CHAPTER 5

DIFFUSION
PROBLEM SOLUTIONS
Introduction
5.1 Briefly explain the difference between self-diffusion and interdiffusion.
Solution
Self-diffusion is atoi! i"#ation in $u#e etals--i.e.% &'en all atos e(!'an"in" $ositions a#e of t'e
sae t)$e. Inte#diffusion is diffusion of atos of one etal into anot'e# etal.
E(!e#$ts f#o t'is &o#* a) +e #e$#odu!ed +) inst#u!to#s fo# dist#i+ution on a not-fo#-$#ofit +asis fo# testin" o# inst#u!tional $u#$oses onl) to students
en#olled in !ou#ses fo# &'i!' t'e te(t+oo* 'as +een ado$ted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections
107 or 108 of the 17! "nited States #opyri$ht Act without the permission of the copyri$ht owner is unlawful.
5., Self-diffusion in%ol%es the motion of atoms that are all of the same type& therefore it is not sub'ect to
obser%ation by compositional chan$es( as with interdiffusion. Su$$est one way in which self-diffusion may be
monitored.
Solution
Self-diffusion a) +e onito#ed +) usin" #adioa!ti-e isoto$es of t'e etal +ein" studied. T'e otion of
t'ese isoto$i! atos a) +e onito#ed +) easu#eent of #adioa!ti-it) le-el.
E(!e#$ts f#o t'is &o#* a) +e #e$#odu!ed +) inst#u!to#s fo# dist#i+ution on a not-fo#-$#ofit +asis fo# testin" o# inst#u!tional $u#$oses onl) to students
en#olled in !ou#ses fo# &'i!' t'e te(t+oo* 'as +een ado$ted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections
107 or 108 of the 17! "nited States #opyri$ht Act without the permission of the copyri$ht owner is unlawful.
Diffusion Mechanisms
5.. )a* #ompare interstitial and %acancy atomic mechanisms for diffusion.
)b* #ite two reasons why interstitial diffusion is normally more rapid than %acancy diffusion.
Solution
/a0 1it' -a!an!) diffusion% atoi! otion is f#o one latti!e site to an ad2a!ent -a!an!). Self-diffusion
and t'e diffusion of su+stitutional i$u#ities $#o!eed -ia t'is e!'anis. On t'e ot'e# 'and% atoi! otion is
f#o inte#stitial site to ad2a!ent inte#stitial site fo# t'e inte#stitial diffusion e!'anis.
/+0 Inte#stitial diffusion is no#all) o#e #a$id t'an -a!an!) diffusion +e!ause3 /10 inte#stitial atos%
+ein" salle#% a#e o#e o+ile4 and /,0 t'e $#o+a+ilit) of an e$t) ad2a!ent inte#stitial site is "#eate# t'an fo# a
-a!an!) ad2a!ent to a 'ost /o# su+stitutional i$u#it)0 ato.
E(!e#$ts f#o t'is &o#* a) +e #e$#odu!ed +) inst#u!to#s fo# dist#i+ution on a not-fo#-$#ofit +asis fo# testin" o# inst#u!tional $u#$oses onl) to students
en#olled in !ou#ses fo# &'i!' t'e te(t+oo* 'as +een ado$ted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections
107 or 108 of the 17! "nited States #opyri$ht Act without the permission of the copyri$ht owner is unlawful.
Steady-State Diffusion
5.5 Briefly explain the concept of steady state as it applies to diffusion.
Solution
Stead)-state diffusion is t'e situation &'e#ein t'e #ate of diffusion into a "i-en s)ste is 2ust e6ual to t'e
#ate of diffusion out% su!' t'at t'e#e is no net a!!uulation o# de$letion of diffusin" s$e!ies--i.e.% t'e diffusion flu(
is inde$endent of tie.
E(!e#$ts f#o t'is &o#* a) +e #e$#odu!ed +) inst#u!to#s fo# dist#i+ution on a not-fo#-$#ofit +asis fo# testin" o# inst#u!tional $u#$oses onl) to students
en#olled in !ou#ses fo# &'i!' t'e te(t+oo* 'as +een ado$ted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections
107 or 108 of the 17! "nited States #opyri$ht Act without the permission of the copyri$ht owner is unlawful.
5.5 )a* Briefly explain the concept of a dri%in$ force.
)b* +hat is the dri%in$ force for steady-state diffusion,
Solution
/a0 T'e d#i-in" fo#!e is t'at &'i!' !o$els a #ea!tion to o!!u#.
/+0 T'e d#i-in" fo#!e fo# stead)-state diffusion is t'e !on!ent#ation "#adient.
E(!e#$ts f#o t'is &o#* a) +e #e$#odu!ed +) inst#u!to#s fo# dist#i+ution on a not-fo#-$#ofit +asis fo# testin" o# inst#u!tional $u#$oses onl) to students
en#olled in !ou#ses fo# &'i!' t'e te(t+oo* 'as +een ado$ted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections
107 or 108 of the 17! "nited States #opyri$ht Act without the permission of the copyri$ht owner is unlawful.
5.7 -he purification of hydro$en $as by diffusion throu$h a palladium sheet was discussed in Section ../.
#ompute the number of kilo$rams of hydro$en that pass per hour throu$h a .-mm-thick sheet of palladium ha%in$
an area of 0.00 m
0
at .00°#. Assume a diffusion coefficient of 1.0 × 10
-8
m
0
1s( that the concentrations at the hi$h-
and low-pressure sides of the plate are 0.2 and 0.! k$ of hydro$en per cubic meter of palladium( and that steady-
state conditions ha%e been attained.
Solution
T'is $#o+le !alls fo# t'e ass of ')d#o"en% $e# 'ou#% t'at diffuses t'#ou"' a Pd s'eet. It fi#st +e!oes
ne!essa#) to e$lo) +ot' E6uations 5.1a and 5... Co+inin" t'ese e($#essions and sol-in" fo# t'e ass )ields


3 8 4At 8 − 5At
∆#
∆x

8 − /1.9 × 19
-:

,
;s0/9.,9
,
0 /.799 s;'0
9.7 − ,.5 *" ;
.
5 × 19
−.

¸

1
]
1
8 ,.7 × 19
-.
*";'
E(!e#$ts f#o t'is &o#* a) +e #e$#odu!ed +) inst#u!to#s fo# dist#i+ution on a not-fo#-$#ofit +asis fo# testin" o# inst#u!tional $u#$oses onl) to students
en#olled in !ou#ses fo# &'i!' t'e te(t+oo* 'as +een ado$ted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections
107 or 108 of the 17! "nited States #opyri$ht Act without the permission of the copyri$ht owner is unlawful.
5.< A sheet of steel 1.. mm thick has nitro$en atmospheres on both sides at 1000°# and is permitted to
achie%e a steady-state diffusion condition. -he diffusion coefficient for nitro$en in steel at this temperature is ! ×
10
-11
m
0
1s( and the diffusion flux is found to be 1.0 × 10
-7
k$1m
0
-s. Also( it is known that the concentration of
nitro$en in the steel at the hi$h-pressure surface is 2 k$1m
/
. 6ow far into the sheet from this hi$h-pressure side
will the concentration be 0.0 k$1m
/
, Assume a linear concentration profile.
Solution
T'is $#o+le is sol-ed +) usin" E6uation 5.. in t'e fo#


4 8 − 5
#
A
− #
B
x
A
− x
B
If &e ta*e #
A
to +e t'e $oint at &'i!' t'e !on!ent#ation of nit#o"en is 5 *";
.
% t'en it +e!oes ne!essa#) to sol-e
fo# x
B
% as


x
B
8 x
A
= 5
#
A
− #
B
4

¸

1
]
1
Assue x
A
is >e#o at t'e su#fa!e% in &'i!' !ase


x
B
8 9 = /7 × 19
-11

,
;s0
5 *";
.
− , *" ;
.
1., × 19
−<
*";
,
- s

¸

1
]
1
8 1 × 19
-.
8 1
E(!e#$ts f#o t'is &o#* a) +e #e$#odu!ed +) inst#u!to#s fo# dist#i+ution on a not-fo#-$#ofit +asis fo# testin" o# inst#u!tional $u#$oses onl) to students
en#olled in !ou#ses fo# &'i!' t'e te(t+oo* 'as +een ado$ted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections
107 or 108 of the 17! "nited States #opyri$ht Act without the permission of the copyri$ht owner is unlawful.
5.: A sheet of B## iron 1 mm thick was exposed to a carburi7in$ $as atmosphere on one side and a
decarburi7in$ atmosphere on the other side at 70.°#. After ha%in$ reached steady state( the iron was 8uickly
cooled to room temperature. -he carbon concentrations at the two surfaces of the sheet were determined to be
0.010 and 0.007. wt9. #ompute the diffusion coefficient if the diffusion flux is 1.2 × 10
-8
k$1m
0
-s. 6int: "se
;8uation 2. to con%ert the concentrations from wei$ht percent to kilo$rams of carbon per cubic meter of iron.
Solution
Let us fi#st !on-e#t t'e !a#+on !on!ent#ations f#o &ei"'t $e#!ent to *ilo"#as !a#+on $e# ete# !u+ed
usin" E6uation 5.?a. @o# 9.91, &tA C


#
C
"
8
#
C
#
C
ρ
C
+
#
@e
ρ
@e
× 19
.

8
9.91,
9.91,
,.,5 ";!
.
+
??.?::
<.:< ";!
.
× 19
.
9.?55 *" C;
.
Siila#l)% fo# 9.99<5 &tA C


#
C
B
8
9.99<5
9.99<5
,.,5 ";!
.
+
??.??,5
<.:< ";!
.
× 19
.
8 9.5?9 *" C;
.
No&% usin" a #ea##an"ed fo# of E6uation 5..


5 8 − 4
x
A
− x
B
#
A
− #
B

¸

1
]
1
1
E(!e#$ts f#o t'is &o#* a) +e #e$#odu!ed +) inst#u!to#s fo# dist#i+ution on a not-fo#-$#ofit +asis fo# testin" o# inst#u!tional $u#$oses onl) to students
en#olled in !ou#ses fo# &'i!' t'e te(t+oo* 'as +een ado$ted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections
107 or 108 of the 17! "nited States #opyri$ht Act without the permission of the copyri$ht owner is unlawful.

8 − /1.59 × 19
-:
*";
,
- s0
− 19
−.

9.?55 *";
.
− 9.5?9 *";
.

¸

1
]
1
8 ..?5 × 19
-11

,
;s
E(!e#$ts f#o t'is &o#* a) +e #e$#odu!ed +) inst#u!to#s fo# dist#i+ution on a not-fo#-$#ofit +asis fo# testin" o# inst#u!tional $u#$oses onl) to students
en#olled in !ou#ses fo# &'i!' t'e te(t+oo* 'as +een ado$ted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections
107 or 108 of the 17! "nited States #opyri$ht Act without the permission of the copyri$ht owner is unlawful.
5.? +hen α-iron is sub'ected to an atmosphere of hydro$en $as( the concentration of hydro$en in the
iron( #6 )in wei$ht percent*( is a function of hydro$en pressure(

p
6
0
)in 3<a*( and absolute temperature )-*
accordin$ to

#
H
· 1..5 × 19
−,
p
H
,
e($ −
,<., *C ; ol
=-
¸
¸

_
,
)..12*
>urthermore( the %alues of 50 and ?d for this diffusion system are 1.2 × 10
-7
m
0
1s and 1/(200 41mol( respecti%ely.
#onsider a thin iron membrane 1 mm thick that is at 0.0°#. #ompute the diffusion flux throu$h this membrane if
the hydro$en pressure on one side of the membrane is 0.1. 3<a )1.28 atm*( and on the other side 7.. 3<a )72
atm*.
Solution
Ultiatel) &e &ill e$lo) E6uation 5.. to sol-e t'is $#o+le. Ho&e-e#% it fi#st +e!oes ne!essa#) to
dete#ine t'e !on!ent#ation of ')d#o"en at ea!' fa!e usin" E6uation 5.15. At t'e lo& $#essu#e /o# B0 side


#
H/B0
8 /1..5 × 19
-,
0 9.15 MPa e($ −
,<% ,99 C;ol
/:..1 C;ol - D0/,59 + ,<. D0

¸

1
]
1
?.?. × 19
-7
&tA
1'e#eas% fo# t'e 'i"' $#essu#e /o# A0 side


#
H/A0
8 /1..5 × 19
-,
0 <.5 MPa e($ −
,<% ,99 C;ol
/:..1 C;ol - D0/,59 + ,<. D0

¸

1
]
1
<.9, × 19
-5
&tA
1e no& !on-e#t !on!ent#ations in &ei"'t $e#!ent to ass of nit#o"en $e# unit -olue of solid. At fa!e B t'e#e a#e
?.?. × 19
-7
" /o# ?.?. × 19
-?
*"0 of ')d#o"en in 199 " of @e% &'i!' is -i#tuall) $u#e i#on. @#o t'e densit) of i#on
/<.:< ";!
.
0% t'e -olue i#on in 199 " /@
B
0 is 2ust


@
B
8
199 "
<.:< " ;!
.
8 1,.< !
.
8 1.,< × 19
-5

.
E(!e#$ts f#o t'is &o#* a) +e #e$#odu!ed +) inst#u!to#s fo# dist#i+ution on a not-fo#-$#ofit +asis fo# testin" o# inst#u!tional $u#$oses onl) to students
en#olled in !ou#ses fo# &'i!' t'e te(t+oo* 'as +een ado$ted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections
107 or 108 of the 17! "nited States #opyri$ht Act without the permission of the copyri$ht owner is unlawful.
T'e#efo#e% t'e !on!ent#ation of ')d#o"en at t'e B fa!e in *ilo"#as of H $e# !u+i! ete# of allo) E


#
H/B0
FF
G is 2ust


#
H/B0
HH
8
#
H/B0
@
B

8
?.?. × 19
−?
*"
1.,< × 19
−5

.
8 <.:, × 19
-5
*";
.
At t'e A fa!e t'e -olue of i#on in 199 " /@
A
0 &ill also +e 1.,< × 19
-5

.
% and


#
H/A0
''
8
#
H/A0
@
A

8
<.9, × 19
−:
*"
1.,< × 19
−5

.
8 5.5. × 19
-.
*";
.
T'us% t'e !on!ent#ation "#adient is 2ust t'e diffe#en!e +et&een t'ese !on!ent#ations of nit#o"en di-ided +) t'e
t'i!*ness of t'e i#on e+#ane4 t'at is


∆#
∆x
8
#
H/B0
HH
− #
H/A0
HH
x
B
− x
A

8
<.:, × 19
−5
*" ;
.
− 5.5. × 19
−.
*" ;
.
19
−.

8 − 5.<5 *";
5
At t'is tie it +e!oes ne!essa#) to !al!ulate t'e -alue of t'e diffusion !oeffi!ient at ,59°C usin" E6uation 5.:.
T'us%


5 8 5
9
e($ −
?
d
=-
¸
¸

_
,


8 /1.5 × 19
−<

,
;s0 e($ −
1.% 599 C;ol
/:..1 C;ol − D0/,59 + ,<. D0
¸
¸

_
,

8 7.51 × 19
-?

,
;s
E(!e#$ts f#o t'is &o#* a) +e #e$#odu!ed +) inst#u!to#s fo# dist#i+ution on a not-fo#-$#ofit +asis fo# testin" o# inst#u!tional $u#$oses onl) to students
en#olled in !ou#ses fo# &'i!' t'e te(t+oo* 'as +een ado$ted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections
107 or 108 of the 17! "nited States #opyri$ht Act without the permission of the copyri$ht owner is unlawful.
And% finall)% t'e diffusion flu( is !o$uted usin" E6uation 5.. +) ta*in" t'e ne"ati-e $#odu!t of t'is diffusion
!oeffi!ient and t'e !on!ent#ation "#adient% as


4 8 − 5
∆#
∆x

8 − /7.51 × 19
-?

,
;s0/− 5.<5 *";
5
0 8 ..95 × 19
-:
*";
,
- s
E(!e#$ts f#o t'is &o#* a) +e #e$#odu!ed +) inst#u!to#s fo# dist#i+ution on a not-fo#-$#ofit +asis fo# testin" o# inst#u!tional $u#$oses onl) to students
en#olled in !ou#ses fo# &'i!' t'e te(t+oo* 'as +een ado$ted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections
107 or 108 of the 17! "nited States #opyri$ht Act without the permission of the copyri$ht owner is unlawful.
Nonsteady-State Diffusion
5.19 Show that


#
x
8
B
5t
e($ −
x
,
5 5t
¸
¸

_
,

is also a solution to ;8uation ..2b. -he parameter B is a constant( bein$ independent of both x and t.
Solution
It !an +e s'o&n t'at


#
x
8
B
5t
e($ −
x
,
5 5t
¸
¸

_
,

is a solution to


∂#
∂t
8 5

,
#
∂x
,
si$l) +) ta*in" a$$#o$#iate de#i-ati-es of t'e #
x
e($#ession. 1'en t'is is !a##ied out%


∂#
∂t
8 5

,
#
∂x
,
8
B
,5
1; ,
t
.; ,
x
,
,5t
− 1
¸
¸

_
,

e($ −
x
,
55t
¸
¸

_
,

E(!e#$ts f#o t'is &o#* a) +e #e$#odu!ed +) inst#u!to#s fo# dist#i+ution on a not-fo#-$#ofit +asis fo# testin" o# inst#u!tional $u#$oses onl) to students
en#olled in !ou#ses fo# &'i!' t'e te(t+oo* 'as +een ado$ted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections
107 or 108 of the 17! "nited States #opyri$ht Act without the permission of the copyri$ht owner is unlawful.
5.11 5etermine the carburi7in$ time necessary to achie%e a carbon concentration of 0.2. wt9 at a
position 0 mm into an ironAcarbon alloy that initially contains 0.00 wt9 #. -he surface concentration is to be
maintained at 1./0 wt9 #( and the treatment is to be conducted at 1000°#. "se the diffusion data for γ->e in
-able ..0.
Solution
In o#de# to sol-e t'is $#o+le it is fi#st ne!essa#) to use E6uation 5.53


#
x
− #
9
#
s
− #
9
8 1 − e#f
x
, 5t
¸
¸

_
,

&'e#ein% #
x
8 9.55% #
9
8 9.,9% #
s
8 1..9% and x 8 , 8 , × 19
-.
. T'us%


#
x
− #
9
#
s
− #
9
8
9.55 − 9.,9
1..9 − 9.,9
8 9.,,<. 8 1 − e#f
x
, 5t
¸
¸

_
,

o#


e#f
x
, 5t
¸
¸

_
,

8 1 − 9.,,<. 8 9.<<,<
B) linea# inte#$olation usin" data f#o Ta+le 5.1
7 e#f/ 7 0
9.:5 9.<<9<
7 9.<<,<
9.?9 9.<?<9


7 − 9.:59
9.?99 − 9.:59
8
9.<<,< − 9.<<9<
9.<?<9 − 9.<<9<
@#o &'i!'


7 8 9.:55 8
x
, 5t
E(!e#$ts f#o t'is &o#* a) +e #e$#odu!ed +) inst#u!to#s fo# dist#i+ution on a not-fo#-$#ofit +asis fo# testin" o# inst#u!tional $u#$oses onl) to students
en#olled in !ou#ses fo# &'i!' t'e te(t+oo* 'as +een ado$ted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections
107 or 108 of the 17! "nited States #opyri$ht Act without the permission of the copyri$ht owner is unlawful.
No&% f#o Ta+le 5.,% at 1999°C /1,<. D0


5 8 /,.. × 19
-5

,
;s0 e($ −
15:% 999 C;ol
/:..1 C;ol- D0/1,<. D0

¸

1
]
1
8 1.?. × 19
-11

,
;s
T'us%


9.:55 8
, × 19
−.

/,0 /1.?. × 19
−11

,
;s0 /t0
Sol-in" fo# t )ields
t 8 <.1 × 19
5
s 8 1?.< '
E(!e#$ts f#o t'is &o#* a) +e #e$#odu!ed +) inst#u!to#s fo# dist#i+ution on a not-fo#-$#ofit +asis fo# testin" o# inst#u!tional $u#$oses onl) to students
en#olled in !ou#ses fo# &'i!' t'e te(t+oo* 'as +een ado$ted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections
107 or 108 of the 17! "nited States #opyri$ht Act without the permission of the copyri$ht owner is unlawful.
5.1, An >## iron-carbon alloy initially containin$ 0./. wt9 # is exposed to an oxy$en-rich and
%irtually carbon-free atmosphere at 1200 B )1107°#*. "nder these circumstances the carbon diffuses from the
alloy and reacts at the surface with the oxy$en in the atmosphere& that is( the carbon concentration at the surface
position is maintained essentially at 0 wt9 #. )-his process of carbon depletion is termed de!a#+u#i>ation.* At
what position will the carbon concentration be 0.1. wt9 after a 10-h treatment, -he %alue of 5 at 1200 B is !.
× 10
-11
m
0
1s.
Solution
T'is $#o+le as*s t'at &e dete#ine t'e $osition at &'i!' t'e !a#+on !on!ent#ation is 9.15 &tA afte# a
19-' 'eat t#eatent at 1.,5 D &'en #
9
8 9..5 &tA C. @#o E6uation 5.5


#
x
− #
9
#
s
− #
9
8
9.15 − 9..5
9 − 9..5
8 9.5<15 8 1 − e#f
x
, 5t
¸
¸

_
,

T'us%


e#f
x
, 5t
¸
¸

_
,

8 9.5,:7
Usin" data in Ta+le 5.1 and linea# inte#$olation
7 e#f / 70
9.59 9.5,:5
7 9.5,:7
9.55 9.5<55


7 − 9.59
9.55 − 9.59
8
9.5,:7 − 9.5,:5
9.5<55 − 9.5,:5
And%
7 8 9.599,
1'i!' eans t'at
E(!e#$ts f#o t'is &o#* a) +e #e$#odu!ed +) inst#u!to#s fo# dist#i+ution on a not-fo#-$#ofit +asis fo# testin" o# inst#u!tional $u#$oses onl) to students
en#olled in !ou#ses fo# &'i!' t'e te(t+oo* 'as +een ado$ted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections
107 or 108 of the 17! "nited States #opyri$ht Act without the permission of the copyri$ht owner is unlawful.


x
, 5t
8 9.599,
And% finall)


x 8 ,/9.599,0 5t 8 /9.:9950 /7.? × 19
−11

,
;s0/ ..7 × 19
5
s0
8 1.,7 × 19
-.

8 1.,7
Cote: t'is $#o+le a) also +e sol-ed usin" t'e IJiffusionK odule in t'e @3S; soft&a#e. O$en t'e IJiffusionK
odule% !li!* on t'e IJiffusion Jesi"nK su+odule% and t'en do t'e follo&in"3
1. Ente# t'e "i-en data in left-'and &indo& t'at a$$ea#s. In t'e &indo& +elo& t'e la+el IJ LalueK ente#
t'e -alue of t'e diffusion !oeffi!ientM-i>. I7.?e-11K.
,. In t'e &indo& 2ust +elo& t'e la+el IInitial% C9K ente# t'e initial !on!ent#ationM-i>. I9..5K.
.. In t'e &indo& t'e lies +elo& ISu#fa!e% CsK ente# t'e su#fa!e !on!ent#ationM-i>. I9K.
5. T'en in t'e IJiffusion Tie tK &indo& ente# t'e tie in se!onds4 in 19 ' t'e#e a#e /79 s;in0/79
in;'0/19 '0 8 .7%999 sMso ente# t'e -alue I..7e5K.
5. Ne(t% at t'e +otto of t'is &indo& !li!* on t'e +utton la+eled IAdd !u#-eK.
7. On t'e #i"'t $o#tion of t'e s!#een &ill a$$ea# a !on!ent#ation $#ofile fo# t'is $a#ti!ula# diffusion
situation. A diaond-s'a$ed !u#so# &ill a$$ea# at t'e u$$e# left-'and !o#ne# of t'e #esultin" !u#-e. Cli!* and
d#a" t'is !u#so# do&n t'e !u#-e to t'e $oint at &'i!' t'e nu+e# +elo& ICon!ent#ation3K #eads I9.15 &tAK. T'en
#ead t'e -alue unde# t'e IJistan!e3K. @o# t'is $#o+le% t'is -alue /t'e solution to t'e $#o+le0 is #an"es +et&een
1.,5 and 1..9 .
E(!e#$ts f#o t'is &o#* a) +e #e$#odu!ed +) inst#u!to#s fo# dist#i+ution on a not-fo#-$#ofit +asis fo# testin" o# inst#u!tional $u#$oses onl) to students
en#olled in !ou#ses fo# &'i!' t'e te(t+oo* 'as +een ado$ted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections
107 or 108 of the 17! "nited States #opyri$ht Act without the permission of the copyri$ht owner is unlawful.
5.1. Citro$en from a $aseous phase is to be diffused into pure iron at 700°#. Df the surface
concentration is maintained at 0.1 wt9 C( what will be the concentration 1 mm from the surface after 10 h, -he
diffusion coefficient for nitro$en in iron at 700°# is 0.. × 10
-11
m
0
1s.
Solution
T'is $#o+le as*s us to !o$ute t'e nit#o"en !on!ent#ation /#
x
0 at t'e 1 $osition afte# a 19 '
diffusion tie% &'en diffusion is nonstead)-state. @#o E6uation 5.5


#
x
− #
9
#
s
− #
9
8
#
x
− 9
9.1 − 9
8 1 − e#f
x
, 5t
¸
¸

_
,


8 1 − e#f
19
−.

/,0 /,.5 × 19
−11

,
;s0 /19 '0/.799 s ; '0

¸

1
]
1
1
8 1 N e#f /9.5,<0
Usin" data in Ta+le 5.1 and linea# inte#$olation
7 e#f / 7 0
9.599 9.5,95
9.5,< y
9.559 9.57..


9.5,< − 9.599
9.559 − 9.599
8
y − 9.5,95
9.57.. − 9.5,95
f#o &'i!'
y 8 e#f /9.5,<0 8 9.55.7
T'us%


#
x
− 9
9.1 − 9
8 1.9 − 9.55.7
E(!e#$ts f#o t'is &o#* a) +e #e$#odu!ed +) inst#u!to#s fo# dist#i+ution on a not-fo#-$#ofit +asis fo# testin" o# inst#u!tional $u#$oses onl) to students
en#olled in !ou#ses fo# &'i!' t'e te(t+oo* 'as +een ado$ted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections
107 or 108 of the 17! "nited States #opyri$ht Act without the permission of the copyri$ht owner is unlawful.
T'is e($#ession "i-es
#
x
8 9.957 &tA N
Cote: t'is $#o+le a) also +e sol-ed usin" t'e IJiffusionK odule in t'e @3S; soft&a#e. O$en t'e IJiffusionK
odule% !li!* on t'e IJiffusion Jesi"nK su+odule% and t'en do t'e follo&in"3
1. Ente# t'e "i-en data in left-'and &indo& t'at a$$ea#s. In t'e &indo& +elo& t'e la+el IJ LalueK ente#
t'e -alue of t'e diffusion !oeffi!ientM-i>. I,.5e-11K.
,. In t'e &indo& 2ust +elo& t'e la+el IInitial% C9K ente# t'e initial !on!ent#ationM-i>. I9K.
.. In t'e &indo& t'e lies +elo& ISu#fa!e% CsK ente# t'e su#fa!e !on!ent#ationM-i>. I9.1K.
5. T'en in t'e IJiffusion Tie tK &indo& ente# t'e tie in se!onds4 in 19 ' t'e#e a#e /79 s;in0/79
in;'0/19 '0 8 .7%999 sMso ente# t'e -alue I..7e5K.
5. Ne(t% at t'e +otto of t'is &indo& !li!* on t'e +utton la+eled IAdd !u#-eK.
7. On t'e #i"'t $o#tion of t'e s!#een &ill a$$ea# a !on!ent#ation $#ofile fo# t'is $a#ti!ula# diffusion
situation. A diaond-s'a$ed !u#so# &ill a$$ea# at t'e u$$e# left-'and !o#ne# of t'e #esultin" !u#-e. Cli!* and
d#a" t'is !u#so# do&n t'e !u#-e to t'e $oint at &'i!' t'e nu+e# +elo& IJistan!e3K #eads I1.99 K. T'en #ead
t'e -alue unde# t'e ICon!ent#ation3K. @o# t'is $#o+le% t'is -alue /t'e solution to t'e $#o+le0 is 9.95 &tA.
E(!e#$ts f#o t'is &o#* a) +e #e$#odu!ed +) inst#u!to#s fo# dist#i+ution on a not-fo#-$#ofit +asis fo# testin" o# inst#u!tional $u#$oses onl) to students
en#olled in !ou#ses fo# &'i!' t'e te(t+oo* 'as +een ado$ted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections
107 or 108 of the 17! "nited States #opyri$ht Act without the permission of the copyri$ht owner is unlawful.
5.15 #onsider a diffusion couple composed of two semi-infinite solids of the same metal( and that each
side of the diffusion couple has a different concentration of the same elemental impurity& furthermore( assume
each impurity le%el is constant throu$hout its side of the diffusion couple. >or this situation( the solution to >ickEs
second law )assumin$ that the diffusion coefficient for the impurity is independent of concentration*( is as follows:

#
x
8
#
1
= #
,
,
¸
¸

_
,


#
1
− #
,
,
¸
¸

_
,

e#f
x
, 5t
¸
¸

_
,

)..1.*
Dn this expression( when the x F 0 position is taken as the initial diffusion couple interface( then #1 is the impurity
concentration for x G 0& likewise( #0 is the impurity content for x H 0.
A diffusion couple composed of two sil%er-$old alloys is formed& these alloys ha%e compositions of 8 wt
9 A$A0 wt9 Au and . wt9 A$A. wt9 Au. 5etermine the time this diffusion couple must be heated at 7.0I# )100/
B* in order for the composition to be 0.. wt9 Au at the .0 mm position into the 0 wt9 Au side of the diffusion
couple. <reexponential and acti%ation ener$y %alues for Au diffusion in A$ are 8.. × 10
A.
m
0
1s and 000(100 41mol(
respecti%ely.
Solution
@o# t'is $latinu-"old diffusion !ou$le fo# &'i!' #
1
8 5 &tA Au and #
,
8 , &tA Au% &e a#e as*ed to
dete#ine t'e diffusion tie at <59°C t'at &ill "i-e a !o$osition of ,.5 &tA Au at t'e 59 µ $osition. T'us% fo#
t'is $#o+le% E6uation 5.15 ta*es t'e fo#


,.5 8
5 + ,
,
¸
¸

_
,


5 − ,
,
¸
¸

_
,

e#f
59 × 19
−7

, 5t
¸
¸

_
,

It no& +e!oes ne!essa#) to !o$ute t'e diffusion !oeffi!ient at <59°C /19,. D0 "i-en t'at 5
9
8 :.5 × 19
-5

,
;s
and ?
d
8 ,9,%199 C;ol. @#o E6uation 5.: &e 'a-e


5 8 5
9
e($ −
?
d
=-
¸
¸

_
,


8 /:.5 × 19
-5

,
;s0 e($ −
,9,%199 C;ol
/:..1 C;ol − D0/19,. D0

¸

1
]
1
8 5.9. × 19
-15

,
;s
E(!e#$ts f#o t'is &o#* a) +e #e$#odu!ed +) inst#u!to#s fo# dist#i+ution on a not-fo#-$#ofit +asis fo# testin" o# inst#u!tional $u#$oses onl) to students
en#olled in !ou#ses fo# &'i!' t'e te(t+oo* 'as +een ado$ted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections
107 or 108 of the 17! "nited States #opyri$ht Act without the permission of the copyri$ht owner is unlawful.
Su+stitution of t'is -alue into t'e a+o-e e6uation leads to


,.5 8
5 + ,
,
¸
¸

_
,

5 − ,
,
¸
¸

_
,
e#f
59 × 19
−7

, /5.9. × 19
−15

,
;s0 /t0

¸

1
]
1
1
T'is e($#ession #edu!es to t'e follo&in" fo#3


9.777< 8 e#f
.?..: s
t
¸
¸

_
,

Usin" data in Ta+le 5.1% it is ne!essa#) to dete#ine t'e -alue of 7 fo# &'i!' t'e e##o# fun!tion is 9.777< 1e use
linea# inte#$olation as follo&s3
7 e#f / 70
9.759 9.75,9
y 9.777<
9.<99 9.7<<:


y − 9.759
9.<99 − 9.759
8
9.777< − 9.75,9
9.7<<: − 9.75,9
f#o &'i!'


y 8 9.7:55 8
.?..: s
t
And% sol-in" fo# t "i-es
t 8 ...1 × 19
5
s 8 ?, '
E(!e#$ts f#o t'is &o#* a) +e #e$#odu!ed +) inst#u!to#s fo# dist#i+ution on a not-fo#-$#ofit +asis fo# testin" o# inst#u!tional $u#$oses onl) to students
en#olled in !ou#ses fo# &'i!' t'e te(t+oo* 'as +een ado$ted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections
107 or 108 of the 17! "nited States #opyri$ht Act without the permission of the copyri$ht owner is unlawful.
5.15 >or a steel alloy it has been determined that a carburi7in$ heat treatment of 10-h duration will
raise the carbon concentration to 0.2. wt9 at a point 0.. mm from the surface. ;stimate the time necessary to
achie%e the same concentration at a ..0-mm position for an identical steel and at the same carburi7in$
temperature.
Solution
T'is $#o+le !alls fo# an estiate of t'e tie ne!essa#) to a!'ie-e a !a#+on !on!ent#ation of 9.55 &tA at
a $oint 5.9 f#o t'e su#fa!e. @#o E6uation 5.7+%


x
,
5t
8 !onstant
But sin!e t'e te$e#atu#e is !onstant% so also is 5 !onstant% and


x
,
t
8 !onstant
o#


x
1
,
t
1
8
x
,
,
t
,
T'us%


/,.5 0
,
19 '
8
/5.9 0
,
t
,
f#o &'i!'
t
,
8 59 '
E(!e#$ts f#o t'is &o#* a) +e #e$#odu!ed +) inst#u!to#s fo# dist#i+ution on a not-fo#-$#ofit +asis fo# testin" o# inst#u!tional $u#$oses onl) to students
en#olled in !ou#ses fo# &'i!' t'e te(t+oo* 'as +een ado$ted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections
107 or 108 of the 17! "nited States #opyri$ht Act without the permission of the copyri$ht owner is unlawful.
Factors That Influence Diffusion
5.17 #ite the %alues of the diffusion coefficients for the interdiffusion of carbon in both J-iron )B##* and
K-iron )>##* at 00L#. +hich is lar$er, ;xplain why this is the case.
Solution
1e a#e as*ed to !o$ute t'e diffusion !oeffi!ients of C in +ot' α and γ i#on at ?99°C. Usin" t'e data in
Ta+le 5.,%


5
α
8 /7., × 19
-<

,
;s0 e($ −
:9% 999 C;ol
/:..1 C;ol - D0/11<. D0

¸

1
]
1
8 1.7? × 19
-19

,
;s


5
γ
8 /,.. × 19
-5

,
;s0 e($ −
15:% 999 C;ol
/:..1 C;ol - D0/11<. D0

¸

1
]
1
8 5.:7 × 19
-1,

,
;s
T'e 5 fo# diffusion of C in BCC α i#on is la#"e#% t'e #eason +ein" t'at t'e atoi! $a!*in" fa!to# is
salle# t'an fo# @CC γ i#on /9.7: -e#sus 9.<5MSe!tion ..504 t'is eans t'at t'e#e is sli"'tl) o#e inte#stitial -oid
s$a!e in t'e BCC @e% and% t'e#efo#e% t'e otion of t'e inte#stitial !a#+on atos o!!u#s o#e easil).
E(!e#$ts f#o t'is &o#* a) +e #e$#odu!ed +) inst#u!to#s fo# dist#i+ution on a not-fo#-$#ofit +asis fo# testin" o# inst#u!tional $u#$oses onl) to students
en#olled in !ou#ses fo# &'i!' t'e te(t+oo* 'as +een ado$ted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections
107 or 108 of the 17! "nited States #opyri$ht Act without the permission of the copyri$ht owner is unlawful.
5.1< "sin$ the data in -able ..0( compute the %alue of 5 for the diffusion of 7inc in copper at !.0I#.
Solution
In!o#$o#atin" t'e a$$#o$#iate data f#o Ta+le 5., into E6uation 5.: leads to


5 8 /,.5 × 19
-5

,
;s0 e($ −
1:?% 999 C;ol
/:..1 C;ol - D0/759 + ,<. D0

¸

1
]
1
8 5.: × 19
-17

,
;s
Cote: t'is $#o+le a) also +e sol-ed usin" t'e IJiffusionK odule in t'e @3S; soft&a#e. O$en t'e IJiffusionK
odule% !li!* on t'e IJ -s 1;T PlotK su+odule% and t'en do t'e follo&in"3
1. In t'e left-'and &indo& t'at a$$ea#s% !li!* on t'e IOn-CuK $ai# unde# t'e IJiffusin" S$e!iesK-IHost
MetalK 'eadin"s.
,. Ne(t% at t'e +otto of t'is &indo&% !li!* t'e IAdd Cu#-eK +utton.
.. A lo" J -e#sus 1;T $lot t'en a$$ea#s% &it' a line fo# t'e te$e#atu#e de$enden!e of t'e diffusion
!oeffi!ient fo# On in Cu. No& unde# ITe$ Ran"eK in t'e +o(es a$$ea#in" +elo& IT Ma(K !'an"e t'e te$e#atu#e
to eit'e# I759K C o# I?,.K D. At t'e to$ of t'is !u#-e is a diaond-s'a$ed !u#so#. Cli!*-and-d#a" t'is !u#so#
do&n t'e line to t'e $oint at &'i!' t'e ent#) unde# t'e ITe$e#atu#e /T03K la+el #eads ?,. D /inasu!' as t'is is
t'e Del-in e6ui-alent of 759PC0. @inall)% t'e diffusion !oeffi!ient -alue at t'is te$e#atu#e is "i-en unde# t'e la+el
IJiff Coeff /J03K. @o# t'is $#o+le% t'e -alue is 5.< × 19
-17

,
;s.
E(!e#$ts f#o t'is &o#* a) +e #e$#odu!ed +) inst#u!to#s fo# dist#i+ution on a not-fo#-$#ofit +asis fo# testin" o# inst#u!tional $u#$oses onl) to students
en#olled in !ou#ses fo# &'i!' t'e te(t+oo* 'as +een ado$ted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections
107 or 108 of the 17! "nited States #opyri$ht Act without the permission of the copyri$ht owner is unlawful.
5.1: At what temperature will the diffusion coefficient for the diffusion of copper in nickel ha%e a %alue
of !.. × 10
-17
m
0
1s. "se the diffusion data in -able ..0.
Solution
Sol-in" fo# - f#o E6uation 5.?a


- 8 −
?
d
=/ln 5 − ln 5
9
0
and usin" t'e data f#o Ta+le 5., fo# t'e diffusion of Cu in Ni /i.e.% 5
9
8 ,.< × 19
-5

,
;s and ?
d
8 ,57%999
C;ol0 % &e "et


- 8 −
,57% 999 C;ol
/:..1 C;ol - D0 ln /7.5 × 19
-1<

,
;s0 − ln /,.< × 19
-5

,
;s0
[ ]
8 115, D 8 :<?°C
Cote: t'is $#o+le a) also +e sol-ed usin" t'e IJiffusionK odule in t'e @3S; soft&a#e. O$en t'e IJiffusionK
odule% !li!* on t'e IJ -s 1;T PlotK su+odule% and t'en do t'e follo&in"3
1. In t'e left-'and &indo& t'at a$$ea#s% t'e#e is a $#eset set of data fo# se-e#al diffusion s)stes. Cli!*
on t'e +o( fo# &'i!' Cu is t'e diffusin" s$e!ies and Ni is t'e 'ost etal. Ne(t% at t'e +otto of t'is &indo&% !li!*
t'e IAdd Cu#-eK +utton.
,. A lo" J -e#sus 1;T $lot t'en a$$ea#s% &it' a line fo# t'e te$e#atu#e de$enden!e of t'e diffusion
!oeffi!ient fo# Cu in Ni. At t'e to$ of t'is !u#-e is a diaond-s'a$ed !u#so#. Cli!*-and-d#a" t'is !u#so# do&n t'e
line to t'e $oint at &'i!' t'e ent#) unde# t'e IJiff Coeff /J03K la+el #eads 7.5 × 19
-1<

,
;s. T'e te$e#atu#e at
&'i!' t'e diffusion !oeffi!ient 'as t'is -alue is "i-en unde# t'e la+el ITe$e#atu#e /T03K. @o# t'is $#o+le% t'e
-alue is 115. D.
E(!e#$ts f#o t'is &o#* a) +e #e$#odu!ed +) inst#u!to#s fo# dist#i+ution on a not-fo#-$#ofit +asis fo# testin" o# inst#u!tional $u#$oses onl) to students
en#olled in !ou#ses fo# &'i!' t'e te(t+oo* 'as +een ado$ted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections
107 or 108 of the 17! "nited States #opyri$ht Act without the permission of the copyri$ht owner is unlawful.
5.1? -he preexponential and acti%ation ener$y for the diffusion of iron in cobalt are 1.1 × 10
-.
m
0
1s and
0./(/00 41mol( respecti%ely. At what temperature will the diffusion coefficient ha%e a %alue of 0.1 × 10
-12
m
0
1s,
Solution
@o# t'is $#o+le &e a#e "i-en 5
9
/1.1 × 19
-5
0 and ?
d
/,5.%.99 C;ol0 fo# t'e diffusion of @e in Co% and
as*ed to !o$ute t'e te$e#atu#e at &'i!' 5 = ,.1 × 19
-15

,
;s. Sol-in" fo# - f#o E6uation 5.?a )ields


- 8
?
d
=/ln 5
9
− ln 50

8
,5.% .99 C;ol
/:..1 C;ol - D0 ln /1.1 × 19
-5

,
;s0 - ln /,.1 × 19
-15

,
;s0
[ ]
8 151: D 8 1,55°C
Cote: t'is $#o+le a) also +e sol-ed usin" t'e IJiffusionK odule in t'e @3S; soft&a#e. O$en t'e IJiffusionK
odule% !li!* on t'e IJ -s 1;T PlotK su+odule% and t'en do t'e follo&in"3
1. In t'e left-'and &indo& t'at a$$ea#s% !li!* on t'e ICusto1K +o(.
,. In t'e !olun on t'e #i"'t-'and side of t'is &indo& ente# t'e data fo# t'is $#o+le. In t'e &indo&
unde# IJ9K ente# $#ee($onential -alueM-i>. I1.1e-5K. Ne(t 2ust +elo& t'e IQdK &indo& ente# t'e a!ti-ation
ene#") -alueM-i>. I,5...K. It is ne(t ne!essa#) to s$e!if) a te$e#atu#e #an"e o-e# &'i!' t'e data is to +e $lotted.
T'e te$e#atu#e at &'i!' 5 'as t'e sti$ulated -alue is $#o+a+l) +et&een 1999PC and 1599PC% so ente# I1999K in
t'e IT MinK +o( t'at is +eside ICK4 and siila#l) fo# t'e a(iu te$e#atu#eMente# I1599K in t'e +o( +elo&
IT Ma(K.
.. Ne(t% at t'e +otto of t'is &indo&% !li!* t'e IAdd Cu#-eK +utton.
5. A lo" J -e#sus 1;T $lot t'en a$$ea#s% &it' a line fo# t'e te$e#atu#e de$enden!e of t'e diffusion
!oeffi!ient fo# @e in Co. At t'e to$ of t'is !u#-e is a diaond-s'a$ed !u#so#. Cli!*-and-d#a" t'is !u#so# do&n t'e
line to t'e $oint at &'i!' t'e ent#) unde# t'e IJiff Coeff /J03K la+el #eads ,.1 × 19
-15

,
;s. T'e te$e#atu#e at
&'i!' t'e diffusion !oeffi!ient 'as t'is -alue is "i-en unde# t'e la+el ITe$e#atu#e /T03K. @o# t'is $#o+le% t'e
-alue is 151? D.
E(!e#$ts f#o t'is &o#* a) +e #e$#odu!ed +) inst#u!to#s fo# dist#i+ution on a not-fo#-$#ofit +asis fo# testin" o# inst#u!tional $u#$oses onl) to students
en#olled in !ou#ses fo# &'i!' t'e te(t+oo* 'as +een ado$ted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections
107 or 108 of the 17! "nited States #opyri$ht Act without the permission of the copyri$ht owner is unlawful.
5.,9 -he acti%ation ener$y for the diffusion of carbon in chromium is 111(000 41mol. #alculate the
diffusion coefficient at 1100 B )807°#*( $i%en that 5 at 1200 B )1107°#* is !.0. × 10
-11
m
0
1s.
Solution
To sol-e t'is $#o+le it fi#st +e!oes ne!essa#) to sol-e fo# 5
9
f#o E6uation 5.: as


5
9
8 5 e($
?
d
=-
¸
¸

_
,


8 /7.,5 × 19
-11

,
;s0e($
111% 999 C ; ol
/:..1 C;ol - D0/1599 D0

¸

1
]
1
8 :.< × 19
-<

,
;s
No&% sol-in" fo# 5 at 1199 D /a"ain usin" E6uation 5.:0 "i-es


5 8 /:.< × 19
-<

,
;s0e($ −
111% 999 C;ol
/:..1 C;ol - D0/1199 D0

¸

1
]
1
8 5.7 × 19
-1,

,
;s
E(!e#$ts f#o t'is &o#* a) +e #e$#odu!ed +) inst#u!to#s fo# dist#i+ution on a not-fo#-$#ofit +asis fo# testin" o# inst#u!tional $u#$oses onl) to students
en#olled in !ou#ses fo# &'i!' t'e te(t+oo* 'as +een ado$ted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections
107 or 108 of the 17! "nited States #opyri$ht Act without the permission of the copyri$ht owner is unlawful.
5.,1 -he diffusion coefficients for iron in nickel are $i%en at two temperatures:
- /B0 5 /m
,
;s0
107/ .2 M 10
A1!
127/ 0.2 M 10
A12
)a* 5etermine the %alues of 50 and the acti%ation ener$y ?d.
)b* +hat is the ma$nitude of 5 at 1100I# )1/7/ B*,
Solution
/a0 Usin" E6uation 5.?a% &e set u$ t&o siultaneous e6uations &it' ?
d
and 5
9
as un*no&ns as follo&s3


ln 5
1
· ln5
9

?
d
=
1
-
1
¸
¸

_
,


ln 5
,
· ln5
9

?
d
=
1
-
,
¸
¸

_
,

No&% sol-in" fo# ?
d
in te#s of te$e#atu#es -
1
and -
,
/1,<.

D and 15<.

D0 and 5
1
and 5
,
/?.5 × 19
-17
and ,.5
× 19
-15

,
;s0% &e "et


?
d
8 − =
ln 5
1
− ln 5
,
1
-
1

1
-
,

8 − /:..1 C;ol - D0
ln /?.5 × 19
-17
0 − ln /,.5 × 19
-15
0
[ ]
1
1,<. D

1
15<. D
8 ,5,%599 C;ol
No&% sol-in" fo# 5
9
f#o E6uation 5.: /and usin" t'e 1,<. D -alue of 50

5
9
8 5
1
e($
?
d
=-
1
¸
¸

_
,

E(!e#$ts f#o t'is &o#* a) +e #e$#odu!ed +) inst#u!to#s fo# dist#i+ution on a not-fo#-$#ofit +asis fo# testin" o# inst#u!tional $u#$oses onl) to students
en#olled in !ou#ses fo# &'i!' t'e te(t+oo* 'as +een ado$ted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections
107 or 108 of the 17! "nited States #opyri$ht Act without the permission of the copyri$ht owner is unlawful.

8 /?.5 × 19
-17

,
;s0e($
,5,% 599 C;ol
/:..1 C;ol - D0/1,<. D0

¸

1
]
1
8 ,., × 19
-5

,
;s
/+0 Usin" t'ese -alues of 5
9
and ?
d
% 5 at 1.<.

D is 2ust


5 8 /,., × 19
-5

,
;s0e($ −
,5,% 599 C;ol
/:..1 C;ol - D0/1.<. D0

¸

1
]
1
8 5.5 × 19
-15

,
;s
Cote: t'is $#o+le a) also +e sol-ed usin" t'e IJiffusionK odule in t'e @3S; soft&a#e. O$en t'e IJiffusionK
odule% !li!* on t'e IJ9 and Qd f#o E($e#iental JataK su+odule% and t'en do t'e follo&in"3
1. In t'e left-'and &indo& t'at a$$ea#s% ente# t'e t&o te$e#atu#es f#o t'e ta+le in t'e +oo* /-i>.
I1,<.K and I15<.K% in t'e fi#st t&o +o(es unde# t'e !olun la+eled IT /D0K. Ne(t% ente# t'e !o##es$ondin"
diffusion !oeffi!ient -alues /-i>. I?.5e-17K and I,.5e-15K0.
.. Ne(t% at t'e +otto of t'is &indo&% !li!* t'e IPlot dataK +utton.
5. A lo" J -e#sus 1;T $lot t'en a$$ea#s% &it' a line fo# t'e te$e#atu#e de$enden!e fo# t'is diffusion
s)ste. At t'e to$ of t'is &indo& a#e "i-e -alues fo# 5
9
and ?
d
4 fo# t'is s$e!ifi! $#o+le t'ese -alues a#e ,.1< ×
19
-5

,
;s and ,5, *C;ol% #es$e!ti-el)
5. To sol-e t'e /+0 $a#t of t'e $#o+le &e utili>e t'e diaond-s'a$ed !u#so# t'at is lo!ated at t'e to$ of
t'e line on t'is $lot. Cli!*-and-d#a" t'is !u#so# do&n t'e line to t'e $oint at &'i!' t'e ent#) unde# t'e
ITe$e#atu#e /T03K la+el #eads I1.<.K. T'e -alue of t'e diffusion !oeffi!ient at t'is te$e#atu#e is "i-en unde# t'e
la+el IJiff Coeff /J03K. @o# ou# $#o+le% t'is -alue is 5.5 × 19
-15

,
;s.
E(!e#$ts f#o t'is &o#* a) +e #e$#odu!ed +) inst#u!to#s fo# dist#i+ution on a not-fo#-$#ofit +asis fo# testin" o# inst#u!tional $u#$oses onl) to students
en#olled in !ou#ses fo# &'i!' t'e te(t+oo* 'as +een ado$ted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections
107 or 108 of the 17! "nited States #opyri$ht Act without the permission of the copyri$ht owner is unlawful.
5.,, -he diffusion coefficients for sil%er in copper are $i%en at two temperatures:
- /L#0 5 /m
0
1s0
!.0 ... M 10
A1!
00 1./ M 10
A1/
)a* 5etermine the %alues of 50 and ?d.
)b* +hat is the ma$nitude of 5 at 87.L#,
Solution
/a0 Usin" E6uation 5.?a% &e set u$ t&o siultaneous e6uations &it' ?
d
and 5
9
as un*no&ns as follo&s3


ln 5
1
· ln5
9

?
d
=
1
-
1
¸
¸

_
,


ln 5
,
· ln5
9

?
d
=
1
-
,
¸
¸

_
,

Sol-in" fo# ?
d
in te#s of te$e#atu#es -
1
and -
,
/?,.

D E759°CG and 11<.

D E?99°CG0 and 5
1
and 5
,
/5.5 × 19
-
17
and 1.. × 19
-1.

,
;s0% &e "et


?
d
8 − =
ln 5
1
− ln 5
,
1
-
1

1
-
,

8 −
/:..1 C;ol - D0 ln /5.5 × 19
-17
0 − ln /1.. × 19
-1.
0
[ ]
1
?,. D

1
11<. D
8 1?7%<99 C;ol
No&% sol-in" fo# 5
9
f#o E6uation 5.: /and usin" t'e 759°C -alue of 50


5
9
8 5
1
e($
?
d
=-
1
¸
¸

_
,

E(!e#$ts f#o t'is &o#* a) +e #e$#odu!ed +) inst#u!to#s fo# dist#i+ution on a not-fo#-$#ofit +asis fo# testin" o# inst#u!tional $u#$oses onl) to students
en#olled in !ou#ses fo# &'i!' t'e te(t+oo* 'as +een ado$ted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections
107 or 108 of the 17! "nited States #opyri$ht Act without the permission of the copyri$ht owner is unlawful.

8 /5.5 × 19
-17

,
;s0e($
1?7% <99 C;ol
/:..1 C;ol - D0/?,. D0

¸

1
]
1
8 <.5 × 19
-5

,
;s
/+0 Usin" t'ese -alues of 5
9
and ?
d
% 5 at 115:

D /:<5°C0 is 2ust


5 8 /<.5 × 19
-5

,
;s0e($ −
1?7% <99 C;ol
/:..1 C;ol - D0/115: D0

¸

1
]
1
8 :.. × 19
-15

,
;s
Cote: t'is $#o+le a) also +e sol-ed usin" t'e IJiffusionK odule in t'e @3S; soft&a#e. O$en t'e IJiffusionK
odule% !li!* on t'e IJ9 and Qd f#o E($e#iental JataK su+odule% and t'en do t'e follo&in"3
1. In t'e left-'and &indo& t'at a$$ea#s% ente# t'e t&o te$e#atu#es f#o t'e ta+le in t'e +oo* /!on-e#ted
f#o de"#ees Celsius to Del-ins0 /-i>. I?,.K /759PC0 and I11<.K /?99PC0% in t'e fi#st t&o +o(es unde# t'e !olun
la+eled IT /D0K. Ne(t% ente# t'e !o##es$ondin" diffusion !oeffi!ient -alues /-i>. I5.5e-17K and I1..e-1.K0.
.. Ne(t% at t'e +otto of t'is &indo&% !li!* t'e IPlot dataK +utton.
5. A lo" J -e#sus 1;T $lot t'en a$$ea#s% &it' a line fo# t'e te$e#atu#e de$enden!e fo# t'is diffusion
s)ste. At t'e to$ of t'is &indo& a#e "i-e -alues fo# 5
9
and ?
d
4 fo# t'is s$e!ifi! $#o+le t'ese -alues a#e <.55 ×
19
-5

,
;s and 1?7 *C;ol% #es$e!ti-el)
5. To sol-e t'e /+0 $a#t of t'e $#o+le &e utili>e t'e diaond-s'a$ed !u#so# t'at is lo!ated at t'e to$ of
t'e line on t'is $lot. Cli!*-and-d#a" t'is !u#so# do&n t'e line to t'e $oint at &'i!' t'e ent#) unde# t'e
ITe$e#atu#e /T03K la+el #eads I115:K /i.e.% :<5PC0. T'e -alue of t'e diffusion !oeffi!ient at t'is te$e#atu#e is
"i-en unde# t'e la+el IJiff Coeff /J03K. @o# ou# $#o+le% t'is -alue is :.? × 19
-15

,
;s.
E(!e#$ts f#o t'is &o#* a) +e #e$#odu!ed +) inst#u!to#s fo# dist#i+ution on a not-fo#-$#ofit +asis fo# testin" o# inst#u!tional $u#$oses onl) to students
en#olled in !ou#ses fo# &'i!' t'e te(t+oo* 'as +een ado$ted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections
107 or 108 of the 17! "nited States #opyri$ht Act without the permission of the copyri$ht owner is unlawful.
5.,. Below is shown a plot of the lo$arithm )to the base 10* of the diffusion coefficient %ersus reciprocal
of the absolute temperature( for the diffusion of iron in chromium. 5etermine %alues for the acti%ation ener$y and
preexponential.
Solution
T'is $#o+le as*s us to dete#ine t'e -alues of ?
d
and 5
9
fo# t'e diffusion of @e in C# f#o t'e $lot of
lo" 5 -e#sus 1;-. A!!o#din" to E6uation 5.?+ t'e slo$e of t'is $lot is e6ual to



?
d
,..=
/#at'e# t'an



?
d
=
sin!e &e a#e usin" lo" 5 #at'e# t'an ln 50 and t'e inte#!e$t at 1;- 8 9 "i-es t'e -alue of lo" 5
9
. T'e slo$e is e6ual
to


slo$e 8
∆ /lo" 50

1
-
¸
¸

_
,

8
lo" 5
1
− lo" 5
,
1
-
1

1
-
,
Ta*in" 1;-
1
and 1;-
,
as 9.75 × 19
-.
and 9.79 × 19
-.
D
-1
% #es$e!ti-el)% t'en t'e !o##es$ondin" -alues of 5
1
and 5
,
a#e ,.:1 × 19
-17
and 1.:, × 19
-15
% as noted in t'e fi"u#e +elo&.
E(!e#$ts f#o t'is &o#* a) +e #e$#odu!ed +) inst#u!to#s fo# dist#i+ution on a not-fo#-$#ofit +asis fo# testin" o# inst#u!tional $u#$oses onl) to students
en#olled in !ou#ses fo# &'i!' t'e te(t+oo* 'as +een ado$ted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections
107 or 108 of the 17! "nited States #opyri$ht Act without the permission of the copyri$ht owner is unlawful.
T'e -alues of lo" 5
1
and lo" 5
,
a#e N15.79 and N15.<5% and t'e#efo#e%


?
d
8 −,.. = /slo$e0


?
d
8 −,.. =
lo" 5
1
− lo" 5
,
1
-
1

1
-
,

8 − /,..0/:..1 C;ol- D0
−15.79 − /−15.<50
/9.75 × 19
−.
− 9.79 × 19
−.
0 D
−1

¸

1
]
1
8 .,?%999 C;ol
Rat'e# t'an t#)in" to a*e a "#a$'i!al e(t#a$olation to dete#ine 5
9
% a o#e a!!u#ate -alue is o+tained
anal)ti!all) usin" E6uation 5.?+ ta*in" a s$e!ifi! -alue of +ot' 5 and - /f#o 1;-0 f#o t'e $lot "i-en in t'e
$#o+le4 fo# e(a$le% 5 8 1.9 × 19
-15

,
;s at - 8 17,7 D /1;- 8 9.715 × 19
-.
D
-1
0. T'e#efo#e


5
9
8 5 e($
?
d
=-
¸
¸

_
,


8 /1.9 × 19
-15

,
;s0e($
.,?% 999 C;ol
/:..1 C;ol - D0/17,7 D0

¸

1
]
1
E(!e#$ts f#o t'is &o#* a) +e #e$#odu!ed +) inst#u!to#s fo# dist#i+ution on a not-fo#-$#ofit +asis fo# testin" o# inst#u!tional $u#$oses onl) to students
en#olled in !ou#ses fo# &'i!' t'e te(t+oo* 'as +een ado$ted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections
107 or 108 of the 17! "nited States #opyri$ht Act without the permission of the copyri$ht owner is unlawful.
8 ..<5 × 19
-5

,
;s
E(!e#$ts f#o t'is &o#* a) +e #e$#odu!ed +) inst#u!to#s fo# dist#i+ution on a not-fo#-$#ofit +asis fo# testin" o# inst#u!tional $u#$oses onl) to students
en#olled in !ou#ses fo# &'i!' t'e te(t+oo* 'as +een ado$ted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections
107 or 108 of the 17! "nited States #opyri$ht Act without the permission of the copyri$ht owner is unlawful.
5.,5 #arbon is allowed to diffuse throu$h a steel plate 1. mm thick. -he concentrations of carbon at the
two faces are 0.!. and 0./0 k$ #1m
/
>e( which are maintained constant. Df the preexponential and acti%ation
ener$y are !.0 × 10
-7
m
0
1s and 80(000 41mol( respecti%ely( compute the temperature at which the diffusion flux is
1.2/ × 10
-
k$1m
0
-s.
Solution
Co+inin" E6uations 5.. and 5.: )ields


4 8 −5
∆#
∆x


8 −5
9
∆#
∆x
e($ −
?
d
=-
¸
¸

_
,

Sol-in" fo# - f#o t'is e($#ession leads to


- 8
?
d
=
¸
¸

_
,

1
ln −
5
9
∆#
4 ∆x
¸
¸

_
,

And in!o#$o#ation of -alues $#o-ided in t'e $#o+le stateent )ields

8
:9% 999 C;ol
:..1 C;ol - D
¸
¸

_
,

1
ln
/7., × 19
−<

,
;s0/9.75 *";
.
− 9..9 *";
.
0
/1.5. × 19
−?
*";
,
- s0/15 × 19
−.
0

¸

1
]
1
8 1955 D 8 <<1°C
E(!e#$ts f#o t'is &o#* a) +e #e$#odu!ed +) inst#u!to#s fo# dist#i+ution on a not-fo#-$#ofit +asis fo# testin" o# inst#u!tional $u#$oses onl) to students
en#olled in !ou#ses fo# &'i!' t'e te(t+oo* 'as +een ado$ted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections
107 or 108 of the 17! "nited States #opyri$ht Act without the permission of the copyri$ht owner is unlawful.
5.,5 -he steady-state diffusion flux throu$h a metal plate is ..2 × 10
-10
k$1m
0
-s at a temperature of 707°#
)1000 B* and when the concentration $radient is -/.0 k$1m
2
. #alculate the diffusion flux at 1007°# )1/00 B* for
the same concentration $radient and assumin$ an acti%ation ener$y for diffusion of 10.(000 41mol.
Solution
In o#de# to sol-e t'is $#o+le% &e ust fi#st !o$ute t'e -alue of 5
9
f#o t'e data "i-en at <,<°C /1999
D04 t'is #e6ui#es t'e !o+inin" of +ot' E6uations 5.. and 5.: as


4 8 −5
∆#
∆x


8 −5
9
∆#
∆x
e($ −
?
d
=-
¸
¸

_
,

Sol-in" fo# 5
9
f#o t'e a+o-e e($#ession "i-es


5
9
8 −
4
∆#
∆x
e($
?
d
=-
¸
¸

_
,


8 −
5.5 × 19
−19
*";
,
- s
−.59 *" ;
5
¸
¸

_
,
e($
1,5% 999 C;ol
/:..1 C;ol - D0/1999 D0

¸

1
]
1
8 5.,7 × 19
-7

,
;s
T'e -alue of t'e diffusion flu( at 1.99 D a) +e !o$uted usin" t'ese sae t&o e6uations as follo&s3


4 8 −5
9
∆#
∆ x
¸
¸

_
,

e($ −
?
d
=-
¸
¸

_
,


8 −/5.,7 × 19
-7

,
;s0/−.59 *";
5
0e($ −
1,5% 999 C;ol
/:..1 C;ol - D0/1.99 D0

¸

1
]
1
8 1.<5 × 19
-:
*";
,
-s
E(!e#$ts f#o t'is &o#* a) +e #e$#odu!ed +) inst#u!to#s fo# dist#i+ution on a not-fo#-$#ofit +asis fo# testin" o# inst#u!tional $u#$oses onl) to students
en#olled in !ou#ses fo# &'i!' t'e te(t+oo* 'as +een ado$ted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections
107 or 108 of the 17! "nited States #opyri$ht Act without the permission of the copyri$ht owner is unlawful.
5.,7 At approximately what temperature would a specimen of γ-iron ha%e to be carburi7ed for 0 h to
produce the same diffusion result as at 00°# for 1. h,
Solution
To sol-e t'is $#o+le it is ne!essa#) to e$lo) E6uation 5.<


5t 8 !onstant
1'i!'% fo# t'is $#o+le% ta*es t'e fo#


5
?99
t
?99
8 5
T
t
T
At ?99°C% and usin" t'e data f#o Ta+le 5.,% fo# t'e diffusion of !a#+on in γ-i#onMi.e.%
5
9
8 ,.. × 19
-5

,
;s
?
d
8 15:%999 C;ol
t'e diffusion !oeffi!ient is e6ual to


5
?99
8 /,.. × 19
-5

,
;s0e($ −
15:% 999 C;ol
/:..1 C;ol - D0/?99 + ,<. D0

¸

1
]
1
8 5.? × 19
-1,

,
;s
T'us% f#o t'e a+o-e e6uation


/5.? × 19
-1,

,
;s0/15 '0 8 5
T
/, '0
And% sol-in" fo# 5
T


5
T
8
/5.? × 19
-1,

,
;s0/15 '0
, '
8 5.5. × 19
-11

,
;s
No&% sol-in" fo# - f#o E6uation 5.?a "i-es


- 8 −
?
d
=/ln 5
T
− ln 5
9
0
E(!e#$ts f#o t'is &o#* a) +e #e$#odu!ed +) inst#u!to#s fo# dist#i+ution on a not-fo#-$#ofit +asis fo# testin" o# inst#u!tional $u#$oses onl) to students
en#olled in !ou#ses fo# &'i!' t'e te(t+oo* 'as +een ado$ted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections
107 or 108 of the 17! "nited States #opyri$ht Act without the permission of the copyri$ht owner is unlawful.

8 −
15:% 999 C;ol
/:..1 C;ol - D0 ln /5.5. × 19
-11

,
;s0 − ln /,.. × 19
-5

,
;s0
[ ]
8 1.5.

D 8 19:9°C
E(!e#$ts f#o t'is &o#* a) +e #e$#odu!ed +) inst#u!to#s fo# dist#i+ution on a not-fo#-$#ofit +asis fo# testin" o# inst#u!tional $u#$oses onl) to students
en#olled in !ou#ses fo# &'i!' t'e te(t+oo* 'as +een ado$ted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections
107 or 108 of the 17! "nited States #opyri$ht Act without the permission of the copyri$ht owner is unlawful.
5.,< )a* #alculate the diffusion coefficient for copper in aluminum at .00I#.
)b* +hat time will be re8uired at !00I# to produce the same diffusion result )in terms of concentration at
a specific point* as for 10 h at .00I#,
Solution
/a0 1e a#e as*ed to !al!ulate t'e diffusion !oeffi!ient fo# Cu in Al at 599°C. Usin" t'e data in Ta+le 5.,
and E6uation 5.:


5 8 5
9
e($ −
?
d
=-
¸
¸

_
,


8 /7.5 × 19
-5

,
;s0e($ −
1.7% 999 C ; ol
/:..1 C;ol - D0/599 + ,<. D0

¸

1
]
1
8 5.15 × 19
-15

,
;s
/+0 T'is $o#tion of t'e $#o+le !alls fo# t'e tie #e6ui#ed at 799°C to $#odu!e t'e sae diffusion #esult
as fo# 19 ' at 599°C. E6uation 5.< is e$lo)ed as


5
599
t
599
8 5
799
t
799
No&% f#o E6uation 5.: t'e -alue of t'e diffusion !oeffi!ient at 799°C is !al!ulated as


5
799
8 /7.5 × 19
-5

,
;s0e($ −
1.7% 999 C;ol
/:..1 C;ol - D0/799 + ,<. D0

¸

1
]
1
8 5.7? × 19
-1.

,
;s
T'us%


t
799
8
5
599
t
599
5
799

8
/5.15 × 19
−15

,
;s0/19 '0
/5.7? × 19
−1.

,
;s0
8 9.:: '
E(!e#$ts f#o t'is &o#* a) +e #e$#odu!ed +) inst#u!to#s fo# dist#i+ution on a not-fo#-$#ofit +asis fo# testin" o# inst#u!tional $u#$oses onl) to students
en#olled in !ou#ses fo# &'i!' t'e te(t+oo* 'as +een ado$ted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections
107 or 108 of the 17! "nited States #opyri$ht Act without the permission of the copyri$ht owner is unlawful.
5.,: A copper-nickel diffusion couple similar to that shown in >i$ure ..1a is fashioned. After a 700-h
heat treatment at 1100°# )1/7/ B* the concentration of #u is 0.. wt9 at the /.0-mm position within the nickel. At
what temperature must the diffusion couple need to be heated to produce this same concentration )i.e.( 0.. wt9
#u* at a 0.0-mm position after 700 h, -he preexponential and acti%ation ener$y for the diffusion of #u in Ci are
$i%en in -able ..0.
Solution
In o#de# to dete#ine t'e te$e#atu#e to &'i!' t'e diffusion !ou$le ust +e 'eated so as to $#odu!e a
!on!ent#ation of ,.5 &tA Ni at t'e ,.9- $osition% &e ust fi#st utili>e E6uation 5.7+ &it' tie t +ein" a
!onstant. T'at is


x
,
5
8 !onstant
O#


x
1199
,
5
1199
8
x
T
,
5
T
No&% sol-in" fo# 5
T
f#o t'is e6uation% )ields


5
T
8
x
T
,
5
1199
x
1199
,
and in!o#$o#atin" t'e te$e#atu#e de$enden!e of 5
1199

utili>in" E6uation /5.:0% #eali>in" t'at fo# t'e diffusion of
Cu in Ni /Ta+le 5.,0
5
9
8 ,.< × 19
-5

,
;s
?
d
8 ,57%999 C;ol
t'en


5
T
8
x
T
,
( )
5
9
e($ −
?
d
=-
¸
¸

_
,

¸

1
]
1
x
1199
,

8
/, 0
,
/,.< × 19
−5

,
;s0e($ −
,57% 999 C;ol
/:..1 C;ol - D0/1.<. D0
¸
¸

_
,

¸

1
]
1
1
/. 0
,
E(!e#$ts f#o t'is &o#* a) +e #e$#odu!ed +) inst#u!to#s fo# dist#i+ution on a not-fo#-$#ofit +asis fo# testin" o# inst#u!tional $u#$oses onl) to students
en#olled in !ou#ses fo# &'i!' t'e te(t+oo* 'as +een ado$ted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections
107 or 108 of the 17! "nited States #opyri$ht Act without the permission of the copyri$ht owner is unlawful.
8 ,.17 × 19
-15

,
;s
1e no& need to find t'e - at &'i!' 5 'as t'is -alue. T'is is a!!o$lis'ed +) #ea##an"in" E6uation 5.?a and
sol-in" fo# - as


- 8
?
d
= /ln5
9
− ln50

8
,57% 999 C;ol
/:..1 C;ol - D0 ln /,.< × 19
-5

,
;s0 − ln /,.17 × 19
-15

,
;s0
[ ]
8 1.,5 D 8 195,°C
E(!e#$ts f#o t'is &o#* a) +e #e$#odu!ed +) inst#u!to#s fo# dist#i+ution on a not-fo#-$#ofit +asis fo# testin" o# inst#u!tional $u#$oses onl) to students
en#olled in !ou#ses fo# &'i!' t'e te(t+oo* 'as +een ado$ted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections
107 or 108 of the 17! "nited States #opyri$ht Act without the permission of the copyri$ht owner is unlawful.
5.,? A diffusion couple similar to that shown in >i$ure ..1a is prepared usin$ two hypothetical metals A
and B. After a /0-h heat treatment at 1000 B )and subse8uently coolin$ to room temperature* the concentration of
A in B is /.0 wt9 at the 1...-mm position within metal B. Df another heat treatment is conducted on an identical
diffusion couple( only at 800 B for /0 h( at what position will the composition be /.0 wt9 A, Assume that the
preexponential and acti%ation ener$y for the diffusion coefficient are 1.8 × 10
-.
m
0
1s and 1.0(000 41mol(
respecti%ely.
Solution
In o#de# to dete#ine t'e $osition &it'in t'e diffusion !ou$le at &'i!' t'e !on!ent#ation of A in B is ..,
&tA% &e ust e$lo) E6uation 5.7+ &it' t !onstant. T'at is


x
,
5
8 !onstant
O#


x
:99
,
5
:99
8
x
1999
,
5
1999
It is fi#st ne!essa#) to !o$ute -alues fo# +ot' 5
:99
and 5
1999
4 t'is is a!!o$lis'ed usin" E6uation 5.: as
follo&s3


5
:99
8 /1.: × 19
-5

,
;s0e($ −
15,% 999 C;ol
/:..1 C;ol - D0/:99D0

¸

1
]
1
8 ,.1, × 19
-15

,
;s


5
1999
8 /1.: × 19
-5

,
;s0e($ −
15,% 999 C;ol
/:..1 C;ol - D0/1999 D0

¸

1
]
1
8 ,.95 × 19
-1.

,
;s
No&% sol-in" t'e a+o-e e($#ession fo# x
:99
)ields
E(!e#$ts f#o t'is &o#* a) +e #e$#odu!ed +) inst#u!to#s fo# dist#i+ution on a not-fo#-$#ofit +asis fo# testin" o# inst#u!tional $u#$oses onl) to students
en#olled in !ou#ses fo# &'i!' t'e te(t+oo* 'as +een ado$ted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections
107 or 108 of the 17! "nited States #opyri$ht Act without the permission of the copyri$ht owner is unlawful.


x
:99
8 x
1999
5
:99
5
1999

8 /15.5 0
,.1, × 19
−15

,
;s
,.95 × 19
−1.

,
;s
8 1.7
E(!e#$ts f#o t'is &o#* a) +e #e$#odu!ed +) inst#u!to#s fo# dist#i+ution on a not-fo#-$#ofit +asis fo# testin" o# inst#u!tional $u#$oses onl) to students
en#olled in !ou#ses fo# &'i!' t'e te(t+oo* 'as +een ado$ted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections
107 or 108 of the 17! "nited States #opyri$ht Act without the permission of the copyri$ht owner is unlawful.
5..9 -he outer surface of a steel $ear is to be hardened by increasin$ its carbon content. -he carbon is
to be supplied from an external carbon-rich atmosphere( which is maintained at an ele%ated temperature. A
diffusion heat treatment at 8.0°# )110/ B* for 10 min increases the carbon concentration to 0.0 wt9 at a
position 1.0 mm below the surface. ;stimate the diffusion time re8uired at !.0°# )0/ B* to achie%e this same
concentration also at a 1.0-mm position. Assume that the surface carbon content is the same for both heat
treatments( which is maintained constant. "se the diffusion data in -able ..0 for # diffusion in α->e.
Solution
In o#de# to !o$ute t'e diffusion tie at 759°C to $#odu!e a !a#+on !on!ent#ation of 9.?9 &tA at a
$osition 1.9 +elo& t'e su#fa!e &e ust e$lo) E6uation 5.7+ &it' $osition /x0 !onstant4 t'at is
5t 8 !onstant
O#


5
:59
t
:59
8 5
759
t
759
In addition% it is ne!essa#) to !o$ute -alues fo# +ot' 5
:59
and 5
759
usin" E6uation 5.:. @#o Ta+le 5.,% fo# t'e
diffusion of C in α-@e% ?
d
8 :9%999 C;ol and 5
9
8 7., × 19
-<

,
;s. T'e#efo#e%


5
:59
8 /7., × 19
-<

,
;s0e($ −
:9% 999 C;ol
/:..1 C;ol - D0/:59 + ,<. D0

¸

1
]
1
8 1.1< × 19
-19

,
;s


5
759
8 /7., × 19
-<

,
;s0e($ −
:9% 999 C;ol
/:..1 C;ol - D0/759 + ,<. D0

¸

1
]
1
8 1.:. × 19
-11

,
;s
No&% sol-in" t'e o#i"inal e6uation fo# t
759
"i-es


t
759
8
5
:59
t
:59
5
759
E(!e#$ts f#o t'is &o#* a) +e #e$#odu!ed +) inst#u!to#s fo# dist#i+ution on a not-fo#-$#ofit +asis fo# testin" o# inst#u!tional $u#$oses onl) to students
en#olled in !ou#ses fo# &'i!' t'e te(t+oo* 'as +een ado$ted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections
107 or 108 of the 17! "nited States #opyri$ht Act without the permission of the copyri$ht owner is unlawful.

8
/1.1< × 19
−19

,
;s0/19 in0
1.:. × 19
−11

,
;s
8 7..? in
E(!e#$ts f#o t'is &o#* a) +e #e$#odu!ed +) inst#u!to#s fo# dist#i+ution on a not-fo#-$#ofit +asis fo# testin" o# inst#u!tional $u#$oses onl) to students
en#olled in !ou#ses fo# &'i!' t'e te(t+oo* 'as +een ado$ted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections
107 or 108 of the 17! "nited States #opyri$ht Act without the permission of the copyri$ht owner is unlawful.
5..1 An >## iron-carbon alloy initially containin$ 0.00 wt9 # is carburi7ed at an ele%ated temperature
and in an atmosphere wherein the surface carbon concentration is maintained at 1.0 wt9. Df after 2.. h the
concentration of carbon is 0./. wt9 at a position 2.0 mm below the surface( determine the temperature at which
the treatment was carried out.
Solution
T'is $#o+le as*s us to !o$ute t'e te$e#atu#e at &'i!' a nonstead)-state 5?.5 ' diffusion anneal &as
!a##ied out in o#de# to "i-e a !a#+on !on!ent#ation of 9..5 &tA C in @CC @e at a $osition 5.9 +elo& t'e
su#fa!e. @#o E6uation 5.5


#
x
− #
9
#
s
− #
9
8
9..5 − 9.,9
1.9 − 9.,9
8 9.1:<5 8 1 − e#f
x
, 5t
¸
¸

_
,

O#


e#f
x
, 5t
¸
¸

_
,

8 9.:1,5
No& it +e!oes ne!essa#)% usin" t'e data in Ta+le 5.1 and linea# inte#$olation% to dete#ine t'e -alue of


x
, 5t
.
T'us
7 e#f / 7 0
9.?9 9.<?<9
y 9.:1,5
9.?5 9.:,9?


y − 9.?9
9.?5 − 9.?9
8
9.:1,5 − 9.<?<9
9.:,9? − 9.<?<9
@#o &'i!'
y 8 9.?.,5
T'us%


x
, 5t
8 9.?.,5
E(!e#$ts f#o t'is &o#* a) +e #e$#odu!ed +) inst#u!to#s fo# dist#i+ution on a not-fo#-$#ofit +asis fo# testin" o# inst#u!tional $u#$oses onl) to students
en#olled in !ou#ses fo# &'i!' t'e te(t+oo* 'as +een ado$ted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections
107 or 108 of the 17! "nited States #opyri$ht Act without the permission of the copyri$ht owner is unlawful.
And sin!e t 8 5?.5 ' /1<:%,99 s0 and x 8 5.9 /5.9 × 19
-.
0% sol-in" fo# 5 f#o t'e a+o-e e6uation )ields


5 8
x
,
/5t0/9.?.,50
,

8
/5.9 × 19
−.
0
,
/50/1<:% ,99 s0/9.:7?0
8 ,.5: × 19
-11

,
;s
No&% in o#de# to dete#ine t'e te$e#atu#e at &'i!' 5 'as t'e a+o-e -alue% &e ust e$lo) E6uation 5.?a4
sol-in" t'is e6uation fo# - )ields


- 8
?
d
= /ln5
9
− ln50
@#o Ta+le 5.,% 5
9
and ?
d
fo# t'e diffusion of C in @CC @e a#e ,.. × 19
-5

,
;s and 15:%999 C;ol% #es$e!ti-el).
T'e#efo#e


- 8
15:% 999 C;ol
/:..1 C;ol - D0 ln /,.. × 19
-5

,
;s0 - ln /,.5: × 19
-11

,
;s0
[ ]
8 1.99 D 8 19,<°C
E(!e#$ts f#o t'is &o#* a) +e #e$#odu!ed +) inst#u!to#s fo# dist#i+ution on a not-fo#-$#ofit +asis fo# testin" o# inst#u!tional $u#$oses onl) to students
en#olled in !ou#ses fo# &'i!' t'e te(t+oo* 'as +een ado$ted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections
107 or 108 of the 17! "nited States #opyri$ht Act without the permission of the copyri$ht owner is unlawful.
Diffusion in Semiconducting Materials
5.., <hosphorus atoms are to be diffused into a silicon wafer usin$ both predeposition and dri%e-in heat
treatments& the back$round concentration of < in this silicon material is known to be . × 10
1
atoms1m
/
. -he
predeposition treatment is to be conducted at .0L# for 2. minutes& the surface concentration of < is to be
maintained at a constant le%el of 1.. × 10
0!
atoms1m
/
. 5ri%e-in diffusion will be carried out at 1000L# for a
period of 0.. h. >or the diffusion of < in Si( %alues of ?d and 50 are /.20 e@ and 1.1 × 10
-2
m
0
1s( respecti%ely.
)a* #alculate the %alue of ?0.
)b* 5etermine the %alue of x' for the dri%e-in diffusion treatment.
)c* Also for the dri%e-in treatment( compute the position x at which the concentration of < atoms is 10
02
m
-
/
.
Solution
/a0 @o# t'is $o#tion of t'e $#o+le &e a#e as*ed to dete#ine t'e -alue of ?
9
. T'is is $ossi+le usin"
E6uation 5.1,. Ho&e-e#% it is fi#st ne!essa#) to dete#ine t'e -alue of 5 fo# t'e $#ede$osition t#eatent E5
p
at -
p
8 ?59RC /1,,. D0G usin" E6uation 5.:. T'us

5
p
· 5
9
e($ −
?
d
k-
p
¸
¸

_
,


· /1.1 × 19
−5

,
;s0 e($ −
..59 eL
/:.7, × 19
−5
eL; ato− D0/1,,. D0

¸

1
]
1

·1.9: × 19
−1:

,
;s
T'e -alue of ?
9
a) +e dete#ined as follo&s3

?
9
· ,#
s
5
p
t
p
π

· /,0/1.5 × 19
,7
atos ;
.
0
/1.9: × 19
−1:

,
;s0/55 in0/79 s ; in0
π
8

?.15 × 19
1:
atos ;
,
E(!e#$ts f#o t'is &o#* a) +e #e$#odu!ed +) inst#u!to#s fo# dist#i+ution on a not-fo#-$#ofit +asis fo# testin" o# inst#u!tional $u#$oses onl) to students
en#olled in !ou#ses fo# &'i!' t'e te(t+oo* 'as +een ado$ted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections
107 or 108 of the 17! "nited States #opyri$ht Act without the permission of the copyri$ht owner is unlawful.
/+0 Co$utation of t'e 2un!tion de$t' #e6ui#es t'at &e use E6uation 5.1.. Ho&e-e#% +efo#e t'is is
$ossi+le it is ne!essa#) to !al!ulate 5 at t'e te$e#atu#e of t'e d#i-e-in t#eatent E5
d
at 1,99RC /15<. D0G. T'us%

5
d
· /1.1 × 19
−5

,
;s0 e($ −
..59 eL
/:.7, × 19
−5
eL; ato− D0/15<. D0

¸

1
]
1

· ,.5: × 19
−17

,
;s
No& f#o E6uation 5.1.

x
'
· /55
d
t
d
0 ln
?
9
#
B
π5
d
t
d
¸
¸

_
,

¸

1
]
1
1
1; ,

· /50/,.5: × 19
−17

,
;s0/?999 s0 ln
?.15 × 19
1:
atos ;
,
/5 × 19
1?
atos ;
.
0 /π0/,.5: × 19
−17

,
;s0/?999 s0

¸

1
]
1
1
¹
'
¹
¹
¹
¹
)
¹
¹
¹
1; ,

· 1.,1 × 19
−5
· 1,.1 µ
/!0 @o# a !on!ent#ation of 19
,5
P atos;
.
fo# t'e d#i-e-in t#eatent% &e !o$ute t'e -alue of x usin"
E6uation 5.11. Ho&e-e#% it is fi#st ne!essa#) to ani$ulate E6uation 5.11 so t'at x is t'e de$endent -a#ia+le.
Ta*in" natu#al lo"a#it's of +ot' sides leads to

ln#/x( t0 · ln
?
9
π5
d
t
d
¸
¸

_
,


x
,
55
d
t
d
No&% #ea##an"in" and sol-in" fo# x leads to

x · /55
d
t
d
0 ln
?
9
#/x( t0 π5
d
t
d

¸

1
]
1
1
¹
'
¹
¹
¹
¹
)
¹
¹
¹
1; ,
No&% in!o#$o#atin" -alues fo# ?
9
and 5
d
dete#ined a+o-e and ta*in" #/x(t0 8 19
,5
P atos;
.
)ields
E(!e#$ts f#o t'is &o#* a) +e #e$#odu!ed +) inst#u!to#s fo# dist#i+ution on a not-fo#-$#ofit +asis fo# testin" o# inst#u!tional $u#$oses onl) to students
en#olled in !ou#ses fo# &'i!' t'e te(t+oo* 'as +een ado$ted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections
107 or 108 of the 17! "nited States #opyri$ht Act without the permission of the copyri$ht owner is unlawful.

x · /50/,.5: × 19
−17
0/?9990 ln
?.15 × 19
1:
/19
,5
0 /π0/,.5: × 19
−17
0/?9990

¸

1
]
1
1
¹
'
¹
¹
¹
¹
)
¹
¹
¹
1; ,

· ...7 × 19
−7
· ...7 µ
E(!e#$ts f#o t'is &o#* a) +e #e$#odu!ed +) inst#u!to#s fo# dist#i+ution on a not-fo#-$#ofit +asis fo# testin" o# inst#u!tional $u#$oses onl) to students
en#olled in !ou#ses fo# &'i!' t'e te(t+oo* 'as +een ado$ted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections
107 or 108 of the 17! "nited States #opyri$ht Act without the permission of the copyri$ht owner is unlawful.
5... Aluminum atoms are to be diffused into a silicon wafer usin$ both predeposition and dri%e-in heat
treatments& the back$round concentration of Al in this silicon material is known to be / × 10
1
atoms1m
/
. -he
dri%e-in diffusion treatment is to be carried out at 10.0L# for a period of 2.0 h( which $i%es a 'unction depth x' of
/.0 µm. #ompute the predeposition diffusion time at .0L# if the surface concentration is maintained at a
constant le%el of 0 × 10
0.
atoms1m
/
. >or the diffusion of Al in Si( %alues of ?d and 50 are /.21 e@ and 1./8 × 10
-2
m
0
1s( respecti%ely.N
Solution
T'is $#o+le as*s t'at &e !o$ute t'e tie fo# t'e $#ede$osition 'eat t#eatent fo# t'e diffusion of Al in
Si. In o#de# to do t'is it is ne!essa#) to dete#ine t'e -alue of ?
9
f#o E6uation 5.1.. Ho&e-e#% +efo#e doin" t'is
&e ust fi#st !al!ulate 5
d
% usin" E6uation 5.:. T'e#efo#e

5
d
· 5
9
e($ −
?
d
k-
d
¸
¸

_
,


· /1..: × 19
−5

,
;s0 e($ −
..51 eL
/:.7, × 19
−5
eL; ato− D0/1959°C + ,<. D0

¸

1
]
1

· 1.5. × 19
−1<

,
;s
No&% sol-in" fo# ?
9
in E6uation 5.1. leads to

?
9
· #
B
π5
d
t
d
( )
e($
x
'
,
55
d
t
d
¸
¸

_
,

In t'e $#o+le stateent &e a#e "i-en t'e follo&in" -alues3
#
B
8 . × 19
1?
atos;
.
t
d
8 5 ' /15%599 s0
x
'
8 ..9 µ 8 ..9 × 19
-7

T'e#efo#e% in!o#$o#atin" t'ese -alues into t'e a+o-e e6uation )ields
E(!e#$ts f#o t'is &o#* a) +e #e$#odu!ed +) inst#u!to#s fo# dist#i+ution on a not-fo#-$#ofit +asis fo# testin" o# inst#u!tional $u#$oses onl) to students
en#olled in !ou#ses fo# &'i!' t'e te(t+oo* 'as +een ado$ted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections
107 or 108 of the 17! "nited States #opyri$ht Act without the permission of the copyri$ht owner is unlawful.

?
9
· /. × 19
1?
atos ;
.
0 /π0/1.5. × 19
−1<

,
;s0/15% 599 s0
[ ]
e($
/..9 × 19
−7
0
,
/50/1.5. × 19
−1<

,
;s0/15% 599 s0

¸

1
]
1

· 1..5 × 19
1:
atos ;
,
1e a) no& !o$ute t'e -alue of t
p
usin" E6uation 5.1,. Ho&e-e#% +efo#e t'is is $ossi+le it is ne!essa#) to
dete#ine 5
p
/at ?59RC0 usin" E6uation 5.:. T'us

5
p
· /1..: × 19
−5

,
;s0 e($ −
..51 eL
/:.7, × 19
−5
eL; ato− D0/?59°C + ,<. D0

¸

1
]
1

· 1.,5 × 19
−1:

,
;s
No&% sol-in" fo# t
p
in E6uation 5.1, &e "et

t
p
·
π?
9
,
5#
s
,
5
p
And in!o#$o#atin" t'e -alue of #
s
$#o-ided in t'e $#o+le stateent /, × 19
,5
atos;
.
0 as &ell as -alues fo# ?
9
and 5
p
dete#ined a+o-e% leads to

t
p
·
π 1..5 × 19
1:
atos ;
,
( )
,
/50 , × 19
,5
atos ;
.
( )
,
/1.,5 × 19
−1:

,
;s0

· ,.:5 × 19
.
s · 5<.5 in
E(!e#$ts f#o t'is &o#* a) +e #e$#odu!ed +) inst#u!to#s fo# dist#i+ution on a not-fo#-$#ofit +asis fo# testin" o# inst#u!tional $u#$oses onl) to students
en#olled in !ou#ses fo# &'i!' t'e te(t+oo* 'as +een ado$ted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections
107 or 108 of the 17! "nited States #opyri$ht Act without the permission of the copyri$ht owner is unlawful.
JESISN PROBLEMS
Steady-State Diffusion
5.J1 Dt is desired to enrich the partial pressure of hydro$en in a hydro$en-nitro$en $as mixture for which
the partial pressures of both $ases are 0.101/ 3<a )1 atm*. Dt has been proposed to accomplish this by passin$
both $ases throu$h a thin sheet of some metal at an ele%ated temperature& inasmuch as hydro$en diffuses throu$h
the plate at a hi$her rate than does nitro$en( the partial pressure of hydro$en will be hi$her on the exit side of the
sheet. -he desi$n calls for partial pressures of 0.070 3<a )0.7 atm* and 0.0000! 3<a )0.0 atm*( respecti%ely( for
hydro$en and nitro$en. -he concentrations of hydro$en and nitro$en )#
6
and #
C
( in mol1m
/
* in this metal are
functions of $as partial pressures )p
6
0
and p
C
0
( in 3<a* and absolute temperature and are $i%en by the followin$
expressions:


#
H
· ,.5 × 19
.
p
H
,
e($ −
,<.: *C;ol
=-
¸
¸

_
,
)..1!a*


#
N
· ,.<5 × 19
−.
p
N
,
e($ −
.<.7 *C;ol
=-
¸
¸

_
,
)..1!b*
>urthermore( the diffusion coefficients for the diffusion of these $ases in this metal are functions of the absolute
temperature as follows:

5
H
/
,
;s0 ·1.5 × 19
−<
e($ −
1..5 *C;ol
=-
¸
¸

_
,
)..17a*

5
N
/
,
;s0 · ..9 × 19
−<
e($ −
<7.15 *C;ol
=-
¸
¸

_
,
)..17b*
Ds it possible to purify hydro$en $as in this manner, Df so( specify a temperature at which the process may be
carried out( and also the thickness of metal sheet that would be re8uired. Df this procedure is not possible( then
state the reason)s* why.
Solution
T'is $#o+le !alls fo# us to as!e#tain &'et'e# o# not a ')d#o"en-nit#o"en "as i(tu#e a) +e en#i!'ed
&it' #es$e!t to ')d#o"en $a#tial $#essu#e +) allo&in" t'e "ases to diffuse t'#ou"' a etal s'eet at an ele-ated
te$e#atu#e. If t'is is $ossi+le% t'e te$e#atu#e and s'eet t'i!*ness a#e to +e s$e!ified4 if su!' is not $ossi+le%
t'en &e a#e to state t'e #easons &'). Sin!e t'is situation in-ol-es stead)-state diffusion% &e e$lo) @i!*Hs fi#st la&%
E6uation 5... Inasu!' as t'e $a#tial $#essu#es on t'e 'i"'-$#essu#e side of t'e s'eet a#e t'e sae% and t'e
E(!e#$ts f#o t'is &o#* a) +e #e$#odu!ed +) inst#u!to#s fo# dist#i+ution on a not-fo#-$#ofit +asis fo# testin" o# inst#u!tional $u#$oses onl) to students
en#olled in !ou#ses fo# &'i!' t'e te(t+oo* 'as +een ado$ted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections
107 or 108 of the 17! "nited States #opyri$ht Act without the permission of the copyri$ht owner is unlawful.
$#essu#e of ')d#o"en on t'e lo& $#essu#e side is ..5 ties t'at of nit#o"en% and !on!ent#ations a#e $#o$o#tional to
t'e s6ua#e #oot of t'e $a#tial $#essu#e% t'e diffusion flu( of ')d#o"en 4
H
is t'e s6ua#e #oot of ..5 ties t'e diffusion
flu( of nit#o"en 4
N
--i.e.


4
H
· ..5 4
N
T'us% e6uatin" t'e @i!*Hs la& e($#essions in!o#$o#atin" t'e "i-en e6uations fo# t'e diffusion !oeffi!ients and
!on!ent#ations in te#s of $a#tial $#essu#es leads to t'e follo&in"
4
H


·
1
∆x
×


/,.5 × 19
.
0 9.191. MPa − 9.9<9? MPa
( )
e($ −
,<.: *C
=-
¸
¸

_
,

/1.5 × 19
−<

,
;s0e($ −
1..5 *C
=-
¸
¸

_
,


· ..5 4
N


·
..5
∆x
×


/,.<5 × 19
.
0 9.191. MPa − 9.9,9,7 MPa
( )
e($ −
.<.7 *C
=-
¸
¸

_
,

/..9 × 19
−<

,
;s0e($ −
<7.15 *C
=-
¸
¸

_
,

T'e ∆xHs !an!el out% &'i!' eans t'at t'e $#o!ess is inde$endent of s'eet t'i!*ness. No& sol-in" t'e a+o-e
e($#ession fo# t'e a+solute te$e#atu#e - "i-es
- 8 .,.< D
&'i!' -alue is e(t#eel) 'i"' /su#el) a+o-e t'e eltin" $oint of t'e etal0. T'us% su!' a diffusion $#o!ess is not
possible.
E(!e#$ts f#o t'is &o#* a) +e #e$#odu!ed +) inst#u!to#s fo# dist#i+ution on a not-fo#-$#ofit +asis fo# testin" o# inst#u!tional $u#$oses onl) to students
en#olled in !ou#ses fo# &'i!' t'e te(t+oo* 'as +een ado$ted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections
107 or 108 of the 17! "nited States #opyri$ht Act without the permission of the copyri$ht owner is unlawful.
5.J, A $as mixture is found to contain two diatomic A and B species for which the partial pressures of
both are 0.0.0!. 3<a )0.. atm*. -his mixture is to be enriched in the partial pressure of the A species by passin$
both $ases throu$h a thin sheet of some metal at an ele%ated temperature. -he resultin$ enriched mixture is to
ha%e a partial pressure of 0.0000! 3<a )0.0 atm* for $as A( and 0.0101/ 3<a )0.1 atm* for $as B. -he
concentrations of A and B )#A and #B( in mol1m
/
* are functions of $as partial pressures )p
A
0
and p
B
0
( in 3<a* and
absolute temperature accordin$ to the followin$ expressions:


#
A
· ,99 p
A
,
e($ −
,5.9 *C;ol
=-
¸
¸

_
,
)..18a*


#
B
· 1.9 × 19
−.
p
B
,
e($ −
.9.9 *C;ol
=-
¸
¸

_
,
)..18b*
>urthermore( the diffusion coefficients for the diffusion of these $ases in the metal are functions of the absolute
temperature as follows:


5
A
/
,
;s0 · 5.9 × 19
−<
e($ −
15.9 *C;ol
=-
¸
¸

_
,
)..1a*


5
B
/
,
;s0 · ,.5 × 19
−7
e($ −
,5.9 *C;ol
=-
¸
¸

_
,
)..1b*
Ds it possible to purify the A $as in this manner, Df so( specify a temperature at which the process may be carried
out( and also the thickness of metal sheet that would be re8uired. Df this procedure is not possible( then state the
reason)s* why.
Solution
T'is $#o+le !alls fo# us to as!e#tain &'et'e# o# not an A
,
-B
,
"as i(tu#e a) +e en#i!'ed &it' #es$e!t
to t'e A $a#tial $#essu#e +) allo&in" t'e "ases to diffuse t'#ou"' a etal s'eet at an ele-ated te$e#atu#e. If t'is is
$ossi+le% t'e te$e#atu#e and s'eet t'i!*ness a#e to +e s$e!ified4 if su!' is not $ossi+le% t'en &e a#e to state t'e
#easons &'). Sin!e t'is situation in-ol-es stead)-state diffusion% &e e$lo) @i!*Hs fi#st la&% E6uation 5...
Inasu!' as t'e $a#tial $#essu#es on t'e 'i"'-$#essu#e side of t'e s'eet a#e t'e sae% and t'e $#essu#e of A
,
on t'e
lo& $#essu#e side is ,.9 ties t'at of B
,
% and !on!ent#ations a#e $#o$o#tional to t'e s6ua#e #oot of t'e $a#tial
$#essu#e% t'e diffusion flu( of A% 4
A
% is t'e s6ua#e #oot of ,.9 ties t'e diffusion flu( of nit#o"en 4
B
--i.e.


4
A
8 ,.9 4
B
E(!e#$ts f#o t'is &o#* a) +e #e$#odu!ed +) inst#u!to#s fo# dist#i+ution on a not-fo#-$#ofit +asis fo# testin" o# inst#u!tional $u#$oses onl) to students
en#olled in !ou#ses fo# &'i!' t'e te(t+oo* 'as +een ado$ted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections
107 or 108 of the 17! "nited States #opyri$ht Act without the permission of the copyri$ht owner is unlawful.
T'us% e6uatin" t'e @i!*Hs la& e($#essions in!o#$o#atin" t'e "i-en e6uations fo# t'e diffusion !oeffi!ients and
!on!ent#ations in te#s of $a#tial $#essu#es leads to t'e follo&in"
4
A


8
1
∆x
×


/,990 9.95975 MPa − 9.9,9,7 MPa
( )
e($ −
,5.9 *C
=-
¸
¸

_
,

/5.9 × 19
−<

,
;s0e($ −
15.9 *C
=-
¸
¸

_
,


· ,.9 4
B


8

,.9
∆x
×


/1.9 × 19
.
0 9.95975 MPa − 9.9191. MPa
( )
e($ −
.9.9 *C
=-
¸
¸

_
,

/,.5 × 19
−7

,
;s0e($ −
,5.9 *C
=-
¸
¸

_
,

T'e ∆xHs !an!el out% &'i!' eans t'at t'e $#o!ess is inde$endent of s'eet t'i!*ness. No& sol-in" t'e a+o-e
e($#ession fo# t'e a+solute te$e#atu#e - "i-es
- 8 591 D /1,:°C0
T'us% it is $ossi+le to !a##) out t'is $#o!edu#e at 591 D o# 1,:°C.
E(!e#$ts f#o t'is &o#* a) +e #e$#odu!ed +) inst#u!to#s fo# dist#i+ution on a not-fo#-$#ofit +asis fo# testin" o# inst#u!tional $u#$oses onl) to students
en#olled in !ou#ses fo# &'i!' t'e te(t+oo* 'as +een ado$ted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections
107 or 108 of the 17! "nited States #opyri$ht Act without the permission of the copyri$ht owner is unlawful.
Nonsteady-State Diffusion
5.J. -he wear resistance of a steel shaft is to be impro%ed by hardenin$ its surface. -his is to be
accomplished by increasin$ the nitro$en content within an outer surface layer as a result of nitro$en diffusion into
the steel. -he nitro$en is to be supplied from an external nitro$en-rich $as at an ele%ated and constant
temperature. -he initial nitro$en content of the steel is 0.000 wt9( whereas the surface concentration is to be
maintained at 0..0 wt9. >or this treatment to be effecti%e( a nitro$en content of 0.10 wt9 must be established at a
position 0.20 mm below the surface. Specify appropriate heat treatments in terms of temperature and time for
temperatures between 27.°# and !0.°#. -he preexponential and acti%ation ener$y for the diffusion of nitro$en in
iron are / × 10
-7
m
0
1s and 7!(1.0 41mol( respecti%ely( o%er this temperature ran$e.
Solution
T'is is a nonstead)-state diffusion situation4 t'us% it is ne!essa#) to e$lo) E6uation 5.5% utili>in" t'e
follo&in" -alues fo# t'e !on!ent#ation $a#aete#s3
#
9
8 9.99, &tA N
#
s
8 9.59 &tA N
#
x
8 9.19 &tA N
T'e#efo#e


#
x
− #
9
#
s
− #
9
8
9.19 − 9.99,
9.59 − 9.99,


8 9.1?7: 8 1 − e#f
x
, 5t
¸
¸

_
,

And t'us


1 − 9.1?7: 8 9.:9., 8 e#f
x
, 5t
¸
¸

_
,

Usin" linea# inte#$olation and t'e data $#esented in Ta+le 5.1
E(!e#$ts f#o t'is &o#* a) +e #e$#odu!ed +) inst#u!to#s fo# dist#i+ution on a not-fo#-$#ofit +asis fo# testin" o# inst#u!tional $u#$oses onl) to students
en#olled in !ou#ses fo# &'i!' t'e te(t+oo* 'as +een ado$ted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections
107 or 108 of the 17! "nited States #opyri$ht Act without the permission of the copyri$ht owner is unlawful.
7 e#f / 7 0
9.?999 9.<?<9
y 9.:9.,
9.?599 9.:,9?


9.:9., − 9.<?<9
9.:,9? − 9.<?<9
8
y − 9.?999
9.?599 − 9.?999
@#o &'i!'


y 8
x
, 5t
8 9.?1.9
T'e $#o+le sti$ulates t'at x 8 9.59 8 5.9 × 19
-5
. T'e#efo#e


5.9 × 19
−5

, 5t
8 9.?1.9
1'i!' leads to
5t 8 5.:9 × 19
-:

,
@u#t'e#o#e% t'e diffusion !oeffi!ient de$ends on te$e#atu#e a!!o#din" to E6uation 5.:4 and% as sti$ulated in t'e
$#o+le stateent% 5
9
8 . × 19
-<

,
;s and ?
d
8 <7%159 C;ol. Hen!e


5t 8 5
9
e($ −
?
d
=-
¸
¸

_
,

/t0 8 5.:9 × 19
-:

,


/..9 × 19
-<

,
;s0e($ −
<7%159 C;ol
/:..1 C;ol - D0/-0

¸

1
]
1
/t0 · 5.:9 × 19
−:

,
And sol-in" fo# t'e tie t
E(!e#$ts f#o t'is &o#* a) +e #e$#odu!ed +) inst#u!to#s fo# dist#i+ution on a not-fo#-$#ofit +asis fo# testin" o# inst#u!tional $u#$oses onl) to students
en#olled in !ou#ses fo# &'i!' t'e te(t+oo* 'as +een ado$ted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections
107 or 108 of the 17! "nited States #opyri$ht Act without the permission of the copyri$ht owner is unlawful.


t /in s0 8
9.179
e($ −
?17..<
-
¸
¸

_
,

T'us% t'e #e6ui#ed diffusion tie a) +e !o$uted fo# soe s$e!ified te$e#atu#e /in D0. Belo& a#e ta+ulated t
-alues fo# t'#ee diffe#ent te$e#atu#es t'at lie &it'in t'e #an"e sti$ulated in t'e $#o+le.
Te$e#atu#e Tie
/°C0 s '
599 ,,%599 7..
559 11%999 ..1
799 5:99 1.7
E(!e#$ts f#o t'is &o#* a) +e #e$#odu!ed +) inst#u!to#s fo# dist#i+ution on a not-fo#-$#ofit +asis fo# testin" o# inst#u!tional $u#$oses onl) to students
en#olled in !ou#ses fo# &'i!' t'e te(t+oo* 'as +een ado$ted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections
107 or 108 of the 17! "nited States #opyri$ht Act without the permission of the copyri$ht owner is unlawful.
Diffusion in Semiconducting Materials
5.J5 One inte$rated circuit desi$n calls for the diffusion of arsenic into silicon wafers& the back$round
concentration of As in Si is 0.. × 10
00
atoms1m
/
. -he predeposition heat treatment is to be conducted at 1000L#
for 2. minutes( with a constant surface concentration of 8 × 10
0!
As atoms1m
/
. At a dri%e-in treatment temperature
of 1100L#( determine the diffusion time re8uired for a 'unction depth of 1.0 µm. >or this system( %alues of ?d and
50 are 2.10 e@ and 0.0 × 10
-/
m
0
1s( respecti%ely.
Solution
T'is $#o+le as*s t'at &e !o$ute t'e d#i-e-in diffusion tie fo# a#seni! diffusion in sili!on. It is fi#st
ne!essa#) to dete#ine t'e -alue of ?
9
usin" E6uation 5.1,. But +efo#e t'is is $ossi+le% t'e -alue of 5
p
at 1999RC
ust +e !o$uted &it' t'e aid of E6uation 5.:. T'us%

5
p
· 5
9
e($ −
?
d
k-
p
¸
¸

_
,


· /,.,? × 19
−.

,
;s0 e($ −
5.19 eL
/:.7, × 19
−5
eL;ato− D0/1999°C + ,<. D0

¸

1
]
1

· 1..7 × 19
−1?

,
;s
No& fo# t'e !o$utation of ?
9
usin" E6uation 5.1,3

?
9
· ,#
s
5
p
t
p
π

· /,0/: × 19
,7
atos;
.
0
/1..7 × 19
−1?

,
;s0/55 in0/79 s;in0
π

· 1.<. × 19
1?
atos;
,
1e no& desi#e to !al!ulate t
d
in E6uation 5.1.. Al"e+#ai! ani$ulation and #ea##an"eent of t'is e($#ession
leads to
E(!e#$ts f#o t'is &o#* a) +e #e$#odu!ed +) inst#u!to#s fo# dist#i+ution on a not-fo#-$#ofit +asis fo# testin" o# inst#u!tional $u#$oses onl) to students
en#olled in !ou#ses fo# &'i!' t'e te(t+oo* 'as +een ado$ted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections
107 or 108 of the 17! "nited States #opyri$ht Act without the permission of the copyri$ht owner is unlawful.

e($
x
'
,
55
d
t
d
¸
¸

_
,

·
?
9
#
B
π5
d
t
d
At t'is $oint it is ne!essa#) to dete#ine t'e -alue of 5
d
/at 1199RC0. T'us

5
d
· /,.,? × 19
−.

,
;s0 e($ −
5.19 eL
/:.7, × 19
−5
eL;ato− D0/1199°C + ,<. D0

¸

1
]
1

· ,.97 × 19
−1:

,
;s
And in!o#$o#ation of -alues of all $a#aete#s e(!e$t t
d
in t'e a+o-e e($#ession )ields

e($
/1., × 19
−7
0
,
/50/,.97 × 19
−1:

,
;s0t
d

¸

1
]
1 ·
1.<. × 19
1?
atos;
,
/,.5 × 19
,9
atos;
.
0 /π0/,.97 × 19
−1:

,
;s0t
d
&'i!' e($#ession #edu!es to

e($
1.<5 × 19
5
s
t
d
¸
¸

_
,

·
,.<, × 19
<
s
1; ,
t
d
Sol-in" fo# t
d
is not a si$le atte#. One $ossi+ilit) is to use a "#a$'in" te!'ni6ue. Let us ta*e t'e lo"a#it' of
+ot' sides of t'e a+o-e e6uation% &'i!' "i-es

1.<5 × 19
5
s
t
d
· ln
,.<, × 19
<
s
1; ,
t
d
¸
¸

_
,

No& if &e $lot t'e te#s on +ot' left and #i"'t 'and sides of t'is e6uation -e#sus t
d
% t'e -alue of t
d
at t'e $oint of
inte#se!tion of t'e t&o #esultin" !u#-es is !o##e!t ans&e#. Belo& is su!' a $lot3
E(!e#$ts f#o t'is &o#* a) +e #e$#odu!ed +) inst#u!to#s fo# dist#i+ution on a not-fo#-$#ofit +asis fo# testin" o# inst#u!tional $u#$oses onl) to students
en#olled in !ou#ses fo# &'i!' t'e te(t+oo* 'as +een ado$ted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections
107 or 108 of the 17! "nited States #opyri$ht Act without the permission of the copyri$ht owner is unlawful.
As noted% t'e t&o !u#-es inte#se!t at a+out 1.%?99 s% &'i!' !o##es$onds to t
d
8 ..:7 '.
E(!e#$ts f#o t'is &o#* a) +e #e$#odu!ed +) inst#u!to#s fo# dist#i+ution on a not-fo#-$#ofit +asis fo# testin" o# inst#u!tional $u#$oses onl) to students
en#olled in !ou#ses fo# &'i!' t'e te(t+oo* 'as +een ado$ted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections
107 or 108 of the 17! "nited States #opyri$ht Act without the permission of the copyri$ht owner is unlawful.

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