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Facilitators Seminar Report

Joyce Thomas 100036632

The Reflective Practitioner E!" #00$%
&a'rice i%i'seppe
S'n(ay) &ay 20) 2012*
Revise( S'n(ay) &ay 2+) 2012*
,rticle- E('catin. the Reflective Practitioner) ,'thor onal( ,* Schon
Facilitator- Joyce Thomas 100036632
Seminar %ro'p &em/ers- ,n(rea) R'th 01ancy2 an( "hris
ate- T'es(ay) &ay 1#) 2012* 0Revise( S'n(ay) &ay 2+) 20122
Facilitated Seminar Report
Goal of the Discussion: To apply Schons f'n(amental principals of reflective practice
to the 3orl( of teacher e('cation* 4ne of the 5ey i(eas from Schons article is yo'
cannot improve teacher practice in a vac''m* There is artistry of teacher practice an( in
or(er to /e proficient in the craft) the teacher nee(s to reflect on an( in action 0Schon)
167+) p* 12* This a3areness of v'lnera/ility (evelops as the teacher fosters
relationships 3ith their st'(ents an( collea.'es* The more 3e (evelop o'r teachin.
repertoire an( 'n(erstan(in. of content) the /etter a/le 3e /ecome at applyin. o'r
5no3le(.e of theory into practice* !ltimately) the /etter e8'ippe( teachers /ecome) the
.reater their 'n(erstan(in. of the relevance of lin5in. c'rric'l'm 3ith the st'(ents
learnin. style an( 5no3le(.e of life* This syner.y can have a si.nificant impact on
st'(ent learnin.*
Leading Statement Number One

"ertain f'n(amental 8'estions 5eep comin. 'p-
9hat are the competences that teachers sho'l( /e tryin. to help st'(ents
ac8'ire:; 9hat 5in(s of 5no3le(.e an( 3hat sort of 5no3<ho3 sho'l( teachers
have in or(er to (o their =o/s 3ell: 9hat 5in(s of e('cation are most li5ely to help
teachers prepare for effective teachin.: 0Schon) 167+) p* 12
Guided Questions
What is the most effective teacher professional development competenc that has
the potential to have the greatest impact on student success!
What is more critical" the use of instructional strategies that emplo a heav
emphasis on technolog or a deep understanding of brain theor!
Group Discussion One
9e / o'r first .ro'p (isc'ssion foc'sin. on the .eneral p'rpose an( 'sef'lness of
professional (evelopment for teachers* 4ne facet of professional (evelopment 3e
to'che( 'pon 3as /rain theory an( its application to technolo.y as an instr'ctional
strate.y* >n the article 'n(er (isc'ssion) Schon reference( the 'se technolo.y in
e('cation) as an e?ample of ho3 all strate.ies have to /e 'n(erstoo( to /e an effective
tool for teachin. an( learnin.*
1ancy (isc'sse( coachin.@mentorin. as havin. an impact on professional (evelopment
an( its s'pports to3ar(s st'(ent en.a.ement* Aearnin. to coach yo'r st'(ents is an
e?ample of an a(vanta.eo's form of professional (evelopment* 4ther forms of
professional (evelopment are not effective) /eca'se as soon as yo' are (one yo'r
session) then yo' never really have the time to practice 3hat yo' have ='st learne( an(
(o not necessarily see the o'tcomes 3ith st'(ents* >f yo' have a mentor /ac5 at a
school an( can reflect 'pon 3hat yo' ='st learne( then the professional (evelopment 3ill
have /enefits) especially in to st'(ent o'tcomes* ,n(rea 8'estione( the tr'e
vali(ity of professional (evelopment /eca'se of the lac5 of opport'nities to share 3ith
yo'r collea.'es after the professional (evelopment has ta5en place*
"hris an( > foc'se( more on the latter part of the 8'estion* "hris) mentione( the
scholarly 'se of 5no3le(.e s'ch as) ho3 to 'se the reso'rces to en.a.e the st'(ents)
an( reco.niBin. that the more practical the learnin.) the /etter the learnin.* >t is
important that 3e foc's on connectin. learnin. 3ith the st'(ents every(ay lives* >f yo'
(ont 'n(erstan( ho3 st'(ents learn) then ho3 can yo' implement technolo.y
efficiently: >t is not a/o't the technolo.y per say) it is a/o't the teacher 'sin.
technolo.y to ma5e the lessons more effective* > connecte( the area of professional
(evelopment an( 'n(erstan(in. ho3 /rain theory affects o'r teachin. practice) /y the
follo3in. statement- Cthe 5ey to o'r professional (evelopment is 'n(erstan(in. /rain
theory* >t informs 's a/o't 3hen 3e teach) 3hat 3e teach an( ho3 an( 3hy* >t is not
a/o't 5no3in. ho3 to 'se the comp'ter) /'t ho3 the comp'ter can enhance ones
learnin.) 'sin. the comp'ter as a (ifferentiate( instr'ctional strate.y to help a st'(ent
learn a concept* C
Leading #dea$#ssue Number %&o
CThere is also) in this vie3 of school 5no3le(.e) the notion that the more .eneral an(
the more theoretical the 5no3le(.e) the hi.her it is*; 0Schon) 167+) p* 22
This vie3 of school 5no3le(.e also incl'(es the notion that 'no&ledge is
molecular) that it is /'ilt 'p of pieces 3hich are /asic 'nits of information or /asic
'nits of s5ill 3hich can /e assem/le( to.ether in comple?es of more a(vance( an(
complicate( information* ,n( there >S the notion that it is the /'siness of the
teacher to comm'nicate this 5no3le(.e) an( it is the /'siness of the st'(ents to
receive it or a/sor/ it* #t is the business of 'ids to get it" and of the teachers to
see that the get it* ,n( if the 5i(s (o not .et it) then theres a nee( to e?plain 3hy
theyre not .ettin. it) an( cate.ories li5e Dslo3 learner)D Dpoor motivation)D Dshort
attention span)D are 3ays of (escri/in. 3hat "liffor( %eertB has calle( D='n5
cate.oriesD to remove their not .ettin. it from the ran.e of thin.s 3ith 3hich the
teacher 3o'l( have to (eal* 0Schon 167+) p* 32
Guided Discussion Statement
#f the teachers teach content and the students don(t learn" then there must be
something &rong &ith the students) *o&ever" if the role of the teacher is student
learning and the teach &ith student learning as the goal" then &hen the students
don(t learn" it is because the teacher is not effective) +onsider these t&o
contrasting points of vie& and share our opinion)
Group Discussion %&o
The ne?t (isc'ssion foc'se( on contrastin. vie3points) the responsi/ility
teachers ta5e for st'(ent learnin.* This 3as (ra3n from Schons e?ample of the
teachers e?planation for a chil(s lac5 of comprehension) 3hile he 3as learnin. to play
the /ells in m'sic class*
1ancy opene( 'p the (isc'ssion /y mentionin. she fo'n( it (iffic'lt to 5no3 ho3 all her
st'(ents learn an( process information* St'(ents) for e?ample) all rea( at a (ifferent
pace* They co'l( have a learnin. (isa/ility an(@or /ehavioral iss'es* Eo3 (o yo' really
reach all st'(ents) /ase( on their in(ivi('al nee(s:
"hris a.ree( 3ith 1ancys sentiments notin.) o'r tr'e 5no3le(.e of the st'(ents
in(ivi('al nee(s are .ran'lar) ho3 (o yo' tr'ly 5no3 a/o't every st'(ent: The
(isc'ssion then 3ent in a .reat (irection* 9e share( o'r e?periences 3ith the vario's
reso'rces 3e ha( enco'ntere( in o'r roles as e('cators* These reso'rces help teachers
to learn more a/o't their st'(ents in(ivi('al nee(s* For e?ample) "hris (escri/e( an
,PP 0electronic application2 that 3as create() to help st'(ents .'i(e them 3hile their
teachers 3ere instr'ctin. the lessons* The ,PP provi(es imme(iate fee(/ac5 for the
teachers on ho3 their st'(ents are respon(in. to the lesson* >t affor(s the teachers the
opport'nity to really .et to 5no3 yo'r st'(ents) to reflect on their learnin.) an( 5no3
more a/o't their learnin. styles* 1ancy fo'n( that /est practices in her School Foar()
,ptit'(e tests) s'ch as Eo3ar( %ar(iner) help teachers i(entify st'(ents learnin.
nee(s from the very /e.innin. of the year an( this helps in their instr'ctional practices
as teachers* Thro'.h on .oin. (ialo.'e an( reflection) this is 3here an( 3hen
Reflection<41<,ction 3o'l( hopef'lly come into the forefront of a teachers instr'ctional
practice* >t allo3s them to .ain their o3n fee(/ac5 /ase( on their st'(ents learnin.*
9e are all in a.reement that /lamin. the st'(ents is not an effective practice* The
teachers nee( to loo5 at their practice an( reflect 'pon their (elivery of instr'ction* The
teachers nee( to .ive themselves fee(/ac5 first) /efore they can fi.'re o't 3hat is
3ron. 3ith their st'(ents 'n(erstan(in. or lac5 of 5no3le(.e of a concept* >n
concl'sion) 3e are the professionals) if not 's then 3ho: Sometimes 3e nee( help from
other people in or(er to reassess an( re(efine o'r practices an( that is 3hy it is
important to practice reflection*
%hird Leading %opic Statements
CThey are splits /et3een school an( life 3hich ma5e many 5i(sGperhaps most 5i(s
/elieve that school has nothin. to (o 3ith life* They are splits /et3een teachin. an(
(oin. 3hich ma5es it tr'e for most of 's 3ho are teachers that 3hat 3e teach is not 3hat
3e (o) an( 3hat 3e (o is not 3hat 3e teach*; 0Schon) 167+) p $<#2
Perfect se.'e to my ne?t 8'estion) E(.ar Schein as 8'ote( /y Schon) points o't that
there nee(s to /e a lin5 /et3een theory an( practice*
CFirst teach them the relevant /asic science) then teach them the relevant applie(
science) then .ive them a practic'm in 3hich to practice applyin. that science to the
pro/lems of every(ay life*; 0Schon) 167+) p*62
Guided Questions
#f teachers do not provide real life situations for students to e,plore" &hat dra&
bac's can occur in the learning process!
%hin' about the 'e &ords$concepts: e,tension of learning" relevant" practical
applications" life s'ills" and e,trapolation)
C,n( so is .oo( conversation 3hich m'st /e neither 3holly pre(icta/le nor 3holly
'npre(icta/le*; 0Schon) 167+) p* $2
What is the true value of class discussion!
Wh does a teacher &hen the reflect upon class discussions do the need to
thin' about &hat the are doing and for &hat effect!
Group Discussion %hree
The core of o'r conversation t'rne( to e?periential learnin. an( the application of /asic
5no3le(.e to real life pro/lems* F'rther) there is a s'/<theme concernin. the via/ility of
c'rric'l'm* Hia/le c'rric'l'm prepares st'(ents for the ne?t 'nit) the ne?t co'rse in a
series) s'ccess in relate( co'rses) an( of primary importance) the (evelopment of
transfera/le s5ills an( 5no3le(.e* This last point is achieve( thro'.h connectin.
c'rric'l'm to the st'(ents life e?periences in a rich an( meanin.f'l 3ay* 4ne 3ay this is
accomplishe() is /y provi(in. classroom opport'nities to e?plore e?ten(e( learnin.
thro'.h str'ct're( class (isc'ssions*
"hris opene( 'p the (isc'ssion /y Crelatin. the 'n(erstan(in. of the c'rric'l'm to the
st'(ents every(ay lives .ives the st'(ents a sense of o3nership of 3hat they are
learnin.* From her o3n e?perience ,n(rea mentione( /y relatin. life e?perience she
3as a/le to Choo5; st'(ents interest in to the c'rric'l'm* Fase( on my teachin.
e?perience) > share( the importance of incorporatin. life relevancy into the (elivery of
the c'rric'l'm) /eca'se if yo' (o not) the st'(ents 3ill have a (iffic'lt time internaliBin.
an( retainin. the information* The st'(ents 3hen assesse( (o not (o as 3ell as one
3o'l( e?pect*
> s'..este( / the c'rric'l'm aliveI teachers nee( to facilitate st'(ent connections
to the c'rric'l'm* 9e nee( to en.a.e them /y referencin. their life e?periences at every
opport'nity* Aesson (esi.n m'st incorporate ho3 content is relate( to yo'r st'(ents life
e?periences* &a5e it real for them) an( val'e) appreciate) reco.niBe an( reflect 'pon
their creative responses* Aesson (esi.n that is /'ilt on an( comm'nicates to the
st'(ents the learnin. .oals) /i. i(eas) an( s'ccess criteria) 3ill en.a.e the chil( in the
learnin. process*
9e t'rne( o'r attention of the (isc'ssion to3ar( the strate.ies of class (isc'ssion to
(ra3 o't the 'n(erstan(in. from st'(ents* >f any learnin. is to occ'r in the classroom
thro'.h (isc'ssions) then there nee(s to /e str'ct're to the .'i(e( (isc'ssion* ,n(rea
/elieve( in or(er for this to /e an effective teachin. strate.y then all st'(ents nee( a
role to play) s'ch as in co<operative learnin. str'ct'res* ,n(rea (isc'sse( the nee( for
peers to comm'nicate to help facilitate learnin.* 9e nee( to enco'ra.e the a/ility to
thin5 on the spot) thin5 critically an( share the information a .ro'p all learnin.
at the same time* "hris conc'rre( 3ith ,n(reas /eliefs statin.) CThe en.a.ement of
learnin. ta5es place in class (isc'ssion 3hen listenin. an( learnin. is share( /y all
1ancy /ro'.ht 'p an important point a/o't .ro'p (isc'ssion as a teachin. strate.y)
simply state() the nee( to 5eep the st'(ents on trac5 an( on topic* ,n(rea reference(
Schons article an( his /elief of ho3 it is si.nificant to 5no3 3hat is important to the
in(ivi('al st'(ent) an( ho3 3e sho'l( /rin. that 3hich is relevant to life in the class
To paraphrase the .ro'p) > state( the follo3in. pointsI in class (isc'ssions) 'se
e?amples to s'pport the st'(ents ar.'ments* !se concrete e?amples from the
c'rric'l'm tie( to the relevance of their life or o3n e?periences* Teachers also nee( to
relate the (isc'ssion to their personal life e?periences) to help the st'(ents / to
'n(erstan( the connection to c'rric'l'm an( life* 9hen facilitatin. class (isc'ssions
there nee(s to /e .'i(elines so st'(ents can follo3 an( respon( to each other an(
s'pport their learnin.*
>n my opinion) if class (isc'ssions are to tr'ly 3or5 as a learnin. strate.y) st'(ents nee(
to have confi(ence) not /e afrai( of /ein. 3ron.) the free(om to /e creative) an( an
opport'nity to e?ten( their learnin. an( themselves*
Fourth Leading %opic Statements
,n ol( collea.'e of mine at &>T) Te( &artin) 'se( to say<<he 3as a teacher of
calc'l's<<D> can teach 5i(s ho3 to (ifferentiate only > cant teach them ho3 to set 'p
the pro/lem*D >n or(er to (ifferentiate) they have to /e a/le to set 'p the pro/lem)
/'t settin. 'p the pro/lem is somethin. for 3hich there arent r'les an( no theory*
4n the contrary) yo' have to /e a/le to set 'p the pro/lem in or(er to apply the
r'les ,1 the theory* %he challenge to the professional schools" # thin'" is this
challenge of educating for artistr* 0Schon) 167+) p* 62
C>m ar.'in. that it has a special Bone of relevance 3hich (epen(s on o'r a/ility to (o
these other thin.s) on the one han( to set pro/lems in 3ays that the cate.ories of
applie( science can fi? an( fit an() on the other han() to fill 3ith art the .ap /et3een
theory an( techni8'e an( concrete action*; 0Schon) 167+) p* 62
Guided Question
-s a teacher" ou have to reflect on &hat 'no&ledge and s'ills our students &ill
re.uire first" in order to successfull complete the tas' at hand) %hus" effective
teachers not onl instruct their students on ho& to do the math re.uired to solve
the problem" but also instruct them in ho& to emplo problem solving strategies)
Give a practical e,ample as ho& ou &ould emplo this theor in practice!
Group Discussion Four
The ne?t topic of o'r (isc'ssion foc'se( on Schons pers'asion) Cto fill 3ith art the .ap
/et3een theory an( techni8'e an( concrete action 0Schon) 167+2*;
The lea(in. concl'sion is that) effective teachers not only instr'ct their st'(ents on ho3
to (o the math re8'ire( to solve the pro/lem) /'t also to instr'ct them in ho3 to employ
pro/lem solvin. strate.ies*

,n(rea /elieves that for teachers to /e effective) yo' have to loo5 at 3hat yo' are
as5in. the st'(ents to create* 9e m'st also loo5 for potential /arriers that may hin(er
their learnin.* Jo' nee( to /rea5 it (o3n into mana.ea/le steps* For e?ample) yo'
nee( to teach the literacy in n'meracy /efore the st'(ents can solve the e8'ation*
1ancy) relates this practice 3ith her primary st'(ents* >n or(er for her st'(ents to .et
rea(y for recess) preparation for the event /e.ins as soon as the st'(ents / their
school (ay* 9hat are the necessary s5ills she nee(s to teach the chil(ren in or(er for
them to in(epen(ently or.aniBe themselves) their coats) /oots) etc* /efore they line 'p at
the (oor: The 5ey for ,n(rea 3as .ettin. /ac5 to the /asics to enhance st'(ents
5no3le(.e* Fase( on my o3n e?perience) > 'se( an e?ample from .eo.raphy* >t is
important to or.aniBe an( classify the information first /efore yo' / to teach the
st'(ents ho3 to solve the 8'estion* For e?ample) teachin. the representation of the
military .ri( first /efore yo' teachin. the st'(ents ho3 to (etermine coor(inates from a
topo.raphic map in .eo.raphy*
Fifth Leading %opic Statements
C,t its /est this (ialo.'e /et3een coach an( st'(ent /ecomes a (ialo.'e of reciprocal
of reflection in action) 3here each of them is reflectin. on) an( respon(in. to) the
messa.e receive( from the other*; 0Schon 167+) p* 62
KA communication through demonstration and description combined, responding
to one anothers performance as indicators of what they understand and what they
present to be understood.]
, "oachs tas5s is a threefol( tas5)
1* S'/stantive attention to the specific pro/lem thats /ein. 3or5e( on* The coach
has to /e a/le to (emonstrate an( (escri/e in relevant 3ays a/o't that*
0s'/stantive pro/lem2
2* To say the thin.s) to (iscover the thin.s) that 3ill allo3 TE,T st'(ent to
'n(erstan(* 0partic'lariBin. of (escription an( (emonstration2
3* F'il(in. a relationship in 3hich (efensiveness is minimiBe(* 0re('ction of
(efensiveness2; 0Schon 167+) p* 62
Guided Questions
What is the benefit of a formal" mentor / mentee relationship for a teacher(s
professional development!
When all three coach(s tas's are occurring at the same time" it represents the
artistr of teaching and coaching) What are the .ualities necessar to be an
effective coach!
Group Discussion Five
>n o'r final thin5 /o3l) 3e e?amine( an( analyBe( Schons vie3 of the roles of coach
an( st'(ent* To facilitate the (isc'ssion on the tas5s of a coach) 3e consi(ere( the
/enefit of mentorin. teachers an( the 8'alities of effective coaches*
1ancy lea( the (isc'ssion /y statin. that she /elievesI Cthe coachin. mo(el is incre(i/ly
/eneficial for st'(ents an( coaches@teachers) to reflect on each others practices) 3hich
inevita/ly s'pports st'(ent en.a.ement*; The relationship /et3een the mentor an(
mentee fosters a practice of in8'iry /eca'se of the .oal settin. esta/lishe( as part of the
learnin. criteria* >t /ecomes a process /y 3hich /oth parties start to analyBe the
comments or s'..estions share(* Jo' / to thin5 a/o't 3hy yo' are 8'estionin.
3hat yo' are (oin. an( 3hether it is /ase( on someone elses e?perience* This is
the reflective practitioner in ,ction* This 3as the comment threa( in all contri/'tions
from the mem/ers of the .ro'p* "hris a((e( to the (isc'ssion) mentionin. the nee( for
a tr'ste( relationship to /e esta/lishe( first) /efore any eval'ations occ'r* "hris
/elieves that yo' are not really s're 3hat yo' 5no3 'ntil yo' share yo'r concerns or
8'estions 3ith others* Aoo5in. at his o3n post<.ra( pro.ram) the e?tent of his
5no3le(.e 3as force( to .ro3) /eca'se the pro.ram contin'e( to evolve* Ai5e
reflection in action) yo' .ro3 3ith the pro.ram an( yo'r collea.'es) not in spite of it*
,s an e('cator) in or(er for reflection to have an impact on yo'r teachin.) yo' have to
/e a/le to reflect effectively an( yo' nee( to 5no3 yo'r st'(ents* Jo' nee( to /e
competent in the c'rric'l'm of yo'r s'/=ect matter* ,n( finally) accept that yo' (ont
al3ays 5no3 3hat yo' are (oin. 'ntil yo' .et to the en(* This is 3here the mentor
offers their .'i(ance an( s'pport* Effective coaches employ hi.her or(er thin5in. s5ills
in their (isc'ssions* They refrain from lect'rin. as it is not reflective* The .oal is to
vocaliBe ho3 3e feel thro'.h o'r o3n 'n(erstan(in. of 3hat too5 place*
> s'..este( Schons point of a mentor relationship in learnin. is to (emonstrate the point
that o'r learnin. is a contin''m* ,ltho'.h it may /e 'ncomforta/le to reflect on personal
e?perience in the classroom it is a necessary process in teacher e('cation* Sometimes
yo' are .oin. to ma5e mista5es an( it can h'rt 3hen other people point o't those
mista5es* The point is yo' have to fall (o3n to learn to 3al5*
+oncluding Remar's:

>n or(er to /e an effective practitioner) teachers nee( to 3or5 colla/oratively 3ith their
collea.'es instea( of in isolation* Teachers nee( to /e open to the fee(/ac5 from their
peers an( share their C(iscoveries; of their o3n learnin. in professional (evelopment
ven'es* &ore importantly) e('cators nee( to refine their practices as teachers) 5eepin.
in min( the nee( to help their o3n st'(ents in learnin. ho3 to /ecome reflective
Schon) *,* 0167+2 Educating the Reflective Practitioner. Presentation to the
167+ meetin. of the ,merican E('cational Research ,ssociation 9ashin.ton
*"* 9ashin.ton *"* 0pp*1<102