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You are on page 1of 21

ACTIVE FILTERS

Name :D.P.Wijayarupa.

Batch :Applied Electronics ,Saturday

Index numer :!"#$%AE%$&

Partner :'r.Saran(an

1

#).Introduction.

!).Butter*orth +esponse

$).Bessel response

,).- .heyshe/ +esponse

&).0orth order Butter*orth response

1)..omparison o2 2ilters

3). .omments and discussion

4). +e2erences

2

INTRODUCTION

Active filters are filters constructed using operational amplifiers as active devices. Operational

amplifiers are used to simulate inductors by configuring them as either negativeimpedance

converters or gyrators. Although it is possible to build filters with resistors and capacitors only,

the use of inductors and capacitors together produce very sharp frequency response curves.

However, at low frequencies (eg: audio frequencies) the sie of required inductors becomes very

large, ma!ing it inconvenient to build "# filters. $herefore, the possibility of simulating them

using operational amplifiers becomes very useful at such frequencies. $here are many different

types of active filters including high pass, low pass, band re%ect and there are numerous

responses including multiple feedbac! band pass (&'()), dualamplifier band pass (*A())

and,

state variable biquad all pole circuits. All !nown filter responses such as (utterworth and

#hebyshev may be synthesised.

#HA+A#$,+-.$-#. O' '-"$,+.

$he most useful characteristic of a filter is its gain versus frequency curve. $he passband of a

filter is the region where the attenuation is relatively low. /ormally, it is defined as the region

where attenuation is less than 0 d(. However, within the passband, the gain may show variations

called ripples. $he end of the pass band is called the cutoff frequency. (eyond the passband, the

gain falls with frequency. $he rate of fall is normally specified in d( per octave or d( per

decade. -n addition to the gain response, the variation of the phase shift with frequency is

important. A frequency dependent phase shift affects the shape of the output signal. An ideal

filter should produce a constant time delay for all frequencies. $his happens only if the phase

shift increases linearly with frequency. $herefore, an ideal filter should be a linearphase filter.

Another way of loo!ing at filters is to observe their transient response when a pulse of a step is

applied. +ise time, settling time, overshoots and ringing are important parameters that describe

transient response.

'-"$,+ $1),.

An ideal filter must have a constant gain within the passband. $hen it must ma!e a sharp

transition to the stopband. However, in practice, gain is not constant within the pass band and the

transition to the stopband is gradual. $he gain variations within the passband and the sharpness

of the transition varies from one filter type to another. $hree popular filter response types are

called Butterworth, Chebyhe! and Bee". $hey are all available in lowpass, highpass and

bandpass versions.

3

Se#o$%&Or%er Low&P' F("ter

$here are two topologies for a second2order low2pass filter, the .allen23ey and the &ultiple

'eedbac! (&'() topology. .allen 4!ey is one of the main topologies that is used to observe the

characteristics of the second order low pass filters.

S'""e$&)ey To*o"o+y

$he general .allen2 !ey topology in the following figure shows that the gain via A5 6 78+9:+0.

However, the unity2gain topology in the figure is usually applied in filter designs with high gain

accuracy, unity gain, and low ;s (; < 0).

$ransfer function of the above filter can be written down as given below.

-f A5 67, then

$he coefficient comparison between this transfer function and ,quation gives us,

4

=iven #7 and #>, the resistor values for +7 and +> are calculated through

Theory

.allen 4!ey topology is often used to ma!e out the behavior of the low pass filters along

with the following response types.

Butterworth

Bee".

Chebyhe!

$he above three response types can be achieved by using Ad%ustable .econd2Order "ow2

)ass 'ilter as given below.

5

A special case of the general .allen23ey topology is the application of equal resistor

values and equal capacitor values: +7 6 +> 6 + and #7 6 #> 6 #.

$he general transfer function changes to:

?ith

$he coefficient comparison with equation above,

=iven # and solving for + and A5 results in:

6

And

$hus, A5 depends solely on the pole quality ; and vice versa@ ;, and with it the filter type,

is determined by the gain setting of A5:

'or different types of responses, the coefficients a7 and b7have constant values according to their

orders of operations.

Butterworth Re*o$e

7

$he above set up is used to observe the

(utterworth response. -t is then connected to

the input of the #+O. 'requency of the

signal generator is changed and the

corresponding voltage output is measured

on the #+O with the uncertainty.

+9:+0 65.ABB

-f +0 67!C and +9 6ABBC

+ 6 7:>Df# 67:(>DE955E#) 67:(>DE955E5.7E75

2B

)

?here f 6955H and # 65.7u'

+ 60FG5.GFC

+ 69!C

.ince + 69!C ,+0 6 7!C and +9 6 ABBC are chosen

Hin 67H (A55mH:*iv).

$he following table shows the data obtained in the eIperiment for (utterworth response.

8

$he following graph is plotted frequency against the decibel level of the gain with the

corresponding error bars.

Tr'$(e$t re*o$e o, the Butterworth ,("ter

9

Bee"

Re*o$e

$he above set up is used to observe the

(essel response. -t is then connected to the input of the #+O. 'requency of the signal generator

is changed and the corresponding voltage output is measured on the #+O with the uncertainty.

+9:+0 65.>BG

-f +0 67!C and +9 6 >BGC

10

+ 6 7:>Df# 67:(>DE955E#) 67:(>DE955E5.7E75

2B

)

?here f 6955H and # 65.7u'

+ 607>F.9FC

+ 60!C

.ince + 60!C ,+0 6 7!C and +9 6 >BGC are chosen

Hin 67H (A55mH:*iv)

$he following table shows the data obtained in the eIperiment for (esselJs response.

$he following graph is plotted frequency against the decibel level of the gain with the

corresponding error bars.

11

T#heby#he,, Re*o$e

$he above set up is used to observe the

$schebyscheff response. -t is then

connected to the input of the #+O.

'requency of the signal generator is

changed and the corresponding voltage

output is measured on the #+O with the

uncertainty.

+9:+0 65.>09

-f +0 67!C and +9 6 >09C

+ 6 7:>Df# 67:(>DE955E#) 67:(>DE955E5.7E75

2B

)

?here f 6955H and # 65.7u'

+ 6AA07.79C

+ 6A.A !C

12

.ince + 6A.A !C ,+0 6 7!C and +9 6 >09C are chosen

Hin 67H (A55mH:*iv)

$he following table shows the data obtained in the eIperiment for $schebyscheff response.

$he following graph is plotted frequency against the decibel level of the gain with the

corresponding error bars.

13

Fourth&or%er "ow&*' Butterworth ,("ter

A

fourth2order low2pass (utterworth filter is illustrated in figure. -t is formed by cascading two

second2order low2pass filters. -f Af, of 7.AGB is used for both sections, the voltage gain will be

down B db at the cut2off frequency. (y using different gain for each section, we can stri!e a

compromise that produces a maIimally flat response. An advanced derivation shows that we

need to use Af 6 7.7A> for the first section and Af = >.>0A for the second section.

14

Also, the overall filter gain is equal to the product of the individual voltage gains of the filter

sections. Hence, the overall gain of a fourth2order filter is 7.7A> I >.>0A 6 >.AKA.

-n all our (utterworth designs, the cut2off frequency is given as 7 : >D+#

As with the first2 and second2order filters, the third2 and fourth2order high2pass filters are formed

by simply interchanging the positions of the frequency determining resistors and capacitors in

the corresponding low2pass filters. $he high2order filters can be designed by following the

procedures outlined for the first2 and second2order filters.

=enerally, the minimum2order filter required depends on the application specifications. Although

a high2order filter than necessary provides a better stopband response, the high2order filter is

more compleI, occupies more space and is more eIpensive.

-t is worth mentioning here that in all filters, the same resistance and capacitance values are used

in the bypass or +2# networ!s, a definite convenience in selection of components and ease of

construction. $his fiIes the overall gain of the high2order filters. 'urthermore, the 02db cut2off

frequency is always the same and is equal to 7:>D+#

$he above set up is used to observe the fourth2order low2pass (utterworth response. -t is then

connected to the input of the #+O. 'requency of the signal generator is changed and the

corresponding voltage output is measured on the #+O with the uncertainty.

15

For the -

t

#(r#u(t.

+7 6 L ( b7) :(>Df#) where b7 67

6 7: (>EDE955E5.7E75

2B

)

6 0FG5C

6 9!C

+0 67 !C and +76+> 69!C

+9 6 (>2a7:Lb7)+0

.ince a7 67.G9KG and b7 67,

+9 6 (> 27.G9KG:7)7555

6 7A> C

For the /

$%

#(r#u(t.

+> 6 L ( b>) :(>Df#) where b> 67

6 7: (>EDE955E5.7E75

2B

)

6 0FG5C

6 9!C

+B 67 !C and +76+> 69!C

+G 6 (>2a>:Lb>)+B

16

.ince a> 65.KBA9 and b> 67,

+G 6 (> 25.KBA9:7)7555

6 7>09 C

6 7!C

$he following table shows the data obtained in the eIperiment for fourth2order low2pass

(utterworth response.

$he following graph is plotted frequency against the decibel level of the gain with the

corresponding error bars.

17

Butterworth ,("ter '$% Chebyhe! ,("ter 0 A #o1*'r(o$

-n digital signal processing, we come across digital filters which are to be designed using analog

filters. 'rom these analog filters, (utterworth and #hebyshev filters are the most popular one.

M'+$(tu%e re*o$e ! ,re2ue$#y #ur!e3 $he magnitude response MH(%w)M of the butterworth

filter decreases with increase in frequency from 5 to infinity, while the magnitude response of

the #hebyshev filter fluctuates or show ripples in the passband and stopband depending on the

type of the filter.

4(%th o, Tr'$(t(o$ b'$%3 $he width of the transition band is more in (utterworth filter

compared to the #hebyshev filter.

Lo#'t(o$ o, the *o"e3 $he poles of a (utterworth filter lies only on a circle while that of

the #hebyshev filter lies on an ellipse, which can be easily concluded on loo!ing at the poles

formula for both types of filters.

No. O, Co1*o$e$t re2u(re% ,or (1*"e1e$t($+ the ,("ter3 $he number of poles in (utterworth

filter is more compared to that of the #hebyshev filter of same specifications, this means that the

order of (utterworth filter is more than that of a #hebyshev filter. $his fact can be used for

18

practical implementation, since the number of components required to construct a filter of same

specification can be reduced significantly.

19

Co11e$t '$% %(#u(o$

20

-n the above three filter eIperiments, the results obtained are slightly different than their

theoretical values. $his happened of course the devices might not at their corresponding

operation temperatures. $he fluctuation of the mains supplyJs frequency also caused the valued

to change from their originals. $he resistors calculated were slightly changed so that the final

curves are not in the correct shapes. $he resistor boIes used were not ideal@ their impedances

also caused these values to be changed.

Re,ere$#e

http:::www.7>0mylist.com:>57>:50:butterworth2filter2and2chebyshev2filter.html

http:::boo!s.google.l!:boo!sN

id61"tdiv##=g-#Opg6)A059Olpg6)A059Odq6advantages8and8disadvantages8of8bessel8b

utterworthOsource6blOots6r7*(="GFPpOsig6*ehb5m";se?#1=;/3QnRaArIRK5Ohl6en

Osa6SOei6hq*KQu)n*B)eigebG1HoAwOved65#Ho;BA,w#;Tv6onepageOq6advantages

U>5andU>5disadvantagesU>5ofU>5besselU>5butterworthOf6false

http:::www.circuitstoday.com:higher2order2filters

www.wikipedia.com

www.yahooanswer.com

http://www.ece.uic.edu/!morisak/"#p$.htm#

%he 'rt o$ e#ectronics 2nd edition "ook

()'*%+*', -,-*%)./+*01 2'/34..51 0+6%2 -3+%+./1 +'/ ). 0+/*,'+) '/3

7.2/ 38/%./

9oundation o$ 'na#o: and 3i:ita# e#ectronics circuits1 '/'/%2 ';)'<', '/3

7-99)-= 2 ,'/;

'na#o: and di:ita# e#ectronics "y 8.'.4akshi and '.(.;odse

9oundations o$ 3i:ita# si:na# processin: "y (atrick ;aydecki

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