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HONORS CHEMISTRY

SUMMER 2014
Forces of attraction that hold atoms together
in one structure are intramolecular (inside)
forces.
metallic (mobile electrons in a solid)
covalent (nonmetals sharing electrons)
ionic (separate ions in crystal lattice)
Forces that exist outside a molecule are called
intermolecular forces.
(+) to (-)
attraction
Intermolecular attractions cause the molecules to
align themselves (+) to (-).
Different kinds of particles have different types
and strengths of attractions.
F
2

(nonpolar)
London Dispersion Force
F
2

(nonpolar)
Dipole-Dipole Force
CO
(polar)
CO
(polar)
Attractions between polar molecules are stronger
than those between nonpolar molecules.
H
2
O
(very polar)
H
2
O
(very polar)
Hydrogen Bond
The strongest attraction between covalent
molecules is the hydrogen bond, which occurs
between H and N, O, or F only.
Charged particles (ions) interact with polar
molecules to form an even stronger bond.
Na
1+
(ion)
H
2
O
H
2
O
Ion-Dipole Force
Are ions
present?
Are polar
molecules
present?
Ionic Bonds
Ion-Dipole
Forces
Are polar
molecules
present?
Are H atoms
bound to N, O,
or F?
Hydrogen Bonds
Dipole-Dipole
Forces
Dispersion
Forces Only
yes
yes no
no
no no
yes
yes
strength of attraction
Intermolecular attractions explain why some
substances are solids and others are liquids or gases
at the same temperatures.
NaCl is solid H
2
O is liquid Cl
2
is gas
At 300K:
Ions dissolve in water
due to the strength
of ion-dipole forces
pulling apart the ions
from the crystal
lattice.
1) ___________ are always stronger and
require more energy to break than
____________.
A) dipole-dipole, ion-dipole
B) intermolecular, intramolecular
C) hydrogen bonds, dispersion forces
D) ion-dipole, ionic bonds
2) True or False: London Dispersion Forces result
from temporary shifts in the electron density of a
nonpolar molecule.
3) Van der Waals Forces are forces of attraction
between covalent molecules. They are divided into:
A) dispersion forces, dipole-dipole forces,
and ion-dipole forces
B) dipole-dipole forces, hydrogen bonds,
and dispersion forces
C) ionic bonds and hydrogen bonds
D) ion-dipole forces and ionic bonds
4) True or False: Hydrogen bonds are
intramolecular (bonding) forces.
5) A collection of the molecule shown below would
likely exhibit which IMF most strongly?
A) London dispersion forces
B) dipole-dipole forces
C) ion-dipole forces
D) hydrogen bonds
O
F F
6) A group of the molecule shown below would
likely exhibit which IMF most strongly?
A) London dispersion forces
B) dipole-dipole forces
C) ion-dipole forces
D) hydrogen bonds
H
H
7) A group of the molecule shown below would
likely exhibit which IMF most strongly?
A) London dispersion forces
B) dipole-dipole forces
C) ion-dipole forces
D) hydrogen bonds
H
H
N
H
8) When energy is added to solid water, it is
observed that the molecules begin to liquefy. What
is happening to the molecules?
A) The energy is causing the molecules to take up more space.
B) The energy is used to overcome some of the intermolecular
forces holding the molecules together.
9) Ionic solids typically dissolve into water. This is
best explained by:
A) Multiple ion-dipole interactions overcome the force of
attraction between ions.
B) Hydrogen bonds between ions and water are weaker than
ionic bonds.
C) London dispersion forces overcome the ionic bonds to
dissolve the crystal lattice.
10) Methane (CH
4
) is a gas at room temperature.
Explain why using IMFs.
A) Since methane has hydrogen bonds, the attractions aren’t strong
enough to hold the molecules together.
B) Since methane has polar bonds, the dipole-dipole forces are too
weak to hold molecules closely together.
C) Since methane is nonpolar, the only interactions between
molecules are very weak.