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Noise Robust Coding and Iterative Decoding of Multiple Description Image

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Abstract: Motivated by recent results in multiple description image coding over wireless networks, we propose a scheme for

transmission of multiple descriptions through hybrid packet loss and additive white Gaussian noise channel. Balanced

multiple descriptions are generated by applying multiple description scalar quantizer on wavelet coefficients. Each

description is then coded into multiple bitstreams by applying !"#$ coding on wavelet trees along spatial orientations and

each stream is further compressed using arithmetic code. %se of error resilient entropy coding &E'E() is proposed in

literature for synchronization requirement of variable length codes, but E'E( is not compatible with iterative soft*in soft out

decoding of arithmetic code at the receiver. +e propose the application of E'E( assisted by state and tail bits &E'E($) in

con,unction with iterative decoding of arithmetic code at receiver for reconstructing the multiple description coded image

over packet loss and Gaussian noise channel. E-perimental results demonstrate that an additional gain of . dB in !/' is

obtained over e-isting scheme.

Kewords: E'E(, (hase*like decoder, Multiple description image coding, +ireless networks.

!" Introduction

Current advances in microelectronics and wireless

communication has enabled the development of

miniaturized, low-cost and low power computing

nodes in multihop wireless networks. Such networks

may be heterogeneous in nature and have application

in target tracking, habitat monitoring, camera sensor

network. Similarly, modern multimedia delivery

networks are hybrid in nature, i.e. consisting of in-part

packet switched network and one or more wireless

access points that serve the end user. One of the main

problems encountered in transmission of images over

such heterogeneous network is degradation of

reconstructed image quality due to packet loss. he

ob!ective of multiple description coding is to encode a

source into two or more descriptions in such a way that

the reception of an arbitrary subset of descriptions may

produce useful reconstruction, with quality of

reconstruction increasing with number of descriptions.

his has proved to be an effective way to combat the

degrading effect of packet loss.

One of the first multiple description image coder

"#$, consisting of an e%tension of &'(), was designed

based on multiple description scalar quantizer

*+,S-. "/$. 0nother group of methods for multiple

description coding use correlating transform are

proposed in "1-2$ and references therein. 3ecently Sun

et al. "4$ proposed a technique for multiple description

coding based on combining lapped transform, block

level source splitting and linear prediction.

'resently state-of-the-art image coding techniques

use wavelet transform based coding for image

compression and many multiple description image

coder has been proposed based on it. Servetto at al. "5$

proposed one of the first multiple description image

coder based on wavelet transform and demonstrated

improved performance over single description coding.

0 given image is hierarchically decomposed into

wavelet subbands and two balanced descriptions are

then obtained by applying multiple description scalar

quantizer *+,S-. on the subband coefficients. he

quantization indices of both descriptions are entropy

coded using arithmetic code and transmitted over

different channel. 6(C-based multiple description

coding was applied in "7$-"##$ for transmission of

progressively coded image over wireless channel.

6(C-based multiple descriptions have the advantage of

being able to generate arbitrary number of descriptions

from a progressive bitstream compared to source coder

based approaches. Song et al "#/$ proposed

improvement to wavelet transform based scheme of "5$

for packet loss and random error channel. he scheme

consists of S'89 coding of wavelet trees along spatial

orientation for each description which generates

multiple variable length bitstreams in contrast to

conventional S'89 coding which generates a single

progressively coded bitstream. 8n order to maintain

high compression efficiency and robust

synchronization (3(C "#1$ is applied to reorganize

these variable length bitstreams into fi%ed length slots

before transmission.

8n this research, our contribution lies in improving

the scheme of Song et al. "#/$ by adapting Chase-type

soft-input soft-output *S8SO. arithmetic decoder "#:$

for decoding of multiple descriptions transmitted over

additive white )aussian noise *0;)<. and packet

loss channels. (%isting schemes in literature suppose

the transmission media to be random bit error and

packet loss channel. his assumption is not necessarily

suitable for many binary-input continuous output

channels *e.g. 0;)< channel., where soft decision

output of channel decoder can be utilized by the source

decoder for further improving the 'S<3 performance.

0t the encoder S'89 coded bitstreams are arithmetic

coded to further increase compression efficiency

compared to the scheme proposed in "#/$ and use of

soft channel information at the receiver improves the

noise robustness of the arithmetic decoder. Combining

(3(C with iterative source-channel decoding of

arithmetic code is not quite straightforward as (3(C

requires instantaneous hard decision decoding of the

source symbols. Our innovation lies in applying

(3(C assisted by state and tail bits *(3(CS. "#5$

with arithmetic coded S'89 trees of variable lengths

for S8SO decoding of arithmetic codes. his enables

iterative source-channel decoding of (3(C coded

fi%ed length slots at the receiver and improve 'S<3

gain significantly.

he rest of the paper is arranged as follows. 8n

section /, we describe the proposed scheme and the

constituent blocks in the transmitting system in detail.

Section 1 details the proposed soft iterative source-

channel decoding method of arithmetic coded

bitstreams reordered by (3(CS and subsequent

reconstruction of received image. 8n section :, we

present several simulation results to compare the

performance of the proposed system. 6inally, we

conclude with section =.

#" $stem Model

;e present the proposed system as shown in 6igure #.

wo balanced are descriptions are obtained by

performing +,S- after decomposing the given image

hierarchically using discrete wavelet transform

*,;.. Coefficients of wavelet trees along spatial

orientation in each descriptions are partitioned "#=$

and each partition is S'89 coded independently. C3C

parity bits are generated for predefined fi%ed length of

each S'89 coded bitstream, and then arithmetic

coding is applied to each independent bitstream for

further compression. he variable length arithmetic

codes are reorganized into fi%ed length slots using

(3(CS for synchronization requirements.

Conversion to fi%ed length slots is required to form

uniform sized packets before transmitting over packet

switching network. 0t the output of the packet loss

channel, remaining available packets are coded using

recursive systematic convolutional code *3SCC. at

wireless access points *;0'. and transmitted.

he receiver tries to decode the packets received

through the wireless channel and reconstruct the image

by combining both the descriptions. >og-liklihood

ratio *>>3. value at the input is computed from the

received signal as

/

? /

i i

y = , where

i

y

is the

output of 0;)< channel with noise variance

/

.

his >>3 value is utilized by source-channel decoder

for iterative soft decoding of arithmetic code and

3SCC. Successfully recovered S'89 coded bitstream

are decoded and wavelet trees are combined to obtain

the image in wavelet domain. 6inally reconstructed

image is obtained by inverse discrete wavelet

transform *8,;..

6igure #. @lock diagram of the proposed multiple description scheme.

#"!" DW% and MD$&

8mage is first hierarchically decomposed into < level

,;. he number of levels < is chosen depending on

the required number of wavelet trees with the

coefficients in the lowest frequency subband being

root of those trees. o create two balanced

descriptions Aaishampayan "/$ proposed +,S-,

which consists of two stages. 8n the first stage,

wavelet coefficients in all subbands are uniformly

quantized with stepsize B to obtain integer valued

quantization indices ". he second stage, inde%

assignment maps the quantization inde% field to two

complementary and possibly redundant inde% pair

fields "

#

and "

/

.

;e consider two different cases of inde%

assignment, high redundancy assignment with /

diagonals *6igure /*a.. and lower redundancy

assignment with 1 diagonals *6igure /*b... he matri%

entries in the figure represents the quantization inde% ",

which are mapped to row and column indices "

#

and "

/

.

#"#" $'I(% Coding of Wavelet %rees

8t has been demonstrated in "#=$ that ,; coefficients

of an image can be divided into 0 groups and then

each of these groups can be independently quantized

and coded so that 0 separate embedded bitstreams are

created. 0s the number of groups 0 increases, the

resilience of the coded image to transmission error also

increases, but with some decrease in coding efficiency.

8n this paper, we consider each group consisting of

four spatial orientation trees with each wavelet tree

rooted at the lowest frequency subband. <odes of the

tree have either no descendents or four offspring

grouped in / / ad!acent coefficients. ;e utilize the

scheme presented in "#/$ where S'89 algorithm "#2$

is employed to encode independently i-th group of

coefficients in description , and generate variable

length bitstreams C / , # D E ,..., # , = , 0 i

,

i

. Since

each description is consisted of matri% of integer

valued quantization indices, S'89 coding is done on

each group of trees until bit-layer F to obtain integer

level accuracy.

#")" CRC and Arit*metic Coding

0fter S'89 coding of wavelet trees along spatial

orientation for each description, we append :-bit cyclic

redundancy check *C3C. to each of the 0 S'89

coded bitstreams. C3C of : bit length was used so as

to avoid unnecessary coding overhead. Since, all the

bitstreams are of different length and their embedded

nature *bits in the beginning of the bitstream are more

important than at the end., C3C is generated and

appended for the first l bits *l G #/5 bits in this paper.

in each bitstream. C3C check eliminates erroneous

wavelet trees from consideration which may have

significant impact on the 'S<3 of the reconstructed

image.

0rithmetic encoder "#4$ than maps each of the 0

bitstreams independently into binary strings ,

,

i

1

, ,..., # 0 i =

for description

C / , # D ,

. 0rithmetic

encoder has input symbol set consisting of three

symbols, namely, F, #, and (nd of @lock *(o@.. (o@

symbol is put at the end of

,

i

to mark the end of each

variable length bitstream. Since, S'89 is an efficient

compression algorithm, further compression of S'89

coded bitstreams by arithmetic code gives little

compression gain. he main ob!ective of arithmetic

coding is to provide robustness against noise, as will

be discussed in section 1.

#"+" ,R,C$% and 'acket -ormation

8n the earlier section, 0 arithmetic coded bitstreams of

variable length are generated for each description. 8f

these variable length blocks *A>@. are transmitted

consecutively, the resulting system is highly sensitive

to bit errors. One approach has been to append

synchronization code words to provide

resynchronization at the cost of e%tra added bits.

Otherwise, presence of a single error in the arithmetic

code may cause catastrophic decoding error. 0nother

approach for error robust transmission of variable

length codes is the method of (3(C "#1$, which

converts 0 A>@s into 0 fi%ed length slots *6>S..

(3(C has been applied in "#/$ for reorganizing

variable length blocks of S'89 coded bitstream

before transmission over bit flipping channel.

,ecoding (3(C in iterative source-channel receiver

is challenging because to detect the end of each A>@

in the 6>S, the A>@ subdecoder *i.e. S8SO arithmetic

decoder in our case. must be embedded into the (3(C

decoder and decision of end of block be made based

on some hard decision. Since, at the receiver (3(C

decoder lies in the iterative loop between source and

channel decoder, finding end of block based on soft

decision is difficult. his can be solved by applying

(3(CS proposed in "#5$ to the problem. (3(CS

isolates pure (3(C subdecoder from the effects of

A>@ subdecoder by coding A>@ lengths as side

*a. *b.

6igure /. *a. wo diagonal *, G /. and *b. three diagonal *, G

1. inde% assignment. 0n integer along the diagonal is mapped to

row and column indices "# and "/.

information *S8.. >et 2 be the total number of bits in 0

A>@s in a description and s

i

is the length of i th 6>S,

where,

0 i 0 2

0 2 i

0 2

0 2

i

s

<

<

=

. , mod*

. , mod* F

, ?

, ?

*#.

he encoding process consists of 0 stages. (ach

stage consists of filling up of 6>S and coding of A>@

lengths by emission of state and tail bits. 6igure 1

shows the sequence of steps to convert four A>@s to

four 6>Ss. 0t stage F *6igure 1*a.., as many bits as

possible are placed into corresponding 6>S. 0t stage n,

i-th A>@, *A>@*i. has b

i

remaining bits. searches m-th

6>S *s

m

slots left in 6>S*m.., where m G

. ., * mod* 0 n i +

and

. *n

is a predefined integer

sequence of length 0. 8f both A>@*i. has bits

remaining and 6>S*m. has blank slots, as many

remaining bits of A>@*i. as possible are placed in

6>S*m.. 0t each stage, one state bit is emitted. G #

if

m i

s b > , else S G F and

m

s

/

log tail bits are

output to code . *

i m

b s in binary. >et

. , min*

i m

b s t = . 3emaining bits and slots are

recalculated as

t b b

i i

=

and

t s s

m m

=

. 8n 6igure

1*b., after stage F, only 6>S*#. has bits left to be

placed and searches 6>S*/.. wo bits are placed in

6>S*/.. Since, no other A>@ contains unplaced bits,

the process moves to ne%t stage. 8n stage /, A>@*#.

places remaining three bits in 6>S*1., as shown in

6igure 1*d.. he 6>S are formed into packets and

transmitted over network. able 8 shows the S8 *state

and tail bits. generated for this e%ample. he S8 bits

associated with a 6>S are taken as a whole *SA>@.

and (3(C is applied to reorganize all SA>@ into fi%ed

length slots called S6>S. 8f b is the average A>@

length, it was proved in "#5$ that total fraction of S8

bits is less than

b b ? . log / *

/

+ , which in this

research is F.F/4. hus we can safely assume that S8

bits are transmitted with higher error protection with

little coding overhead and received error free.

S6>S is utilized at the receiver side to recover

variable length bitstreams back from 6>S. his is done

in two stages, consisting of subroutines 32B

reconstructor and 32B reconstructor. 3efer to "#5$ for

detailed algorithms for these two functions. 32B

reconstructor outputs data structure sseg m G Ds, ne-tC,

where s is the number of blank bits after the current

segment of 6>S*m., and ne-t points to the ne%t

segment of 6>S*m.. 8f no more sseg is associated with

current 6>S, a null is put in ne-t field. 6igure :*a.

shows sseg for the four 6>S formed in 6igure 1. Hero

in s field of sseg F indicates that no slots are left blank

in 6>S*F. after the current segment. 6or sseg #, s G -#

indicates that current A>@ fills up 6>S*#. completely

with some bits are remaining to be placed in other

6>S. 6>S*/. contains data segment from two different

A>@s as shown by two sseg. 0fter first segment, two

bit positions are left vacant and ne-t in sseg / points to

ne%t sseg. 8n the similar way sseg information is

generated for 6>S*1..

able #. State and tail bits after different stages in 6igure 1.

;ith the aid of sseg information, 32B reconstructor

algorithm rearranges bits in 6>S to original variable

length bitstreams. 32B reconstructor creates a data

structure called bseg i G

C , I , , D ne-t s s m

associated

with each A>@*i., where s and I s is the number of

blank bits in 6>S*m. before and after current segment

of A>@*i.. 6igure :*b. shows the content of bseg

structure for the given e%ample. 0t the beginning it is

assumed that all the A>@s at the receiver are empty

and are waiting to get bits from the 6>S. A>@*F. is

reconstructed with the aid of information in bseg F,

where bits are obtained from m G F-th 6>S. <umber of

bits left in 6>S*F. is four *s G :. before recovering the

A>@ segment. Since, after current segment number of

bits left is zero * F I = s ., all the bits of the 6>S*F. is

taken up to form A>@*F.. A>@*F. gets not more bits

from any 6>S because ne-t field in bseg F is null.

A>@*#. obtains four bits from 6>S*#., two bits from

6>S*/. and three bits from 6>S*1. as indicated by

bseg # in 6igure :*b.. Similarly, A>@*/. and A>@*1.

is reconstructed. One distinctive feature of 32B

reconstructor algorithm "#5$ is that can be observed

from this e%ample is that underlying variable length

code *i.e. A>@. need not be decoded to recover A>@s

back from 6>S as was required with (3(C in "#1$.

#"." R$CC ,ncoding and %ransmission

;ireless access points *;0'. constitute the last-hop

delivery link to the end user. hose packets which are

not dropped in the network reach the ;0'. hese

packets are encoded with eight state rate J 3SCC and

6igure 1. 6igure shows four variable length blocks A>@*F., A>@*#., A>@*/. and A>@*1. being rearranged into fi%ed length slots 6>S*F-

1.with (3(C?(3(CS algorithm.

n / 0 n / ! n / # $123 $-2$

-2$405 F,FF FFF FFFF

-2$4!5 # # #FF#

-2$4#5 F,#F # F#F# F#F-

-2$4)5 F,## F,FF F##FFF F##-

transmitted over wireless channel. he end user is able

to able to receive packets from one or more ;0's. ;e

assume that reception is done through two different

chain of antenna and receivers *as the number of

descriptions. and combined at last stage.

)" Decoding of Received Descriptions

8t is assumed that the two descriptions are received

through two orthogonal wireless channels. he

channels are orthogonal in the sense that they are

received by a single antenna by time division

multiple%ing or through two different antenna pairs by

frequency multiple%ing. Subsequent stages of

decoding are e%plained ne%t.

)"!" Iterative $ource6C*annel Decoding

8n this research, channel code *3SCC. and source code

*arithmetic code. are decoded iteratively. 8terative

decoding allows source codec to be more robust to

residual channel errors. 0lso, channel decoder can

utilize any residual redundancy of arithmetic code in

the process of decodng. ;e assume that input signal at

the @C&3 decoder K G

,...$ ,..., , "

/ # i

y y y

is

obtained as

i i i

w - y + = */.

where,

i

w

is )aussian distributed random noise with

variance

/

and

i

- is the corresponding transmitted

symbol. 8n contrast to Aiterbi decoder which outputs

hard decision, @C&3 algorithm "#7$ accepts channel

>>3 values

/

? /

i i

y = for decoding 3SCC to

obtain soft >>3 outputs as shown in 6igure =. >et L

e

be the e%trinsic >>3 calculated by subtracting a priori

input from the output of @C&3 decoder. he e%trinsic

information L

e

is in the form of packets and if the

packet has been lost *did not arrive at the receiver., its

>>3 value is taken to be zero. ;hen the last of the

packets has received, they are formed into 6>S of

predefined length. he main challenge, as discussed in

earlier section, is to rearrange *(3(C decode. soft

information 6>Ss to array of *>>3 values of

arithmetic coded. A>@ blocks M

a

G "

a

0

a

k

a

,..., , ,

#

$, where k-th A>@ block

a

k

is an

array of >>3 values of arithmetic code. his was

achieved with (3(CS algorithm described in section

/.:, aided by side information sseg.

(ach A>@

a

k

is now decoded by Chase-like S8SO

arithmetic decoder proposed by Haibi et al. "#:$. 8n a

Chase-like decoder, hard decision on each A>@ is

made to obtain a binary array . sgn*

a

k

4 = . >et

. *k 2

be the length of the array

a

k

. 4 is perturbed by

a set of test patterns

,

$

, which is a binary sequence

that contains #s in the location with minimum

magnitude in = N N

a

k

N$ N N,..., N N, "N

. * / #

a

k k2

a

k

a

k

. @y

adding this test pattern modulo-/, a new binary

sequence is obtained.

, ,

$ 4 ! = *1.

where

C ,..., / , # D q ,

and vector

$ , , , "

/ #

,

0

, , ,

p p p ! = . @y using q number of test

patterns *q G #2 in this article., the perturbed binary

sequence

,

!

may fall within the decoding sphere of

valid arithmetic code. 0rithmetic code is considered

valid if, after decoding, a (o@ symbol is detected at

the end and number of decoded symbols is correct. 6or

a valid sequence

,

!

, following metric is calculatedO

.. * log*

/

. , *

. *

#

/

/

,

k 2

i

,

i i E

,

1 !

h r d

M

=

+

*:.

where,

,

i

,

i

p h / # = is the bipolar form of

,

i

p ,

. ? / ?*

/

a

ki i

r = and *..

E

d calculates (uclidean

distance. . *

,

1 ! is the probability of source sequence

,

1

obtained after decoding

,

!

. 6inally, the decoded

6igure :. *a. 6our sseg linked list generated by 32B

'econstructor subroutine in the process of (3(CS decoding of

6>S created in 6igure 1. *b. 6our bseg linked list generated by

function 32B 'econstructor, where bseg i corresponds to

A>@*i..

6igure =. ,etailed e%position of iterative source-channel

decoder block in 6igure #. ,otted section outputs 6>S when last

of the packets for a description is received.

bitstream 0 corresponds to the sequence

,

!

having

the lowest metric M

,

among the valid sequences. >et

C ,..., / , # D 2 v

be the set of positions of bits which

remain unchanged among the valid sequences. hese

bits positions are most reliable bit positions in terms of

>>3 magnitude and are assigned a constant e%trinsic

information, v i p

,

i

e

ki

= ., / # * and F =

e

ki

,

otherwise. he value of 5 was set to : in this research

following "#:$. hus, after a iteration Chase-like

arithmetic decoder outputs A>@s of e%trinsic >>3 M

e

G "

e

0

e

k

e

,..., , ,

#

$, where

$ ,..., , "

/ #

e

k2

e

k

e

k

e

k

= . he M

e

is again reorganized

into fi%ed length blocks using (3(C and applied as a

priori information L

a

to the @C&3 decoder. 0fter

certain fi%ed number of iterations, let 0 be the output

of the arithmetic decoder.

)"#" Decoding of Multiple Descriptions

he 0 variable length bitstreams in 0 are checked

for C3C, and in case of check failure, corrosponding

wavelet tree is marked lost and is not utilized for

further reconstruction. 0fter S'89 decoding of the

same wavelet tree order bitstreams of two descriptions,

wavelet coefficients obtained are

#

8 and

/

8 . 8f the

same wavelet tree order bitstreams of descriptions

*corresponding to row and column inde%. arrive at the

receiver without being lost, decoding is performed by

simple matri% lookup to get the central quantization

inde%. 9owever, if some of the wavelet trees of either

description are corrupted or lost, central decoding can

not be performed correctly by matri% lookup. 8n such

cases, only available bitstream from either description

is used to perform inverse inde% assignment using

single channel inverse quantizer. hus, at the receiver,

a wavelet tree can be declared lost in three scenarios.

0 packet is lost in packet loss channel and all

the A>@ associated with it are declared lost.

<o valid arithmetic code is found in the

source-channel decoder stage.

@itstream after arithmetic decoding, which are

in fact S'89 coded A>@, fails in C3C.

;hen both descriptions of same wavelet tree are

lost, Song et al. "#/$ proposed error concealment in

wavelet domain. his error concealment is based on

the fact that wavelet coefficients in the lowest

frequency subband have similar spatial correlation

with the original image. Similar to the scheme

proposed in "#/$, one wavelet tree in S'89 has four

coefficients in the lowest frequency subband. 8f a tree

is lost, these four coefficients are also lost and error

concealment process replaces these four coefficients

with average of its neighbour coefficients whose block

have been recovered by central or side inverse

quantizer. 0ll the high frequency coefficients of the

lost tree are set to zero.

+" ,7perimental Results

;e use =#/ =#/ grey-scale >ena test image for

evaluating the performance of proposed algorithm

under following channel conditionsO *i. 0;)<

channel with no packet loss, and *ii. combined packet

loss and 0;)< channel. he given image is

hierarchically decomposed by :-scale discrete wavelet

transform, and then each of the subband coefficients is

quantized with uniform scalar quantizer of stepsize B.

6or +,S-, we consider two types of inde%

assignments, with number of diagonals , G / and , G

1, to form two descriptions. 6or each description, /=2

wavelet trees are constructed and S'89 coded to

generate /=2 bitstreams. he stepsize B was ad!usted to

obtain coding rate of F.= bpp?description after S'89

coding. :-bit C3C was generated using generator

polynomial

1 :

- - +

# /

- - + + for the first #/5 bits of

a bitstream and appended to it. his results in mere

F.FF: bps overhead in each description and will be

compensated by arithmetic coding in ne%t stage. 0ll

the bitstreams are independently arithmetic coded for

further compression, formed into 6>S using (3(CS.

Our scheme is more compression efficient as there is

no arithmetic coding stage in the scheme proposed in

"#/$. ,ata packets were formed by packing eight slots

and transmitted over packet network. 'ackets arriving

at the ;0' are encoded with 5-state 3SCC with

generator polynomial

5

. #= , #4 * . , * = G G

r

.

;e first consider transmission over 0;)< channel

without any packet drop. ;e compare the performance

of the proposed system to the baseline scheme of Song

et al. "#/$ with /=2 bitstreams per description under

similar channel conditions. 6igure 2 and 4 shows the

performance of the proposed system for 1 diagonal and

/ diagonal inde% assignments, respectively. 6or hard

decision decoding of arithmetic code aided by

(3(CS *without iterative decoding., we can observe

#.= d@ improvement in average 'S<3 at (

b

?<

F

of 1.=

d@ compared to baseline scheme, in both 1 diagonal

and / diagonal case. ;ith iterative decoding

remarkable improvement is observed in 'S<3

performance. 0fter # iteration of soft decoding of

arithmetic code, there is a ma%imum gain in 'S<3 of

1 d@ at (

b

?<

F

of 1.= d@ in 1 diagonal case. he

improvement is 1.= d@ compared to baseline scheme

for / diagonal case. he ma%imum improvement after

: iterations is observed at relatively noisy region of

(

b

?<

F

G 1 d@. he gain in 'S<3 is 2 d@ and 4 d@

respectively for 1 and / diagonal cases, compared to

baseline system under 0;)< channel. 8mprovement

in 'S<3 saturates after : iterations. he results are

obtained by averaging #FF trials for each channel

condition. 8n 6ig. 5, we give e%amples of reconstructed

images in order to illustrate the improvement in visual

quality. 6igure 5*a. shows improvement in image

quality compared to baseline scheme *6igure 5*b.. at

(

b

?<

F

of 1 d@. hese results have demonstrated that

the proposed improvement in +,C scheme makes it

significantly noise robust compared to e%isting

schemes in literature.

Second set of simulations were carried out to

demonstrate the performance of our proposed scheme

over channels with both packet loss and random noise.

he ob!ective is to evaluate the degradation of 'S<3

value for different number of packet lost. ;e conduct

e%periments with the proposed system only as its

superiority compared to baseline system has been

demonstrated in the earlier set of simulations. he

results for different wireless channel conditions are

shown in 6igure 7 for , G 1 and 6ig. #F for , G /. ;e

obtain the results after averaging /FF trials of

transmission over each channel condition. 8t is evident

from the figures that proposed scheme is able to

achieve graceful degradation of image quality as more

and more packets are lost in packet network. he

degradation is more evident in high (

b

?<

F

region *P 1

d@. whereas, there is smaller effect of packet loss in

low (

b

?<

F

region. hese results demonstrate e%cellent

capability of the presented system to combat packet

loss and noisy channel via integrated design.

." Conclusion

8n this paper, we proposed a multiple description

image transmission scheme over hybrid channel

consisting of combined packet loss channel and

0;)< channel. 8t was shown that robustness to

packet loss and channel noise can be improved by

utilizing the soft channel information at the receiver.

;e achieved this by iterative decoding between Chase-

like S8SO arithmetic decoder and @C&3 decoder, with

(3(CS stage in-between. Significant gain in 'S<3

is obtained over e%isting scheme with lesser number of

bits transmitted.

6igure 4. 'erformance of proposed scheme for transmission over

0;)< channel *with no packet loss. for , G /.

6igure 7. 'erformance of proposed scheme *, G 1. for

transmission over packet loss channel at different values of

(b?<F for wireless channel.

6igure 2. 'erformance comparison of proposed scheme for

transmission over 0;)< channel *with no packet loss. for 1

diagonal inde% assignment case *, G 1..

*a. *b.

6igure 5. 8mage recovered by proposed scheme *a. compared

with recovery by baseline system *b. at (b?<F of 1 d@ and , G 1.

'S<3 of images *a. and *b. are 11.2 d@ and /4 d@, respectively.

References

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'epresentation, vol. #7, pp. 1##-1#7, /FF5.

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0n error-resilient technique for coding variable-

length blocks of data,R "EEE $rans. "mage

!rocessing, vol. =, no. =, pp. =2=-=4:, #772.

"#:$ Haibi S. et al., Q&oint source?channel iterative

arithmetic decoding with &'() /FFF image

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ignal !rocessing, +ay, /F#/.

"#=$ Creusere C. ,., Q0 new method of robust image

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"#4$ aubman ,. S., +arcellin +. ;., &'() /FFF T

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