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GENERATOR NEUTRAL SYSTEM

This paper is submitted to fulfill one of the requirements of Ship Electrical Installation subjects






Group Member:
Mochamad Iqbal 4211101007
Muhammad Arifin 4211101008
Mohammad Hafidh R 4211101015
Johannes Michael 4211101020






FACULTY OF MARINE TECHNOLOGY
DEPARTMENT OF MARINE ENGINEERING
INSTITUT TEKKNOLOGI SEPULUH NOPEMBER
2014
ii

PREFACE

Praise to God who has been giving the blessing and mercy to all of us and the writer
to complete the paper entitled "Generator Neutral System". This paper is submitted to fulfill
one of the requirements of Ship Electrical Installation subjects.
The Generator Neutral System are similar to fuses in that they do nothing until
something in the system goes wrong. Then, like fuses, they protect personnel and
equipment from damage. Damage comes from two factors, how long the fault lasts and
how large the fault current is. Ground relays trip breakers and limit how long a fault lasts
and Neutral grounding resistors limit how large the fault current is.


In finishing this paper, the writer really gives his regards and thanks for people who
has given guidance and help. Finally, the writer realizes there are unintended errors in writing
this paper. He really allows all the readers to give their suggestion to improve its content in
order to be made as one of the good examples for the next paper.






Surabaya, June 7, 2014





Authors







iii


CONTENTS


PAGES
PREFACE ............................................................................................................... ii
CONTENTS............................................................................................................ iii

CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background ...................................................................................................... 1
1.2 Objective ............................................................................................................ 1

CHAPTER 2 BASIC THEORY
2.1 Importance of Neutral Grounding ................................................................. 2
2.3 System and Equipment Grounding ................................................................. 2
2.3 Methods of Neutral Grounding ....................................................................... 3
1) Ungrounded Neutral System .......................................................................... 3
2) Solid Neutral Grounded System ..................................................................... 5
3) Resistance Neutral Grounding System ........................................................... 6
o Low Resistance Grounding ...................................................................... 8
o High Resistance Grounding .................................................................... 10
4) Resonant Neutral Grounding System ........................................................... 12
5) Grounding Transformer ............................................................................... 14

CHAPTER 3 DISCUSSION
3.1 Power Distribution .......................................................................................... 16
3.2 Grounding System in Ship Electrical Network ............................................ 16
3.3 Electrical Fault ................................................................................................ 17
3.3.1 Earth Fault ................................................................................................ 18
3.3.2 Open Circuit Fault.................................................................................... 18
3.3.3 Significance of Earth Fault ...................................................................... 18
3.4 Low-voltage Power Distribution System Grounding Analysis ................... 19

CHAPTER 4 CLOSING
4.1 Conclusion ....................................................................................................... 23

REFERENCES ...................................................................................................... 24




1

CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background
Power Systems Grounding is probably the most misunderstood element of any Power
Systems design. Therefore, this paper will review the characteristics of different Power
Systems Grounding techniques as currently applied -- and misapplied within industry
today. In many cases, misunderstood concepts and perceptions of the purpose and type of
Power Systems Grounding to be selected dates back to the 1940's and earlier. Since that
time much research, coupled with experience, has taken place that is now available to
industry. This paper will review the many different system grounding practices and
present information on different grounding methods. Safety, National Electric Code
requirements, and operational considerations, such as continuity of service, will be
investigated. Finally, examples of proper applications within various industries will be
given.


1.2 Objective
This paper is aimed at a better understanding of how to get an electrical system that can
improved a better system that can be more reliable and safety for a user or operator by
using grounding system for electrical











2

CHAPTER 2
BASIC THEORY


2.1 Importance of Neutral Grounding
Neutral grounding systems are similar to fuses in that they do nothing until something in
the system goes wrong. Then, like fuses, they protect personnel and equipment from
damage. Damage comes from two factors, how long the fault lasts and how large the fault
current is. Ground relays trip breakers and limit how long a fault lasts and Neutral
grounding resistors limit how large the fault current is.

There are many neutral grounding options available for both Low and Medium voltage
power systems. The neutral points of transformers, generators and rotating machinery to
the ground ground network provides a reference point of zero volts.

This protective measure offers many advantages over an ungrounded system, like:
Reduced magnitude of transient over voltages
Simplified ground fault location
Improved system and equipment fault protection
Reduced maintenance time and expense
Greater safety for personnel
Improved lightning protection
Reduction in frequency of faults.

2.2 System and Equipment Grounding
Careful consideration of the grounding arrangements of AC generators used in emergency
and standby power systems is essential for optimum continuity of power for critical loads
and for the safety of personnel. Specific considerations for emergency and standby
systems include selection of a system grounding method for the generator, when to use
four pole transfer switch equipment, requirements for indication only of a ground fault on
the generator, and the methods used in transfer equipment for switching the neutral pole.
The term grounding describes and encompasses both systems grounding and equipment
grounding. The basic difference between system and equipment grounding is that system
grounding involves grounding circuit conductors that are current carrying under normal
operation, where equipment grounding involves grounding of all non-current carrying
metallic parts that enclose the circuit conductors. A grounding electrode or several
grounding electrodes tied together as a system provides the reference ground and the
means for connection to earth.
3

System grounding refers to the intentional connection between a conductor of an AC
power system and ground. The source of normal power for the system is typically a utility
supplied transformer and the source of emergency or standby power is typically an
owner-supplied on-site generator set. The power system conductor connected to ground
becomes the grounded conductor, which is typically the neutral circuit conductor on a 3-
phase 4-wire system. System grounding, in other words, describes the practice of
grounding one conductor of an AC power system.
Equipment grounding refers to the bonding and grounding of all non-current carrying
(during normal operation) metal conduit, equipment enclosures, supports, frames, etc. for
current carrying circuit conductors and equipment. Equipment grounding contributes to
personnel safety by limiting the voltage to ground on these metallic parts and reduces the
hazard of electric shock. All of those metallic parts are bonded together to make an equal
potential conductor. This provides a sufficiently low impedance path for ground fault
current to flow back to the system power source, through a bonding jumper to the
grounded circuit conductor (neutral) located at the service equipment.
2.3 Methods of Neutral Grounding
There are five methods for Neutral grounding:
1) Ungrounded Neutral System
2) Solid Neutral Grounded System
3) Resistance Neutral Grounding System
o Low Resistance Grounding
o High Resistance Grounding
4) Resonant Neutral Grounding System
5) Grounding Transformers
1) Ungrounded Neutral System
In ungrounded system there is no internal connection between the conductors and
ground. However, as system, a capacitive coupling exists between the system
conductors and the adjacent grounded surfaces. Consequently, the ungrounded
system is, in reality, a capacitive grounded system by virtue of the distributed
capacitance.

Under normal operating conditions, this distributed capacitance causes no
problems. In fact, it is beneficial because it establishes, in effect, a neutral point
for the system; As a result, the phase conductors are stressed at only line-to-
neutral voltage above ground.

But problems can rise in ground fault conditions. A ground fault on one line
results in full line-to-line voltage appearing throughout the system. Thus, a
voltage 1.73 times the normal voltage is present on all insulation in the system.
4


This situation can often cause failures in older motors and transformers, due to
insulation breakdown.


Figure 2.2.1. Ungrounded Neutral Systems
Source: http://electrical-engineering-portal.com/types-of-neutral-earthing-in-power-
distribution-part-1

Advantages
After the first ground fault, assuming it remains as a single fault, the circuit may
continue in operation, permitting continued production until a convenient shut
down for maintenance can be scheduled.

Disadvantages
The interaction between the faulted system and its distributed capacitance
may cause transient over-voltages (several times normal) to appear from
line to ground during normal switching of a circuit having a line-to ground
fault (short). These over voltages may cause insulation failures at points
other than the original fault.
A second fault on another phase may occur before the first fault can be
cleared. This can result in very high line-to-line fault currents, equipment
damage and disruption of both circuits.
The cost of equipment damage.
Complicate for locating fault(s), involving a tedious process of trial and
error: first isolating the correct feeder, then the branch, and finally, the
equipment at fault. The result is unnecessarily lengthy and expensive down
downtime.




5

2) Solid Neutral Grounded System
Solidly grounded systems are usually used in low voltage applications at 600 volts
or less. In solidly grounded system, the neutral point is connected to ground.

Solidly Neutral Grounding slightly reduces the problem of transient over voltages
found on the ungrounded system and provided path for the ground fault current is
in the range of 25 to 100% of the system three phase fault current..

However, if the reactance of the generator or transformer is too great, the problem
of transient over voltages will not be solved.

While solidly grounded systems are an improvement over ungrounded systems,
and speed up the location of faults, they lack the current limiting ability of
resistance grounding and the extra protection this provides.

To maintain systems health and safe, Transformer neutral is grounded and
grounding conductor must be extend from the source to the furthest point of the
system within the same raceway or conduit. Its purpose is to maintain very low
impedance to ground faults so that a relatively high fault current will flow thus
insuring that circuit breakers or fuses will clear the fault quickly and therefore
minimize damage.

Figure 2.2.2 Solid Neutral Grounded Systems
Source: http://electrical-engineering-portal.com/types-of-neutral-earthing-in-power-
distribution-part-1

If the system is not solidly grounded, the neutral point of the system would float
with respect to ground as a function of load subjecting the line-to-neutral loads to
voltage unbalances and instability. The single-phase ground fault current in a
solidly grounded system may exceed the three phase fault current. The magnitude
of the current depends on the fault location and the fault resistance.

One way to reduce the ground fault current is to leave some of the transformer
neutrals ungrounded.
6

Advantages
The main advantage of solidly grounded systems is low over voltages, which
makes the grounding design common at high voltage levels (HV).

Disadvantages
This system involves all the drawbacks and hazards of high ground fault
current: maximum damage and disturbances.
There is no service continuity on the faulty feeder.
The danger for personnel is high during the fault since the touch voltages
created are high.

Applications
Distributed neutral conductor
3-phase + neutral distribution
Use of the neutral conductor as a protective conductor with systematic
grounding at each transmission pole
Used when the short-circuit power of the source is low


3) Resistance Neutral Grounded System
Resistance grounding has been used in three-phase industrial applications for
many years and it resolves many of the problems associated with solidly grounded
and ungrounded systems. Resistance Grounding Systems limits the phase-to-
ground fault currents.

The main reasons for limiting the phase to ground fault current by resistance
grounding are:
To reduce burning and melting effects in faulted electrical equipment like
switchgear, transformers, cables, and rotating machines.
To reduce mechanical stresses in circuits/Equipment carrying fault
currents.
To reduce electrical-shock hazards to personnel caused by stray ground
fault.
To reduce the arc blast or flash hazard.
To reduce the momentary line-voltage dip.
To secure control of the transient over-voltages while at the same time.
To improve the detection of the ground fault in a power system.
Grounding Resistors are generally connected between ground and neutral of
transformers, generators and grounding transformers to limit maximum fault
current as per Ohms Law to a value which will not damage the equipment in the
power system and allow sufficient flow of fault current to detect and operate
Ground protective relays to clear the fault. Although it is possible to limit fault
7

currents with high resistance Neutral grounding Resistors, ground short circuit
currents can be extremely reduced.
As a result of this fact, protection devices may not sense the fault.
Therefore, it is the most common application to limit single phase fault currents
with low resistance Neutral Grounding Resistors to approximately rated current of
transformer and / or generator.
In addition, limiting fault currents to predetermined maximum values permits the
designer to selectively coordinate the operation of protective devices, which
minimizes system disruption and allows for quick location of the fault.
There are two categories of resistance grounding:
Low resistance Grounding
High resistance Grounding
Ground fault current flowing through either type of resistor when a single phase
faults to ground will increase the phase-to-ground voltage of the remaining two
phases. As a result, conductor insulation and surge arrestor ratings must be based
on line-to-line voltage. This temporary increase in phase-to-ground voltage should
also be considered when selecting two and three pole breakers installed on
resistance grounded low voltage systems.
The increase in phase-to-ground voltage associated with ground fault currents also
precludes the connection of line-to-neutral loads directly to the system. If line-to
neutral loads (such as 277V lighting) are present, they must be served by a solidly
grounded system. This can be achieved with an isolation transformer that has a
three-phase delta primary and a three-phase, four-wire, wye secondary.

Figure 2.2.3. Resistance Neutral Grounded Systems
Source: http://electrical-engineering-portal.com/types-of-neutral-earthing-in-power-
distribution-part-2

Neither of these grounding systems (low or high resistance) reduces arc-flash
hazards associated with phase-to-phase faults, but both systems significantly
reduce or essentially eliminate the arc-flash hazards associated with phase-to-
ground faults. Both types of grounding systems limit mechanical stresses and
reduce thermal damage to electrical equipment, circuits, and apparatus carrying
faulted current.
8

The difference between Low Resistance Grounding and High Resistance
Grounding is a matter of perception and, therefore, is not well defined. Generally
speaking high-resistance grounding refers to a system in which the NGR let-
through current is less than 50 to 100 A. Low resistance grounding indicates that
NGR current would be above 100 A.
A better distinction between the two levels might be alarm only and tripping. An
alarm-only system continues to operate with a single ground fault on the system
for an unspecified amount of time. In a tripping system a ground fault is
automatically removed by protective relaying and circuit interrupting devices.
Alarm-only systems usually limit NGR current to 10 A or less.
Rating of The Neutral grounding resistor:
Voltage: Line-to-neutral voltage of the system to which it is connected.
Initial Current: The initial current which will flow through the resistor with
rated voltage applied.
Time: The on time for which the resistor can operate without exceeding
the allowable temperature rise.

A. Low Resistance Grounded
Low Resistance Grounding is used for large electrical systems where there is a
high investment in capital equipment or prolonged loss of service of equipment
has a significant economic impact and it is not commonly used in low voltage
systems because the limited ground fault current is too low to reliably operate
breaker trip units or fuses. This makes system selectivity hard to achieve.
Moreover, low resistance grounded systems are not suitable for 4-wire loads and
hence have not been used in commercial market applications.
A resistor is connected from the system neutral point to ground and generally
sized to permit only 200A to 1200 amps of ground fault current to flow. Enough
current must flow such that protective devices can detect the faulted circuit and
trip it off-line but not so much current as to create major damage at the fault point.
9


Figure 2.2.4. Low Resistance Neutral Grounded Systems
Source: http://electrical-engineering-portal.com/types-of-neutral-earthing-in-power-
distribution-part-2
Since the grounding impedance is in the form of resistance, any transient over
voltages are quickly damped out and the whole transient overvoltage phenomena
is no longer applicable. Although theoretically possible to be applied in low
voltage systems (e.g. 480V),significant amount of the system voltage dropped
across the grounding resistor, there is not enough voltage across the arc forcing
current to flow, for the fault to be reliably detected.
For this reason low resistance grounding is not used for low voltage systems
(under 1000 volts line to-line).
Advantages
Limits phase-to-ground currents to 200-400A.
Reduces arcing current and, to some extent, limits arc-flash hazards
associated with phase-to-ground arcing current conditions only.
May limit the mechanical damage and thermal damage to shorted
transformer and rotating machinery windings.

Disadvantages:
Does not prevent operation of over current devices.
Does not require a ground fault detection system.
May be utilized on medium or high voltage systems.
Conductor insulation and surge arrestors must be rated based on the line
to-line voltage. Phase-to-neutral loads must be served through an isolation
transformer.
Used: Up to 400 amps for 10 sec are commonly found on medium voltage
systems.
10

B. High Resistance Grounded
High resistance grounding is almost identical to low resistance grounding except
that the ground fault current magnitude is typically limited to 10 amperes or less.
High resistance grounding accomplishes two things.
The first is that the ground fault current magnitude is sufficiently low enough such
that no appreciable damage is done at the fault point. This means that the faulted
circuit need not be tripped off-line when the fault first occurs. Means that once a
fault does occur, we do not know where the fault is located. In this respect, it
performs just like an ungrounded system.
The second point is it can control the transient overvoltage phenomenon present
on ungrounded systems if engineered properly.
Under-ground fault conditions, the resistance must dominate over the system
charging capacitance but not to the point of permitting excessive current to flow
and thereby excluding continuous operation.

Figure 2.2.5. High Resistance Neutral Grounded Systems
Source: http://electrical-engineering-portal.com/types-of-neutral-earthing-in-power-
distribution-part-2
High Resistance Grounding (HRG) systems limit the fault current when one phase
of the system shorts or arcs to ground, but at lower levels than low resistance
systems. In the event that a ground fault condition exists, the HRG typically limits
the current to 5-10A.
HRGs are continuous current rated, so the description of a particular unit does not
include a time rating. Unlike NGRs, ground fault current flowing through a HRG
is usually not of significant magnitude to result in the operation of an over current
device. Since the ground fault current is not interrupted, a ground fault detection
system must be installed.
These systems include a bypass contactor tapped across a portion of the resistor
that pulses (periodically opens and closes). When the contactor is open, ground
fault current flows through the entire resistor. When the contactor is closed a
portion of the resistor is bypassed resulting in slightly lower resistance and
slightly higher ground fault current.
11

To avoid transient over-voltages, an HRG resistor must be sized so that the
amount of ground fault current the unit will allow to flow exceeds the electrical
systems charging current. As a rule of thumb, charging current is estimated at 1A
per 2000KVA of system capacity for low voltage systems and 2A per 2000KVA
of system capacity at 4.16kV.
These estimated charging currents increase if surge suppressors are present. Each
set of suppressors installed on a low voltage system results in approximately 0.5A
of additional charging current and each set of suppressors installed on a 4.16kV
system adds 1.5A of additional charging current.
A system with 3000KVA of capacity at 480 volts would have an estimated
charging current of 1.5A.Add one set of surge suppressors and the total charging
current increases by 0.5A to 2.0A. A standard 5A resistor could be used on this
system. Most resistor manufacturers publish detailed estimation tables that can be
used to more closely estimate an electrical systems charging current.
Advantages
Enables high impedance fault detection in systems with weak capacitive
connection to ground
Some phase-to-ground faults are self-cleared.
The neutral point resistance can be chosen to limit the possible over
voltage transients to 2.5 times the fundamental frequency maximum
voltage.
Limits phase-to-ground currents to 5-10A.
Reduces arcing current and essentially eliminates arc-flash hazards
associated with phase-to-ground arcing current conditions only.
Will eliminate the mechanical damage and may limit thermal damage to
shorted transformer and rotating machinery windings.
Prevents operation of over current devices until the fault can be located
(when only one phase faults to ground).
May be utilized on low voltage systems or medium voltage systems up to
5kV. IEEE Standard 141-1993 states that high resistance grounding
should be restricted to 5kV class or lower systems with charging currents
of about 5.5A or less and should not be attempted on 15kV systems, unless
proper grounding relaying is employed.
Conductor insulation and surge arrestors must be rated based on the line
to-line voltage. Phase-to-neutral loads must be served through an isolation
transformer.
Disadvantages
Generates extensive ground fault currents when combined with strong or
moderate capacitive connection to ground Cost involved.
12

Requires a ground fault detection system to notify the facility engineer that
a ground fault condition has occurred.
4) Resonant Neutral Grounding System
Adding inductive reactance from the system neutral point to ground is an easy
method of limiting the available ground fault from something near the maximum 3
phase short circuit capacity (thousands of amperes) to a relatively low value (200
to 800 amperes).
To limit the reactive part of the ground fault current in a power system a neutral
point reactor can be connected between the transformer neutral and the station
grounding system. A system in which at least one of the neutrals is connected to
ground through:
Inductive reactance.
Petersen coil / Arc Suppression Coil / Ground Fault Neutralizer.
The current generated by the reactance during an ground fault approximately
compensates the capacitive component of the single phase ground fault current, is
called a resonant grounded system.
The system is hardly ever exactly tuned, i.e. the reactive current does not exactly
equal the capacitive ground fault current of the system. A system in which the
inductive current is slightly larger than the capacitive ground fault current is over
compensated. A system in which the induced ground fault current is slightly
smaller than the capacitive ground fault current is under compensated.

Figure 2.2.6. Resonant Neutral Grounding Systems
Source: http://electrical-engineering-portal.com/types-of-neutral-earthing-in-
power-distribution-part-2
However, experience indicated that this inductive reactance to ground resonates
with the system shunt capacitance to ground under arcing ground fault conditions
and creates very high transient over voltages on the system. To control the
13

transient over voltages, the design must permit at least 60% of the 3 phase short
circuit current to flow underground fault conditions.
Example A 6000 amp grounding reactor for a system having 10,000 amps 3
phase short circuit capacity available. Due to the high magnitude of ground fault
current required to control transient over voltages, inductance grounding is rarely
used within industry.
Petersen Coils
A Petersen Coil is connected between the neutral point of the system and ground,
and is rated so that the capacitive current in the ground fault is compensated by an
inductive current passed by the Petersen Coil. A small residual current will
remain, but this is so small that any arc between the faulted phase and ground will
not be maintained and the fault will extinguish. Minor ground faults such as a
broken pin insulator, could be held on the system without the supply being
interrupted. Transient faults would not result in supply interruptions.
Although the standard Peterson coil does not compensate the entire ground fault
current in a network due to the presence of resistive losses in the lines and coil, it
is now possible to apply residual current compensation by injecting an additional
180 out of phase current into the neutral via the Peterson coil. The fault current is
thereby reduced to practically zero. Such systems are known as Resonant
grounding with residual compensation, and can be considered as a special case of
reactive grounding.
Resonant grounding can reduce EPR to a safe level. This is because the Petersen
coil can often effectively act as a high impedance NER, which will substantially
reduce any ground fault currents, and hence also any corresponding EPR hazards
(e.g. touch voltages, step voltages and transferred voltages, including any EPR
hazards impressed onto nearby telecommunication networks).
Advantages
Small reactive ground fault current independent of the phase to ground
capacitance of the system.
Enables high impedance fault detection.
Disadvantages
Risk of extensive active ground fault losses.
High costs associated.

14

5) Grounding Transformers
For cases where there is no neutral point available for Neutral Grounding (e.g. for
a delta winding), an grounding transformer may be used to provide a return path
for single phase fault currents.

Figure 2.2.7. Grounding Transformers
Source: http://electrical-engineering-portal.com/types-of-neutral-earthing-in-
power-distribution-part-2
In such cases the impedance of the grounding transformer may be sufficient to act
as effective grounding impedance. Additional impedance can be added in series if
required. A special zig-zag transformer is sometimes used for grounding delta
windings to provide a low zero-sequence impedance and high positive and
negative sequence impedance to fault currents.












15

Comparison of Neutral Grounding System
Condition Ungrounded
Solid
Grounded
Low Resistance
Grounded
High Resistance
Grounded
Reactance
Grounding
Immunity to
Transient Over
voltages
Worse Good Good Best Best
73% Increase in
Voltage Stress
Under Line-to-
Ground Fault
Condition
Poor Best Good Poor

Equipment
Protected
Worse Poor Better Best Best
Safety to
Personnel
Worse Better Good Best Best
Service Reliability Worse Good Better Best Best
Maintenance Cost Worse Good Better Best Best
Ease of Locating
First Ground Fault
Worse Good Better Best Best
Permits Designer
to
CoordinateProtecti
ve Devices
Not Possible Good Better Best Best
Reduction in
Frequency of
Faults
Worse Better Good Best Best
Lighting Arrestor
Ungrounded
neutral type
Grounded-
neutral type
Ungrounded
neutral type
Ungrounded
neutral type
Ungrounded
neutral type
Current for phase-
to ground fault in
percent ofthree-
phase fault current
Less than 1%
Varies, may
be 100% or
greater
5 to 20% Less than 1% 5 to 25%
Table 2.2.1. Comparison of Neutral Grounding System
Source: http://electrical-engineering-portal.com/types-of-neutral-earthing-in-power-distribution-
part-2

16

CHAPTER 3
DISCUSSION

3.1. Power Distribution
The function of a ships electrical distribution system is to safely convey electrical
power to every item of equipment connected to it. The most obvious element in the
system is the main switchboard. The main board supplies bulk power to motor starter
groups (often part of the main board), section boards and distribution boards.
Transformers interconnect the HV and LV distribution sections of the system. Circuit
breakers and fuses strategically placed troughout the system automatically disconnects a
faulty circuit within the network. The main switchboard is placed in the engine
controlroom and from there engineroom staf monitor and control the generation and
distribution of electrical power. It is very important that every engineer has a profound
knowledge of the electrical distribution of the ships power. The only way to aquire this
knowledge is to study the ships power diagrams. Almost all oceangoing ships have an
A.C. distribution system in preference to a direct current D.C. system. Usally a ships
electrical distribution scheme follows shore pratice. This allows normal industrial
equipment to be used after being adapted and certified where and if necessary, so it can
withstand the conditions on board of a ship (e.g. vibration, freezing and tropical
temperatures, humidity, the salty atmosphere, etc. encountered in various parts of the
ship). Most ships have a 3-phase A.C., 3-wire, 440V insulated-neutral system. This
means that the neutral point of star connected-generators is not earthed to the ships
hull. Ships with very large electrical loads have generators operating at high voltages
(HV) of 3.3KV, 6.6KV, and even 11KV. By using these high voltages we can reduce
the size of cables and equipment. High voltage systems are becoming more common as
ship size and complexity increase. The frequency of an A.C. power system can be 50
Hz or 60Hz. The most common power frequency adopted for use on board ships is
60Hz. This higher frequency means that generators and motors run at higher speeds
with a consequent reduction in size for a given power rating. Lighting and low power
single-phase supplies usually operate at 220 V. This voltage is derived from a step
down transformer connected to the 440 V system.

3.2. Grounding systems in shipboard electrical networks
In electrical engineeering, the ground means reference in electrical circuits from which
other voltages are measured. The earth point means a solid connection to the earth,
which due to its massive section and mass has almost no resistance for electrical
current. If the reference for your voltage measurements is the earth the earth becomes
your ground. By absense of the nearth on board of a ship, the ships hull can be used as
a substitute for the earth. Depending on the construction of the electrical networks they
may ar may not be connected to earth potential. In general we can have solidly
grounded, reactance grounded, resistance grounded and isolated networks. In isolated
17

networks there is the challenge to detect earth faults. Ships distribution systems are
typically isolated in low voltage systems (1000V AC) and high resistance grounded in
high voltage systems. High resistance grounding ensures the trip action in case of an
earth fault and prevents short circuit faults in the network. High resistance grounding
can therefore not guarantee continuity of service.


Figure 3.2.1. Insulated and Earthed Neutral System
Source: http://magelhaes.hzs.be/willem/assorted/marine_electrical_knowledge.pdf


Table 3.2.1. Characteristic Grounding System in Ship
Source: http://magelhaes.hzs.be/willem/assorted/marine_electrical_knowledge.pdf

3.3. Electrical Fault
There are three different kind of electrical faults.

Figure 3.2.2. Circuit Fault
Source: http://magelhaes.hzs.be/willem/assorted/marine_electrical_knowledge.pdf
18


3.3.1 Earth fault
An earth fault is caused by loss of insulation allowing the current to flow to
earth potential. Causes of earth faults are typically breakdown or wear of
insulation. The majority of earth faults occur within electrical equipment due
to an insulation failure or a loose wire, wich allows a live conductor to come
into contact with its earthed metal enclosure. To protect against the dangers of
electric shock and fire that may result from earth faults, the metal enclosures
and other non-current carrying metal parts of electrical equipment must be
earthed. The earthing connector connects the metal enclosure to earth (the
schips hull) to prevent it from attaining a 9 dangerous voltage with respect to
earth. Such earth bonding of equipment ensures that its voltage in reference to
earth always remains at zero.

3.3.2 Open circuit fault
An open circuit fault occurs when a phase conductor is completely or even
partialy interupted. Causes of open circuit faults are bad connections or a
break in the wire. Open circuit faults when intermittent can cause flashes.
Open circuit faults when not completely open (bad connection) can cause a lot
of heat and are a fire hazzard. Open circuits in three phase circuits can cause
motors to run on only two phases and create a motor overload. Short circuit
fault Short circuit faults occurs where two different phase conductors are
connected together. This can be caused by double break loss of insulation,
human error or another abnormal situation. A large amount of current is
released in a short circuit, often accompanied by an explosion.

3.3.3 Significance of Earth Faults
If a single earth fault occurs on the live line of an earthed distribution system it
would be the equivalent to a schort-circuit fault across the generator trough the
schips hull. The resulting large current would immediatly cause the line
protective device (fuse or circuit breaker ) to trip out the faulty circuit. The
faulted electric equipment would be immediately isolated from the supply and
so rendered safe. However, the loss of power supply, could create a hazardous
situation, especialy if the equipment was classed essential(ABS part 4 chapter
8 table 1 and 2), e.g. steering gear. The large fault current could also cause
arcing damage at the fault location. In contrast a single earth fault occuring on
one line of an insulated distribution system will not cause any protective trip
to operate and the system would continue to function normally. This is the
important point: equipment continues to operate with a single earth fault as it
does not provide a closed circuit so no earth fault current will flow. More
important is that if a second earth fault occurs on another line of the insulated
system, the two faults together would be equivalent to a short- circuit fault (via
the ships hull) and the resulting large current would operate protection
devices and cause disconnection of perhaps essential services creating a risk to
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the safety of the ship. An insulated distribution system therefore requires two
earth faults on two different lines to cause an earth fault current to flow.In
contrast, an earthed distribution system requires only one earth fault to cause
an earth fault current to flow. An insulated system is, therefore more effective
than an earthed system in maintenance continuity of supply to essential
services. Hence its adoption for most marine electrical systems.
Note: Double-pole switches with fuses in both lines are necessary in an
insulated single-phase circuit.

3.4. Low-voltage Power Distribution System Grounding Analysis
The basic construction of electricity power supply system to be called (380V) three-
phase three-wire and (380/220V) three-phase four-wire system, but these are not very
strict terminology content. International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) made
unified regulations, known as TT systems, TN systems, IT systems. TN system is
divided into TN-C, TN-S, TN-C-S system. Here a variety of power supply system
referred to above to make a brief analysis.

According to IEC provides a variety of protection, the term concept, low-voltage
distribution system divides into 3 ways by grounding systems different, which namely
TT, TN and IT systems, as described below.

1. TT System
TT mode power supply system is the way that the metal casing of electrical
equipment will be grounded directly to the protection system, known as protective
ground system, also known as the TT system. The first symbol T means that the
power system directly grounded neutral point; second symbol T said metal shell and
the normal load equipment's metal parts are not charged directly connected with the
earth, and has nothing to do with how the system ground.

The characteristics are as below:
When the charged metal casing of electrical equipment (line touch shell or
equipment damage insulation leakage), due to a ground fault protection, can
greatly reduce the risk of electric shock. However, the low-voltage circuit
breaker (auto switch) does not necessarily trip, resulting in leakage of
equipment enclosures to the ground voltage above the safe voltage, is a
dangerous voltage.
When the leakage current is relatively hour, even if not necessarily blown
fuse, so the leakage protection needed for protection, should not be trapped
in the TT system, 380/220V Power Supply System.
TT system earthing consumption of steel and more, and difficult recovery,
costs of working hours, fee material.

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2. TN System
TN supply system means that power supply system is the metal casing of electrical
equipment and metal parts not charged the normal work of the zero line with the
phase of the protection system, called then zero protection system, with the TN said.
Its characteristics are as follows.
Once the device appears live shell, then zero leakage current protection
system can rise to (220V) short-circuit current, the current large, is a TT
system, many times, in fact, a single relatively short-circuit fault, the fuse of
the fuse Will fuse, low voltage circuit breaker action immediately release the
trip, the faulty equipment power, more safety.
TN system can save material, it works in the country and is widely applied
in many other countries, and we can see more advantages than the TT
system. According to the protection of the neutral line whether separated,
TN mode power supply systems is classified as TN-C and TN-S.

a) TN-C system
TN-C mode power supply system is connected with the work of the zero line
double as zero-line of protection, protection can be called the neutral line,
can be expressed NPE.
TN-C power supply system following features.
o TN-C system lines when using leakage protection, leakage protection
behind the ground must be removed all duplicate, or GFCI not close;
Moreover, the zero line of work are not under any circumstances break.
Therefore, the practical works in the zero line only allow leakage
protection on the side of a repeat ground.
o TN-C mode power supply system is suitable for basic load balancing
phase (220V no load) condition.


b) TN-S system
TN-S power supply system is the way to the zero line of work for the
protection of line N and PE strictly separate the power supply system, called
TN-S power supply system, shown in Figure 1-4, TN-S power supply
system following features.
The system normal operation, for the protection of online no current, but
the zero line of work are unbalanced current. PE line on the ground there
is no voltage, so the metal casing of electrical equipment, then protection
is then zero line of protection in the PE on a dedicated, safe and reliable.
The neutral line of work is only used for single-phase lighting load
circuit.
For the protection of PE not allowed to break lines, but also not allowed
to enter a work GFCI zero line.
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The use of Route leakage protection, leakage protection may not be a
repeat ground, while the PE grounding lines are repeated, but without
leakage protection, so the TN-S system can also be installed on the
supply mains leakage protection.
TN-S method safe and reliable power supply system, for industrial and
civil buildings such as low-voltage power supply system. Before the
construction of "leveling"(electricity, water supplies and roads and the
horizon - must be TN-S mode power supply system.

c) TN-C-S system
TN-C-S system in the way of construction of temporary power supply, if the
first part is (no 220V load) TN-C mode power supply, and construction
specification construction site must be TN-S mode power supply system,
The system can be part of the scene after the separation of the total PE cable
distribution box,. This system known as TN-C-S power supply system. TN-
C-S system is characterized as follows.
The neutral line of work for the protection of line N and PE phase
Unicom, after the main switch box circuit current imbalanceis
large,protected electrical equipment connected by the zero line of zero
potential. PE line behind the main switch boxes not current,t hat is, these
action of the wire is no voltage drop, therefore, TN-CS system can
reduce the electrical equipment enclosureto th eground voltage, however,
can not completely eliminate this voltage, which depends on Wire
unbalanced load current size and N lines in the total length of the line
before the switch box. Unbalanced load current increases, N and ver
ylong lines, equipment enclosureson the ground the greater the voltage
offset. Unbalanced load current is not so much required, and the line
should be repeatedin the PE ground.
PE line scan not, underany circumstancesinto the leakage
protection,because the end of theleakage protection circuit will prevent
leakage protection before the class trip causing wide spread power
outages,specification: There are zero then no cascaded protection of any
of the zero line Switches and fuses.
The addition of PE in the total box office lines and N lines connecting to
other than the sub-boxes at the N line and were not linked PE cable, PE
online not allowed to install the switch and fuse, and the connection must
besecure.

Through the above analysis, TN-C-S power supply system isTN-Csystem in
the temporary work around. When the three-phase power transformer
grounding work well, when the three-phase load is balanced, TN-CS system
results in the construction of electricity is feasible in practice


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3. IT System
The first letter I means the power supply system ground side does not work, or
through the high impedance grounding. The second letter T, said load side ground
fault protection of electrical equipment.

IT way power supply system in power is not very long distance, high reliability
power supply, and good security. Place to allow the general power outage, or power
continuously demanding areas such as continuous production equipment, large
hospital operating rooms, underground mines and other places. Conditions in
underground mines are relatively poor power supply, cables, easy to dry. IT means
the use of power supply system, even when the power is not neutral ground, once
the equipment leakage, leakage current is still a single relatively small, will not
disrupt the balance of supply voltage, so the neutral point than the power supply
system is also secure.

However, if the distance is long in the power supply, power supply line capacitance
of the distribution of the earth can not be ignored. Figure 1-6 shows the load short-
circuit fault or leakage to the equipment enclosure charged, the leakage current
through the earth form a loop, protective equipment is not necessarily action, which
is dangerous. The power supply only keeps safe when the distance is not too long.
This power supply is rare in the construction site of our company 35KV, 10KV,
6KV IT system using this method. IT is obvious shortcomings of the way, single
phase line, the other two to the line voltage relative to ground voltage, over-voltage
on the electrical equipment required is very high. Last year, three-wire overhead
line construction is the construction unit severing the second phase to ground station
6KV system B, A, C both increased relative to the voltage 1.732 times the voltage
transformer caused the second catalytic 6KV burned by over-voltage, the main fan
trip, affecting normal device Production.

Summary of power lines symbol
1) The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) power supply under
the symbol, the first letter means that the power (power supply) system in
relationships. Such as the T that is directly grounded neutral point; I mean
that all live parts of the insulation (not ground).
2) The second letter indicated that the exposed metal parts of electrical
equipment on the ground relationship. T indicates that the device, such as
chassis ground, which with any other system not directly related to access
locations; N said load by then zero protection.


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CHAPTER 4
CLOSING

4.1 Conclusion
There is no best method for neutral earthing in marine power system. Each
application requires careful assessement of all safety, operational and commercial
aspects.
The level of insulation required in marine system, particularly for rotating electrical
machines, does not depend on the method of neutral earthing adopted. We propose that
earth fault current is the most suitable criterion on which to base a choice of earthing
method. For simplicity, three earth fault current range with associated earthing
impedances have been defined: high, intemediate, and low
High impedance neutral earthing is appropriate for hazardous areas and for
situations where immediate continuity of supply to unduplicated essential loads is
necessary.
Intermediate neutral earthing impedances enable automatic earth fault location
without excessive fault damage
Low impedance neutral earthing offers automatic earth fault location at minimum
cost and with minimum overvoltages on healthy phases and is therefore appropriate for
domestic and hotel loads.
Proper System Grounding of electrical power systems can significantly improve
reliability and safety. Retrofits of existing systems can be achieved utilizing grounding
transformers can be shown at the picture of diagram below. New systems can be
designed using wye connected generators and delta-wye transformers.
The characteristics of different grounding techniques set forth in this paper should
provide an intelligent basis for proper selection consistent with the needs of the power
system in question.









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REFERENCES

http://electrical-engineering-portal.com/types-of-neutral-earthing-in-power-
distribution-part-1
http://electrical-engineering-portal.com/types-of-neutral-earthing-in-power-
distribution-part-2
http://www.fatech-surge-protection.com/Low-voltage-power-distribution-system-
grounding-analysis-7.html

Marine Electrical Knowledge
http://magelhaes.hzs.be/willem/assorted/marine_electrical_knowledge.pdf