Journal of Comparative Pathology 2008-2009 Wildlife Histological, Immunohistochemical and Pathological Features of the Pituitary Gland of Odontocete

Cetaceans from the Western Gulf of Mexico- Lesions included
pituicytoma (derived from astrocytes, look like whirling spindle cells), squamous cyst (Rathkes pouch remnant), and colloid cysts.

Histopathology of the Alarm Reaction in Small Odontocetes -- Contraction band necrosis of cardiac and smooth muscles, smooth muscle spasm, ischemic injury to the intestinal mucosa (especially the mucosa of the small intestine) and acute tubular necrosis (ATN) of the proximal tubules of the nephron. The changes are consistent with multisystemic injury caused by massive release of endogenous catecholamines or vasospasm leading to ischemic injury, followed by reperfusion and reperfusion injury. Fig. 1. Heart of a melonheaded whale showing subendocardial pallor associated with severe ischemic injury. The right ventricle is extensively affected, but the lesion is most obvious as the yellowish subendocardial zone of the left Ventricle Histopathological Changes in the Placentas and Fetuses of Mice Infected with Trypanosoma cruzi Isolated from the Myotis nigricans nigricans Bat- Amastigotes were found in myometrium, placenta, and fetal
skeletal muscle. Fetal development was adversely affected. Transplacental transmission occurs in 30% of cases. Other lesions include fibrinoid vascular necrosis.

Brucella ceti Associated Pathology in the Testicle of a Harbour Porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) (vol 139 cont)– The right testicle (530 g) was enlarged due to the presence of a large mature multi-loculated abscess with a thick fibrous capsule. This was centred in the testicle adjacent to the head of the epididymis and extended into the latter Histopathological Classification of Lesions Observed in Natural Cases of Paratuberculosis in Free-ranging Fallow Deer (Dama dama) – 4 Categories-(1) Focal lesions- Small granulomas, mainly in the jejunal and ileal lymph nodes. (2) Multifocal lesions- Well-demarcated granulomas in the intestinal lymphoid tissue and also in the intestinal lamina propria. (3) Diffuse multibacillary granulomatous enteritis- There are macrophages and numerous Langhans giant cells containing many mycobacteria, resulting in macroscopical changes in the normal gut morphology. These changes were found from the proximal jejunum to the ileocaecal valve, but lesions were

always particularly severe in the distal jejunum. (4) Diffuse intermediate multibacillary-lymphocytic granulomatous enteritis): The infiltrate consisted of lymphocytes, macrophages and Langhans giant cells, with small numbers of mycobacteria. Anaplastic Oligodendroglioma with Meningeal Infiltration in a Free-ranging Red Deer (Cervus elaphus): In dogs, oligodendrogliomas are common in brachycephalic breeds TRANSIENT TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS IN A RACCOON (PROCYON LOTOR), Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 39(4): 622–625, 2008- Obesity is associated with down-regulation of insulin receptors, receptor internalization, and reduced receptor binding affinity. This results in elevated blood glucose, leading to either reversible glucose desensitization or irreversible glucotoxicity, which further inhibits insulin secretion and causes hydropic degeneration of β-cells. Intra-islet deposition of amyloid has been reported in humans, cats, and raccoons and has been proposed as a factor related to the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus. EASTERN EQUINE ENCEPHALITIS IN A CAPTIVE HARBOR SEAL (PHOCA VITULINA) Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 39(4): 631–637, 2008- Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) is a mosquito-borne virus belonging to the family Togaviridae, genus Alphavirus. Mammals are susceptible to the virus, but do not produce a viremia sufficient to act as a reservoir host. Passerine birds native to EEEV endemic regions are usually subclinically affected and are the reservoir hosts. Histopathologic evaluation revealed severe and multifocal encephalitis with leptomeningitis, characterized by neutrophilic infiltrates in neuropil, neuronal necrosis, satellitosis, neuronophagia, and perivascular cuffs of lymphocytes, macrophages, and neutrophils. Additionally there was moderate, multifocal, adrenal cortical necrosis. OLIGODENDROGLIOMA IN AN AFRICAN LION (PANTHERA LEO) Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 39(4): 650–654, 2008 – Persistent head tilt, seizures, progressing to ataxia. Gross necropsy findings - A gelatinous mass in the right cerebral hemisphere extending from the frontal to the occipital lobes. The mass was composed of polygonal cells surrounding lakes of mucinous material. These cells had clear cytoplasm, ovoid basophilic nuclei, and inapparent cell processes. Immunoreactivity S100 (+) and neuronspecific enolase (+) / glial fibrillary acid protein (-), myelin basic protein (-), neurofilament triplet (-) , Vimentin (-) , and Cytokeratin (-). All findings were consistent with an oligodendroglioma. INTERTHALAMIC HEMATOMA SECONDARY TO CEREBROVASCULAR ATHEROSCLEROSIS IN AN AGED GRIZZLY BEAR (URSUS ARCTOS HORRIBILIS) WITH PRIMARY CARDIAC SCHWANNOMA, Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 39(4): 659–662, 2008. Blood vessels had degeneration, fragmentation, and fraying of the internal elastic lamina with prominent intimal proliferations and plaques formed by small numbers of lipid-laden macrophages (foam cells) that were intermixed with lymphocytes and plasma cells. Damage to endothelial cells can be

mediated by a variety of stimuli including dietary factors (i.e., oxidized low-density lipoproteins [LDLs]), environmental factors (i.e., cigarette smoke), and intrinsic factors (i.e., hypertension). In response to endothelial cell injury, monocytes and lymphocytes adhere to the areas of damage and localize to the subendothelial zone. The macrophages are stimulated to take up lipid and foam cells that are characteristic of the atherosclerotic plaque. The resultant activated macrophage elaborates a wide variety of cytokines and growth factors, resulting in smooth muscle proliferation and formation of a fibrous intimal plaque. SARCOPTIC MANGE IN WILD RACCOON DOGS (NYCTEREUTES PROCYONOIDES) IN KOREA Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 39(4): 671–673, 2008 - Sarcoptes scabiei is characterized by dorsoventrally flattened and round bodies, sucker-like pulvilli borne on long nonjointed pretarsi, triangular scales and spinelike setae on the dorsum, and three epimeres that are chitinous extensions of the coxae of the legs. Gross lesions include erythematous macules, papules, crusts, and alopecia. Microscopically, the lesions are associated with epidermal hyperkeratosis, acanthosis, parakeratosis and perivascular dermatitis with mast cells, eosinophils, and lymphocytes. Retrospective Study of Neurological Disease in 118 Rabbits: 78 animals (66.1%) had inflammatory lesions of the CNS. Encephalitozoonosis was diagnosed in 69 (58.5%) of these rabbits and 2 animals had herpes simplex virus encephalitis. Granulomatous Pericarditis Associated with Systemic Mucormycosis in a Finless Porpoise (Neophocaena phocaenoides):

The hyphae of Mucorales have greater width, obtuse branching pattern, sparse septation and are thin walled (therefore they might compress and give false septation). There was granulomatous pericarditis, pneumonia and lympadenitis. Necrotizing encephalitis of unknown cause in Fennoscandian arctic foxes (Alopex lagopus). J Vet Diagn Invest 19:113–117 (2007). Severe necrotizing encephalitis affecting mostly the cranial cerebrum, basal ganglia, and olfactory bulbs. Tests for Toxoplasma gondii, Encephalitozoon cuniculi, Neospora caninum, canine distemper virus, rabies, adenovirus type 1, Borna disease virus, and Listeria monocytogenes were negative.

Toxoplasma gondii in an African crested porcupine (Hystrix cristata). J Vet Diagn Invest 19:191–194 (200). Brain- Protozoal cysts associated with inflammation. Immunohistochemical staining of brain tissue for Toxoplasma gondii was strongly positive. Systemic nocardiosis in a reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus). J Vet Diagn Invest 19:326–329 (2007). Enlarged tracheobronchial lymph nodes, pleural and peritoneal effusions, and numerous, multifocal to coalescing, yellow, firm nodules with inspissated pus in the lung, pleura, omentum, liver, heart, adrenal glands, and left kidney. Microscopically, the nodules consisted of foci of pyogranulomatous inflammation. Microscopic lesions were present in the grossly affected organs as well as spleen and brain. gram-positive, variably acid fast, beaded and branching filamentous organisms in the necrotic centers Abomasal and uterine adenocarcinomas with ovarian metastasis in a captive elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni). J Vet Diagn Invest 19:560–563 (2007). A captive, 20-yearold female elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni ) euthanized due to progressive lameness and weight loss . Within the uterus there was a poorly demarcated, multilobulated mass measuring 10 cm in diameter. Histologically the tumor was an adenocarcinoma. Histologic examination of the ovaries revealed unilateral metastasis. A focal, 1-cm diameter adenocarcinoma was identified within the abomasum; this tumor was histologically distinct from the neoplasm found in the uterus and ovary. Age-related lesions in laboratory-confined raccoons (Procyon lotor) inoculated with the agent of chronic wasting disease of mule deer. J Vet Diagn Invest 19:680–686 (2007). Spongiform encephalopathy was not observed by light microscopy, and the presence of abnormal prion protein (PrPd) was not detected by either Immunohistochemistry or Western blot techniques. Age related lesions observed in these raccoons included islet-cell pancreatic amyloidosis (5/6), cystic endometrial hyperplasia (3/4), cerebrovascular mineralization (5/6), neuroaxonal degeneration (3/6), transitionalcell adenoma of the urinary bladder (1/6), and myocardial inclusions (4/6). The latter 2 pathologic conditions were not previously reported in raccoons. Toxoplasmosis in a woodchuck (Marmota monax) and two American red squirrels (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus). J Vet Diagn Invest 19:705–709 (2007). Woodchuck- acute subdural hemorrhage over the right cerebral hemisphere. Histologic lesions included meningoencephalitis, myocarditis, and hepatitis. Protozoal cysts were present in affected and unaffected neuroparenchyma. In both squirrels, the lungs were consolidated with numerous nodules up to 2 mm in diameter. Histologically, pneumonia and encephalitis were associated with intracellular and free protozoa. Additional histologic lesions included multifocal lymphoplasmacytic encephalitis with intralesional protozoa in both squirrels. Peribiliary cysts associated with severe liver disease: a previously unrecognized tumor in

a lion (Panthera leo). J Vet Diagn Invest 19:709–712 (2007). Histologically, the neoplasm was surrounded and composed of compact collagenous tissue. The inner cystic single layer resembled biliary mucosa and was composed of cuboidal or flattened epithelial lining that was strongly immunopositive for cytokeratin AE1/AE3. This layer was surrounded by fibrous tissue that stained blue by Masson’s trichrome staining. Given the presence of multiple organized cysts in the liver, the lesion was consistent with peribiliary cysts. Hepatic lipidosis and other test findings in two captive adult porcupines (Erethizon dorsatum) dying from a ‘‘sudden death syndrome’’. J Vet Diagn Invest 19:712–716 (2007). Routine postmortem examination and histologic evaluation of tissue sections demonstrated hepatic lipidosis (HL) in 2 adult captive porcupines with a history of sudden death. The male porcupine had a markedly enlarged pale liver that microscopically showed large unilocular vacuoles within hepatocellular cytoplasm. The periparturient female had similar but less marked hepatic lesions and an incidental pulmonary mycosis. May be dietary. Comparison of retropharyngeal lymph node and obex region of the brainstem in detection of chronic wasting disease in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). J Vet Diagn Invest 20:58–60 (2008). To gain the best diagnostic accuracy for CWD, it would appear that different cervid species require different tissues to be tested; RLN is the tissue of choice in testing for CWD in white-tailed and mule deer, whereas elk require both obex tissue and RLN to be tested for maximum accuracy. Prevalence and characterization of bovine viral diarrhea virus in the white-tailed deer population in Indiana. J Vet Diagn Invest 20:71–74 (2008). The results of the present study indicate that the prevalence of BVDV in the white-tailed deer population of Indiana is about 0.3%. Histopathologic and immunohistochemical findings in two white-tailed deer fawns persistently infected with Bovine viral diarrhea virus. J Vet Diagn Invest 20:289– 296 (2008). The twins died at 1 day of age from trauma unrelated to the infection, and tissues were collected for histologic and immunohistochemical examination. The most significant histologic abnormality was diffuse depletion of B-lymphocytes in both fawns. The BVDV antigen was distributed widely throughout many tissues and cell types, most notably epithelium and vascular endothelium, consistent with that reported in cattle. In contrast to cattle, lymphocytes exhibited only very rare positive staining. Fatal yersiniosis in farmed deer caused by Yersinia pseudotuberculosis serotype O:3 encoding a mannosyltransferase-like protein WbyK. J Vet Diagn Invest 20:356– 359 (2008). Histopathologically, the disease was characterized by multifocal pulmonary hemorrhage and mild interstitial pneumonia, marked diffuse cholangiohepatitis, minimal myocarditis with mild myocardial degeneration, and mild multifocal suppurative cystic colitis. The isolates were PCR-positive for genes virF, inv, yopB, and yopH, which are essential for invasion and colonization of host intestine and lung. The isolates reacted

with polyclonal antibodies against serotype O:3 antigen. The O-genotyping patterns of the isolates were identical with each other, but different from those of the 21 O-genotypes (or serotypes) reported previously. In addition to the O-antigen genes possessed by classical serotype O:3, a gene (wbyK ) encoding a mannosyltransferase-like protein was detected in these isolates. The wbyK gene of the isolates showed 94% of DNA sequence homology with the wbyK gene harbored by Y. pseudotuberculosis O:1b. Hepatic intranuclear glycogen inclusions in western barred bandicoots (Perameles bougainville). J Vet Diagn Invest 20:376–379 (2008). hepatocyte nuclei characterized by margination of chromatin and concomitant central pallor. Periodic acid–Schiff reagent stained 131 of 142 (92%) of these abnormal hepatocyte nuclei. Positive staining was completely eliminated by diastase pretreatment. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that abnormal hepatocyte nuclei with marginated chromatin did not contain viral particles. Rather, glycogen b-particles and a-rosettes were identified. Intranuclear glycogen is not necessarily pathologic, but can be seen in cases of hypoxia, hepatitis, diabetes, prednisone treatment or glucose-6-phosphate deficiency. Malignant catarrhal fever in a captive American bison (Bison bison) in Italy. J Vet Diagn Invest 20:843–846 (2008). Malignant catarrhal fever (MCF) is a fatal, systemic disease of cattle and other domestic and wild ruminants that, in Europe, is caused by Ovine herpesvirus 2 (OvHV-2). An outbreak of chronic pneumonia and polyarthritis syndrome caused by Mycoplasma bovis in feedlot bison (Bison bison). J Vet Diagn Invest 20:369–371 (2008). caseonecrotic pneumonia; polyarthritis; and laryngitis. Same as in Cattle. Mandibular and maxillary osteomyelitis and myositis in a captive herd of red kangaroos (Macropus rufus). J Vet Diagn Invest 20:846–849 (2008). Pseudomonas spp. was consistently isolated from the sites of infection in all animals. Hypertrophic osteopathy associated with mycotic pneumonia in two juvenile elk (Cervus elaphus). J Vet Diagn Invest 20:849–853 (2008). Radiographs of the lower limbs showed periosteal thickening of the distal extremities, consistent with hypertrophic osteopathy. Thoracic radiographs indicated the presence of pulmonary nodules. Cytologic evaluations of tracheal washes on both elk were consistent with inflammation. Acid-fast stains on both samples were negative. Because of the poor prognosis, both elk were euthanized. At necropsy, the carpal, metacarpal, tarsal, and metatarsal bones, as well as the radius, ulna, and tibia had thickening of cortical bone. There were multiple encapsulated nodules throughout the lungs, lymph nodes, and kidney, and smaller nodules in the myocardium. On microscopic examination, these nodules contained myriads of hyphae, and immunohistochemistry for Aspergillus sp. was strongly positive. Aspergillus fumigatus was isolated from affected tissue in 1 elk. Tail Root Osteosarcoma in a Chipmunk (Tamias sibiricus). Vet Pathol 44:392–394 (2007). Histologically, the excised mass showed proliferation of spindle-to-polyhedral cells and abundant multinucleated giant cells, with the production of neoplastic osteoid.

Immunohistochemically, neoplastic cells were positive for vimentin and weakly positive for osteocalcin. Osteoid was also positive for osteocalcin. This tumor was diagnosed as a giant cell–type osteosarcoma. Disseminated Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium infection in a pet Korean squirrel (Sciuris vulgaris coreae). Vet Pathol 44:123–125 (2007). Grossly, multiple small nodules in the lung, liver, spleen, and skin. necrosis and calcification in an enlarged bronchial lymph node. Escherichia coli Septicemia Associated with Lack of Maternally Acquired Immunity in a Bottlenose Dolphin Calf. Vet Pathol 44:88–92 (2007). Lesions included omphalitis, synovitis, and hepatic necrosis associated with the presence of Gram-negative bacilli. A serum gammaglobulin level of 1.5 g/L indicated a lack of maternally acquired immunity. Teratoma of the Umbilical Cord in a Giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis reticulata). Vet Pathol 44:204–206 (2007). Histologically, the mass contained 3 germinal tissue components with areas of squamous epithelium, respiratory epithelium, primitive neural tissues, glial tissue, peripheral nerve, adipose tissue, cartilage, and smooth muscle. Histologic Features of Mammary Carcinomas in Zoo Felids Treated with Melengestrol Acetate (MGA) Contraceptives. Vet Pathol 44:320–326 (2007). These results indicate that mammary carcinomas in zoo felids are high grade with a predominant tubulopapillary pattern and aggressive behavior. Five of 17 carcinomas expressed progesterone receptors, and 1 of 17 expressed estrogen receptors. Although more zoo felids with cancer had been exposed to MGA in this study, mammary carcinomas were similar in appearance and behavior in untreated and MGA-treated zoo felids. Canine Adenovirus Type 1 Infection of a Eurasian River Otter (Lutra lutra). Vet Pathol 44:536–539 (2007). The liver was found to be swollen and friable Microscopically, there was multifocal hepatic necrosis. with large basophilic intranuclear inclusions. Transmission electron microscopy revealed characteristic hexagonal virus particles sized approximately 70 nm in diameter in the nuclei of the hepatocytes. Aleutian Disease in Two Domestic Striped Skunks (Mephitis mephitis). Vet Pathol 44:687–690 (2007). Aleutian mink disease parvovirus (ADV) is known to infect several members of the Mustelidae family, with mink and ferrets being the most commonly reported hosts. Aleutian disease (AD) in adult animals is characterized by hypergammaglobulinemia and immune- complex disease. The most common form of AD involves a persistent infection due to the inability of the host immune response to neutralize and eliminate the virus. Lymphoplasmacytic infiltration of various organs, immune complex deposits in blood vessels, and severe mesangioproliferative glomerulonephritis ultimately lead to death.

Internal Hydrocephalus and Associated Periventricular Encephalitis in a Young Fox. Vet Pathol 44:713–716 (2007). inflammatory and necrotizing lesions were observed in periventricular sites associated with diverticula and cleft formation in perithalamic areas and rhinencephalic cortex. Immunolabeling for Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora caninum, Encephalitozoon cuniculi, canine distemper virus, and rabies virus was negative.
Prevalence, distribution and pathological significance of the bile fluke Pseudamphistomum truncatum in Eurasian otters (Lutra lutra) in Great Britain. Veterinary Record (2009) 164, 397-401. There was a strong positive correlation between bile fluke infection and gall bladder pathology. Thirty otters had thickened gall bladders resulting from hyperplasia of the epithelial and smooth muscle layers, fibrosis and infiltration by lymphocytes. Liver pathology ranged from mild bile duct hyperplasia and periportal fibrosis to severe sclerosing cholangitis with lymphocytes and eosinophils, hepatocyte necrosis and bile stasis Fatal candidiasis in a wild red squirrel (Sciurus vulgaris). Veterinary Record (2009) 164, 342343 Tongue: Hyperplasia, hyperkeratosis and necrosis of the epithelium over the dorsocaudal third. Yeast forms were seen on the surface (PAS). Lesions also had large numbers of blastospores and pseudohyphae extending deeper into the epithelium. The mucosal surface of the esophagus was covered in a thick layer of necrotic cellular debris, bacteria and masses of blastospores and developing pseudohyphae. As the pseudohyphae radiated outwards through the submucosa, almost reaching the inner circular muscle, they were transformed into longer, branching hyphae. The histopathological lesions of proliferative glossitis and necrotizing oesophagitis associated with invading pseudohyphae and hyphae were consistent with a diagnosis of candidiasis. PCR was positive for Candida albicans.

Pathological Features of Amyloidosis in Stranded California Sea Lions: Amyloidosis was diagnosed in 26 stranded adult California sea lions between 1983 and 2006 by retrospective case analysis. The kidneys (92.3%), blood vessels (80.7%) and thyroid glands (65.4%) most commonly affected. The amyloid deposits were identified as type amyloid A (AA) Concurrent diseases, including inflammatory processes and genital carcinoma, were common in affected animals.

Parvovirus Infection in a Eurasian Lynx (Lynx lynx) and in a European Wildcat (Felis silvestris silvestris)

Gross and microscopical findings in the two non-domestic felids were consistent with feline parvovirus infection and this was confirmed by immunohistochemistry and polymerase chain reaction. Histopathological Examination of the Pancreas of the Koala (Phascolarctos cinereus) Disorders not previously reported in the pancreas of koalas: inflammation and necrosis; atrophy and fibrosis of exocrine pancreatic tissue; lymphosarcoma; pancreatic heterotopy; and ductal adenocarcinoma.
Cutaneous Papillomatosis and Carcinomatosis in the Western Barred Bandicoot Vet Path 2008 Jan: Multicentric proliferative lesions involving cutaneous and mucosal surfaces. Grossly and histologically the smaller skin lesions resembled papillomas, whereas the larger lesions were squamous cell carcinomas. No etiologic agent was identified in skin lesions. Large amphophilic intranuclear inclusion bodies were observed in hyperplastic conjunctival lesions, which were papillomavirus inclusions.

High-Grade Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma of the Mandibular Salivary Gland in a Lion Vet Path 2008 Jan: Histo Dx of a mucoepidermoid carcinoma requires the identification of the three characteristic cell types (i.e., mucous, epidermoid, and intermediate cells), which are present in varying proportions. The tumor cells are positive for panCK, negative for S100 protein, always negative for -SMA, and partially positive for p63 (basal, intermediate, and squamous cells express p63, in contrast to luminal cells). Peripheral tumor cells in mucoepidermoid carcinoma and tumor stroma are positive for Vimentin. Experimental Transmission of Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD) of Elk , White-tailed Deer and Mule Deer to White-tailed Deer by Intracerebral Route Vet Path 2008 May: CWD is a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) or prion disease identified in captive and free-ranging cervids, namely mule deer, black-tailed deer, white-tailed deer, Rocky Mountain elk and moose. Affected animals show accumulation of an abnormal, disease-associated form of prion protein (PrPd) in tissues of the CNS and lymphatic system. Conclusion: 3 sources of CWD prion (from elk, white tailed deer and mule deer) did not induce significant differences in time, signs and lesions to clinical disease.

Harderian Gland Neoplasms in Captive, Wild-caught Beechey Ground Squirrels (Spermophilus beecheyi ) Vet Path 2008 May: The Harderian gland is a bilobed, tubuloalveolar accessory lacrimal gland, found in many vertebrate groups such as amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals, including various species of laboratory rodents. The gland is located within the medial part of the orbit, and it secretes onto the surface of the nictitating membrane. The mammalian Harderian gland secretion is primarily composed of lipids; however, in rodents, the gland also produces porphyrins and inoleamines. The Beechey ground squirrel (Spermophilus beecheyi) has been studied as a model of human hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection because of the occurrence of a natural infection with ground squirrel hepatitis virus (GSHV), a member of the hepadnavirus family along with HBV and wood- chuck hepatitis virus Amyloidosis in Black-footed Cats (Felis nigripes) Vet Path 2008 May: systemic amyloidosis. amyloidosis was the most common cause of death. Amyloid deposition was most severe in the renal medullary interstitium and glomeruli. splenic follicular germinal centers , gastric lamina propria (9/23, 39%), and intestinal lamina propria , strong immunoreactivity for canine AA protein (Non-inflammatory/ Idiopathic).

Trophoblast-like Cells in the Tissues of Porcupines (Erethizon dorsatum) Vet Path 2008 May: Microscopic examinations revealed the presence of giant epitheloid cells in various tissues (adrenal glands, spleen, liver, and lungs) of 4 (11%) female animals. These giant cells were approximately 20 times the size of the surrounding cells of the parenchyma. The cells were found singly and were not associated with any inflammatory cellular infiltrate and appeared to be located within vascular lumina. Morphologically these cells were typical of uterine epitheloid trophoblasts. Neuronal Migration Defect: A Case of Subcortical Heterotopia in a California Sea Lion Vet Path 2008 May: right cerebral hemispheric white matter was expanded by numerous irregularly shaped, pale pink nodules up to 10 mm in diameter. The overlying cortex was characterized by increased numbers of small, poorly developed gyri with shallow, often indistinct, sulci (polymicrogyria). Microscopically, nodules were composed of neurons, oligodendroglia, microglia, and supporting neuropil and were well delineated from the surrounding white matter. The gross, histological, and Immunohistochemical features of this lesion are consistent with a neuronal migration defect resulting in unilateral subcortical heterotopia. Quantitative Analysis of the 2002 Phocine Distemper Epidemic in The Netherlands. Vet Pathol 45:516–530 (2008). The most frequent lesions in PDV cases were bronchopneumonia, bronchointerstitial pneumonia, and interstitial emphysema. Bordetella bronchiseptica was isolated from lungs in two thirds of the PDV cases. brain should be included among the tissues tested for PDV by RT-PCR Anaplastic Astrocytoma in the Spinal Cord of an African Pygmy Hedgehog (Atelerix albiventris). Vet Pathol 45:934–938 (2008). A diagnosis of anaplastic astrocytoma was confirmed using immunohistochemical stains that were positive for glial fibrillary acidic protein and S100. pleomorphic polygonal to spindle shaped cells, mineralization, and necrosis. Diagnostic Exercise: Astrocytoma with Involvement of Medulla Oblongata, Spinal Cord, and Spinal Nerves in a Raccoon (Procyon lotor). Vet Pathol 45:949–951 (2008). astrocytoma that involved medulla, cervical spinal cord, and roots of the cervical spinal nerves. Microscopically, the neoplastic cells revealed some pleomorphism but generally had fusiform morphology and showed moderate numbers of mitotic figures. Glial fibrillary acidic protein was demonstrated within the neoplastic cells by immunohistochemistry.

A simple ductal mammary papilloma in a male maned wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus). J Vet Diagn Invest 21:153–155 (2009). Microscopically, the neoplasm consisted of papillary proliferations of epithelial cells on well-defined fibrovascular stalks. A myoepithelial layer was located between the single layer of epithelial cells and the fibrovascular stalk. This histologic appearance was compatible with a diagnosis of simple ductal mammary papilloma. Immunohistochemical staining was positive for p63, cytokeratins AE1/AE3, and estrogen receptors. Sarcomatoid carcinoma in the lung of an Egyptian fruit bat (Rousettus aegyptiacus). J Vet Diagn Invest 21:160–163 (2009). Both carcinomatous and sarcomatous cytologic phenotypes were identified histologically. Cells of both types stained positive for pancytokeratin and S-100. Stromal cells stained positively for muscle actin. No staining for vimentin was noted in either neoplastic or normal internal control tissues. Spontaneous cutaneous mast cell tumor with lymph node metastasis in a Richardson’s ground squirrel (Spermophilus richardsonii ). J Vet Diagn Invest 21:156–159 (2009). Histologically, the nodules were composed of a proliferation of

spindloid to pleomorphic cells that sometimes formed sheets and fascicular to storiform patterns. Diffuse infiltration of eosinophils was also noted. The results of immunohistochemistry indicated positive labeling for vimentin, mast cell tryptase, c-kit, and Ki-67. Toluidine blue stain revealed fine, metachromatic, cytoplasmic granules. The histologic diagnosis was mast cell tumor. Systemic Conidiobolus incongruus infection and hypertrophic osteopathy in a white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). J Vet Diagn Invest 21:167–170 (2009). bilateral firm proliferation of the metatarsal diaphyses, and a large intrathoracic mass associated with the accessory lung lobe. Smaller masses were evident in the abomasum, duodenum, omentum, and the capsular surface of the liver. Microscopically, the masses were similar and were diagnosed as eosinophilic granulomas with intralesional fungal hyphae characteristic of Zygomycetes spp. Fungal hyphae were identified as Conidiobolus incongruous. Systemic toxoplasmosis and Gram-negative sepsis in a southern chamois (Rupicapra pyrenaica) from the Pyrenees in northeast Spain. J Vet Diagn Invest 21:244–247 (2009). Histopathologic examination revealed systemic toxoplasmosis and acute Gramnegative septicemia. The protozoan organisms were identified as Toxoplasma gondii based on immunohistochemistry. An indirect fluorescent antibody test was performed, and the animal was positive with an antibody titer of 1:50 Pneumonia from Angiostrongylus vasorum infection in a red panda (Ailurus fulgens fulgens). J Vet Diagn Invest 21:270–273 (2009). The lungs were diffusely consolidated with extensive mineralization. Microscopically, there was extensive obliteration of normal pulmonary architecture by sheets and coalescing nodules of partially mineralized fibrous tissue and granulomatous inflammation centered on large numbers of nematode larvae and eggs. First stage nematode larvae were isolated from lung tissue and were characterized as Angiostrongylus vasorum on the basis of their morphology.
Cover illustration: Clinico-pathologic Features of Fatal Disease Attributed to New Variants of Endotheliotropic Herpesviruses in Two Asian Elephants: A new EEHV virus named EEHV-3 was identified and was same to EEHV1 and 2 in causing ascites, edema, and petechiae however was different in causing renal medullary hemorrhages, and was seen in large veins, arteries, capillaries and involvement of retinal vessels (as compared to EEHV 1 and 2 which were present only in capillaries)

Characterization of a Degenerative Cardiomyopathy Associated with Domoic Acid Toxicity in California Sea Lions (Zalophus californianus): degenerative cardiomyopathy in California sea lions represents another syndrome beyond central neurologic disease associated with exposure to domoic acid (is a potent neurotoxic analog of the neurotransmitter L-glutamate) HIsto: myocardial necrosis and interstitial edema

Comparative Pathology of Nocardiosis in Marine Mammals: The most common presentation of nocardiosis in both pinnipeds and cetaceans was the systemic form, involving 2 or more organs. Organs most frequently affected were lung and thoracic lymph nodes in 7 of 9 cases in pinnipeds and 8 of 10 cases in cetaceans.

Gas Bubbles in Seals, Dolphins, and Porpoises Entangled and Drowned at Depth in Gillnets. Vet Pathol 46:536–547 (2009). that peri- or postmortem phase change of supersaturated blood and tissues is most likely. Studies have suggested that under some circumstances, diving mammals are routinely supersaturated and that these mammals presumably manage gas exchange and decompression anatomically and behaviorally

Nocardia otitidiscaviarum Pneumonia in an Alpine Chamois (chamois is a European wild ungulate of the Bovid family) J. Comp. Path. 2009, Vol. 141, 70-73. Nocardia otitidiscaviarum was cultured from the lung of an Alpine chamois with suppurative bronchopneumonia. Iron Distribution in the Liver and Duodenum during Seasonal Iron Overload in Svalbard Reindeer J. Comp. Path. 2009, Vol. 141, 27e40: Seasonal iron overload in Svalbard reindeer was studied by light and electron microscopy and by X-ray microanalysis. The hepatic iron overload was of two types. The first type was characterized by massive siderosis of both parenchymal and non-parenchymal cells caused by a diet very rich in iron but low in energy and protein. Hepatocytes contained a moderate amount of free ferritin particles in the cytosol together with numerous siderosomes. The second type was characterized by massive nonparenchymal (Kupffer cells) siderosis caused by an energy- and protein-poor diet with normal iron conc. Hepatocytes contained little cytosolic ferritin and few siderosomes, but there were abundant electron-dense bodies without iron (i.e., autophagosomes).
Bovine Papillomavirus Type 1 DNA and E5 Oncoprotein Expression in Water Buffalo Fibropapillomas. Vet Pathol 46:636–641 (2009). BPV-1/2 may also infect other species such as equids, inducing fibroblastic tumors. BPV-1 and BPV-2 are associated with fibropapillomas in cattle; these tumors are formed by excessive proliferation of virus-infected dermal fibroblasts and epidermal keratinocytes. The BPV-1 E5 oncoprotein was strongly expressed in the tumor cells thus confirming a causal role of the virus. This article represents the first report of cutaneous, perivulvar, and vulvar fibropapilloma associated with BPV-1 infection in the water buffalo and describes another example of cross-species infection by BPV-1.

Tumor Morphology and Immunohistochemical Expression of Estrogen Receptor, Progesterone Receptor, p53, and Ki67 in Urogenital Carcinomas of California Sea Lions (Zalophus californianus). Vet Pathol 46:642–655 (2009). The etiology of this cancer is likely multifactorial, with viral infection, genetic factors, and exposure to environmental organochlorine contaminants. Ki67 index and p53 expression increased with lesion grade and were higher in lesions than normal epithelium. Metastatic tumors exhibited highly variable morphology; however, proliferation index, ER a, PR, and p53 expression were similar in tumors with different patterns of growth.

Polycystic Kidney Disease in Adult Brazilian Agoutis (Dasyprocta leporina). Vet Pathol 46:656–661 (2009). The animals had macroscopic bilateral alterations of the kidneys ranging from granulated surfaces to severe polycystic changes. Microscopic examination revealed multifocal to generalized, moderate to severe cystic dilatations of Bowman’s capsules and renal tubules, moderate mesangial and capsular proliferation of the renal corpuscles, mild interstitial fibrosis, and mild to moderate interstitial lympho-plasmacytic infiltrations. Cutaneous and Systemic Poxviral Disease in Red (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus) and Gray (Sciurus carolinensis) Squirrels. Vet Pathol 46:667–672 (2009). Alopecic cutaneous nodules two had pulmonary nodules. Epidermal hyperplasia, with ballooning degeneration , spongiosis, and eosinophilic cytoplasmic inclusions, atypical mesenchymal cells with cytoplasmic inclusions. Additional findings included pulmonary adenomatous hyperplasia with cytoplasmic inclusions, renal tubular epithelial hyperplasia with cytoplasmic inclusions, atypical mesenchymal proliferation in the liver, and atypical mesenchymal proliferation with cytoplasmic inclusions in the seminal vesicles. Ultrastructurally, poxviral particles were observed in skin scrapings and sections of cutaneous and pulmonary nodules. LeporipoxvirusSquirrel Pox virus. Entamoeba invadens Myositis in a Common Water Monitor Lizard (Varanus salvator). Vet Pathol 46:673–676 (2009). Subacute ulcerated skin wounds. Gross examination revealed multiple discrete to coalescing, white-yellow to gray, caseous foci scattered in the skeletal muscles and liver. The mucosa of small intestine was thickened, red, MF ulcers, with depressed and hemorrhagic centers. Histopathologic examination revealed severe necrotizing and granulomatous myositis, hepatitis, and enteritis accompanied by large numbers of intralesional, 10–20-mm diameter, periodic acid– Schiff-positive, amoeboid protozoa. Histopathologic criteria to confirm white-nose syndrome in bats. J Vet Diagn Invest 21:411–414 (2009). White-nose syndrome (WNS) is a cutaneous fungal disease of hibernating bats associated with a novel Geomyces sp. fungus. Invasion of living tissue distinguishes this fungal infection from those caused by conventional transmissible dermatophytes. There is typically no cellular inflammatory response in hibernating bats. Fungal hyphae form cup-like epidermal erosions and ulcers in the wing membrane and pinna with involvement of underlying connective tissue. In addition, fungal hyphae are present in hair follicles and in sebaceous and apocrine glands of the muzzle with invasion of tissue surrounding adnexa. Fungal hyphae in tissues are branching and septate, with parallel walls measuring 2 mm in diameter to irregular walls measuring 3–5 mm in diameter. When present on short aerial hyphae, curved conidia are approximately 2.5 mm wide and 7.5 mm in curved length. Conidia have a more deeply basophilic center, and one or both ends are usually blunt. Characterization of Cervidpoxvirus isolates from Oregon, California, and eastern Canada. J Vet Diagn Invest 21:487–492 (2009). Poxviridae  Chordopoxvirinae  Orthopox/ Parapox/ Capripox / Suipox / Avipox genus/ Cervidpox (new) genus. The

cervidpox genus is related to Parapox genus, but is distinct in that it encodes proteins similar to cellular endothelins, interleukin 1 receptor antagonists (IL- 1Ra), C-type lectinlike receptors (CTLR), and the major histocompatibility complex-1 (MHC-1). One strain had DNA for transforming growth factor b1 (TGF-b1) which is found in Avipox genus. Deerpox Virus is the disease/ synonym caused by these Cervidpoxviruses. Deer can also be infected by Ortho and Parapoxviruses. Renal tubular-cell neoplasms in black-footed ferrets – 38 cases. pp276-80. May 2006 [Beth Williams an author] - Captive adults (repopulation project), 21% prevalence (very hi); this tumor rare in domestic ferret - Rare mets, usu. incidental postmortem findings, only 8% w/CS prior; prevalence inc’d w/age; most in postreproductive years, so no f/x on captive propagation; no hormonal influence, no familial pattern (undtmned cause) - Multiple tumors common; 18% w/bilateral; tubular cell neoplasia; couldn’t tell benign vs. malignant - Homogenous, firm, white to yellow, w/central necrosis/hemorrhage; densely cellular nests of rudimentary tubular structures, separated by moderate fibrous stroma; common osseous metaplasia (trabeculae) The 2000 canine distemper epidemic in Caspian seals: pathology & analysis of contributory factors. pp321-38. May 2006 COVER MT - 10K dead seals in Caspian sea in 1 summer, following very mild winter; MF pulmonary consolidation in both lungs - Similar to K9 distemper: broncho-interstitial pneumonia, lymphocytic necrosis & lymphoid depletion, ICIB in multiple epithelia - Degeneration/necrosis of bronchiolar epithelium, w/sloughing & vacuolation; infiltrate of neuts & lymphocytes; many bronchiolar ep cells w/ICIB; found Morbillivirus Ag - Only other viral lesion identified was poxvirus-associated dermatitis (in one seal) - Concurrent bacterial dz: Bordetella bronchiseptica, Streptococcus phocae, Salmonella dublin, S. choleraesuis, plus other infectious & parasitic orgs West Nile Flavivirus polioencephalomyelitis in a harbor seal. pp58-61. Jan 2006 JTP - WNV: Flavirus; transmitted by mosquitos; febrile, sometimes fatal illness - progressive neuro dysfunction - gross: hyperemia of brainstem & spinal cord vessels - histo: nonsuppurative polioencephalomyelitis with glial nodules, spheroids, neuronophagia, ring hemorrhages, a few neutrophils; mostly grey matter of brainstem & spinal cord; no lesions in other organs - neurons, fibers, glial nodules with multifocal positivity with intracytoplasmic WNV esp. prominent w/in viable & necrotic neurons of ventral horns - 1st report of WNV in marine mammal; findings similar to WNV infection in horses & alpacas; dead-end hosts

Abnormal prion protein in ectopic lymphoid tissue in a kidney of an asymptomatic white-tailed deer experimentally inoculated w/the agent of chronic wasting disease (CWD). pp367-69. May 2006 AR • CWD in deer & elk→ accum. of abnormal prion protein (PrPres) in nervous & lymphoid tissue • This report: PrPres in ectopic lymphoid follicles in kidney of a white-tailed-deer 10 months after experimental infection with CWD • Spongiform lesions in CNS; PrPres in CNS, lymphoid tissue, & lymphoid follicles in kidney • Previous report: PrPres in lymphoid follicles in organs other than CNS & lymphoid tissues in mice with scrapie • PrPres was not observed by IHC in striated muscles (heart, tongue, masseter, diaphragm) of the experimental deer Sudden death associated with Clostridium sordellii in captive lions. pp370-74. May 2006 NW - The first report of sudden death associated with Clostridium sordellii in felines - Sudden deaths in a group of adult lions with myositis and cellulitis associated with acute clostridiosis - Multiple areas of necrosis and hemorrhage in the intestinal outer muscular layer, and cellulitis with an intense bloody edema in the mesenteric and the pericardial fat tissue; enteritis Listeric meningoencephalomyelitis in a cougar: characterization by histopathologic, IHC, & molecular methods. pp381-83. May 2006 JTP - Variably severe meningoencephalomyelitis w/lymphocytes, plasma cells, macs & fewer neutrophils; grey & white matter; MF rarefaction w/gitter cells & spheroids; perivascular pyogranulomatous inflammation; rare Gm+ rods - Most severe: mid/hindbrain, cerebellar white matter, spinal cord (esp. L1-L2) - Listeria monocytogenes an important food-borne pathogen (esp. in ruminants, cause of encephalitis & uterine infection/abortion); isolated from brain in this case (in large felids, usu. septicemic form) - Histo lesions pathognomonic: microabscesses the hallmark lesion; inflamm usu. mix of suppurative & nonsuppurative - Organism probably reaches brain thru trigeminal or hypoglossal nerves after invading oral or nasal mucosa (hematogenous spread unlikely) Herpesvirus infections in rock hyraxes (Procavia capensis). J Vet Diagn Invest 21:531–535 (2009). Blepharoconjunctivitis and orofacial ulcers with amphophilic to basophilic intranuclear inclusion bodies, cytomegaly, karyomegaly, and syncytia. Novel alphaherpesvirus genus Simplexvirus.

Nephrotoxicosis in Iberian piglets subsequent to exposure to melamine and derivatives in Spain between 2003 and 2006. J Vet Diagn Invest 21:558–563 (2009). kidneys were enlarged with yellow foci in the cortex and medulla. Microscopically, these foci were accumulations of crystals within the lumina of dilated distal tubules and collecting ducts, causing flattening of the renal tubular epithelial cells. The crystals displayed a multicolored birefringence under cross-polarized light. The multinucleated giant cells surrounding the crystals, interstitial fibrosis. melamine, ammeline, ammelide, and cyanuric acid.were found. Peripheral Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumour in a Lumbar Vertebra and the Liver of a Dromedary Camel (Camelus dromedarius). J. Comp. Path. 2009, Vol. 141, 182e186. Multiple liver tumours and a intra-osseus mass in the 3rd lumbar vertebra, compressing the spinal cord. Histo- sheets of primitive cells, with perivascular pseudorosettes and small numbers of neuroblastic HomerWright rosettes. IHC - positive for vimentin and variably positive for neuron-specific enolase and glial fibrillary acidic protein. Exhibiting neuroblastic, glial and ependymomatous differentiation, probably reflecting the tumour’s primitive multipotential neuroepithelial nature. A Pathological Study of Sepsis Associated with Sarcoptic Mange in Raccoon Dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides) in Japan. J. Comp. Path. 2009, Vol. 141, 177e181. Microscopical lesions of the skin were consistent with those described previously in wildlife populations with Sarcoptes infection, but secondary lesions were also present in the lungs, heart, kidneys, liver, spleen and brain of these animals. This infection was therefore very similar to ‘‘crusted scabies’’ or ‘‘Norwegian scabies’’ in man and was characterized by severe pathology and high mortality, with deaths frequently occurring due to sepsis. Animals are possibly immunocompromised. Haemorrhages in the pulmonary artery and aortic valve associated with Streptococcus gallolyticus subspecies gallolyticus in a roe deer Veterinary Record (2009) 165, 237-239 DDx: Pulmonary artery hemorrhages: Orbivirus, Rift Valley fever sheep Heartwater in sheep, Pulpy kidney disease in sheep, Septicaemic pasteurellosis in sheep Haemorrhages of the pulmonary artery (with unspecified location) have been associated with adenovirus haemorrhagic disease in deer. And also include Streptococcus gallolyticus subspecies gallolyticus induced septicemia, Streptococcus bovis (mink and humans) Histopathology: Vasculitis characterized by fibrinoid degeneration of the tunica media with intramural and peripheral haemorrhages in blood vessels of the wall of the pulmonary artery and the myocardium.

Articular gout and pseudogout in a Basilisk- JZWM 40-3. Urates- Amorphous eosinophilic surrounded by granulomatous inflammation; Pseudogout (calcium)- fibrillar crystals surrounded by cartilaginous metaplasia Fungal keratitis in a Gopher tortoise- JZWM. Bilateral corneal ulceration, Curvularia and Aspergillus Fallow Deer- Sida Carpinifolia following- JZWM. Vacuolation of Purkinje cells, kidneys and pancreas. Lectin histochemistry confirmed lysosomal storage disease, alpha mannosidases. Pathology of Domoic Acid Toxicity in California Sea Lions: predominantly adult females were intoxicated by domoic acid (DA) during three harmful algal blooms between 1998 and. Persistent seizures with obtundation were the main clinical findings. Grossly: piriform lobe malacia, myocardial pallor, bronchopneumonia, and complications related to pregnancy. Gross findings in animals dying months after intoxication included bilateral hippocampal atrophy. Histo: Peracutely, there was microvesicular hydropic degeneration within the neuropil of the hippocampus, amygdala, pyriform lobe, and other limbic structures. Acutely, there was ischemic neuronal necrosis, particularly apparent in the granular cells of the dentate gyrus and the pyramidal cells within the hippocampus cornu ammonis (CA) sectors CA4, CA3, and CA1 with sparing of CA2. DA was identified in gastric contents, serum and urine. DA is a neurotoxic analog of the excitatory neurotransmitter L-glutamate. Heterotopic Kidney Tissue in the Lung of a Free-living Common Dolphin: Malignant Seminoma with Metastasis, Sertoli Cell Tumor, and Pheochromocytoma in a Spotted Dolphin and Malignant Seminoma with Metastasis in a Bottlenose Dolphin: This is the first report of seminoma, Sertoli cell tumor, and pheochromocytoma in a dolphin, the first report of three distinct neoplasms in a dolphin, and one of the few reports of malignant neoplasia in dolphins. Gas and Fat Embolic Syndrome" Involving a Mass Stranding of Beaked Whales (Family Ziphiidae) Exposed to Anthropogenic Sonar Signals: whales had severe, diffuse congestion and hemorrhage, especially around the acoustic jaw fat, ears, brain, and kidneys. Gas bubble–associated lesions and fat embolism were observed in the vessels and parenchyma of vital organs.
Chronic Wasting Disease: transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) including chronic wasting disease (CWD), are designated prion diseases because of their association with aberrantly refolded isoforms of the prion protein, a normal cellular glycoprotein (PrP C). C l. signs: weight loss, odontoprisis; sialorrhea, or excess salivation because of difficulty swallowing; ataxia and head tremors; esophageal dilation and regurgitation; and aspiration pneumonia. periods of lack of awareness; fixed stare. Pruritus with hair loss, commonly observed in terminal sheep scrapie, is not a feature of advanced CWD. However, the hair coat of affected animals can be rough and dry. Grossly: rough hair coat, megaesophagus, emaciation, aspiration pneumonia (may or may not present), rumen contents watery; Histo: specific histologic lesions are only observed in gray matter of the CNS. CNS lesions are bilaterally symmetrical and spongiform change is

obvious; vacuolization occurs in neuronal perikarya and neuronal processes. lesions are most striking in the dien-cephalon, olfactory cortex, and nuclei of the medulla oblongata, prominently the dorsal vagal nucleus. DDX: hemorrhagic disease (epizootic hemorrhagic disease and bluetongue) can cause clinical signs compatible with CWD. In eastern North America, meningeal worm (Parelaphostrongylus tenuis), locoweed intoxication.(in elk). Locoweed (Oxytropis sericea)–induced Lesions in Mule Deer. Locoweeds are plants of the Astragalus and Oxytropis genera that induce a storage disease similar to genetic mannosidosis. Toxicosis is attributed to swainsonine, an endophyte-produced indolizidine alkaloid Swainsonine inhibits lysosomal αmannosidase and Golgi mannosidase II, resulting in cellular vacuolation and degeneration Purpose of this study was to induce and describe chronic locoweed poisoning in deer and compare it with the lesions of CWD. Poisoned deer lost weight and developed a scruffy, dull coat. They developed reluctance to move, and with subtle intention tremors. Poisoned deer had extensive vacuolation of visceral tissues, which was most severe in the exocrine pancreas. Thyroid follicular epithelium, renal tubular epithelium, and macrophages in many tissues were mildly vacuolated. The exposed deer also had mild neuronal swelling and cytoplasmic vacuolation that was most obvious in Purkinje cell. findings indicate that deer are susceptible to locoweed poisoning, but the lesions differ in severity and distribution from those of other species. The histologic changes of locoweed poisoning are distinct from those of CWD in deer; however, the clinical presentation of locoweed poisoning in deer is similar.

Morphologic Evidence Suggestive of Hypertension in Western Gray Kangaroos (Macropus fuliginosus). Vet Pathol 46:977–984 (2009). increased thickness of the renal arteriolar tunica media with smooth muscle hypertrophy and/or hyperplasia, accumulation of extracellular matrix within arterioles, increased vascular tortuosity, and varying degrees of juxtaglomerular hyperplasia. arteriolar endothelial cell hypertrophy and disruption of the medial architecture Black disease in a forest reindeer (Rangifer tarandus fennicus): Black disease, also known as infectious necrotic hepatitis, is caused by the α toxin released by Clostridium novyi type B during proliferation in the liver. Described in cattle, sheep, horse and pig.

Malignant catarrhal fever in sika deer (Cervus nippon) in the UK: enlargement of the super ficial lymph nodes and mesenteric chain. Mineralised caseous nodules1·5 cm in diameter were present on the right cranial pleura, and segmental haemorrhagic enteropathy in the small intestine. Histo: multisystemic granulomatous inflammatory changes associated with lymphocytic vasculitis and fibrinoid vasculitis, most pronounced in the brain, leptomeninges, lymph nodes, adrenal glands and liver, consistent with MC Naturally Occurring and Melengestrol Acetate-associated Reproductive Tract Lesions in Zoo Canids. Vet Pathol 46:1117–1128 (2009). endometrial hyperplasia (predominantly cystic) (53%), hydrometra (33%), and adenomyosis (25%). Spontaneous Idiopathic Arteritis of the Testicular Artery in Raccoons (Procyon lotor). Vet Pathol 46:1129–1132 (2009). Segmental arteritis confined to the extratesticular portions of the testicular artery was present in raccoons of all ages. The

lesions consisted of proliferative endarteritis with presence of inflammatory cells within the intima, media, and the adventitia. Meningoencephalitis in a Polar Bear Caused by Equine Herpesvirus 9 (EHV-9). Vet Pathol 46:1138–1143 (2009). nonsuppurative pleocytosis of cerebrospinal fluid. multifocal, random nonsuppurative meningoencephalitis involving most prominently the rostral cerebral cortex, as well as the thalamus, midbrain, and rostral medulla. equine herpesvirus 9.

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