Journal of Comparative Pathology 2008-2009 Bovine Lymphoepithelioma-like Carcinoma of the Urinary Bladder in a Cow Associated with

Bovine Papillomavirus Type-2 (First report of such tumor in animals)- Multifocal mucosal
nodules and hemorrhage. Lymphoepithelioma carcinomas are recognized by syncytial cells and Cytokeratin +, with prominent lymphocyte and plasma cell infiltrates. Brakcen fern and BPV-2 act in concert to produce neoplasms in the bladder including papillary carcinomas and carcinoma in situ as well as the title neoplasm.

Contact dermatitis in dairy cattle caused by calcium cyanamide. Calcium cyanimide in antibacterial in foot baths. Gross Lesions- multifocal alopecia, crusting, allergic dermatitic, contact dermatitis. Acanthosis, necrosis, eosinophils, neutrophils, vesicles. May cause granulomatous lymphadenitis similar to hairy vetch toxicosis.
Outbreak of Salmonella Thompson infection in a Swedish dairy herd During screening, S. Typhimurium was isolated in dairy cattle, and S. Thompson in heifers in pasture. Treatment cleared Typhimurium, and decreased Thompson until prevalence increased in cows released to pasture. First record of Thompson in dairy cattle. Herd slaughtered to eradicate infection. Origin unknown.

Isolation of Porphyromonas levii from vaginal samples from cows in herds negative for bovine necrotic vulvovaginitis (BNVV): This pigmented Gram negative bacterium is part of ruminal microflora and associated with BNVV. The disease is chr by deterioration of normal vaginal injuries caused by calving to necrotic lesions, primarily in dairy heifers during the first week after calving. According to this paper P levii was isolated in Heifers without BNVV. Encephalomyelitis of Cattle Caused by Akabane Virus in Southern Japan in 2006. J. Comp. Path. 2009, Vol. 140, 187e193. Limb weakness and circling. Microscopic Histologic lesions- Cerebrum non-suppurative encephalitis with perivascular cuffing of lymphocytes and macrophages and diffuse gliosis. Brainstem- Necrosis of neurons with vacuolation of the neuropil was present in the brainstem. Neuronal necrosis and neuronophagia in the ventral horn of the spinal cord. Infection was believed postpartum due to the lack of arthrogryposis and hydranencephaly. Expression of Class II Major Histocompatibility Complex Molecules in Chronic Pulmonary Mycoplasma bovis Infection in Cattle. J. Comp. Path. 2009, Vol. 140, 198e202. Pulmonary inflammation often results in expression of the class II major histocompatibility complex (MHCII) by both professional antigen-presenting cells (APCs; histiocytes and lymphocytes) and non-professional APCs (respiratory epithelium and endothelium). In M. bovis infections causing necrosuppurative lesions, there is little MHC II expression, but in cases of catarrhal bronchointerstitial pneumonia, the MHC II expression was significantly increased.
Pathological, Immunohistochemical and Bacteriological Study of Tissues and Milk of Cows and Fetuses Experimentally Infected with Brucella abortus J. Comp. Path. 2009, Vol. 140, 149e157

This report describes a pathological, immunohistochemical and bacteriological study of 42 cows and their progeny (aborted fetuses, weak premature calves, and healthy full-term calves) infected at 6-7 months of gestation by conjunctival inoculation with Brucella abortus. The most significant lesions were necrotizing and suppurative placentitis and lymphohistiocytic mastitis in cows, and fibrinous pleuritis, fibrinous pericarditis and bronchopneumonia in aborted fetuses. B. abortus was isolated more frequently from milk samples than from mammary tissues, and milk samples from cows with mastitis were often infected. Nephrotic syndrome due to glomerulopathy in an Irish dairy cow February 7, 2009 | the VETERINARY RECORD Nephrotic syndrome, a clinical entity characterised by proteinuria, hypoalbuminaemia, oedema and hypercholesterolaemia, results from increased glomerular permeability due to glomerular injury. In cattle, nephrotic syndrome is usually caused by renal amyloidosis and rarely by glomerulopathy. Unusual presentation of malignant catarrhal fever involving neurological disease in young calves the VETERINARY RECORD | February 21, 2009 The most common clinical manifestation of bovine MCF is the head and eye form, which is characterised by a persistent high fever, bilateral corneal opacity, ocular discharge, profuse mucopurulent nasal discharge, ulcerative stomatitis, enlargement of the lymph nodes and haematuria. TABLE 1: Histological findings in four calves with sheep-associated malignant catarrhal fever 2: Moderate angiocentric, non-suppurative meningoencephalitis 3: CNS histopathology as described in calf 2 Cerebellar fibrinous and non-suppurative meningitis Marked lymphoplasmacytic portal hepatitis 4: CNS histopathology as described in calf 2 Marked interstitial nephritis and lymphoplasmacytic cystitis Moderate portal hepatitis and mild myocarditis 5: Angiocentric lymphocytic meningitis and panencephalitis Subacute renal necrotising arteritis and marked lymphocytic perivascular interstitital nephritis Lymphoplasmacytic cystitis with intraepithelial lymphocytes Mild lymphocytic portal hepatitis

Molecular and antigenic characterization of a Mycoplasma bovis strain causing an outbreak of infectious keratoconjunctiv. J Vet Diagn Invest 18:41–51 (2006). An unusually high incidence of infectious keratoconjunctivitis followed by pneumonia and arthritis was observed in beef calves of a managed herd. No Moraxella spp. or bacteria other than Mycoplasma spp. were obtained from conjunctival and nasal swabs. Histochemical and immunohistochemical evidence of a bacterium associated with esions of epizootic bovine abortion. J Vet Diagn Invest 18:76–80 (2006) : Epizootic bovine abortion (EBA), a tick-transmitted disease resulting in late-term abortion or premature calving. The etiologic agent is susceptible to antibiotics and identification of a unique 16S deltaproteobacterial rDNA gene sequence in 90% of thymus tissues from aborted fetuses have supported the role of a bacterial infection as the cause of EBA. A modified Steiner silver stain revealed small numbers of intracytoplasmic bacterial rods. Immunohistochemical staining was positive for histiocytic cells in the thymus and in many organs with inflammatory lesions.

A devastating outbreak of malignant catarrhal fever in a bison feedlot. J Vet Diagn Invest 18:119–123 (2006). Diagnosis was made by detection of ovine herpesvirus 2 (sheep-associated MCF irus) DNA in tissues or peripheral blood by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and by histological examination of tissue lesions. Greater susceptibility of bison than beef cattle to MCF, and the lack of horizontal transmission from clinically affected bison to herdmates. Naturally occurring Mycoplasma bovis–associated pneumonia and polyarthritis in feedlot beef calves. J Vet Diagn Invest 18:29–40 (2006). Cranioventral bronchopneumonia with multiple foci of caseous necrosis. Mycoplasma bovis was consistently identified in these lesions, but also commonly in healthy lungs and those with pneumonia of other causes. Focal lesions of coagulation necrosis, typical of pneumonic pasteurellosis, were often infected with both Mannheimia haemolytica and M. bovis. Arthritis was present in 25 of 54 (46%) calves with M. bovis pneumonia, and all calves with arthritis had pneumonia. BVDV infection was more common in calves with lesions of bacterial. Diseases and pathogens associated with mortality in Ontario beef feedlots. J Vet Diagn Invest 18:18–28 (2006). IN order of prevalence-- Fibrinosuppurative bronchopneumonia (49%), caseonecrotic bronchopneumonia or arthritis (or both) caused by Mycoplasma bovis (36%), viral respiratory disease (19%), BVDV-related diseases (21%), Histophilus somni myocarditis (8%), ruminal bloat (2%), and miscellaneous diseases (8%). Viral infections identified were BVDV (35%), bovine respiratory syncytial virus (9%), bovine herpesvirus-1 (6%), parainfluenza-3 virus (3%), and bovine coronavirus (2%). Bacteria isolated from the lungs included M. bovis (82%), Mycoplasma arginini (72%), Ureaplasma diversum (25%), Mannheimia haemolytica (27%), Pasteurella multocida (19%), H. somni (14%), and Arcanobacterium pyogenes (19%). Accidental intra-auricular artery injection of ceftiofur in two beef steers. J Vet Diagn Invest 19:125–128 (2007). Oil-based formulation of ceftiofur died within 5 minutes of injection. Notable pathologic findings included distention and obstruction of cerebral and cerebellar arteries by a whitish tan material and hemorrhages within meningeal spaces, the choroid plexus, cerebrum, and cerebellum. Lipid material was identified within cerebral blood vessels in frozen sections stained with oil red O. This report describes an unusual case of brain ischemia in beef cattle. Muscular pseudohypertrophy (steatosis) in a bovine fetus. J Vet Diagn Invest 19:198–201 (2007). Muscular pseudohypertrophy was diagnosed in the cervical musculature of a full-term crossbred Simmental fetus delivered by fetotomy. The neck musculature of the fetus was markedly deformed by 23 cm and 18 cm in diameter, firm, spherical masses that consisted of enlarged and pale left splenius and right serratus ventralis cervicis muscle, respectively, covered by intact

skin. Additionally, lipomatous masses were present within the cervical vertebral canal, compressing the spinal cord. Microscopically, the prominent muscular enlargement was due to massive adipose and fibrous connective tissue replacement of atrophic muscle. Focal myelodysplasia and astrocytosis affecting the grey matter was detected in the mid-cervical region of the spinal cord, accompanied by degeneration in the ascending and descending tracts of the remaining cord segments. Abnormal spinal cord development as a result of severe spinal cord compression by the lipomatous masses within the spinal canal leading to replacement of muscle by fat and fibrous tissue was considered to be the cause of the muscular malformation in this fetus. Arsenic and metaldehyde toxicosis in a beef herd. J Vet Diagn Invest 19:212–215 (2007). Over a 12-day period, 13 animals in a herd of 110 beef cattle developed ataxia with profound muscle fasciculations progressing to recumbency. A toxic level of arsenic (6.18 ppm) was detected in the kidney, and metaldehyde was detected in the liver, consistent with a discontinued molluscicidal product. Characterization of rupture of abdominal artery aneurysm in dairy cattle. J Vet Diagn Invest 19:273–278 (2007). Marked hemoabdomen, marked dilation and rupture of the abdominal aorta or one of its branches, including the mesenteric, left gastric, celiac artery, right ruminal artery, or left ruminal artery. Histologically, the tunica media was thin and irregular in width with disrupted, fragmented, and coiled elastin. There was hyperplasia of the tunica intima with adjacent smooth-muscle hyperplasia. Sodium fluoride/copper naphthenate toxicosis in cattle. J Vet Diagn Invest 19:305–308 (2007). ingestion of a wood preservative compound containing sodium fluoride and copper naphthenate. perirenal edema, pale kidneys, and forestomach ulceration. renal cortical tubular necrosis. Tympany, acidosis, and mural emphysema of the stomach in calves: report of cases and experimental induction. J Vet Diagn Invest 19:392–395 (2007). neonatal calves with a peracute syndrome of abdominal distention, diarrhea, dehydration, shock, and death revealed abomasal tympany, marked edema, hemorrhage, and emphysema of ruminal and abomasal walls and histopathologic lesions characteristic of forestomach acidosis. Rather, it is proposed that the natural occurrence of disease requires a quantity of highly fermentable substrate (starch, glucose, lactose, etc.) and a bacterial flora that is capable of rapidly fermenting that particular substrate with a resultant production of gas and acid.

Precursor B-1 B cell lymphoma in a newborn calf. J Vet Diagn Invest 19:447–450 (2007). A newborn Holstein female calf had neoplastic lesions in the skin and within the thoracic and abdominal cavities but not in the bone marrow, spleen, thymus, or most lymph nodes. Because the tumor cells were positive for CD79a (B cell marker), CD5 (B-1 cell marker) and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (marker for immature lymphoid precursors), a diagnosis of precursor B-1 B cell lymphoma was made. The diagnosis was strongly supported by the fact that B-1 cells can develop in the fetus, unlike B-2 cells, which are produced after birth. The lymphoma was distinct from the typical calf form of lymphoma of B-2 cell origin, which does not express CD5 and is characterized by generalized lymphadenopathy and involvement of the bone marrow, blood and spleen. Differentiation of Moraxella bovoculi sp. nov. from other coccoid moraxellae by the use of polymerase chain reaction and restriction endonuclease analysis of amplified DNA. J Vet Diagn Invest 19:532–534 (2007). Moraxella ovis was historically the only coccoid Moraxella identified in cultures of ocular fluid from cattle with infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis (IBK) and could be morphologically and biochemically differentiated from Moraxella bovis. Moraxella bovoculi sp. nov. is a recently characterized Moraxella isolated from ulcerated eyes of calves with IBK in northern California in 2002. affected animals exhibit corneal ulceration leading to corneal scarring. Pathogenic proteins of M. bovis include pilin that enable the organism to attach to corneal epithelial cells4,16,18 and a poreforming cytotoxin9 (cytolysin; hemolysin) that lyses corneal epithelial cells7 and host neutrophils resulting in a release of neutrophil-derived degradative enzymes into corneal stroma. Evaluation of the toxicity of Adonis aestivalis (Summer Pheasants Eye) in calves. The Holstein calves had transient, mild cardiac abnormalities during the feeding trial. Mild, transient gastrointestinal and cardiac signs were noted in the preruminating calves. No gross or microscopic lesions were seen on necropsies performed at the end of the study. Based on the results of this study, cattle do not appear to be as susceptible to toxicosis from A. aestivalis as other species, such as horses and pigs. Diagnostic evidence of Staphylococcus warneri as a possible cause of bovine abortion. J Vet Diagn Invest 19:694–696 (2007). Microscopic evaluation of fetal tissue sections showed extensive necrotizing lesions of the tongue, lung, and placenta in which there were numerous coccoid shaped gram-positive bacteria with morphology consistent with Staphylococcus spp. Staphylococcus

warneri was isolated in pure culture from the lung, liver, and stomach contents, whereas the placenta yielded S. warneri and a number of contaminants. Bovine spongiform encephalopathy in Sweden: an H-type variant. J Vet Diagn Invest 20:2–10 (2008). The differences included higher susceptibility for proteinase K, higher molecular weight of the PrPres bands, affinity to the N-terminus–specific antibodies 12B2 and P4, and peculiar banding pattern with antibody SAF84 showing an additional band at the 14 kDa position. The molecular characteristics were in accordance to previous descriptions of H-type BSE. Investigation into the effectiveness of pooled fecal samples for detectionof verocytotoxin-producing Escherichia coli O157 in cattle. J Vet Diagn Invest 20:21– 27 (2008). Verocytotoxin-producing Escherichia coli O157 (VTEC O157) cause human disease outbreaks in the United Kingdom every year . Symptoms range from mild diarrhea to hemolytic uremic syndrome, which can be fatal especially for very young children. Respiratory disease associated with bovine coronavirus infection in cattle herds in Southern Italy. J Vet Diagn Invest 20:28–32 (2008). Bovine coronavirus (BCoV) is included in group 2a together with mouse hepatitis virus, sialodacryoadenitis virus, porcine hemagglutinating encephalomyelitis virus, human coronavirus (HCoV) OC43, human enteric coronavirus 4408,6 the newly recognized HCoV-HKU1,28 canine respiratory coronavirus (CRCoV),5,7 giraffe coronavirus,12 and alpaca coronavirus.16 Bovine coronavirus was first identified as the agent of severe diarrhea in neonatal calves (neonatal calf diarrhea),21 as well as in adult cattle (winter dysentery).4,20. At postmortem examination, severe signs of acute rhinotracheitis were observed, whereas lungs did notshow remarkable lesions. Comparison of bacterial culture, histopathology, and immunohistochemistry for the diagnosis of Johne’s disease in culled dairy cows . J Vet Diagn Invest 20:51–57 (2008). IHC and acid fast is better than culture. Vitamin E and selenium concentrations in month-old beef calves. J Vet Diagn Invest 20:86–89 (2008). Calf vitamin E concentrations were consistently lower than cow vitamin E concentrations, and many values would be considered deficient. Streptococcus dysgalactiae cellulitis and toxic shock–like syndrome in a Brown Swiss cow. J Vet Diagn Invest 20:99–103 (2008). severe cellulitis caused by Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. dysgalactiae, bronchopneumonia, and lesions of disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) in the kidneys. Toxic shock syndrome (TSS) is a multisystemic disease characterized by rapid onset of fever, hypotension, and multi-organ failure, which often leads to death.6 Severe streptococcal cellulitis associated with septicemia or toxic shock syndrome is rare, especially in veterinary medicine, but outbreaks due to Streptococcus canis have been described in dogs and cats, and

Streptococcus agalactiae and Streptococcus pneumoniae were respectively cultured from a bottlenose dolphin and a kitten with cellulitis and septicemia.9,11,20,21 Cellulitis has rarely been described in the bovine species.1,12,13 In this species, it is often associated with Clostridium spp. (malignant edema, blackleg) and Arcanobacterium pyogenes. Encephalitis in aborted bovine fetuses associated with Bovine herpesvirus 1 infection. J Vet Diagn Invest 20:297–303 (2008). histologic lesions that consisted of glial nodules and variable degrees of mononuclear inflammation, microhemorrhage, neuronal necrosis, and cerebral cortical cavitation. There was positive staining of neurons, glial cells, and endothelial cells for BHV-1. BHV-1 was found by PCR. The neurologic histopathology attributed to BHV-1 infection in these cases overlaps with the neurologic lesions produced by Neospora caninum, a common etiologic agent of bovine abortion. Neurological disease in cattle in southern Brazil associated with Bovine herpesvirus infection (BHV-1 and BHV-5). J Vet Diagn Invest 20:346–349 (2008). Major clinical signs included excessive salivation, nasal and ocular discharge, circling, recumbency, depression, incoordination, grinding of teeth, and paddling movements. Necropsy findings in 10 of 22 cattle included hyperemia and softening of the rostral portions of the telencephalic cortex, with flattening of gyri, and malacia. Cattle in 10 cases did not show any gross lesions. Histological examination in most cases revealed nonsuppurative and necrotizing meningoencephalitis with acute neuronal necrosis, edema, eosinophilic intranuclear inclusion bodies in astrocytes and neurons, and infiltration of gitter cells. Seven isolates were identified as Bovine herpesvirus 5, and 4 were identified as Bovine herpesvirus 1. An outbreak of chronic pneumonia and polyarthritis syndrome caused by Mycoplasma bovis in feedlot bison (Bison bison). J Vet Diagn Invest 20:369–371 (2008). caseonecrotic pneumonia; polyarthritis; and laryngitis. Same as in Cattle. Evaluation of the pathogenic potential of cervid adenovirus in calves. J Vet Diagn Invest 20:33–37 (2008). A novel adenovirus was the cause of an epizootic of hemorrhagic disease that caused high mortality in mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) in 17 counties of central and northern California in 1993 and 1994.14 Since first identified in 1993, the deer adenovirus (Odocoileus adenovirus; OdAdV) has been diagnosed as the cause of death in moose (Alces alces) in Canada,8 white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in Iowa,9 and deer and/or moose in Wyoming, Washington, Oregon, and Idaho (Williams, Bildfell, Cornish, Drew; personal communication) and has been diagnosed yearly in black-tailed deer (Odocoileus hemionus columbianus) in California (Woods, personal observation). Infected animals develop systemic vasculitis resulting in pulmonary edema and/or hemorrhagic enteropathy (systemic infection), necrotizing lesions confined to the upper alimentary tract (localized infection), or both. Lesions of the localized infection in deer (stomatitis) can be strikingly similar to lesions caused by the foot-and-mouth disease virus.

Fatal Ulcerative and Hemorrhagic Typhlocolitis in a Pregnant Heifer Associated with Natural Bovine Enterovirus Type-1 Infection. Vet Pathol 44:110–115 (2007). mucosal hemorrhage and ulceration were observed in the spiral colon and cecum. nonenveloped virus. In vivo Endothelial Cell Infection by Anaplasma marginale. Vet Pathol 44:116–118 (2007). co-localizes with the endothelial cell marker, von Willebrand factor, in tissue sections from an experimentally inoculated calf. The results indicate that A marginale infection includes endothelial cells Chondrodysplastic Calves in Northeast Victoria. Vet Pathol 44:342–354 (2007). Calves showed variable disproportionate dwarfism without arthrogryposis. Long bones were shortened and showed axial rotation. Articular surfaces were distorted with misshapen weight-bearing surfaces associated with variable thickness of articular cartilage. Physes were distorted and variable in thickness with occasional foci of complete closure. The major histologic abnormality in the physes was disorderly development of the zones of cartilage hypertrophy, with reduced number and irregular arrangement of hypertrophic chondrocytes; similar less severe changes were present in the zones of cartilage proliferation. Histochemical staining of the cartilage matrix was variable in intensity, and there was evidence of abnormal resorption of cartilage matrix at the level of the primary spongiosa. Osteoid formation and subsequent bone remodeling seemed unaffected, and diaphyseal cortical bone appeared normal at the gross and light microscopic level. No infectious agents were identified, and other known causes for chondrodysplasia in calves were excluded. The most likely cause for the syndrome was considered to be congenital manganese deficiency. Distribution and Activation of T-lymphocyte Subsets in Tuberculous Bovine Lymph-node Granulomas*. Vet Pathol 44:366–372 (2007). In the majority of stage I/II lesions, CD8+ and CD25+ cells were predominantly found in the lymphocytic outer region of the granuloma, suggesting a possible role for activated CD8+ cells in the initial attempt to restrain the granuloma growth. CD4+ T cells appeared equally distributed in the lymphocytic mantle and in the internal areas of the granulomas. WC1+ cells appeared interspersed among the macrophages. We speculated that this could indicate a role for these 2 subsets in the maintenance and the maturation of the granuloma. In stage III/IV lesions, all of the T-cell subsets investigated appeared interspersed among the mononuclear component of the granulomas. In general terms, there was a higher density of CD8+ cells compared with CD4+ cells. Estrogen Receptors a and b and Progesterone Receptors in Normal Bovine Ovarian Follicles and Cystic Ovarian Disease. Vet Pathol 44:373–378 (2007). The follicular cysts of animals with COD presented a significantly higher expression of estrogen receptor a in all follicular layers than secondary, tertiary, and atretic follicles in both groups (P , .05). Differences did not exist between the 2 groups with regard to the progesterone receptor. Ovaries of animals with COD exhibited altered estrogen receptors expression compared with that in normal animals.

Poorly Differentiated Rectal Carcinoid in a Cow. Vet Pathol 44:414–417 (2007). A carcinoid tumor was found as a solitary soft mass in the wall of the rectum adjacent to the anorectal junction in an adult Holstein cow. It consisted of a compact arrangement of a great number of large polygonal cells and a small number of small dark cells, some of which showed argyrophilia (Grimelius positive). Immunohistochemically, both types of tumor cells were positive for vimentin, keratin, and S- 100 protein and weakly positive for neuron-specific enolase (NSE), whereas they were negative for some endocrine markers such as chromogranin A, insulin, glucagon, somatostatin, serotonin, adrenocorticotropic hormone, and calcitonin. Electron microscopy revealed membranebound secretory granules in the cytoplasm of some small dark cells. In such a poorly differentiated carcinoid, the morphologic characteristics of the small dark cells were strong evidence for the diagnosis. Susceptibility of Cattle to First-passage Intracerebral Inoculation with Chronic Wasting Disease Agent from White-tailed Deer. Vet Pathol 44:487–493 (2007). Although spongiform encephalopathy (SE) was not observed, abnormal prion protein (PrPd) was detected by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and Western blot (WB) in central nervous system tissues. The absence of SE with presence of PrPd has also been observed when other TSE agents (scrapie and CWDmd) were similarly inoculated into cattle. Orbital (Retrobulbar) Meningioma in a Simmental Cow. Vet Pathol 44:504–507 (2007). Microscopically, a poorly differentiated neoplasm was observed. The immunohistochemical panel included cytokeratins, vimentin, epithelial membrane antigen, Factor VIII, CD34, Mart-1, Melan A, smooth muscle actin, desmin, chromogranin, neuron-specific enolase, S-100 protein, and MIB-1. The neoplasm was negative for all of them, with the exception of vimentin and S-100 protein. Distribution and Cellular Heterogeneity of Bovine Viral Diarrhea Viral Antigen Expression in the Brain of Persistently Infected Calves: A New Perspective. Vet Pathol 44:643–654 (2007). BVDV antigen was detected in the brains of all persistently infected calves. A variety of cell types was infected, including neurons, astrocytes, oligodendroglia, blood vessel-associated cells (pericytes, perivascular macrophages, smooth muscle cells), and cells in the leptomeninges (blood vessel–associated cells). Conclusive demonstration of viral antigen in vascular endothelial cells was elusive. Viral antigen staining was most consistent and intense in thalamic nuclei, most notably in dorsal and medial nuclear groups, followed by the hippocampus, entorhinal cortex, basal nuclei, and piriform cortex. Intra-nasal Inoculation of American Bison (Bison bison) with Ovine Herpesvirus-2 (OvHV-2) Reliably Reproduces Malignant Catarrhal Fever. Vet Pathol 44:655–662 (2007). This is the first successful reproduction of MCF in bison using a nasal route of exposure. Experimentally challenged bison are more susceptible to MCF, compared with experimentally challenged domestic cattle in a previous experiment. Lesion Development and Immunohistochemical Changes in Granulomas from Cattle Experimentally Infected with Mycobacterium bovis. Vet Pathol 44:863–874 (2007). Early granulomas- moderate Acid-fast bacilli, Abundant iNOS. Late granulomas-

large numbers of acid-fast bacteria, less iNOS and CD8+ cells. The relative number of CD4+ and CD68+ cells remained constant throughout the study. Diminished expression of iNOS and reduced numbers of CD8+ and γ/d T cells late in the progression of tuberculous granulomas may represent a failure of the host response to control infection. Granulomatous and Eosinophilic Rhinitis in a Cow Caused by Pseudallescheria boydii Species Complex (Anamorph Scedosporium apiospermum). Vet Pathol 44:917–920 (2007). Grossly multifocal-to-coalescing, raised, ulcerated firm nodules were present in both nares. Histologically, the lamina propria was expanded by intense infiltrates of eosinophils, epithelioid macrophages, multinucleate giant cells, lymphocytes, and plasma cells. Associated with the inflammatory cells were variably sized, septate hyphae, 5–8 mm in diameter, admixed with numerous, terminal conidia, 6–30 mm in diameter, with a discrete outer wall identified by culture as Pseudallescheria boydii species complex (anamorph Scedosporium apiospermum). The asexual form or anamorph is S. apiospermum. Both forms produce conidia in culture, but only P. boydii forms fertile fruiting bodies for sexual reproduction (teleomorph). The 2 forms represent a single species belonging to order Microascales, phylum Ascomycota. Mimosa tenuiflora as a Cause of Malformations in Ruminants in the Northeastern Brazilian Semiarid Rangelands. Vet Pathol 44:928–931 (2007). Craniofacial anomalies, eye malformations, and permanent flexures of the forelimbs. abnormalities similar to those observed in field cases, including cleft lip, unilateral corneal opacity, ocular bilateral dermoids, buphthalmos with a cloudy brownish appearance of the anterior chamber due to an iridal cyst, and segmental stenosis of the colon. Malformations induced experimentally by M. tenuiflora were similar to those observed in field cases. Calcium Diacylglycerol Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factor I (CalDAG-GEFI) Gene Mutations in a Thrombopathic Simmental Calf. Vet Pathol 44:932–935 (2007). Simmental thrombopathia is an inherited platelet disorder that closely resembles the platelet disorders described in Basset Hounds and Eskimo Spitz dogs. Recently, two different mutations in the gene encoding calcium diacylglycerol guanine nucleotide exchange factor I (CalDAG-GEFI) were described to be associated with the Basset Hound and Spitz thrombopathia disorders, and a third distinct mutation was identified in CalDAG-GEFI in thrombopathic Landseers of European Continental Type. This change is likely responsible for the thrombopathic phenotype observed in Simmental cattle and underscores the critical nature of this signal transduction protein in platelets. Encephalomyelitis of Cattle Caused by Akabane Virus in Southern Japan in 2006, Kamata H et al. 2009, J. Comp. Path. 2009, Vol. 140, 187e193. Naturally infected calves with Akabane virus at neonatal age in calves were presented with nervous signs (55 day to 15 month old). Microscopic lesions include: Cerebrum: Perivascular cuffing of lymphocytes and macrophages and diffuse gliosis. Brain stem: Degeneration and necrosis of neurons with vacuolation of the neuropil. Spinal cord: Neuronal necrosis and neuronophagia in the ventral horn. (Jubb and kennedy: mineralization in the
meninges, atrophy of the cord and hydromyeleia )

Diagnosis: IHC for viral antigens and RT-PCR for viral s-gene products. Pathological, Immunohistochemical and Bacteriological Study of Tissues and Milk of Cows and Fetuses Experimentally Infected with Brucella abortus. J. Comp. Path. 2009,
Vol. 140, 149e157

Infected at 6-7 months of gestation via conjunctiva in 44 cows
Uterus containing brownish fluid, with fibrinous exudate on the caruncular surface, Endometritis. B. Necrotizing placentitis C. Fibrinous pleuritis. D. Fibrinous pericarditis.

Microscopic lesions: The most significant lesions were necrotizing and suppurative placentitis and lymphohistiocytic mastitis in cows, and fibrinous pleuritis, fibrinous pericarditis and bronchopneumonia in aborted fetuses. Milk is the ideal sample for bacterial culture besides mammary glands
Multiple Glomus Tumors of the Urinary Bladder in a Cow Associated with Bovine Papillomavirus Type 2 (BPV-2) Infection Vet Path 2008 Jan: glomus tumor are mesenchymal tumors originate in the glomus body (neuromyoarterial body composed of afferent arteriole and efferent venule. It has properties of smooth muscle cells). Digit is the preferential anatomic site for this tumor in dogs and cats. Cells +ve for actin and vimentin. Tumor chr by numerous blood vessels lined by endothelial cells and surrounded by round epitheloid cells.

Melanosis of the Urinary Bladder in a Cow Vet Path 2008 Jan: The pigment was present in lamina propria and the submucosa without any involvement of urothelial mucosa. BPV-2 was isolated but its association with melanosis is not known. Sphingomyelinase Deficiency (Niemann-Pick disease) in a Hereford Calf Vet Path 2008 Mar: brain and spinal cord revealed swollen neurons with distended, foamy, vacuolated cytoplasm; hepatocytes throughout the liver were swollen and had foamy, vacuolated cytoplasm; Niemann-Pick types A and B are caused by a deficiency of acid sphingomyelinase, an enzyme catalyzing the conversion of sphingomyelin to ceramide and phosphorylcholin; Type B disease has little effect on the nervous system; Type C disease is not a deficiency of sphingomyelinase, but a defect in 1 of 2 proteins involved in the intracellular transport of cholesterol and other lipids from lysosomes. Herpetiform Genital Lesions in a Heifer with Mucosal Disease Vet Path 2008 Mar: Gross: pink–red erosions of the nares and hard palate; ulcers on the tongue and GI tract. Interdigital skin of both rear limbs was ulcerated and bleeding; and the margins of the vulva contained punctiform red ulcers. A non cytopathic and a CP BVDV pair may be isolated from MD cases, and these can be distinguished by the appearance of nonstructural protein 3 (NS3) in the CP virus.

The Fetal Brain in Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus-infected Calves: Lesions, Distribution, and Cellular Heterogeneity of Viral Antigen at 190 Days Gestation Vet Path 2008 May: Brain is the primary target of persistent infection (PI) with BVDV. Noncytopathic type 2 BVDV was inoculated intranasally in heifers at 75 and 175 days of gestation to create persistently and transiently infected fetuses. In only PI fetuses, encephaloclastic lesions resulting in pseudocysts present in the subependymal zone, areas of rarefaction in

white matter at the tips of cerebrocortical gyri and in the external capsule. Viral labeling was most uniform in thalamus. Septum pellucidum cavum closure was delayed in PI brain. Expression of Brain-derived Neurotrophic Factor and Tropomyosin-related Kinase-B in a Bovine Jejunal Nodular Ganglioneuroblastoma Vet Path 2008 May: histologic examination: the mass was composed of clusters of neuroblasts and isolated ganglionic neurons in abundant neurophilic matrix that was surrounded by scanty Schwannian stroma. On ultrastructure examination, the large ganglionic neuron-like cells had unmyelinated neurites. Most ganglionic neuron-like tumor cells expressed neurofilament, neuron-specific enolase, chromogranin A, and S-100, whereas the Schwanncell–like stromal cells expressed S-100 and vimentin. Both brain- derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and tropomyosin-related kinase-B (Trk-B) were expressed in ganglionic neuron-like tumor cells, which suggested the activation or reactivation of an embryonic autocrine BDNF/Trk-B pathway that could have prolonged cell survival and promoted differentiation with neurite formation. Anomalous Origin of the Left Coronary Artery from the Pulmonary Artery (ALCAPA) in Four Calves. Vet Pathol 45:634–639 (2008). Myocardial hypoxic-ischemic injury results in cardiac dysfunction, failure, and eventually in patient death. Gross necropsy lesions suggestive of heart failure included cardiomegaly with atrial and ventricular dilation and/or ventricular hypertrophy, and hepatomegaly. Histopathologic changes in the heart included cardiomyocyte degeneration; mineralization; and fiber loss, with replacement by fibrous connective tissue, predominantly in the left ventricular papillary muscle and the interventricular septum. Changes observed in the liver and lungs, including hepatomegaly, sinusoidal congestion, centrilobular fibrosis, and pulmonary congestion, edema, and intra-alveolar pigmentladen macrophages were consistent with heart failure. Systemic Reactive Angioendotheliomatosis-like Syndrome in a Steer Presumed to be Persistently Infected with Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus. Vet Pathol 45:645–649 (2008). Proliferations of spindle cells partially-to-completely occluded vessel lumens and were supported by cells that were immunohistochemically positive for smooth muscle actin. Similar to those described in feline systemic reactive angioendotheliomatosis. The presence of occasional intravascular thrombi immunohistochemical similarities to thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura of humans. Death of the steer was due to hemorrhage from a castration wound, which may indicate thrombocytopenia or platelet dysfunction. REVIEW PAPER: Modulation of Mononuclear Phagocyte Function by Mycobacterium avium subsp. Paratuberculosis. Vet Pathol 45:829–841 (2008). Organism’s capacity to prevent macrophage activation, block phagosome acidification and maturation, and attenuate presentation of antigens to the immune system. MAP initially interacts with cell membrane receptors on bovine mononuclear phagocytes and initiates cell signaling responses and phagocytosis. Mannosylated liparabinomannan (Man-LAM) is a major component of the MAP cell wall that interacts with the cell membrane of mononuclear phagocytes and may be a major virulence factor. Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) has been incriminated as major signaling receptor that binds to MAP and initiates signaling though the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)– p38 pathway. This pathway induces transcription of interleukin (IL)-10. Early production of IL-10 suppresses proinflammatory cytokines, chemokines, IL-12, and major histocompatability factor class-II expression. Both IL-10 dependent and IL-10 independent mechanisms appear to be involved in attenuation of phagosome acidification and phagolysosome fusion. Therefore, MAP Man-LAM-induced TLR2MAPK-p38 signaling with resultant excessive IL-10 expression has emerged as one of the mechanisms by which MAP organisms suppress inflammatory, immune, and antimicrobial responses and promote their survival within host mononuclear phagocytes. REVIEW PAPER: A Review of the Pathology of Abnormal Placentae of Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer Clone Pregnancies in Cattle, Sheep, and Mice. Vet Pathol 45:865–880 (2008). the probability of a successful and complete pregnancy is less than 5%. Failures of SCNT pregnancy are associated with placental abnormalities, such as placentomegaly, reduced vascularisation, hypoplasia of trophoblastic epithelium, and altered basement membrane. evidence implicates aberrant reprogramming of donor nuclei by the recipient oocyte cytoplast, resulting in epigenetic modifications of key regulatory genes essential for normal placental development

Detection of Bovine viral diarrhea virus from three water buffalo fetuses (Bubalus bubalis) in southern Italy. J Vet Diagn Invest 21:137–140 (2009). The sequence analysis based on the 59 UTR and Npro coding regions of the Pestivirus genome revealed that the isolates belong to subgenotype 1b of BVDV. The findings of this study also suggest a possible role of BVDV in causing congenital infection in water buffalo. Its presence in fetal tissues as well as in maternal blood raises questions about the possible development of clinical disease or its influence in abortions in water buffalo. Infection with Ovine herpesvirus 2 in Norwegian herds with a history of previous outbreaks of malignant catarrhal fever. J Vet Diagn Invest 21:257–261 (2009). The prevalence of infection in cattle and swine seemed not to be influenced either by their age or the degree of contact with the sheep and goats. Isolation of Propionibacterium acnes from a case of placentitis and abortion in a cow. J Vet Diagn Invest 21:274–277 (2009). pleomorphic, Gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria were observed within the fibrin lattice associated with placental lesions and within the fetal atelectatic lung. Propionibacterium acnes was isolated. Fatal onion (Allium cepa) toxicosis in water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis). J Vet Diagn Invest 21:402–405 (2009). Microscopic renal lesions included tubular degeneration and necrosis with deposits of eosinophilic material in the cytoplasm of renal tubular epithelial cells and tubular lumina. These changes were consistent with hemoglobinuric nephrosis. Centrilobular coagulation necrosis was observed in the liver accompanied by hemorrhage and macrophages containing brown cytoplasmic pigment. A diagnosis of hemolytic anemia caused by onion toxicosis. Onion toxicosis can be associated with severe methemoglobinemia, leading to cyanosis hemolytic anemia with the formation of Heinz bodies, and death. Onions, garlic, and other plants of the Allium genus contain disulfides, n- propyl disulfate, and S-methyl and S-prop(en)yl cysteine sulphoxides (SMCO) derived from amino acids. The SMCO are hydrolyzed in the rumen by anaerobic bacteria to thiosulfonate, which is then further metabolized to dipropyl disulfides and dipropenyl disulfides. These disulfides are responsible for oxidative damage in erythrocytes. In affected animals, heme iron is oxidized to the ferric state, producing methemoglobin. Methemoglobin is unable to transport oxygen and, when produced in high concentration, can rapidly lead to death. Moreover, oxidative damage results in precipitation and aggregation of hemoglobin and its binding to the cytoplasmatic membrane, forming Heinz bodies leading to intravascular or extravascular hemolysis. Another mechanism of intravascular hemolysis following ingestion of high doses of oxidative agents is direct damage to the erythrocytic plasma membrane, causing cellular lysis.
Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus Abortion in Goats Housed with Persistently Infected Cattle: goats experimentally comingled with heifers persistently infected with BVD type 2a. 12 out of 24 aborted. Grossly: placentitis, mummification, facial deformities; Histo: placentitis, myocarditis, thymic depletion, choroid plexitis, encephalitis. Development of PI kid is less likely.

Distribution of Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus Antigen in Aborted Fetal and Neonatal Goats by IHC: placenta, heart, brain, thymus are most reliable for BVDV antigen detection

Detection of Pathologic Prion Protein in the Olfactory Bulb of Natural and Experimental Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy Affected Cattle in Great Britain: involvement of the olfactory bulb in BSE raises speculation as to an olfactory portal of infection or a route of excretion of the prion agent.

Septicemia in a Neonatal Calf Associated with Chromobacterium violaceum: The calf had necrosuppurative omphalophlebitis, hepatitis, splenitis, and encephalitis, necrotizing interstitial pneumonia, anterior uveitis with hypopyon, polyarthritis. Lesions documented with C. violaceum includes, visceral abscesses, necrosis, pleuropnuemonia, pericarditis.

Immunohistochemical Evaluation of Vascular Urinary Bladder Tumors from Cows with Enzootic Hematuria: CD31 (PECAM) is a better marker than FVIIIra in the characterization of bovine endothelial tumors. The cell cycle regulatory pathways involving cyclin D1 and p53 seem to be impaired in endothelial urinary bladder tumors, p53 immunoreactivity positively correlating with enhanced invasion. The only proven carcinogen in Bracken fern is Ptaquiloside.

Destructive Polyarthropathy in Aborted Bovine Fetuses: A Possible Association with Ureaplasma diversum Infection: Severe destructive polyarthropathy with fibrillation and erosion of articular cartilage, deformation of articular surfaces, and proliferation of periarticular soft tissue was diagnosed in 5 bovine fetuses aborted in the last trimester. Articular cartilage was irregularly reduced in thickness and contained fibrovascular tissue. Ureaplasma spp. was identified in 4 cases by PCR or culture. U. diversum has been associated with granular vulvovaginitis and balanoposthitis,4 abortion, and the birth of dead or weak calves

Spontaneous Lysosomal Storage Disease Caused by Sida carpinifolia (Malvaceae) Poisoning in Cattle: Main clinical signs= marching gait, alert gaze, head tremors, and poor growth. Histologically vacuolization in neurons, thyroid follicular and pancreatic acinar cells was seen. Other plants causing head and neck tremors (tremorgenic) are Ipomea, Phalaris, Solanum, Claviceps and Asperigillus

Epithelioid Cells in Mediastinal Lymph Nodes of Cattle without Cancer: Out of 110 cattle, 66 had epitheloid cells in lymph nodes. Most of the epithelioid cells were individual or aggregated in nodal sinuses; some epithelioid cells formed tubular structures. Epithelioid cells were mostly considered to be mesothelial in origin by immunohistochemical and ultrastructural examination.

The Pathology and Pathogenesis of Bluetongue. J. Comp. Path. 2009, Vol. 141, 1e16. Virus-genus Orbivirus, family Reoviridae. Transmission- Arthropod vectors (Culicoides), transplacental transmission is dependent on strain. Susceptible- Sheep mostly, but serotype 8 can cause disease in Cattle, goats, and camelids. Replicationmacrophage/monocyte, endothelial cells, lymphocytes. Pathogenesis- Injury to small blood vessels in target tissues (lung, skin) leading to thrombosis and infarction. Direct viral induced cytolysis is also a factor. GROSS lesions- SHEEP- coronitis; subintimal hemorrhage in the pulmonary artery; edema of the lungs, subcutis, muscles of the neck and abdominal wall; and pericardial, pleural and abdominal effusions; haemorrhage and ulcers in the oral cavity and upper gastrointestinal tract; necrosis of skeletal and cardiac muscle, Fetal lesions- cavitation in the CNS, hydranencephaly, if they survive early infection. Immunocompetence occurs in mid-gestation: CATTLE: Ulceration of muzzle, oral mucosa, teats, interdigital necrosis, rhinitis, conjunctivitis, hydranencephaly: WTDDIC and hemorrhage: CAMELIDS- pulmonary edema, hydrothorax and pericardial effusion. Carnoivores- Pulmonary edema, abortion. Comparative- Orbiviruses: HorseAfrican Horse Sickness; WTD- Epizootic Hemorrhagic Disease virus 1 ans 2 (very similar to BTV). DDX: Hemorrhagic dz in WTD – EHDV, BTV, Ibaraki virus, and Adenovirus Hemorrhagic Disease. Co-expression of Bovine Papillomavirus E5 and E7 Oncoproteins in Naturally Occurring Carcinomas of the Urinary Bladder in Cattle. J. Comp. Path. 2009, Vol. 141, 84e88. Oncoproteins: BPV-1/2 : E5 binds to the platelet-derived growth factor- b receptor (PDGF-b R) induces transformation in spontaneously arising urothelial carcinoma. Cytoplasmic BPV E7 expression has only been reported in bovine fibropapillomas and equine sarcoids. In benign bovine alimentary fibropapillomas, BPV4 E7 oncoprotein is expressed in all epithelial cells, whereas in BPV-1-associated cutaneous papillomas, E7 is found in the basal and lower spinous layers. In the present study, E7 expression involved all cell layers of the carcinoma. The results of our study indicate that E7 expression increases with increasing severity of carcinoma. Congenital facial deformities, ascites and hepatic fibrosis in Romagnola calves. Veterinary Record (2009) 164, 693-694. All animals- Shortened and flattened face , Ascites, and hepatic fibrosis. Other lesions not present in all animals: cleft palate, lack of the medial dewclaws, hepatic cysts with, atrial and inter-ventricular septal defects, polycystic kidney and dilation of the urinary ducts. Genealogical evaluation of the affected animals revealed common ancestors and inbreeding loops, which strongly suggested a genetic aeti ology (Autosomal recessive inheritance). Congenital tremor and hypomyelination associated with bovine viral diarrhoea virus in 23 British cattle herds. Veterinary Record (2009) 164, 771-778. Histopathsevere diffuse deficiency of stainable myelin, abnormalities of white matter macroglial nuclei, consisting of large, often indented nuclear outlines, and closely arranged disorderly lines or clusters, parse mononuclear perivascular infiltrates in the white matter. Small numbers of necrotic Purkinje cells with axonal swellings (torpedoes). BVDV Immunostaining: neuronal cell bodies, particularly frequently in the granule

cells and pyramidal cell layers of the hippocampus. Extensive diffuse cytoplasmic labelling of pericytes, and sparse to extensive punctate labelling of white matter glia were also present. Meningothelial cells, vascular smooth muscle, ependymal cells and neurites were variably labeled. Hypomyelination is found frequently in sheep infected with Border disease, but not in cattle with BVD infection. Possible reasons for these unusual manifestations include the calves’ gestational age when infected, differences in the strain of virus or the infective dose, and factors such as the breed, age and immune status of the dams. Early Phase Morphological Lesions and Transcriptional Responses of Bovine Ileum Infected with Mycobacterium avium subsp. Paratuberculosis. Vet Pathol 46:717– 728 (2009). MAP invades the intestinal mucosa as early as 0.5 hour postinoculation. Along with cytokines, intestinal-trefoil factor, profilin, lactoferrin, and enteric ß-defensin, were elaborated. Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and -2 (MCP-1 and MCP-2) are C-C chemokines that are chemotactic for monocytes but not PMNs. CCR2, the ligand for MCP-1, has been shown to be up-regulated in T lymphocytes isolated from the intestine of Crohn’s patients. Chemoattractants for PMNs include the C-X-C chemokines GRO-a, GRO-c, and IL-8. A synchronized up-regulation of IL-8 and GRO-a has been proposed to be involved in the PMN- mediated tissue injury in patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Lung pathology and infectious agents in fatal feedlot pneumonias and relationship with mortality, disease onset, and treatments. J Vet Diagn Invest 21:464–477 (2009). Bacteria found- Mycoplasma spp. (71.4%), Arcanobacterium pyogenes (35.0%), Mannheimia haemolytica (25.0%), Pasteurella multocida (24.5%), Histophilus somni (10.0%), Salmonella spp. (0.5. %). Viruses - Bovine respiratory syncytial virus and 10.8% (Gel-based polymerase chain reaction (PCR), Bovine Coronavirus 4.6%, BVDV2a NCP (3.2%), BVDV-1a noncytopathic (NCP; 2.7%), BVDV-1b NCP (2.7%), Bovine herpesvirus 1 (2.3%), BVDV-1a cytopathic (CP) vaccine strain (1.8%), BVDV2b CP (0.5%). Bovine viral diarrhea virus IHC testing was positive in 5.3% of the animals. Large Animal/Bovine 1st & 2nd cattle passage of transmissible mink encephalopathy by intracerebral inoculation pp118-26. March 2006 NW - Intracerebrally inoculated cattle amplify transmissible mink encephalopathy (TME) PrPres and develop clinical CNS signs and extensive lesions of spongiform encephalopathy. - Cattle inoculated with other TSE agents (scrapie and CWD) do NOT develop clinical CNS signs or SE lesions. - The current diagnostic techniques for BSE detect TME in cattle, but it is a diagnostic challenge to differentiate TME in cattle from BSE by clinical signs, neuropathology, or the presence of PrPres by IHC and Western Blots. - Scrapie PrPSc causes lesions comparable to TME in mink

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The severity of spongiform change in cattle infected with TME-derived prion protein ranks as follows: Midbrain (superior colliculus) > brain stem (obex) > cerebellum > hippocampus

Mucosal immune response in cattle with subclinical Johne’s disease. pp127-35. March 2006 JTP. good paper - Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, chronic granulomatous enteritis of wild & domestic ruminants - endocytosed by M cells of ileal Peyer’s patches, then phagocytosed by macs - lepromatous lesions worse than tuberculoid, w/worse lymphoid response & more intralesional organisms, less production of IFN-γ & IL-2 - during long subclinical period, organism persists in intestine despite systemic cellular (Th1-type) & humoral immune responses; systemic spread occurs as CMI wanes - infected cows w/increased % of T cells, but mostly memory (CD2+CD62L-) & regulatory (CD4+CD25+) T cells also decreased % of T cells w/activated phenotype, decrease in cells expressing MHC class II - suggests generalized T & B cell hyporesponsiveness) - so state of tolerance may exist in intestine of cows subclinically infected w/M. a. paratb - Proliferation of regulatory T cells than nonspecifically suppress mucosal immune responsiveness - Ileal response biased toward hyporesponsive memory & regulatory T-cell phenotype; attenuated response Morphological & IHC features of Cryptosporidium andersoni in cattle. March 2006 NW Prominent mucosal hyperplasia of abomasum in cattle infected with C. andersoni - Five cattle (3-6y) with no clinical signs - C. andersoni (round in shape, 6–8 µ m) in abomasums - freely located in the gastric pits, being attached in occasional cases to the surface of the abomasums epithelium - Lamina propria of the affected mucosa: - Infiltrates of lymphocytes, plasma cells, and eosinophils - Histological and ultrastructural features of C. andersoni organisms and its mechanisms of attachment to epithelial cells might be similar to other Cryptosporidia - Mucosal hyperplasia - Only in C. andersoni Neuroblastoma with neuronal differentiation in the spinal cord in an Aberdeen Angus heifer calf. pp193-97. March 2006 MT - WHO: neuroblastoma = embryonal neuroepithelial neoplasm w/limited neuronal differentiation; most common in young cattle & dogs, usu. adrenal gland - part of primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET) family; originate from multipotential stem cell, medulloblastoma most

common in animals (mostly young cattle & puppies) - histo: 1) undiff’d primitive polygonal to round cells (neuroectoderm) 2) areas w/myelinated axons & cells w/neuronal differentiation - classic IHC: + for VIM, synaptophysin, NSE, S-100; neg for NF & GFAP - Which marker is expressed in neuroepithelial progenitor cells and lost with further differentiation: Nestin
Nasal Osteoma in a Dairy Cow: a Combined Clinical, Imaging and Histopathological Approach to Diagnosis: J Comp Path 141 vol 2-3:smooth-surfaced mass within the left nasal cavity, composed of well-differentiated and interlacing bone trabeculae lined by osteoblasts and multinucleated osteoclasts. Endocarditis in a British heifer due to Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae infection. VETERINARY RECORD | 164, 2009 28-29Right AV valve affected with right sided heart failure and angiocentric pneumonia. Infertility and venereal disease in cattle inseminated with semen containing bovine herpesvirus type 5. VETERINARY RECORD | 164, 2009 111-113 A group of 20 cows and heifers experienced poor conception rates and probable ovarian dysfunction after being artificially inseminated. Some showed signs of vulvovaginitis, with pustular, ulcerative lesions consistent with a herpesvirus infection (BHV-1). They had had no contact with bulls during the current breeding season. Bovine herpesvirus type 5 (BHV-5) was isolated from samples of frozen semen from the batch that had been used for the artificial insemination program. Clostridium perfringens type D epsilon intoxication in one-day-old calves. VETERINARY RECORD | 164, 2009 816-817 Abundant protein-rich edema fluid was present in the cerebral and cerebellar meninges, and there were perivascular eosinophilic hyaline globules in the grey matter of the cerebral cortex, perivascular proteinaceous edema in the thalamus and marked widening of the perivascular spaces.

There was marked pulmonary edema and multifocal acute purulent bronchopneumonia. Renal autolysis was marked and associated with recent red blood cell extravasation. C perfringens alpha and epsilon toxins, but not beta toxin, were demonstrated by ELISA in a sample of large intestinal contents. Cryptosporidia, Rotavirus, Coronavirus and Salmonella species were not detected by standard diagnostic methods. The lesions observed in the brain of both calves were indicative of altered vascular permeability and resembled those reported in cases of clostridial epsilon intoxication in sheep. Pulmonary edema, which was observed in both calves, was a feature of experimental epsilon intoxication in cattle. Bilateral otitis media with facial paralysis in a Japanese black calf Veterinary Record (2009) 165, 212-213 History: A three-month-old Japanese black calf showing clinical signs of bilateral facial paralysis and anorexia. Infection within the middle ear appears to be an extension of otitis externa in the vast majority of cases in small animals (Neer 1982). However, in the large animals, haematogenous spread and

ascending infection from rhinitis, pharyngitis and guttural pouch empyema, rather than otitis externa with rupture of the tympanic membrane, are frequently the routes of infection (Mayhew 1989b, Braun and others 2004). Pasteurella species, Streptococcus species and Arcanobacterium species have been isolated from the infected ears of cattle (Jensen and others 1983), and the relationship between mycoplasma infections and otitis media/interna has been well documented in calves. Retinal Function and Morphology Are Altered in Cattle Infected with the Prion Disease Transmissible Mink Encephalopathy. Vet Pathol 46:810–818 (2009). Using Bovine Adapted TME prion. Here we show altered retinal function, as evidenced by prolonged implicit time of the electroretinogram b-wave, in transmissible mink encephalopathy–infected cattle before the onset of clinical illness. We also demonstrate disruption of rod bipolar cell synaptic terminals, indicated by decreased immunoreactivity for the alpha isoform of protein kinase C and vesicular glutamate transporter 1, and activation of Mu¨ ller glia, as evidenced by increased glial fibrillary acidic protein and glutamine synthetase expression, in the retinas of these cattle at the time of euthanasia due to clinical deterioration. Myocardial Adenomatoid Tumor in Eight Cattle: Evidence for Mesothelial Origin of Bovine Myocardial Epithelial Inclusions. Vet Pathol 46:897–903 (2009). Adenomatoid tumors typically arise in the genital tract, exceptionally in the heart, and usually represent an incidental finding. Microscopically, they are constituted by epithelioid cells that form tubular structures and anastomosing channels within a fibrous stroma. Mesothelial origin of these lesions is suggested by their immunohistochemical characteristics. lesions were in the left ventricular myocardium, adjacent to the epicardium, and composed of epithelioid cells that formed cords and tubules, and were immunoreactive for pan-cytokeratins, cytokeratin 5/6, vimentin, calretinin, Wilms’ tumor 1 suppressor gene, and CD30 (TNFRsf8) antigen. By electron microscopy, numerous long slender microvilli were associated with desmosomes and tonofibrils. The immunohistochemical and ultrastructural features were considered consistent with mesothelial origin.
Immunohistochemical Studies of Epithelial Cell Proliferation and p53 Mutation in Bovine Ocular Squamous Cell Carcinoma: 10 of 15 tumors tested were immunoreactive for p53, p53 overexpression is frequent in bovine OSCC. 12 tumors demonstrated Ki67 expression, Ki67 index showed significant correlation with the histologic pattern, increased proliferation being found in poorly differentiated OSCC

8. Viral Antigen Distribution in the Respiratory Tract of Cattle Persistently Infected with Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus Subtype 2a: Throughout the respiratory tract, mononuclear leukocytes, vascular smooth muscle, endoneural and perineural cells, squamous and ciliated columnar epithelium, tubuloalveolar glands, chondrocytes of the concha had BVDV immunoreactivity. Viral antigen was not seen in goblet cells. BVDVIR Sserous secretions of the nasal cavity, productive viral infection of epithelium, and infected leukocytes in respiratory secretions are likely major sources of infectious BVDV from PI calves.

1. Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase Immunoreactivity in the Granulomatous Intestinal Lesions of Naturally Occurring Bovine Johne's Disease: In human granulomatous diseases such as leprosy, Tuberculoid granulomas are associated with enhanced iNOS production and improved clinical outcomes over the lepromatous types. 24 cases of bovine Johne's disease were examined; all cases had granulomas with features most similar to the lepromatous type. This morphology correlated with heavy bacterial burdens demonstrated by acid-fast staining and mycobacterial immunoreactivity. None of the cases had high expression of iNOS in mycobacterial-positive granulomas. iNOS expression and reactive nitrogen intermediate production are important for macrophage killing of a wide range of intracellular pathogens including Histoplasma capsulatum, Toxoplasma gondii, Listeria monocytogenes, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and Ectromelia virus. lepromatous granulomas usually have Th2 profile and tuberculoid granulomas with a Th1 profile. Granulomas which have widespread distribution, poor delineation, and heavy bacterial burden are lepromatous-type granulomas. Discrete granulomas with well-delineated boundaries are tuberculoid-type granulomas.

Uterine Mast Cells and Immunoglobulin-E Antibody Responses During Clearance of Tritrichomonas foetus: Histo: vagina had diffuse variably intense suppurative and lymphoplasmacytic mucosal and submucosal inflammation, with moderate exocytosis and occasionally dense eosinophilic infiltrates. Uterus consisted of suppurative and eosinophilic endometritis with a diffuse lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate, mast cells, and mild eosinophilic infiltration of the myometrium. Little IgG2 antibody was detected but IgG1, IgA, IgM, and IgE T. foetus–specific antibodies increased in uterine secretions after infection with T. foetus. This was inversely proportional to subepithelial mast cells numbers. Cross-linking of IgE on mast cells by antigen and perhaps lipophosphoglycan triggering appears to have resulted in degranulation. Released cytokines may account for production of predominantly Th2 (IgG1 and IgE) and IgA antibody responses, which are related to clearance of the infection. Tritrichomonas foetus, an extracellular parasite that colonizes the uterine, vaginal, and preputial epithelium of female and male cattle, respectively. It is most often found deep in uterine glands or preputial crypts, probably because it requires anaerobic conditions. The prevalence is high in beef-producing areas of the world or whenever natural breeding is used. In a recent random survey in California, 16% of herds were infected.Control has been primarily by culling infected animals because of the long-term nature of the infection

1. Fatal Adverse Pulmonary Reaction in Calves after Inadvertent Intravenous Vaccination: 3
calves vaccinated against respiratory and clostridial diseases. All 3 calves had severe acute interstitial pneumonia with multifocal pulmonary hemorrhages that resulted in fatal respiratory failure. Approximately 30% of the arterioles and small arteries were surrounded by hemorrhages. A unilateral peri-jugular hematoma with recent transmural perforation of jugular vein found in all 3 calves was believed to have been caused by the injection needle during vaccination, and the fatal pulmonary changes were believed to have been secondary to the I/V injection.

2. Inflammatory Cytokine Gene Expression in Different Types of Granulomatous Lesions
during Asymptomatic Stages of Bovine Paratuberculosis: The granulomatous lesions in bovine paratuberculosis have been classified into two types, lepromatous type and the tuberculoid type. Th2-type cytokines IL-4 and IL-10, and Th1-type cytokine IL-2 were expressed more significantly in the lepromatous group than in the tuberculoid and noninfected group. No statistical differences were observed in the expression of IFN-γ, IL-1β, TNF-α and GM-CSF among lepromatous, tuberculoid, and noninfected groups. IL-18 was expressed at lower levels in the lepromatous group

than in the tuberculoid group and the noninfected group indicating that it may play an important role in a Th1-to-Th2 switch in paratuberculosis.

3. Bovine Papillomavirus Type-2 (BPV-2) Infection and Expression of Uroplakin IIIb, a Novel
Urothelial Cell Marker, in Urinary Bladder Tumors of Cows: Expression of uroplakin (UP) IIIb, an urothelium-specific and differentiation-dependent protein, was seen in urothelial tumors of the urinary bladder in cows that had suffered from chronic enzootic hematuria for several years. BPV-2 DNA was amplified and UP IIIb protein was detected in all these tumors. In papillomas and papillary carcinomas, UP IIIb expression was mostly seen as superficial staining; luminal and peripheral patterns were also observed. In nonpapillary carcinomas, UP IIIb appeared to define clearly the cell membrane lining intercellular and intracellular lumina as well as the cell borders in deeper cell layers. Although UP IIIb expression does not seem to correlate with the biological behavior of urothelial tumors, it appears to be a highly sensitive marker for bovine urothelial tumors.

4. Meningoencephalitis Tuberculosa in a Holstein Cow: Grossly, numerous gray to yellow, firm
and caseous nodules present on the ventral surfaces of the brain and in the lateral and fourth ventricles. Histopathologically, foci of caseation and dystrophic mineralization were surrounded by multinucleated giant cells, epitheloid macrophages, plasma cells, lymphocytes and fibrous proliferation. Ziehl-Neelsen stains of the lesions revealed masses of slender acid-fast bacilli in the necrotic centers of lesions and within surrounding giant cells.

Diagnostic Exercise: Myocarditis Due to Histophilus somni in Feedlot and Backgrounded Cattle. Vet Pathol 46:1015–1017 (2009). focal red discoloration in papillary muscle of the left ventricular myocardium. Histologically, the lesion corresponded to acute necrotizing myocarditis with myriad intravascular and intralesional Gram-negative coccobacilli. Histophilus somni was detected by bacterial culture and Immunohistochemistry. Congenital infiltrative lipomas in a calf. J Vet Diagn Invest 21:719–721 (2009). The current report describes a case of congenital subcutaneous and intramuscular tumors of the neck and tail base in a 4-week-old female Angus-Charolais crossbred calf. Results of clinical and ultrasound examination are summarized. Biopsy and necropsy findings indicated an infiltrative lipoma. Congenital lipomas are uncommon tumors in bovids. Clinical and morphologic differentials, as well as classification and the possible pathogenesis of congenital neoplasms, are discussed.

Detection of Pathologic Prion Protein in the Olfactory Bulb of Natural and Experimental Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy Affected Cattle in Great Britain: involvement of the olfactory bulb in BSE raises speculation as to an olfactory portal of infection or a route of excretion of the prion agent.

Septicemia in a Neonatal Calf Associated with Chromobacterium violaceum: The calf had necrosuppurative omphalophlebitis, hepatitis, splenitis, and encephalitis, necrotizing interstitial pneumonia, anterior uveitis with hypopyon, polyarthritis. Lesions documented with C. violaceum includes, visceral abscesses, necrosis, pleuropnuemonia, pericarditis.

Immunohistochemical Evaluation of Vascular Urinary Bladder Tumors from Cows with Enzootic Hematuria: CD31 (PECAM) is a better marker than FVIIIra in the characterization of bovine endothelial tumors. The cell cycle regulatory pathways involving cyclin D1 and p53 seem to be impaired in endothelial urinary bladder tumors, p53 immunoreactivity positively correlating with enhanced invasion. The only proven carcinogen in Bracken fern is Ptaquiloside.

Destructive Polyarthropathy in Aborted Bovine Fetuses: A Possible Association with Ureaplasma diversum Infection: Severe destructive polyarthropathy with fibrillation and erosion of articular cartilage, deformation of articular surfaces, and proliferation of periarticular soft tissue was diagnosed in 5 bovine fetuses aborted in the last trimester. Articular cartilage was irregularly reduced in thickness and contained fibrovascular tissue. Ureaplasma spp. was identified in 4 cases by PCR or culture. U. diversum has been associated with granular vulvovaginitis and balanoposthitis,4 abortion, and the birth of dead or weak calves
Patent Ductus Arteriosus in Murrah Buffalos. Vet Pathol 45:542–545 (2008). At necropsy, lesions were consistent with congestive heart failure as indicated by dependent subcutaneous edema, body cavity effusions, and nutmeg liver. The lungs were extensively atelectatic. The heart was enlarged and had a globous shape. The ductus arteriosus, measuring 0.8 cm in length and 0.4 cm in caliber, was patent. The proximal pulmonary artery had an approximately 50-mm- long aneurysm. Eccentric cardiac hypertrophy was evident primarily in the right but to a lesser degree also in the left ventricle. Additionally, there was diffuse subendocardial fibrosis in the left and right ventricle. Possibly hereditary.

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