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COMPOSITE BEHAVIOR OF

COMPOSITE BEHAVIOR OF
PRECAST BRIDGE DECK
PRECAST BRIDGE DECK
PANEL SYSTEMS
PANEL SYSTEMS
Sean Sullivan, Ph.D.
HNTB
September 22, 2009
Objectives of Research Program
Examine the creep and shrinkage behavior
of deck panel systems.
Look at construction practices and
structural details that promote rapid
construction.
Examine horizontal shear behavior in deck
panel systems to recommend.
Description of Lab Mockup
39.5 ft. simple span with 2 AASHTO Type II Girders, 8
ft spa. C.L. to C.L.
5 deck panels – 8’-0”x 12’-0”x 0’-8”
4 transverse joints – 2 MF joints and 2 FF joints
2 ft pocket spacing – live end
4 ft pocket spacing – dead end
Description of Lab Mockup (Cont.)
2 shear connector types
Hooked Reinforcing Bars – girder 1
New Shear Stud Detail – girder 2
Combinations
4 ft pocket spacing with Hooked Reinf. Bars
2 ft pocket spacing with Hooked Reinf. Bars
4 ft pocket spacing with Shear Studs
2 ft pocket spacing with Shear Studs
Constructability Study
Document all parts of fabrication and
construction
Construction of the transverse joints
Post-tensioning operation and grouting the ducts
Forming and pouring the haunch
Duration of each stage, problems encountered,
and ease of construction of structural details was
well documented
Live Load Testing
2 Test Setups
Dead End – 4 ft pocket spacing
Live End – 2 ft pocket spacing
Axle loads adjacent to transverse
joints
Cyclic Testing
Live Load Testing (cont.)
Static Tests
Failure mode(s)
Cracking patterns
Strain levels in connectors
Durability Testing - Ponding water at
transverse joints
Live Load Testing (cont.)
Finite Element Study
Parameters varied:
#connectors,
type of connectors,
pocket spacing, and
distribution among pockets
Assesment of the AASHTO LRFD design
provisions for horizontal shear transfer.
Constructability Study
Rapid placement of panels
possible with use of
F-F transverse joint configuration
Shear studs for shear connectors
Problems with bowing of
formwork for panels
Gaps along M-F joints
Additional epoxy injected to joints
after p.t. operation
Constructability Study (cont.)
Provide small steel plates for
leveling bolts to bear on.
Avoid transferring load from deck to
the girders through frictional forces
at leveling bolt/girder interface.
Providing uniform pocket spacing
allows a single transverse strand
pattern to be used in the panels.
Less strand used
Reduced material cost
steel plate
Constructability Study (cont.)
Dayton Richmond Leveling bolt system
recommended.
Need larger blockouts.
Width of steel plate for new shear stud system
should be detailed to be ½in. less than the width
of the top flange.
Live Load Testing
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5
Deflection (in)
A
p
p
l
i
e
d

L
o
a
d

(
k
/
f
r
a
m
e
)
G1_INSIDE
G1_OUTSIDE
G2_INSIDE
G2_OUTSIDE
Cracking in Haunch for Girder 1 (209 kips)
Cracking in Haunch for Girder 2 (183 kips)
Dead End – 4 ft pocket spacing
Live Load Testing (cont.)
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
-100 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000
Strain (με)
A
p
p
l
i
e
d

L
o
a
d

(
k
/
f
r
a
m
e
)
G1_R1
G1_R2
G1_R3
G2_R1
G2_R2
G2_R3
G2_R4
G1_R1
G2_R4
G1_R2
G2_R3
G2_R1
G1_R3
G2_R2
Cracking in Haunch for
Girder 2 (183 kips).
Cracking in Haunch for
Girder 1 (209 kips).
Dead End – 4 ft pocket spacing
Live Load Testing (cont.)
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5 5.5 6 6.5
Deflection (in)
A
p
p
l
i
e
d

L
o
a
d

(
k
/
f
r
a
m
e
)
G1_OUTSIDE
G1_INSIDE
G2_OUTSIDE
G2_INSIDE
Cracking in Haunch for
Girder 1 (260 kips)
Cracking in Haunch
for Girder 2 (196 kips).
Live End – 2 ft pocket spacing
Live Load Testing (cont.)
Required Calculated Dead End Live End
Flexure (k-in) 15,500 24,800 23,700 24,500
Vertical Shear (k) 152 226 206 213
Comparison of Calculated Capacities and Test Values
Live Load Testing (cont.)
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5
Deflection (in)
A
p
p
l
i
e
d

L
o
a
d

p
e
r

F
r
a
m
e

(
k
i
p
s
)
MOCKUP
2.121_100
2.121_75
2.121_50
2.128_R
2.128_L
Required Nominal Flexural Strength
Required Capacity for Service Loads
Live Load Testing (cont.)
P P
Live Load Testing (cont.)
Satisfactory performance
2 ft and 4 ft pocket spacing
Hooked reinf. bars and new shear stud detail
Performance of system not affected by cyclic
testing.
Transverse joints – Leaking for epoxied MF
joints.
Live Load Testing (cont.)
Cracking pattern is not dependent on
Pocket spacing,
Shear connector type,
Shear connector distribution among the pockets,
Cracks propagated to the load points.
Live Load Testing (cont.)
Application of shear friction equation to
horizontal shear design for deck panel systems:
y
c
v v
e
v u
pocket s
f
P
c l b
d
l V
A


=
μ
φ
_
) 5 . 5 , ' 2 . 0 min(
cv cv c n
A A f V ≤
v v cv
l b A =
where,
QUESTIONS
QUESTIONS
?
?