control law into the plant model,

the following closed-loop system is obtained.

y(t) =

z

(km+1)

B[z

1

]R[z

1

]

T[z

1

]

w(t) +

G

e

[z

1

]

T[z

1

]U

d

[z

1

]

(t)

(19)

It follows fromEq. (19) that the transfer function fromw(t)

to y(t) is not changed by introducing the new design poly-

nomials U

d

[z

1

] and U

n

[z

1

]. Consequently, the controller

can be redesigned independently to the closed-loop system,

and a strongly stable controller can be obtained.

To improve a reference response independently to a dis-

turbance response, a control law is extended using a pre-

compensator. The use of a pre-compensator S(z

1

) extends

the strongly stable GMVC described as follows.

G

e

[z

1

]u(t) = z

(km+1)

B[z

1

]R

e

[z

1

]S(z

1

)w(t)

F

e

[z

1

]y(t) (20)

Then, a closed-loop system is given by the following.

y(t) =

z

(km+1)

B[z

1

]R[z

1

]

T[z

1

]

S(z

1

)w(t)

+

G

e

[z

1

]

T[z

1

]U

d

[z

1

]

(t) (21)

Because the pre-compensator S(z

1

) is designed to be sta-

ble, the stability of the controller does not changed.

4. 2DOF GMVC-Based PID Controller

4.1. Design of 1DOF PID Controller

To design a 1DOF GMVC-Based PID controller, from

Eqs. (2) and (11) the following relations have to be satis-

ed.

R[z

1

] = F[z

1

] (22)

k

c

C[z

1

] = F[z

1

] (23)

k

c

(t) =

k

c

G[z

1

]

(24)

From the relations,

k

c

, T

I

and T

D

are obtained as follows.

k

c

= (f

1

+ 2f

2

) (25)

T

I

=

f

1

+ 2f

2

f

0

+f

1

+f

2

T

s

(26)

T

D

=

f

2

f

1

+ 2f

2

T

s

(27)

The proportional gain at step t is decided by the following.

k

c

(t) =

1

g

0

(

k

c

g

1

k

c

(t 1) g

ng

k

c

(t n

g

))

(28)

where,

G[z

1

] = g

0

+g

1

z

1

+ +g

ng

z

ng

. (29)

However, in order to obtain stable time-varying propor-

tional gain, G[z

1

] has to be stable.

4.2. Design of 2DOF GMVC PID Con-

trollers

To obtain stable time-varying proportional gain, the con-

troller to be compared with a PID controller has to be sta-

ble. Hence, in design of our proposed controller, the PID

controller (4) is designed based on strongly stable (20).

Further, to design a PC-type 2DOF GMVC-based PID con-

troller, the following relation has to be satised.

k

cp

(t)C

p

[z

1

] = S(z

1

) (30)

However, generally the order of the compensator S(z

1

) is

higher than that of C

p

[z

1

]. Further, S(z

1

) is a rational

function, but C

p

[z

1

] is a polynomial. Hence, S(z

1

) is

approximated by a rst-order polynomial, and C

p

[z

1

] is

designed using the approximated polynomial.

S(z

1

) =

S

n

[z

1

]

S

d

[z

1

]

S

n

[z

1

]

S

d

[z

1

]

(31)

To obtain an approximated polynomial

S

n

[z

1

], the roots

of S

n

[z

1

] = 0 are calculated, and

max

is selected such

that the absolute value of

max

is the largest among the cal-

culated values. Then the approximated polynomial

S

n

[z

1

]

is obtained as

S

n

[z

1

] = S

n

[1]

max

z

1

max

1

(32)

= s

n0

+ s

n1

z

1

. (33)

From Eqs. (30) and (31), the following equations are

derived.

k

cp

C

p

[z

1

] =

S

n

[z

1

] (34)

k

cp

(t) =

k

cp

S

d

[z

1

]

(35)

Solving Eq. (34),

k

cp

and T

Dp

are given as follows.

k

cp

= s

n0

+ s

n1

(36)

T

Dp

=

s

n1

s

n0

+ s

n1

T

s

(37)

Using Eq. (35), the time-varying proportional gain k

cp

(t)

is decided by the following.

k

cp

(t) =

1

s

d0

(

k

cp

s

d1

k

cp

(t 1)

s

dn

sd

k

cp

(t n

sd

)) (38)

where,

S

d

[z

1

] = s

d0

+s

d1

z

1

+ +s

dn

sd

z

n

sd

. (39)

To obtain stable time-varying proportional gain, S

d

[z

1

]

has to be stable.

5. Numerical Example

A controlled plant is given by transfer function G(s) =

1

(s+2)(s+3)

e

s

. Using the sampling time T

s

= 1[s], a con-

trolled system in discrete-time is given as (1 0.19z

1

+

0.0067z

2

)y(t) = z

1

(0.12 + 0.021z

1

)u(t 1) +

(t)

2

] = 0.01.

Simulation conditions are as follows: the length of sim-

ulation is 60 steps, a reference input is a rectangular wave

with amplitude 1.0 over the period of 10 steps, and step-type

disturbance with amplitude 0.3 is added after 50 steps. The

coefcients of polynomials A[z

1

] and B[z

1

] are assumed

to be unknown, and the initial values of the identied coef-

cients are nominal values which are multiplied the true val-

ues of the plant model by 1.5. A recursive least square iden-

tication law having reset with the forgetting factor 0.99 is

used, and the initial value of an estimated covariance matrix

is 10

2

I.

The design polynomials P[z

1

] and Q[z

1

] are designed

so that the poles of the transfer function from (t) to y(t)

will be 0.2 and 0.7. In this simulation, the design param-

eters U

d

[z

1

] and U

n

[z

1

] are set as 1 and 0 respectively

because the controller of the designed GMVC is stable.

The pre-compensator of 2DOF GMVC is designed for im-

proving reference response independently to disturbance re-

sponse, and the 2DOF PID controller is designed based on

2DOF GMVC. The pre-compensator of the PC-type GMVC

[8] is designed using second-order desired transfer func-

tion G

d

(s) =

2

n

s

2

+2ns+

2

n

[8]. The design parameters of

G

d

(s) are set as = 1.5, = 5.0, and G

d

(s) are trans-

formed into discrete-time domain. S(z

1

) is calculated as

S(z

1

) =

T[z

1

]

R[z

1

]

KG

d

(z

1

). where, K is the gain to elim-

inate steady state error.

Simulation results are shown in Figure 1 Figure 3.

Figure 1 shows the output result by using a 2DOF GMVC-

based PID controller where proportional gain is constant.

On the other hand, Figure 2 shows the output result by us-

ing the proposed 2DOF GMVC-based PID controller hav-

ing time-varying proportional gain, and Figure 3 illustrates

time-varying proportional gain k

c

(t) and k

cp

(t), respec-

tively. To utilize the effect of time-varying, in the case

that the reference input is switched, the time-varying pro-

portional gain k

cp

(t) is initialized as follows.

k

cp

(t) = k

cp

(t 1) = = k

cp

(t n

sd

) = 0 (40)

It follows from Figure 1 and Figure 2 that the disturbance

responses are nearly same, and the output response using

time-varying proportional gain converges to the reference

input faster than that of xed proportional gain.

0 10 20 30 40 50 60

1.5

1

0.5

0

0.5

1

1.5

P

la

n

t o

u

tp

u

t

Step

0 10 20 30 40 50 60

10

5

0

5

10

P

la

n

t in

p

u

t

Step

Figure 1. Output result by using 2DOF PID

controller with xed proportional gain

0 10 20 30 40 50 60

1.5

1

0.5

0

0.5

1

1.5

P

la

n

t o

u

tp

u

t

Step

0 10 20 30 40 50 60

6

4

2

0

2

4

6

8

P

la

n

t in

p

u

t

Step

Figure 2. Output result by using 2DOF PID

controller having time-varying proportional

gain

6. Conclusion

This paper has proposed a new design method of a PID

controller in 2DOF system. PID parameters of a 2DOF

PID controller have been designed based on 2DOF GMVC.

To improve the performance of a 2DOF GMVC-based PID

0 10 20 30 40 50 60

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

P

ro

p

o

rtio

n

a

l g

a

in

k

c

(t)

Step

0 10 20 30 40 50 60

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

1

1.1

P

ro

p

o

rtio

n

a

l g

a

in

k

c

p

(t)

Step

Figure 3. Time-varying proportional gain k

c

(t)

and k

cp

(t)

controller, a 2DOF PID controller has been designed us-

ing time-varying proportional gain. To obtain stable time-

varying proportional gain, a controller to be compared with

a PID controller has to be stable. The effectiveness of the

proposed controller has been illustrated using a numerical

example.

Our future work is to extend the proposed method into a

sampled-data system [5].

References

[1] D. Clarke. Self-tuning control of nonminimum-phase sys-

tems. Automatica, 20(5):501517, 1984.

[2] A. Inoue, A. Yanou, and Y. Hirashima. A design of a strongly

stable self-tuning controller using coprime factorization ap-

proach. In 14th IFAC World Congress, volume C, pages 211

216, Beijin, 1999.

[3] T. Sato, A. Inoue, and Y. Hirashima. Self-tuning two-

degree-of-freedom PID compensator based on two-degree-of-

freedom generalized minimum variance control. In IFAC AL-

COSP 2001, pages 207212, 2001.

[4] T. Sato, A. Inoue, T. Yamamoto, and S. Shah. Self-tuning PID

controllers based on the strongly stable generalized minimum

variance control law. In IFAC Workshop on Digital Control:

Past, Present and Future of PID Control, pages 511516, Ter-

rassa, 2000.

[5] T. Sato, S. Masuda, and A. Inoue. A design method of

generalized minimum variance control considering safety of

sampled-data systems. In Proc. of 2006 Int. Conf. on Dynam-

ics, Instrumentation and Control, 2006. TA2-4.

[6] K. Takahashi, Y. Nakauchi, and Y. Mori. Two-degree-of-

freedom generalized minimum variance control. Trans. of the

Society of Instrument and Control Engineers, 34(6):510515,

1998. (in Japanese).

[7] T. Yamamoto, A. Inoue, and S. Shah. Generalized minimum

variance self-tuning pole-assignment controller with a PID

structure. In Proc. of 1999 IEEE Int Conf. on Control Ap-

plications, pages 125130, Hawaii, 1999.

[8] T. Yamamoto, H. Ishihara, and S. Omatu. A construction

of adaptive system for generalized minimum variance control

with a pre-compensator. Trans. of the Society of Instrument

and Control Engineers, 26(6):656661, 1990. (in Japanese).

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