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History Revision

Unit 1 Key Topic 1

Differences between communism and capitalism:
Capitalism Communism
Focus Individual Rights The rights of the working
Values Individual freedom Equality
Economy Free trade Government planned
Politics Democratic elections Communist party
controls government

Three key meetings of the Grand Alliance:
Tehran – Nov & Dec 1943: Stalin was annoyed that Britain and USA had
delayed opening a second front in the war and was worried they were waiting
for USSR to be damaged in the war; eventually they agreed, which would take
off some of the pressure. The USSR would declare war on Japan after the
defeat of Germany. Poland would lose land to the USSR but gain some from
Yalta - February 1945: Germany was not yet defeated, so, although there were
tensions about Poland, the big three - Stalin, Roosevelt and Churchill -
managed to agree to split Germany into four zones of occupation, and to allow
free elections in Eastern European countries. Russia was invited to join the
United Nations, and Russia promised to join the war against Japan when
Germany was defeated.
Potsdam - July 1945: Germany had been defeated, Roosevelt had died and
Churchill had lost the 1945 election - so there were open disagreements.
Truman came away angry about the size of reparations and the fact that a
communist government was being set up in Poland. Truman did not tell Stalin
that he had the atomic bomb.

The breakdown of trust:
 1946 – speeches which displayed clear divide in Europe
 Secret telegrams:
 Long Telegram – Stalin called for destruction of capitalism and no peace,
USSR building military, USA should seek to contain communism
 Novikov’s Telegram – America & world domination, no more co-operation
and preparation for war
How Russia and America viewed each other in 1946:
 Grand Alliance over as America had come to believe USSR was planning
world domination and many Soviets feared the same about the USA.

The key features of Truman Doctrine and Marshall Aid:
Truman Doctrine:
 Containment
 The division of the world into two opposing ideologies
 America has a responsibility to protect the world
Marshall Aid:
 $13 billion to rebuild Europe’s economy
 Reduce attraction to communism
 Created trade opportunities for America

America’s reasons for Marshall Aid:
 Dual strategy to deal with communism. Containment & reducing need for

Satellite States:
 Stalin extended control over eastern Europe , using the forces, arranging
economies, fixing the elections, creating mistrust within people.

Cominform and Comecon:
 International organisation that represented communist parties across
Europe and brought them under USSR direction. Rejected Marshall Aid
and installed loyalty in eastern European leaders by using violent
punishments and jail.
 Stalin’s answer to Marshall Plan. After making satellite states boycott
Marshall Aid, Comecon was Communist alternative.

‘Spheres of influence’ became ‘two camps’:
 After Potsdam, Europe split politically and economically after Marshall
Aid and Comecon.

Division of Germany:

Berlin Blockade:
 Stalin set up a military blockade around West Berlin in June 1948 to block
out western Germany and prevent establishment of a new state and cut it
off from the new government and cut off control.
 Truman responded peacefully (with the help of Britain) with the Berlin
airlift that provided over 170,000 tonnes of supplies during January 1949.

NATO and the Arms race:
 Specific aim of defending the west against communism after the
‘aggressive’ Berlin blockade.
 Western European nations established an alliance to keep out USSR and
keep in USA by agreeing if any NATO country went under attack they
would all defend.
 Arms race meant that both sides were constantly increasing their military.
It prevented a war in Europe as both sides feared retaliation.

Soviet Rule on Hungary:
 Matyas Rakosi appointed as dictator
 Land, coal, oil and wheat redistributed and sold to Russia and other
countries. Cominform and police force abolished any non-communists.

Impact of Hungarian revolt of 1956:
 Repression in Hungary
 Russia stayed in control behind the iron curtain
 Polarisation of cold war

Importance of:
Franklin D. Roosevelt
Winston Churchill
Joseph Stalin
Harry S. Truman
Matyas Rakosi
Nikita Kruschev
Dwight D. Eisenhower
Janos Kadar

Important events:
1941 Grand Alliance created
1943 Teheran Conference
1945 Yalta Conference
1945 Potsdam Conference
1946 Iron Curtain speech
1946 Long Telegram
1946 Novikov’s Telegram
1947 Truman Doctrine
1947 Marshall Plan
1947 Cominform created
1948 Paris Conference
1948-49 Berlin Blockade
1949 Comecon created
1949 West/East Germany created
1949 Formation of NATO
1955 Warsaw Pact
1956 Krushchev’s secret speech
1956 Soviet invasion of Hungary