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Q. 5.44 Solution.

A)

Probability Density Function

Binomial with n = 18 and p = 0.5

x P( X = x )
10 0.166924


Hence, the required probability is 0.166924
B)
Cumulative Distribution Function

Binomial with n = 18 and p = 0.5

x P( X <= x )
10 0.759659

Hence, required probability = 1- 0.759659 = 0.24034



C)
Cumulative Distribution Function

Binomial with n = 18 and p = 0.5

x P( X <= x )
8 0.407265


Hence, the required probability is 0.407265
















Q. 5.52 (Solution)

Here, n=100,
p, the probability of success in a single trial is = 0.16667
Using Normal approximation to binomial distribution,
Mean = np = 100*0.16667 = 16.667
SD = sqrt (npq) = Sqrt (100*0.16667 * 0.83333) = 3.7267
Hence required probability can be calculated as:
A)
Cumulative Distribution Function

Normal with mean = 16.667 and standard deviation = 3.7267

x P( X <= x )
18 0.639712

0.12
0.10
0.08
0.06
0.04
0.02
0.00
X
D
e
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s
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t
y
18
0.360
16.7
Distribution Plot
Normal, Mean=16.667, StDev=3.7267



Cumulative Distribution Function

Normal with mean = 16.667 and standard deviation = 3.7267

x P( X <= x )
14 0.237105

0.12
0.10
0.08
0.06
0.04
0.02
0.00
X
D
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s
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t
y
14
0.763
16.7
Distribution Plot
Normal, Mean=16.667, StDev=3.7267

Required probability is= p(x < 18) p(x<14) = 0.639712 0.237105 = 0.402607

B)
The probability that, more than 18 sevens were rolled is 1-0.639712 = 0.360288
Hence, there is no surprise, if more than 18 sevens were rolled, because the probability of this event Is
sufficiently large.




Q.6.68 (Solution)

Cumulative Distribution Function

Normal with mean = -1.786 and standard deviation = 1.0416

x P( X <= x )
0.567 0.988059



Cumulative Distribution Function

Normal with mean = -1.786 and standard deviation = 1.0416

x P( X <= x )
-2.159 0.360133

Hence Required Probability is: 0.988059-0.360133 = 0.627926



0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1
0.0
X
D
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n
s
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t
y
-2.159
0.640
-1.79
Distribution Plot
Normal, Mean=-1.786, StDev=1.0416





Q.6.71 (Solution)
A)
Cumulative Distribution Function

Normal with mean = 15.4 and standard deviation = 0.48

x P( X <= x )
16 0.894350

Hence, required probability is 1-0.894350 = 0.10565
0.9
0.8
0.7
0.6
0.5
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1
0.0
X
D
e
n
s
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t
y
16
0.0186
15
Distribution Plot
Normal, Mean=15, StDev=0.48









B)

Cumulative Distribution Function

Normal with mean = 15.4 and standard deviation = 0.48

x P( X <= x )
14.2 0.0062097

0.9
0.8
0.7
0.6
0.5
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1
0.0
X
D
e
n
s
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t
y
14.2
0.00621
15.4
Distribution Plot
Normal, Mean=15.4, StDev=0.48

Hence, required probability is 0.0062097

C)
Cumulative Distribution Function

Normal with mean = 15.4 and standard deviation = 0.48

x P( X <= x )
15.8 0.797672
0.9
0.8
0.7
0.6
0.5
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1
0.0
X
D
e
n
s
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t
y
15.8
0.798
15.4
Distribution Plot
Normal, Mean=15.4, StDev=0.48


Cumulative Distribution Function

Normal with mean = 15.4 and standard deviation = 0.48

x P( X <= x )
15 0.202328



Hence required probability is = 0.797672 0.202328 = 0.59529
0.9
0.8
0.7
0.6
0.5
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1
0.0
X
D
e
n
s
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t
y
15
0.202
15.4
Distribution Plot
Normal, Mean=15.4, StDev=0.48

Q.6.75 (Solution)
A) Yes, we can use the normal approximation to normal distribution, since, the number of trials are
sufficiently large.
B)
Probability Density Function

Binomial with n = 150 and p = 0.05

x P( X = x )
1 0.0035965


The above probability rounded to four decimal places is: 0.0036
C) Hence the percentage of error of the approximation obtained in part (B) is zero.