A: Abbreviation or symbol for absolute temperature, absorption coefficient, acceleration, adenine, ampere, amplitude, angular acceleration, area, attenuation coefficient, fine-structure constant, helium nucleus, Helmhotz free energy, magnetic vector potential, relative atomic mass, a stereoisomer of a sugar, substitution on a carbon atom next to one common to two condensed aromatic nuclei, substitution on the carbon atom next to the hetero-atom in ahetero-cyclic compound, and substitution on the carbon atom of a chain next to the functional group. A-2 tire: A term used for tire sizes 16.00 and larger in nominal cross section. Also called earthmover or off-the-road tire. AA: Abbreviation for "Automobile Association" a term used in Great Britain. aa: A term of Hawaiian origin for lava flows with a rough, jagged surface. AAA: Acronym for "American Automobile Association" or "Alberta Automobile Association." AABM: Acronym for "Association of American Battery Manufacturers, Inc." AAE: Acronym for "Association of Automotive Employers" (Poland).

AAIA: Acronym for "Automotive Aftermarket Industry Association". AALA: Acronym for "American Automobile Labelling Act." aalenian: The oldest stage of the Middle-Jurassic. AAM: Acronym for "Alliance of Automobile Manufacturers". AAP: Acronym for "auxiliary acceleration pump". A arm:
See A-arm

A-arm: A suspension linkage formed in the shape of an "A" or "V" found commonly on the front suspension. The sides of the two legs of the A-arm are connected to the chassis by rubber bushings and the peak of the A-arm is attached to the wheel assembly. In this way, the wheel can freely move up and down. Sometimes there is an upper A-arm, a lower A-arm, or both upper and lower A-arms. The British call it a "wishbone."
Also see double wishbone

A-arm suspension:
See double wishbone


Acronym for "air aspirator system". abacus: [1] The uppermost part of a column capital or pilaster, on which the architrave rests. [2] A bead frame. Used as an arithmetic calculating aid.

abampere: A unit of electric current in the CGS electromagnetic system of units. One abampere equals 10A. abamurus: A supporting wall or buttress, built to add strength to another wall. abandonment: A voluntary surrender of legal rights or title to a mining claim. abatjour: An opening to admit light and generally to deflect it downwards; a skylight. abaxial: Rays of light which do not coincide with the optical axis of a lens system. ABC: [1] Acronym for "aerial bunched conductors" [2] Acronym for "automatic beam control". ABDC: Acronym for after bottom dead center. A term used in timing the relation of the spark and the crankshaft. Abel flashpoint apparatus:

A petroleum-testing apparatus for determining the flash-point. Abelian group: A group in which the group operation is commutative. It is important in the study of rings and vector spaces. aberration: [1] An apparent change of position of a heavenly body, due to the speed of light having a finite ratio to the relative velocity of the source and the observer. [2] In an image-forming system, e.g., an optical or electronic lens, failure to produce a true image, e.g., a point object as a point image. Geometrical aberrations include spherical aberration, coma, astigmatism, curvature of the field, and distortion.
See chromatic aberration

abhesive: A substance which prevents two materials sticking together, e.g., Teflon® on frying pans. ability:
See climbing ability cold cranking ability

ABL: Acronym for "atmospheric boundary layer" panel. ablation: [1] Any one of the processes by which snow and ice are lost from a glacier, mainly by melting and evaporation (sublimation). [2] Removal of surface layers of a meteorite and tektites during flight. ablative polymer: A material which degrades controllably in an aggressive environment, especially on re-entry space-craft. Extreme temperatures are reached on heat shield, so it is protected with ablation shield made of e.g., silicone polymer. The same principle is used in intumescent paints for fire

resistance. Abney law: A rule stating that if a spectral color is desaturated by the addition of white light, and if its wave length is less than 570 nm, its hue then moves towards the red end of the spectrum, while if the wavelength is more than 570 nm its hue moves towards the blue. Abney level: Hand-held instrument in which angles of steep sights are measured while simultaneously viewing a spirit-level bubble. Abney mounting: A form of mounting for a concave diffraction grating, in which the eyepiece (or photographic plate holder) is fixed at the center of curvature of the grating and the slit can move around the circumference of the Rowland circle, to bring different orders of spectrum into view. abnormal glow discharge: A discharge carrying current in excess of that which is required to cover the cathode completely with visible radiation. abnormal reflection: Reflection from the ionosphere of a radio wave whose frequency is greater than the critical frequency. aboard:
See lighter aboard ship

aboard ship:
See lighter aboard ship

See atomic bomb

A bone:

Nickname for a Ford Model "A". abort: To terminate a vehicle's flight either by failure or deliberate action to prevent dangerous consequences; if manned, a predetermined sequence of events is followed to ensure the safety of the crew. ABPV: Acronym for "air bypass valve". abradant: A substance, usually in powdered form, used for grinding.
Also see abrasive

abrade: To scratch or tear away two surfaces in contact by relative motion. Abram's law: A rule that the ratio of water to cement for chemical action to impart strength to concrete is 0.85:1. abrasion: [1] Wearing or rubbing away some surface because of friction. [2] Mechanical wearing away of rocks by rubbing during movement. abrasion hardness: Resistance to abrasive wear, under specified conditions, of metal or mineral. abrasive: A hard grit used for sanding or grinding. It is usually in powdered form, used for the removal of material by scratching and grinding, e.g., silicon carbide powder (carborundum).
Also see bonded abrasive

coated abrasive non-woven abrasive

abrasive blast cleaning: A method for preparing steel for painting whereby abrasive particles, e.g., copper slag, are projected under pressure through a nozzle. Very effective in removing rust and mill scale, leaving an anchor pattern (a pattern of minute projections) on the substrate affording good paint adhesion. abrasive cleaner: A cleanser with some hard grit used to remove the grime and oils from a surface. abrasive disc: A circular plate (often made of plastic with hard grit embedded into it) used for grinding or sanding.

abrasive paper: Sandpaper (a paper upon which sand or hard grit has been glued) used for sanding or grinding. abrasive wear: A mechanism of wear due to the presence in one or both surfaces of hard particles (e.g., carbide in steels), or to hard particles trapped between them. A/B roll editing: Video editing using two source players (A and B) enabling dubbing from both. Necessary if scenes are to be superimposed. A/B roll printing: A method of film printing with alternate scenes assembled in two rolls, each having black spacing equivalent in length to the omitted scene; double printing from the two allows the inclusion of fade and dissolve effects and avoids visible splice marks between scenes in 16 mm printing.

ABS: [1] Acronym for "anti-lock brakes. The acronym ABS comes from the German anti blockier system. [2] Acronym for "acylonitrile-butadiene-styrene."
Also see copolymer

abscissa: For rectilineal axes of coordinates, the distance of a point from the axis of ordinates measured in a direction parallel to the axis of abscissae, which is usually horizontal. The sign convention is that measurements to the right from the axis of ordinates are positive, measurements to the left negative. absolute: A conic (a quadric in three dimensions) formed by the assemblage of the points at infinity on a line (in general two points). Its form determines the metrical properties of the geometrical system being operated. Thus in Euclidean geometry, the absolute is the degenerate conic comprising the line at infinity taken twice, while in non-Euclidean geometry, the absolute is either a real conic (hyperbolic geometry) or an imaginary conic (elliptic geometry).
Also see manifold absolute pressure sensor POA suction throttling valve

absolute address: A computer code designation of a specific memory location as determined by the hardware. absolute age: The geological age of a fossil, mineral, rock or event, generally given in years. absolute ampere: The standard MKS unit of electric current; replaced the international ampere in 1948.

absolute ceiling: The height at which the rate of climb of an aircraft, in standard atmosphere, would be zero; the maximum height attainable under standard conditions. absolute electrometer: A high-grade attracted-disk electrometer in which an absolute measurement of potential can be made by weighing the attraction between two charged disks against gravity. absolute filter: A filter which removes most particulate matter from gases. absolute humidity: The mass (actual amount) of water vapor present in a unit of volume of moist air. absolute instrument: An instrument which measures a quantity directly in absolute units, without the necessity for previous calibration. absolute permeability:
See permeability

absolute pressure: Pressure measured from a starting point of zero in perfect vacuum. When measured by the absolute pressure scale, atmospheric pressure is 14.7 psi or 29.92 inches of mercury (in-Hg).
Also see manifold absolute pressure sensor

absolute pressure sensor:
See manifold absolute pressure sensor barometric absolute pressure sensor

absolute reaction rate: The reaction rate determined from statistical thermodynamics; uses the assumption of the theory of absolute reaction rates that the rate of a

chemical reaction is governed by the rate of crossing an energy barrier or of forming an activated complex. absolute temperature: Temperature measured with respect to absolute zero, i.e., the zero of the kelvin thermodynamic scale of temperature, a scale which cannot take negative values. absolute temperature scale: Also called the absolute scale temperature as measured on a scale in which the hypothetical lowest limit of physical temperature is assigned the value zero. The Kelvin scale is an example of the absolute temperature scale. absolute units: Units derived directly from the fundamental units of a system and not based on arbitrary numerical definitions. The differences between absolute and international units were small; both are now superseded by the definitions of SI units. absolute wavemeter: A wavemeter in which the frequency of the injected radio-frequency signal is by calculation of physical properties (circuit elements or dimensions) of a resonant circuit line or cavity. absolute weight: The weight (or mass) of a body in a vacuum. absolute zero: The point at which there is a total absence of heat, minus 459.67°F (-273.15°C). absorbance: [1] The logarithm of the ratio of the intensity of light incident on a sample to that transmitted by it. It is usually directly proportional to the concentration of the absorbing substance in a solution.

[2] The capacity of materials such as textile fibers and paper to absorb liquids. absorbed dose: Quantity of energy imparted by ionizing radiation to a unit mass of biological tissue. Unit is the gray. absorbent: Substance with the ability to take up or absorb another substance. absorber: Any material which converts energy of radiation or particles into another form, generally heat. Energy transmitted is not absorbed. Scattered energy is often classed with absorbed energy.
Also see direct-acting shock impact absorber absorber lever-type shock double-tube shock absorber absorber monotube shock friction shock absorber absorber self-levelling shock gas shock absorber absorber shock absorber single-tube shock absorber. telescopic shock absorber UV absorber

air shock absorber arc absorber adjustable shock absorbers damper

absorber rod:
See control rod

absorber tower:
See shock absorber tower

See energy absorbing steering column energy absorbing bumper

absorbing bumper:
See energy absorbing bumper

absorbing material: Any medium used for absorbing energy from radiation of any type.

absorbing steering:
See energy absorbing steering column

absorbing steering column:
See energy absorbing steering column

absorptance: A measure of the ability of a body to absorb radiation; the ratio of the radiant flux absorbed by the body to that incident on the body. absorption: The use of reagents to remove unwanted antibodies or antigens from a mixture.
Also see acoustic absorption air absorption atmospheric absorption sound absorption

absorption band: A dark gap in the continuous spectrum of white light transmitted by a substance which exhibits selective absorption. absorption capacitor: A capacitor connected across a spark gap to damp the discharge. absorption coefficient: [1] The volume of gas, measured at stp, dissolved by unit volume of a liquid under normal pressure (i.e., one atmosphere). [2] The fraction of the energy which is absorbed. [3] The reduction of amplitude, for a beam of radiation or other wave system incident on a discontinuity in the medium through which it is propagated, or in the path along which it is transmitted. [4] In a medium, the natural logarithm of the ratio of incident and emergent energy or amplitude for a beam of radiation passing through unit thickness of a medium.
Also see acoustic absorption coefficient

absorption discontinuity:
See absorption edge

absorption dynamometer: A dynamometer which absorbs and dissipates the power which it measures, e.g., the ordinary rope brake and the Froude hydraulic brake. absorption edge: The wavelength at which there is an abrupt discontinuity in the intensity of an absorption spectrum for electromagnetic waves, giving the appearance of a sharp edge in its photograph. The transition is due to one particular energy-dissipating process. absorption factor:
See acoustic absorption factor

absorption hygrometer: An instrument by which the quantity of water vapor in air may be measured. absorption inductor:
See interphase transformer

absorption lines: Dark lines in a continuous spectrum caused by absorption by a gaseous element. The positions (i.e., wavelengths) of the dark absorption lines are identical to those of the bright lines given by the same element in emission. absorption nebula:
See dark nebula

absorption plant: Plant where oils are removed from natural gas by absorption in suitable oil. absorption refrigerator:

[1] A plant in which ammonia is continuously evaporated from an aqueous solution under pressure, condensed, allowed to evaporate, and then reabsorbed. [2] A refrigerator which creates low temperatures by using the cooling effect formed when a refrigerant is absorbed by chemical substance. absorption spectrum: The system of absorption bands or lines seen when a selectively absorbing substance is placed between a source of white light and a spectroscope. absorption wavemeter: A wavemeter which depends on a resonance absorption in a tuned circuit, constructed with very stable inductance and capacitance. absorptive power:
See absorptance

See absorptance

ABS override button: A button or switch which disengages the automatic anti-lock braking system so that the driver can operate the brakes himself. ABS relay valve: An electrically controlled valve which modulates the air pressure in the ABS. abundance:
See relative abundance frequency

abundance ratio: For a naturally occurring element, the proportion or percentage of one isotope to the total. abundant number:

A natural number for which the sum of the proper factors is greater than the number itself, e.g., 18 is abundant since 1+2+3+6+9>18. Compare deficient number and perfect number. abut: The action of two gear teeth making contact. abutment: [1] A part which stops the motion of another part from proceeding any farther. [2] A cement raised shoulder secured to the side of the road to prevent a vehicle from going over the edge. [3] The contact made between opposing teeth of two gears. abutment load: In stopping or other deep-level excavation, weight transferred to the adjacent solid rock by unsupported roof. abutting edge: The side or edge of a panel which joins another panel. abutting joint: a timber joint whose plane is at right angles to the fibers, the fibers of both joining pieces being in the same straight line. ABV: Acronym for "air bypass valve". abyssal: term describing the ocean floor environment between ca4000 and 6000 m. abyssal deposits: Pelagic marine sediments, accumulating in depths of more than 2000 m including, with increasing depth, calcareous oozes, siliceous oozes and red clay (500 m).

abyssal plain: a flat region of the deep ocean floor with a slope of less than 1:1000. abyssopelagic: relating to the open waters of the abyssal zone. A/C: [1] An abbreviation for air conditioning or air conditioner. [2] An abbreviation for "across corners" which indicates the distance on a nut (for instance) from one corner to the opposite corner rather than the distance from one flat surface (A/F) to the opposite (which would be the size of wrench needed to install or remove the nut). The purpose of the A/C dimension is to know how large a hole might be needed to insert a recessed nut. AC: [1] A vehicle brand of which the 1925-48 models are classic cars. [2] Acronym for "alternating current." [3] Acronym for "air conditioning" or "air conditioner." [4] Symbol for actinium [5] The transformation temperature on heating of the phase changes of iron or steel, subscripts indicating the designated change, e.g., Ac1 is the eutectoid (723°C) and Ac3 the ferrite/austenite phase boundary. AC-3: Trade name for the digital audio coding used in 35 mm motion picture film to provide six-channel surround sound. It uses data blocks recorded optically between the perforations, leaving room for a conventional soundtrack. It is also suitable for multi-channel TV audio, as well as video software and home cinema. AC Ace: A vehicle brand of which the 1954-61 Ace models are milestone cars.

AC Aceca: (pronounced ah-SEEK-uh) A vehicle brand of which the 1955-61 Aceca models are milestone cars.

acanthite: An ore of silver, Ag2S, crystallizing in the monoclinic system. ACAP: Acronym for "Associação do comércio automovóvel de Portugal". ac balancer: An arrangement of transformers or reactors used to equalize the voltages between the wires of a multiple-wire system. Also called static balancer. ac bias: A high-frequency signal applied to a magnetic tape recording head along with the signal to be recorded. This stabilizes magnetic saturation and improves frequency response, at the same time reducing noise and distortion. The bias signal frequency has to be many times the highest recording frequency. AC Buckland: A vehicle brand of which the 1949 Buckland Open Tourer is a milestone car.

ac-boundary layer:
See stokes layer


Abbreviation for "accessories." ACC: [1] Acronym for "Automatic Cruise Control." [2] A term found on a cruise control switch which indicates the direction the switch needs to be moved to increase the speed (accelerate) of the vehicle. ACCC: Acronym for "air conditioner clutch compressor" signal. accelerate: [1] To increase the speed of a vehicle. Opposite of decelerate. [2] To accelerate an adhesive is to speed up a chemical reaction or a curing process. For example, you can speed up the drying time of an adhesive or sealer by increasing the temperature. Also, by adding a chemical curing agent, or accelerator, to a base compound. accelerated aging test: A stability test for cables using twice normal working voltage. It is claimed this give quick results that correlate with service records. accelerated fatigue test: Test which applies a cyclic loading schedule, which can be of varying frequency and/or amplitude, to a machine or component simulating its loading in service, but at a higher rate, to determine its safe fatigue life before it is reached in service. accelerate-stop distance: The total distance, under specified conditions, in which an aircraft can be brought to rest after accelerating to critical speed for an engine failure at take-off. accelerating chain: The section of an electron beam tube or system, e.g., cathode-ray tube or electron microscope, in which electrons are accelerated by voltages on accelerating electrodes. Also used in particle accelerators.

accelerating electrode: An electrode in a thermionic valve or cathode-ray tube maintained at a high positive potential with respect to the electron source. It accelerates electrons in their flight to the anode but does not collect a high proportion of them. accelerating machine:
See accelerator

accelerating potential: The potential applied to an electrode to accelerate electrons from a cathode. accelerating-well ports: These ports prevent momentary leanness during the period that occurs between the opening of the air valve and the actual discharge of fuel from the secondary nozzles. acceleration: The rate of change of velocity or speed. Velocity is steady and is measured in distance per time (e.g., feet per second, miles per hour, kilometers per hour). Acceleration keeps increasing and is measured in velocity per time (e.g., feet (or meters) per second per second or feet (or meters) per second squared). It is a vector quantity and has both magnitude and direction.
Also see angular acceleration lateral acceleration sluggish acceleration yaw acceleration

acceleration due to gravity: (g) Acceleration with which a body would fall freely under the action of gravity in a vacuum. This varies according to the distance from the Earth's center, but the internationally adopted value is 9.80665ms-2.
Also see Helmert's formula

acceleration enrichment:

The action of increasing the fuel/air mixture during acceleration in order to improve the vehicle's speed and its smooth response. acceleration error: The error in an airborne magnetic compass due to maneuvering; caused by the vertical component of the Earth's magnetic field when the center of gravity of the magnetic element is displaced from normal. acceleration pump:
See auxiliary acceleration pump

acceleration slip regulation: (ASR) The Bosch term for traction control. acceleration stress: The influence of acceleration (or deceleration) on certain physiological parameters of the human body. Man can withstand transverse accelerations better than longitudinal ones, which have a profound effect on the cardiovascular system. The degree of tolerance also depends on the magnitude and duration of the acceleration. acceleration tolerance: The maximum acceleration force that a person can withstand before "blacking out" or otherwise losing control. accelerator: [1] In automobiles, this is the "gas pedal" which is attached by linkage to the throttle in the carburetor or to the fuel injection system. It regulates the amount of fuel which is sent to the engine. In motorcycles, the accelerator is located on the right-hand twist grip or an actuating lever. [2] A device, similar to a catapult, but generally

mounted below deck level, for assisting the acceleration of aircraft flying off aircraft carriers. Land versions have been tried experimentally. [3] A chemical which is added to something to make a process happen more quickly. For example, a chemical may be added to paint to cause it to dry faster. The opposite is "retarder." A material added to an adhesive to speed up its cure or to chemically convert the whole mass to a solid. Accelerators differ from catalysts in that they are a part of the chemical reaction and lose their chemical identity as a result. [4] A substance which increases the efficient action of an enzyme [5] Any substance increasing the speed of the vulcanization process of rubber. The principal types are aldehyde derivatives of Schiff's bases: butyraladehyde-butylideneaniline, di-orthotolylguanidine, diphenylguanidine, benzthiazyl disulphide, tetramethylthiuran disulphide and zinc dimethyl-dithiocarbamate. [6] A special circuit board which is placed within a computer to speed up some aspect of its operation. [7] Machine used to accelerate charged particles to very high energies such as betatron, cyclotron, linear

accelerator, synchrocyclotron, and synchrotron. [8] A chemical used to increase the rate of development, e.g., sodium carbonate or borax [9] Any muscle or nerve which increases rate of action.
Also see depress the accelerator ease up on the accelerator step on the accelerator take foot off the accelerator

accelerator board: A circuit board plugged into a computer motherboard to increase the operating speed of a computer. accelerator interlock: A connection between the gas pedal and the automatic transmission. accelerator pedal: The accelerator, gas pedal, or throttle pedal. accelerator pump: A small cylinder and piston usually located inside the carburetor that sprays an extra amount of fuel into the engine during acceleration. It improves acceleration by giving more boost and reducing a momentary lag in power. It is actuated by depressing the pedal. accelerometer: [1] A transducer used to provide a signal proportional to the rate of acceleration of a vibrating or other body, usually employing the piezoelectric principle. [2] An instrument which measures the amount of acceleration in a specific direction.
Also see impact accelerometer vertical-gust recorder

acceptable quality level: (AQL) A manufactured good that may not be perfect but does reach a level of shape, size, and performance, etc. that will make it work and last as long as the manufacturer expects. acceptance angle: The solid angle within which all incident light reaches the photocathode of a phototube. acceptance test: An examination of a part or its assembly to determine if it meets a prescribed standard. acceptor: [1] The reactant in an induced reaction whose rate of reaction with a third substance is increased by the presence of the inductor. [2] The atom which accepts electrons in a co-ordinate bond. [3] Impurity atoms introduced in small quantities into a crystaline semiconductor and having a lower valency than the semiconductor, from which they attract electrons. In this way holes are produced, which effectively become positive charge carriers; the phenomenon is known as p-type conductivity.
Also see donor impurity

acceptor level:
See energy levels

access: A way of reaching something that is usually hidden or covered.
Also see access panel

Access Cab: A type of pickup truck (by Toyota) which as a second row of seating; but unlike a crew cab (which has four full size doors) it has a "half-door" that can be opened only after the main door is opened. The seating is usually a

little more cramped than in a crew cab. Also called club Cab, extended Cab, king Cab, xtracab, supercab, or cab Plus access charge: A financial charge for access to a computer or telecommunications network. access eye: A screwed plug provided in soil, waste and drain pipes at bends and junctions, to clear a stoppage. access hole: An opening through which you can reach something. It is usually covered with a panel. accessible hermetic: Assembly of motor and compressor inside a single bolted housing unit. accessories: Items and packages of equipment which are beyond the standard equipment supplied in a new vehicle. accessory:
See accessories

accessory gearbox: A gearbox, driven remotely from an aero-engine, on which aircraft accessories, e.g., hydraulic pump and electrical generator, are mounted. accessory minerals: Minerals which occur in small, often minute, amounts in igneous rocks; their presence or absence makes no difference to classification and nomenclature. accessory package:

A set of features or appointments which may be ordered at extra cost on a new vehicle. accessory plates: Quartz-wedge, gypsum plate and mica plate. Used with petrological microscope to help determine the optical character of a mineral as an aid in its examination. accessory shoe: A mounting bracket on the body of a camera to which separate units such as a flash or range-finder may be fitted. access panel: The cover which conceals the engine on a mid-engine vehicle. Also called engine cover.
Also see hood

access time: The time interval between the instant at which data are called from memory and the instant at which the data can be used. It can vary from microseconds with fast store to minutes with magnetic tape. access to store: Entry or extraction of data from a memory location. The method and speed of access depends on the type of memory.
Also see backing store fast store random access memory serial access memory

See car accident

accident damage: The destruction caused to a vehicle's bodywork when it is involved in an accident.

ac circuit: A circuit which passes alternating current as opposed to direct current, e.g., it may have a capacitor in series, which blocks direct current. ac commutator motor: An ac motor which embodies a commutator as an essential part of its construction.
Also see ac series motor compensated induction motor repulsion motor Schrage motor

Accord: A model of automobile manufactured by Honda

. Click for books on Honda Accord

accordion: The method of folding a leaflet or insert so that it opens out and closes in a zig-zag fashion. The British term is concertina fold. accretion: [1] The process in which a celestial body, particularly an evolved star in a binary system, is enlarged by the accumulation of extraneous matter falling in under gravity [2] The process of enlargement of a continent by the tectonic coalescences of exotic crustal fragments. accretion disc: The disc of material at the edge of a black hole, which has been attracted from a neighboring star and which emits X-rays as its inner edge disappears into the gravitational field of the hole.

accumulation point: A mathematical term which says that of a set of points, one such that every neighborhood of it includes at least one point of the set. accumulator: [1] A storage battery for an electric car. [2] A pressurized container for an automatic leveling suspension system. [3] A part of the hydraulic system which is charged by the fluid pump, absorbs fluctuating fluid delivery, stores fluid at pressure, and can provide a rapid flow of fluid under pressure. [4] A vessel that stores hydraulic fluid under pressure. [5] A storage tank which receives liquid refrigerant from evaporator and prevents it from flowing into the suction line before vaporizing. [6] A refrigerant storage device used on General Motors and Ford systems that receives vapor and liquid refrigerant from the evaporator. The accumulator, which contains "desiccant," performs a function similar to that of a receiver-drier: it separates liquid from the vapor, retains the liquid and releases the vapor to the compressor. Always located on the low side of the system. [7] A special storage register associated with the arithmetic logic unit, used for holding the results of a computation or data transfer
Also see accumulator piston fuel accumulator hydraulic accumulator pressure accumulator

accumulator battery: A storage battery (i.e., the main battery in your vehicle). accumulator box: A vessel usually made of plastic which contains the plates and electrolyte of an accumulator. accumulator drier: A device which is part of the air conditioning system. It is made up of a tank, filter, drying agent, and a vapor return tube. It is usually found on the

evaporator outlet. It stores the excess refrigerant and removes the moisture from the refrigerant (thus the name "drier").
Also see receiver drier

accumulator grid: The lead grid which forms one of the plates of a lead-acid accumulator having pasted plates. accumulator piston: A unit found in the automatic transmission to assist the servo to apply the brake band quickly and smoothly. accumulator system: In an automatic transmission, it includes a hydraulic accumulator piston which is controlled by a valve. accumulator traction:
See battery traction

accumulator valve: A device which operates the hydraulic accumulator piston in an automatic transmission. accumulator vehicle:
See battery traction

AC current sine wave: Wave form of single frequency alternating current; wave whose displacement is sine of angle proportional to time or distance. Ace: An American trucker's colloquial term for someone with a class "A" licence.
Also see AC Ace

ACEA: Acronym for "Association des Constructeurs européens dAutomobiles" (i.e., European Automakers Association). Aceca:
See AC Aceca

acet-: Prefix from the Latin acetum meaning vinegar. acetate film: Film with its photographic emulsion coated on a base of cellulose triacetate, of low flammability. aceto-: Prefix from the Latin acetum meaning vinegar. acetylene: [1] Ethyne HC≡CH. A colorless, poisonous gas, owing its disagreeable odor to impurities; soluble in ethanol, in acetone (25 times its volume at standard temperature and pressure) and in water. Boiling point -84°C, relative density 0.91. Prepared by the action of water on calcium carbide and catalytically from naphtha. [2] A gas composed of two parts of carbon and two parts of hydrogen. When burned in an atmosphere of oxygen, it produces one of the highest flame temperatures obtainable for welding. [3] Also used for illuminating, acetic acid synthesis and for manufacturing derivatives
Also see oxygen acetylene cutting

acetylene bottle:
See acetylene cylinder

acetylene cutting:
See oxygen acetylene cutting

acetylene cylinder: A specially built container manufactured according to I.C.C. Standards. Used to store and ship acetylene. Also called acetylene tank or acetylene bottle

acetylene hose: A flexible medium used to carry gases from regulators to the torch. It is made of fabric and rubber. acetylene regulator: An automatic valve used to reduce acetylene cylinder pressures to torch pressures and to keep the pressures constant. acetylene tank: acetylene cylinder. acetyl group: Ethanoyl group CH3CO-. The radical of acetic acid. aceval: Abbreviation for air combat evaluation.

AC generator: [1] An electromagnetic generator for producing alternating emf and delivering ac to an outside circuit. [2] A generator produces direct current (DC) while an alternator produces alternating current (AC). Because alternators were introduced to automobile electrical systems after generators had been in use for some time, some people referred to the new alternator as "AC generator." ache:
See head ache rack

ache rack:
See head ache rack

achromatic lens: A lens designed to minimize chromatic aberration. The simplest form consists of two component lenses, one convergent, the other divergent, made of glasses having different dispersive powers, the ratio of their focal lengths being equal to the ratio of the dispersive powers. achromatic prism: An optical prism with a minimum of dispersion but a maximum of deviation. achromatic sensation: A visual perception of grey. Represented by the equal energy point on a chromaticity diagram. achromatic stimulus: Stimulus which produces an achromatic sensation. acid:
Also see battery acid chromic acid

oxalic acid

acid brittleness: The brittleness developed in steel in pickling bath, through evolution of hydrogen. acid condition in system: Condition in which refrigerant or oil in system is mixed with fluids that are acid in nature. acid cure: In extraction of uranium from its ores, lowering of gangue carbonates by puddling with sulphuric acid before leach treatment. acid deposition: Acid compounds emitted into the atmosphere which then return to the surface either in the form in which they were discharged or as new compounds formed by reaction in the atmosphere. Includes dry deposition, usually of sulphur and nitrogen oxides near the source, and wet deposition which follows when acids are washed from the atmosphere by precipitation (i.e., acid rain and occult deposition. acid drift: The process by which ores, pulps, and products become acidic through pick-up of atmospheric oxygen through standing. acid dyes: Dyes which have their color associated with the negative ion or radical. acid egg: A pump for sulphuric acid, of simple and durable construction, with few moving parts. The acid is run into a pressure vessel, usually egg-shaped, from which it can be forcibly expelled by compressed air. acid fixer: Fixing solution (hypo) with the addition of an acid (sodium bisulphite or potassium metabisulphite) to prevent staining.

acidizing: Improving the flow of oil from a limestone formation by pumping acid into it. acid mine water: Water containing sulphuric acid as a result of the breakdown of the sulphide minerals in rocks. Acid mine water causes corrosion of mining equipment, and may contaminate water supplies into which it drains. acid process: [1] A steel-making process in which the furnace is lined with a siliceous refractory, and for which iron low in phosphorous is required, as this element is not removed. [2] Any pulp digestion process utilizing an acid regent, e.g., a bisulphite liquor with some free sulphur dioxide. acid rain: [1] When the smoke created by factories and vehicle exhausts is taken by the wind and joined with rain clouds, the mixture is often acidic. As a result the rain that falls to the ground (and even on your car) may damage whatever it strikes. [2] A form of wet deposition in which acid molecules or particles in the atmosphere are returned to the surface having been washed out by rain or snow as it falls. The unnatural acidity (pH 3-5.5) is caused mainly by the oxides of sulphur and nitrogen from the burning of coal and oil. acid refractory:
See silica

acid resist foils: Blocking foils for use in etching metal. The foil is stamped on to paper and the excess foil blocked on to the metal rule or other object which is then exposed to an acidic etching fluid such as ferric chloride. acid rock:

An igneous rock with more than 63% quartz. acid slag: Furnace slag in which silica and alumina exceed lime and magnesia. acid smut:
See acid soot

acid soot: A pollutant, consisting of particles of carbon bound together by water containing sulphuric acid, formed as a by-product of the incomplete combustion of carbon-based fuel. Also called acid smut. acid steel: Steel made by an acid process. acid stop: Weak acid photography processing solution used immediately after the developer to halt its chemical activity and neutralize it before fixing. AC Ignition System:
See continuous AC Ignition System

See Ackermann steering

Ackermann steering: [1] A double-pivoting steering system where the outer ends of the steering arms are bent slightly inward so that when the vehicle is making a turn, the inside wheel will turn more sharply than the outer wheel. This is done to compensate for the greater distance the outside wheel must travel. Notice 20 degrees on left wheel and 30 degrees on right wheel [2] Arrangement whereby a line extended from the track-arms, when the wheels are set straight ahead, should meet on the chassis centerline at 2/3 of the wheelbase from the front, allowing the inner stub-axle to move through a greater angle than the outer. Ackermann angle: The toe-out or toe-in of a vehicle with Ackermann steering when the wheels are positioned straight ahead. Ackermann axle: In a vehicle with Ackermann steering (at the front of the vehicle), it is a non-rotating axle that is steerable and has two pivot points (one on each end of the axle) with vertical kingpins. acknowledgement signal: A signal transmitted along a circuit from B to A when triggered by a signal from A to B. A-class insulation: Insulating material which will withstand temperatures up to 105°C. ACL BI-MET: Acronym for "air cleaner bi-metal sensor". ACL DV: Acronym for "air cleaner duct and valve vacuum" motor.

ACM: Abbreviation for Association for Computing Machinery, a US professional association. ac magnet: Electromagnet excited by alternating current having normally a laminated magnetic circuit.
Also see shaded pole

acme screw-thread: A thread having a profile angle of 29° and a flat crest and root, used for example for lathe lead screw for easy engagement by a split nut. acmite: A variety of aegirine; also used for the NaFe+3Si2 O6 end-member. ac motor: An electric motor which operates from a single or polyphase alternating current supply.
Also see capacitor motor induction motor synchronous motor

See double point

acoustic absorption: Transfer of energy into thermal energy when sound is incident at an interface. acoustic absorption coefficient: The ratio of the acoustic energy absorbed by a surface to that which is incident on the surface. For an open window this can be 1.00, for painted plaster 0.02. The value varies with the frequency of the incident sounds, e.g., for 2 cm glass fiber it is 0.04 at 125 Hz, 0.80 at 4000 Hz. Also called acoustic absorption factor.

acoustic absorption factor: The ratio of the acoustic energy absorbed by a surface to that which is incident on the surface. For an open window this can be 1.00, for painted plaster 0.02. The value varies with the frequency of the incident sounds, e.g., for 2 cm glass fiber it is 0.04 at 125 Hz, 0.80 at 4000 Hz. Also called acoustic absorption coefficient. acoustical inertia: The quantity M, where ωM is the part of the acoustical reactance which corresponds to the inductance of an electrical reactance: ω is the pulstance, given by 2πf is the frequency in hertz. Also called acoustical mass. acoustical mass: The quantity M, where ωM is the part of the acoustical reactance which corresponds to the inductance of an electrical reactance: ω is the pulstance, given by 2πf is the frequency in hertz. Also called acoustical inertia. acoustical stiffness: For an enclosure of volume V, the quantity given by S-pc³/V, where c is velocity of propagation of sound and p is density. It is assumed that the dimensions of the enclosure are small compared with the sound wavelength and that the walls around the volume do not deflect. acoustic amplifier: An amplifier of mechanical vibrations. acoustic branch: A branch of the dispersion curve (frequency ω against wavenumber q) for crystal lattice vibrations for which ω is proportional to q for small q. For a crystal containing n atoms per unit cell, the dispersion curve has 3n branches of which three are acoustic branches. The branches are characterized by different patterns of movement of the atoms.
Also see optic branch

acoustic center:

The effective source point of the spherically divergent wave system observed at distinct points in the radiation field of an acoustic transducer. acoustic compliance: The reciprocal of the acoustic stiffness. acoustic construction: Building construction which aims at the control of transmission of sound, or of mechanical vibration giving rise to sound, particularly unwanted noises. The parts of the structure are separated by air-spaces or acoustic absorbing material and can be decoupled by the interposing of springs. acoustic coupler: A device which enables a digital signal to be transmitted over the telephone network using an ordinary telephone handset. acoustic delay line: A device, magnetostrictive or piezoelectric, e.g., a quartz bar or plate of suitable geometry, which reflects an injected sound pulse many times within the body. acoustic distortion: Distortion in sound-reproducing systems. acoustic emission: Non-destructive testing method of investigating deformation and failure processes in materials by the signals generated when the elastic waves released by them are detected at the materials' surfaces. acoustic feedback: Instability or oscillation in a second reproduction system caused by the microphone or pick-up receiving vibrations from the loudspeaker. acoustic filter: Filter which uses tubes and resonating boxes in shunt and series as reactance elements, providing frequency cut-offs in acoustic wave

transmission, as in an electric wave filter. acoustic grating: A diffraction grating for production of directive sound. Spacings are much larger than in optical gratings due to the longer wavelength of sound waves. Both transmission and reflection grating are used. acoustic impedance: the complex ratio of sound pressure on surface to sound flux through surface, having imaginary (reactance) and real (resistance) components, respectively. Unit is the acoustic ohm. acoustic interferometer: Instrument in which measurements are made by study of interference pattern set up by two sound or ultrasonic waves generated at the same source. acoustic lens: A system of slats or disks to spread or converge sound waves. acoustic microscope: Microscope based on acoustic waves (longitudinal compressions and rarefactions of density) at microwave frequencies the interaction of an acoustic wave with a material is sensitive to its elastic properties. Images can be created by modulating a display with the intensity received by a detector/specimen system scanned synchronously (ultrasonic imaging). Coupling between electrical signals and acoustic vibrations exploits the piezoelectric effect. acoustic model: A scale model of a room (e.g., concert hall) or structure which is used to measure qualities important for architectural acoustics and noise control (e.g., sound distribution). The scale is typically between 1:10 and 1:20. In order to adjust the wavelength, the frequency has to be increased by a factor of 10-20. acoustic ohm:

Unit of acoustic resistance, reactance, and impedance, equal to 105Pasm-3. acoustic perspective: The quality of depth and localization inherent in a pair of ears, which is destroyed in a single channel for sound reproduction. It is transferable with two microphones and two telephone ear-receivers with matched channels, and more adequately realized with three microphones and three radiating receivers with three matched channels. acoustic plaster: Rough or flocculent plaster which has good acoustic absorbing properties and which can be used for covering walls. Added to the mix is fine aluminum, which evolves gas on contact with water and so aerates the mass. These tiny holes lower the acoustic impedance and so reduce the reflection of incidence sound waves. acoustic pressure:
See sound pressure

acoustic radiator: Device to generate and radiate sound. The more common radiators are (1) vibrating elastic systems (membrane, string, vocal cord) which cause a fluctuating pressure in the surrounding medium; (2) electrically driven membranes and plates (loudspeaker, sonar transducer); (3) vortices in turbulent fluid flow. acoustic ratio: The ratio between the directly radiated sound intensity from a source, at the ear of a listener (or a microphone), and the intensity of the reverberant sound in the enclosure. The ratio depends on the distance from the source, the polar distribution of the radiated sound power, and the period of reverberation of the enclosure. acoustic reactance:
See acoustic impedance

acoustic resistance:
See acoustic impedance

acoustic resonance: Enhancement of response to an acoustic pressure of a frequency equal or close to the eigenfrequency of the responding system. When a system is at resonance, the imaginary part of its impedance is zero. Prominent in Helmholtz resonators, organ, and other pipes and vibrating strings. acoustics: [1] The science of sound waves including production and propagation properties. [2] The characteristics of a room which determine the quality of sound transmission inside.
Also see architectural acoustics atmospheric acoustics

acoustic saturation: The aural effectiveness of a source of sound amid other sounds; it is low for a violin, but high for a triangle. The relative saturation of instruments indicates the number required in an auditorium of given acoustic properties. acoustic scattering: Irregular and multi-directional reflection and diffraction of sound waves produced by multiple reflecting surfaces the dimensions of which are small compared to the wavelength; or by certain discontinuities in the medium through which the wave is propagated. acoustic spectrometer: An instrument designed to analyze a complex sound signal into its wavelength components and measure their frequencies and relative intensities.
Also see real-time analyzer

acoustic spectrum: Graph showing frequency distribution of sound energy emitted by source. acoustic streaming:

Generation of constant flows by a strong sound wave. Acoustic streaming is a non-linear effect. It is responsible for the motion of the light particles (lycopodium spores) in a Kundt's tube.
Also see quartz wind

acoustic survey: Determination of the porosity of a rock by measuring the time required for a sonic impulse to travel through a given distance. acoustic suspension: Sealed-cabinet system of loudspeakers in which the main restoring force of the diaphragm is provided by the acoustic stiffness of the enclosed air. acoustic telescope: An array of microphones. The signals of the microphones are added with certain phase-delays so as to generate desired directions.
Also see directional microphone

acoustic tile: A tile made of soft, sound-absorbing substance. acousto-optic modulator: A telecommunication device in which acoustic waves in an optical medium from a grating used to diffract an optical signal and thus effectively turn it on or off. acquisition fee: A charge for processing a lease and is probably not negotiable. On a shorter term lease, the acquisition fee can have a large impact on the cost of the lease. ACR: Abbreviation for approach control radar. acro-:

Prefix from Greek akros (ακρος), topmost, farthest, terminal. Acrobat: Trade name for a computer application which converts text, line drawings, and half-tones into a stream of alphanumeric text while retaining the format of the original. Such a page description file (PDF) is an extension of the Adobe PostScript language and can be read by any type of computer. acronical rising: The rising of a star at nightfall. acronical setting: The setting of a star at nightfall. acronychal: British term for "acronical". across corners: (A/C) The distance on a nut (for instance) from one corner to the opposite corner rather than the distance from one flat surface (A/F) to the opposite (which would be the size of wrench needed to install or remove the nut). The purpose of the A/C dimension is to know how large a hole might be needed to insert a recessed nut. across flats: (A/F) The distance on a nut (for instance) from one flat surface to the opposite flat surface, i.e., this is the size of the wrench needed to install or remove the nut.
Also see across corners.

acroterium: A base or mounting on the apex and/or extremities of a pediment, for the support of an ornamental figure or statuary.

ACR tubing: Tubing used in air conditioners and refrigerators. The ends are sealed to keep tubing clean and dry. acrux: A bright white supergiant star in the constellation Crux. A visual binary consisting of two spectroscopic binary components. Distance 80 pc. Also called Alpha Crucis. acrylate: A polymer used to strengthen rubber (e.g., ethyl acrylate). acrylic: A term relating to a type of paint made by polymerizing acrylonitrile. acrylic fibers: Continuous filaments or, more fibers from linear polymers which are synthesized from several monomers containing at least 85% by weight of acrylonitrile. acrylic finish: A final coating of paint which uses acrylic paint, often where the pigment and an acrylic paint are mixed together.
Also see two-pack paint.

acrylic paint: A type of paint made by polymerizing acrylonitrile. acrylic resin: A thermoplastic synthetic polymer made by polymerizing an acrylic derivative such as acrylonitrile, acrylic acid, ethyl acrylate, and methacrylate. It is used for adhesives, protective coatings, and paint finishes. ACS:

[1] Abbreviation for active control system [2] Abbreviation for attitude control system [3] Abbreviation for air conditioning system . ac series motor: A series motor which operates from an ac supply with laminated field construction and usually a compensating winding. AC Shelby Cobra: A vehicle brand of which the 1962-67 Shelby Cobra models are milestone cars. ACT: [1] Acronym for "air charge temperature." [2] Acronym for active control technology.
Also see active control system

See Motor Vehicle Safety Act

See double-acting dual-acting single-acting

actinic radiation: Ultraviolet waves, which have enhanced biological effect by inducing chemical change; basis of the science of photochemistry. actinic rays: Electromagnetic waves of wavelength that can cause a latent image, potentially able to be developed, in a photographic emulsion. They include an extension at each end of the visible spectrum and X-rays. actino-:

Prefix from Greek aktis (ακτις). actinolite: A monoclinic calcium magnesium iron member of the amphibole group, green in color and usually showing an elongated or needle-like habit; occurs in metamorphic and altered basic igneous rocks. action: [1] The performance of a scene to be recorded on camera [2] The film record of this performance as picture only, separate from the sound record [3] The time integral of kinetic energy (E) of a conservative dynamic system undergoing a change, given by this formula:
Also see capillary action caster action mist action oscillating action parallel action locking pliers reciprocating action

action brakes:
See servo action brakes

action locking:
See parallel action locking pliers

action locking pliers:
See parallel action locking pliers

activate: To change an adhesive film from a dry or inactive state to a useful, sticky state. activated:
See cable activated

activated alumina:

Chemical which is a form of aluminum oxide. it is used as a drier or desiccant. activated carbon: [1] A highly porous carbon which is able to absorb gases and fluids. It is usually found in small pellets so that the surface area is greater than a large chunk of it. Also it has a number of pores on each pellet to increase the surface area more. Thus the greater surface area means greater ability to absorb. Used to clean air. Also called activated charcoal. [2] Carbon obtained from vegetable matter by carbonization in the absence of air, preferably in a vacuum. Activated carbon has the property of absorbing large quantities of gasses. Important for gas masks, adsorption of solvent vapors, clarifying of liquids, and in medicine. activated carbon canister: An automotive filter in which activated carbon has been placed so that gas tank fuel vapors, which have accumulated when the vehicle is not running, are trapped in the filter. When the engine is running, hot air is forced into the filter and push out the vapors into the engine. In this way, pollution is reduced and conservation of the fuel is maintained. Also called activated charcoal trap or charcoal canister. activated cathode: Emitter in thermionic devices comprising a filament of basic tungsten metal, alloyed with thorium, which is brought to the surface by process of activation, such as heating without electric field. activated charcoal: Charcoal treated with acid to increase its adsorptive power
Also see activated carbon charcoal

activated charcoal trap:
See activated carbon canister

activated sintering: Sintering of a compact in the presence of a gaseous reactant. Also called reaction sintering.

activating agent:
See activator

activation: [1] Alteration of the surface of a metal to a chemically active state. Compare passivation [2] Induction of radioactivity in otherwise non-radioactive atoms, e.g., in a cyclotron or reactor. activation cross-section: The effective cross-sectional area of a target nucleus undergoing bombardment by e.g., neutrons for radioactivation analysis. Measured in barns.
Also see cross-section

activator: [1] A substance which is used to speed up the process of curing a tire. [2] Surface-active chemical used in a flotation process to increase the attraction to a specific mineral in an aqueous pulp of collector ions from the ambient liquid and increase in aerophilic quality. Also called activating agent. active array: An antenna array in which the individual elements are separately excited by integrated circuit or transistor amplifiers. active braking time: The length of time (excluding the driver's reaction time) a vehicle takes to come to a complete stop after the brakes are applied. active component: The component of the vector representing an alternating quantity which is in phase with some reference vector; e.g., the active component of the current, commonly called the active current.
Also see

active current active voltage active volt-amperes

active control: Modern technique of noise or vibration control using one or more sources that generate signals with the aim of making the resulting total signal smaller. Used for example for the control of low-frequency airborne noise and vibration of machinery.
Also see antisound

active control system: (ACS) An advanced automatic flight control system designed to provide several special features, for example activation of flight control surfaces to minimize gust loads and bending stresses in the wing by detection and response to normal accelerations, provision of stability to a naturally unstable aircraft and implementation of pilot maneuver demands. All these characteristics improve aircraft behavior and performance, but the active control system demands extensive integration between aerodynamics, structure, and electronic system design to achieve these advantages with reliability and safety. active current: The component of a vector representing the ac in a circuit which is in phase with the voltage of the circuit. The product of this and the voltage gives power. active device: A component capable of controlling voltages or currents, to produce gain or switching action in a circuit, valves, diodes, and transistors, and integrated circuits are all classed as active devices or components. active electrode: The electrode of an electrical precipitator which is kept at a high potential. Also called discharge electrode.. active filter:

A filter which combines amplification with conventional passive filter components (capacitance, inductance, resistance) to enhance fixed or tunable passband or rejection characteristics. active galaxy: A galaxy which emits unusually large amounts of radiation from a compact central source, such as Seyfert galaxy, N galaxy, quasar, or BL Lac object. active homing: A guidance system where the missile contains the transmitter for illuminating the target and the receiver for the reflected energy. active lattice: The regular pattern of arrangement of fissionable and non-fissionable materials in the core of a lattice reactor. active lines: Lines which are effective in establishing a picture. active material: In a storage battery, peroxide of lead (brown) in positive plates and metallic lead (gray) in negative plates upon which sulphuric acid acts. active materials: [1] General term for essential materials required for the functioning of a device, e.g., iron or copper in a relay or machine, electrode materials in a primary or secondary cell, emitting surface material in a valve, or photocell, phosphorescent and fluorescent material forming a phosphorescent and fluorescent material forming a phosphor in a cathoderay tube, or that on the signal plate of a TV camera. [2] Term applied to all types of radioactive isotopes. active noise control system:
See anti-noise system

active power:

The time average over one cycle of the instantaneous input powers at the points of entry of a polyphase circuit.
Also see active volt-amperes

active safety: The opposite of passive safety. Passive safety involves seat belts, airbags, bumpers, etc. so that in the event of an accident the passengers are protected. Active safety involves factors which will assist the driver in avoiding an accident. They include brakes, steering, handling response, acceleration, etc. active satellite: A satellite equipped for sending out probing signals and receiving returned information. A passive satellite receives information only on the state of the target. active sun: The Sun during periods of intense sunspot activity. active suspension: While conventional suspension uses springs and shock absorbers to isolate the vehicle from the bouncing movement of the wheels when it contacts rough roads, active suspension uses power actuators which are controlled by a computer. These actuators place the wheels of the vehicle in the best position to accommodate rough roads as well as compensate for different load levels. active transducer: Any transducer in which the applied power controls or modulates locally supplied power, which becomes the transmitted signal, as in a modulator, a radio transmitter or a carbon microphone. active voltage: The component of a vector representing the voltage which is in phase with the current in a circuit.

active volt-amperes: The product of the active voltage and the amperes in a circuit, or of the active current (amperes) and the voltage of the circuit; equal to the power in watts. Also called active power. activities:
See Kaizen Activities

activity: [1] The magnitude of the oscillations of a piezoelectric crystal relative to the exciting voltage [2] The rate at which transformations occur in a radionuclide. Unit is the becquerel
Also see catalytic activity low temperature activity specific activity

activity factor:
See blade activity factor

ac transformer: an electromagnetic device which alters the voltage and current of an ac supply in inverse ratio to one another. It has no moving parts and is very efficient. ACTS: Acronym for "air charge temperature sensor". actual cash value: (ACV) The amount of money a dealer has invested in the purchase of a used vehicle and any additional costs to repair the unit in order to get it ready for resale. actual throat: A welding term which describes the distance from the face of a weld to the root of the weld.

actuate: The action of bringing a part or assembly into operation. actuating lever: A triggering device used to bring a part or assembly into operation. actuating switch: A triggering device used to bring a part or assembly into operation. actuation:
See variable valve actuation

actuator: [1] A Device which controls or operates another device. [2] The portion of a regulating valve which converts mechanical fluid, thermal energy, or electrical energy into mechanical motion to open or close the valve seats
Also see hydraulic actuators

actuator arm: An arm connecting the diaphragm to the contact breaker platform in an advance mechanism. Also called diaphragm link.. Acura: A vehicle brand from the Honda manufacturers
. Click for books on Acura

acutance: Objective formulation of the sharpness of a photographic image, expressed as where . "N" is the number of increments between "A" and "B", DB-DA is the average gradient of density curve, and ΔD/Δx is the maximum gradient curve.

ACV: [1] Acronym for "actual cash value." [2] Acronym for "air control valve" [3] Acronym for air cushion vehicle (i.e., hovercraft). ad:
See classified ad

A-D: Analogue-to-digital, referring to the conversion of signals. adamantine:
See lustre

adaptation layer:
See ATM adaptation layer

adapter: [1] A device used to connect two different types or sizes of electrical terminals [2] An arrangement for using types of photographic material in a camera different from that for which it was designed; e.g., filmpack in a plate camera, or a smaller plate than normal [3] A device for the interchange of lenses between different types of camera [4] A connector which links two items usually of dissimilar structure or size. (Also spelled "adaptor")
Also see bit adapter bit adapter caliper mounting bracket carburetor adapter engine adapter increasing adapter ratchet adapter reducing adapter transmission adapter wheel adapter.

adaptive array: A radar antenna (either a phased array or an active array) whose gain, directivity and side lobes can be adjusted automatically to optimize the radar's performance under specific operating conditions. adaptive control: The ability of a control unit to adapt its closed-loop operation to changing operating conditions -- such as engine wear, fuel quality or altitude -- to maintain proper air-fuel mixture control, ignition timing or idle rpm. Also referred to as self-learning. adaptive differential pulse code modulation: A form of differential pulse code modulation in which the basic step size is varied continually to suit the rate of change of the signal. A further refinement is to transmit only differences from a continually adjusted prediction of the signal. These measures greatly reduce the required bandwidth. adaptive radiation: Evolutionary diversification of species from a common ancestral stock, filling available ecological niches. Also called divergent adaptation. adaptor carburetor: A device attached to a gasoline carburetor which permits an internal combustion engine to run either on gas or liquefied petroleum gas (LP gas). adapter plate: A plate which is placed between two different parts in order to link them. (Also spelled "adaptor plate")
Also see transfer plate

Adcock antenna: A directional antenna consisting of pairs of vertical wires, spaced by one half wavelength or less, and fed in phase opposition; a figure-of-eight radiation pattern results, and arrays of Adcock antennas can be used for direction-finding.

ADD: Acronym for "airstream direction detector" which is used for aircraft stall protection. add-drop multiplexer: Equipment used to add data originating from a particular source or group of sources to a synchronous digital hierarchy data stream, or conversely to extract data destined for a particular source or group of sources. addendum: [1] The radial distance between the major and pitch cylinders of an external thread. [2] The radial distance between the minor and pitch cylinders of an internal thread the height from the pitch circle to the tip of the tooth on a gearwheel. addition agent: A substance added to the electrolyte in an electro deposition process in order to improve the character of the deposit formed. The agent does not take part in the main electrochemical reaction. additive: A substance (liquid or powder) which is added to gasoline or oil and is intended to improve the characteristics of the original product.
Also see anti-knock additive fuel additive oil additive

additive constant: A survey term used in the computation of distance by tacheometric methods. It is that length (usually constant and small) which must be added to the product of staff intercept and multiplying constant to give the true distance of the object.
Also see anallatic lens

additive printer: Photographic or motion picture printer or enlarger in which the intensity and color of the exposing light is controlled by the separate variation of its red, green, and blue components. additive process: Color reproduction in which the picture is presented by the combination (addition) of red, green, and blue light representing these three components in the original subject; it is effectively obsolete for general photography and cinematography but is the basis for color TV display. ADEFA: Acronym for "Asociacion de Fabricas de Automotores" (Argentina). adenine: (A) One of the five bases in nucleic acids. It pairs with thymine in DNA and uracil in RNA. ADF: Abbreviation for automatic direction finding. adhara: Avery bright blue-white giant star in the constellation Canis Major, which is a visual binary. Distance 200 pc. Also called Epsilon Canis Majoris. adhere: To stick or be glued to something. adherend: [1] Each surface that is to adhere to another [2] A material which is bonded by an adhesive. adhesion: [1] The force which causes two surfaces to adhere, the sticking together of surfaces in contact with each other

[2] The bonding of materials with adhesives (glues, cements, binders, etc), in which the intermolecular forces between adhesive and adherend provide the bonds. [3] The intimate sticking together of metallic surfaces under compressive stresses by bonds which form as a function of stress, time, and temperature. The speed of formation is related to dislocation, and may occur virtually instantaneously under high shear stresses.
Also see cold welding

[4] The ability of paint, primer, or glue to stick to the surface to which it is applied. [5] The ability of a tire to grip the surface of the road. [6] Mutual forces between two magnetic bodies linked by magnetic flux, or between two charged non-conducting bodies which keeps them in contact [7] Intermolecular forces which hold matter together, particularly closely contiguous surfaces of neighboring media, e.g., liquid in contact with a solid.
Also see intercoat adhesion failure limits of adhesion

adhesion failure:
See intercoat adhesion failure

adhesive: [1] A substance (like glue) that is used to join two substances. An adhesive must bond both mating surfaces through specific adhesion (molecular attraction), through mechanical anchoring (by flowing into holes in porous surfaces), or through fusion (partial solution of both surfaces in the adhesive or its solvent vehicle). Various descriptive adjectives are used with the term adhesive to indicate types, such as: a. physical form liquid adhesive, film adhesive, etc. b. composition resin adhesive, rubber adhesive, silicone based, mastic, etc. c. end use metal-to-metal adhesive, plastic adhesive, rubber adhesive d. application sprayable adhesive, hot melt adhesive, etc.

[2] Agent for joining materials by adhesion, usually polymeric material. May be based on thermoplastic resin (e.g., polystyrene cement) or thermoset (e.g., epoxy resin). Viscosity is important for gap filling (high, as in epoxies) or surface penetration (low, as in cyano-acrylates). Also called binder, cement, or glue
Also see automotive adhesive air drying adhesives impact adhesive separate-application adhesive

adhesive binding: Unsewn binding in which the back of the sections are trimmed and roughened before adhesive is applied to bind the leaves and the cover. adhesive film: A thin layer of dried adhesive. Also describes a class of adhesives provided in dry film form with or without reinforcing fabric and which are cured by means of heat and pressure. adhesive tape: A tape with a sticky substance on one side. It usually comes in a roll of various widths. Sometimes used to insulate electrical wires (e.g., electrical tape) or to wrap a larger object (e.g., duct tape). Often the non-sticky side is shiny (but not always). adhesive wear: Mechanism of wear due to the welding together and subsequent shearing off of the contact areas between two surfaces sliding over one another. adhesive weight: Lead wheel weights which have a sticky backing. It comes in strips and is applied to a wheel rim. Also called tape weight.. adiabatic: A property of being able to maintain heat evenly. It does not gain any heat or lose it.
Also see

thermal efficiency

adiabatic change: A change in the volume and pressure of the contents of an enclosure without exchange of heat between the enclosure and its surroundings. adiabatic compression: Compressing refrigerant gas without removing or adding heat. adiabatic curve: The curve obtained by plotting pressure against volume in the adiabatic equation. adiabatic demagnetization: A method of obtaining very low temperatures. A paramagnetic salt is cooled to 1K by liquid helium. The salt is magnetized under isothermal conditions and then magnetized under adiabatic conditions. As a result the temperature falls. Temperatures below 10-2K can be obtained this way. adiabatic efficiency: [1] Of a steam engine or turbine, the ratio of the work done per unit mass of steam to the available energy represented by adiabatic heat drop. [2] Of a compressor, the ratio of that work required to compress a gas adiabatically to the work actually done by the compressor piston or impeller. adiabatic engine: An engine which is very efficient in transferring combustion heat to those parts of the engine which are being cooled by the flow of anti-freeze coolant -- thus maintaining an even temperature of the engine. In this way the engine is warm enough for efficient running and it does not overheat. adiabatic equation: The equation PVγ = constant, expressing the law of variation of pressure (P) with the volume (V) of a gas during an adiabatic change, γ being the ratio of the specific heat of the gas at constant pressure to that at constant volume. The value of γ is approximately 1.4 for air at standard temperature

and pressure. adiabatic expansion: An adiabatic change in which a substance expands. adiabatic heating: Self-heating effect which occurs in extruder or injection molding barrel from action of rotating screw on polymer melt. Attributed to dissipation of mechanical shear forces as heat. Important in injection molding of rubbers. Also called shear heating.
Also see damping

adiabatic lapse rate: The rate of decrease of temperature which occurs when a parcel of air rises adiabatically through the atmosphere. adiabatic process: A process which occurs without interchange of heat with surroundings. adiactinic: Said of a substance which does not transmit photochemically active radiation, e.g., safelights for darkroom lamps. adinole: An argillaceous rock that has undergone albitization during contactmetamorphism. adipo-: Prefix from Latin adeps "fat". A-display: Co-ordinate display on a cathode-ray tube in which a level time base represents distance and vertical deflections of beam indicate echoes. adit:

A horizontal passage or tunnel into a mine. adjacent channel: A channel whose frequency is immediately above or below that of the required signal. adjust: The action of putting something into its proper alignment or position. It may involve one component (e.g., He adjusted the gasket to fit properly.) or a series of components (e.g., He adjusted the poor idle -- might mean he set the ignition timing, adjusted the carburetor screws, changed the choke setting, cleaned or replaced the spark plugs, etc.)
Also see tweak

adjustable: A characteristic of something that can be changed, removed, or give different properties.
Also see height adjustable steering column

adjustable bottom bracket: [1] A component of a bicycle through which the crank fits. It has two bearing cups on either side. One cup is fixed in place while the other is removable or adjustable. [2] This is the older type of bottom bracket before sealed cartridge bottom brackets became prevalent. The adjustable bottom bracket requires fixed and adjustable cup tools to properly tension the bearings. The bearings are not sealed, but they're easily accessible for cleaning and lubrication.
Also see bottom bracket

adjustable cup: The left-hand cup in a bottom bracket of a bicycle, used in adjusting the bottom bracket bearings and removed during bottom bracket overhaul. The other cup is the fixed cup. adjustable off-idle air bleed:

Some emissions-era Rochester carburetors have a separate air passage to bleed air past an adjustment screw into the idle system. this screw is preset by the factory to produce precise off-idle air/fuel mixture ratios to meet emission-control requirements. adjustable part throttle: (APT) a supplementary circuit on some carburetors that can be adjusted to control part-throttle mixtures more accurately than a fixed orifice. The APT detours around the main jet, going directly from the float bowl to the discharge nozzle feed well. adjustable-pitch propeller:
See propeller

adjustable-port proportioning valve: Air and fuel valves for oil or gas burners, motor operated in unison by automatic temperature-control equipment. adjustable rocker arm: A type of rocker arm with an adjusting nut that can be tightened or loosened to adjust valve lash. adjustable shock:
See adjustable shocks

adjustable shock absorbers: Shocks with adjustable jounce and rebound characteristics can be stiffened to compensate for wear or to fine tune a suspension for a particular application such as rough roads, heavy loads, or racing. adjustable shocks: Shock absorbers which can compensate for varying needs of stiffness or softness. Manual types (especially on motorcycles) require that you physically make the adjustment from one level to another. Automatic types are controlled by a computer as it senses particular changes in road


adjustable spanner: British term for adjustable wrench. adjustable steering:
See height adjustable steering column

adjustable steering column:
See height adjustable steering column

adjustable variable exhaust port: A device used on two-stroke engines which automatically alters or varies the exhaust port size. adjustable wrench: A crescent wrench or pipe wrench. A tool which has a fixed jaw and a movable jaw which is controlled by a spiral gear. It is used to install or remove bolts and nuts of various sizes. The wrench itself comes in a variety of lengths and jaw sizes. A crescent wrench has smooth jaws while a pipe wrench has serrated jaws. British term is "adjustable spanner." adjusted:
See factory adjusted

adjuster: A device for moving something into the correct position or into a different position such as a seat adjuster.
Also see automatic adjuster

automatic wear adjuster brake adjuster horizontal adjuster jet adjuster ride-height adjuster

adjuster cam: A device for moving the shoes on drum brakes closer to the drum itself so that there is less travel when the brakes are applied. adjusting:
Also see electrode adjusting tool headlight adjusting screw self-adjusting

adjusting gage:
See adjusting gauge

adjusting gauge: A tool used to determine the small distance between two parts so that they can be brought within specifications. adjusting screw: A small screw usually found on carburetors, brakes, or headlights which change the way something operates, such as increasing or decreasing the amount of fuel entering the engine; or changing the idle speed; or tightening up the brakes; or changing the setting on rocker arms; or the level of the headlights.
Also see headlight adjusting screw tappet adjusting screw valve adjusting screw

adjusting shim: A thin washer or plate which reduces or increases the clearance between two components (depending upon where they are placed). While some valves are adjusted by screws on the rocker arm, others are set by inserting a shim to make the same adjustment.

adjusting sleeve: A small threaded cylinder on the end of the tie rod which shortens or lengthens the rod to make changes in the toe-in and toe-out. adjusting spanner:
See brake adjusting spanner

adjusting tool:
Also see brake adjusting tool electrode adjusting tool

adjusting wrench:
See brake adjusting wrench

adjustment: [1] Changing or modifying the position or alignment of two components. [2] The distance of travel that a component has.
Also see fore and aft adjustment idle mixture adjustment screw idle speed adjustment

adjustment screw:
See idle mixture adjustment screw

Adler: The brand name of a vehicle. With required application the 1925-48 models are classic cars. admiralty brass:
See Tobin bronze

admission: The point in the working cycles of a steam or internal-combustion engine at which the intake valve allows entry of the working fluid into the cylinder. admittance:

Property which permits the flow of current under the action of a potential difference. The reciprocal of impedance. a-dos:
See dos-a-dos

Adrastea: A tiny natural satellite of Jupiter, discovered in 1979 by the Voyager 2 mission. Distance from the planet 129,000 km; diameter 24 km. A-drier:
See a-dryer

ADS: Abbreviation for air data system. A-dryer: A paint dryer which has the heating elements below the paint drying line. ADS: Acronym for "Association of Diesel Specialists". adsorbent: Substance with the property to hold molecules of fluids without causing a chemical or physical change. adsorption: The bonding that takes place when a gas or vapor comes into contact with a solid. The opposite is desorption. adsorption canister:
See activated carbon canister


A milky or bluish sheen shown by moonstone. advance: [1] The act of changing the ignition timing so that the spark occurs earlier in the cycle. The opposite is retard. [2] It may refer to the device which makes this adjustment. [3] The length of railway track beyond a signal which is covered by that signal
Also see angle of advance automatic advance centrifugal advance electronic spark advance ignition advance mechanical advance ported vacuum advance spark advance speed control vacuum advance vacuum advance

advance capsule:
See vacuum advance

advance curve: As the speed of the engine increases the ignition advance also increases. On paper, a pattern is drawn as a curve to represent this relationship. advanced: [1] A condition in which something occurs early. [2] A product which is on the cutting edge of technology and shows the latest in new ideas and concepts. advanced gas-cooled reactor: (AGR) Carbon-dioxide-cooled, graphite-moderated reactor using slightly enriched uranium oxide fuel clad in stainless steel, in use in the UK. advanced intelligent network: A form of intelligent network, developed in the US from 1987 onward, in which signalling, software, and accounting procedures are designed to allow service providers to compete freely for network users' business.

advanced mobile phone system: (AMPS) The American forerunner of the UK total access communications system. Developed by Bell in 1978, AMPS like TACS, is an analog cellular system using frequency modulation. advanced rim taper: A rim where both bead seats are tapered 5°. advance mechanism:
See vacuum advance mechanism

advance metal: Copper-base alloy with 45% nickel. advance spring: A small spring which pulls the advance weight back.
See picture in advance weight

advance unit:
See vacuum advance unit

advance weight: One of two small weights located in a centrifugal advance assembly.

advance workings:

In flat seams, mining in which the whole face is carried forward, no support pillars being left. advantage ratio: Ratio between the radiation dosage received at any point in a nuclear reactor and that of a reference position. advection: The transference of any quantity by horizontal motion of the air. advection fog: Fog produced by the advection of warm moist air across cold ground. advection layer: The region immediately adjacent to the event horizon where matter is being continuously pulled into the black hole. advertising: A colloquial term for a police car with its emergency lights flashing. Ae: The transformation temperature at equilibrium of the phase changes in iron and steel, subscripts indicating the designated change. Also called A. AE: Abbreviation for automatic exposure. AEA: Acronym for "Automotive Electric Association" or "Automotive Electronic Association". aeolian tone: A musical note set up by vortex action on a stretched string when it is placed in a stream of air.
Also see

Strouhal number

aeolotropic: Having physical properties which vary with direction or position.
Also see anisotropic

AERA: Acronym for "Automotive Engine Rebuilders Association." aeration: A foaming of a liquid because air has been introduced into the fluid. When it occurs in certain liquids, it decreases the efficiency of the liquid. aeration test burner: (ATB) Burner for measuring the combustion characteristics of commercial gases. aerial: British term for antenna.
Also see retractable aerial whip aerial

aerial bunched conductors: (ABC) Method of power transmission where the three conductors are twisted into a thicker insulated cable. More expensive but better at surviving blizzard conditions than normal separate conductors. aerial fog: Fog caused by exposure of portions of the film to air in the processing machine. aerial radiometric surveying: Use of low-flying aircraft to measure gamma-ray intensity due to natural radioactive emissions or radioactive contamination over large areas. Scintillators are used with photomultipliers whose signals are fed to multichannel analyzers to distinguish the energies of the gamma rays

received from a wide area; typically 90% of the gamma rays can be recorded from an area with linear dimensions about five times the aircraft's height above the ground. Also called airborne radiometric surveying. aerial ropeway: An apparatus for the overhead transport of materials in carriers running along an overhead cable or cables supported on towers. aerial surveying: A process of surveying by photographs taken from the air, the photographs being of two types: 1. those giving a vertical or plan view; 2. those giving an oblique or bird's-eye view.
Also see vertical aerial photograph oblique aerial photograph

AERO: Abbreviation for "Air Education and Recreation Organization" in the UK. aero-: Prefix from Greek aer (αερ) indicating "air". aero-acoustics: Branch of acoustics that treats sound generation and transmission by fluid flow. aerobar: An extension to bicycle handlebars which project forward to give the rider an alternate riding position and a lower, more aerodynamic position. His elbows rest in the pads while he grabs the upright ends of the bars. Aerobars were popularized by triathletes and Greg LeMond.

aerobars: Sometimes referred to as Tri bars. Aerobars popularized by triathletes and Greg LeMond, are attached to handlebars in order to provide a rider with a lower, more aerodynamic position. aerobic sealer: A substance (such as room temperature vulcanizing (RTV), a common silicone rubber sealing compound) that requires the presence of oxygen to hold parts together.
Also see anaerobic sealer

aerodynamic: The efficient flow of air around an object. aerodynamic balance: [1] A balance, usually but not necessarily in a wind tunnel, designed for measuring aerodynamic forces or moments. [2] Means for balancing air loads on flying control surfaces, so that the pilot need not exert excessive force, particularly as speed increases. The principle is to use aerodynamic forces, either directly on a portion of the control surface ahead of the hinge line or indirectly through a small auxiliary surface with a powerful moment arm, to counterbalance the main airloads. An example of the first is the horn balance, and of the second the balance tab. aerodynamic braking: Use of a planet's atmosphere to reduce the speed of space vehicles. aerodynamic center: The point about which the pitching moment coefficient is constant for a range of airfoil incidence. aerodynamic coefficient: A non-dimensional measure of aerodynamic force, pressure, or moment that expresses the characteristics of a particular shape at a given incidence to the airflow. Typically the lift coefficient is given by CL=L/½ρV²S, where L is the lift, ρ is the air density, V is the air speed, and S is a typical area of

the body (e.g., wing area). Similarly for drag coefficient. aerodynamic damping: The suppression of oscillations by the inherent stability of a aircraft or of its control surfaces. aerodynamic drag: The resistance of the air to forward movement, sometimes called "air resistance." This is a factor of the shape of the vehicle (drag coefficient and frontal area), the objects which stick out (i.e., mirrors, mufflers, bumpers), the amount of turbulence at the rear of the vehicle, the nature of the vehicle's skin surface, and the amount of air going through the vehicle for cooling and ventilation. The faster you go, the greater the air friction (air friction = velocity x velocity). The faster you go, the greater the amount of power needed to overcome this drag (power = velocity x velocity x velocity). aerodynamic heating: The heating of a vehicle passing through the atmosphere, caused by friction and compression of air (or other gas). aerodynamics: The study of the flow of air as it passes over and around a moving object as well as the forces which the air makes on the object. An airplane, for instance, needs positive lift to get it airborne and negative lift to help it land. Thus the shape of a land vehicle (car, bicycle, etc.) either promotes positive or negative lift. Race cars may use spoilers and wings (air foils) to control lift. In vehicle design, the airflow is monitored in a wind tunnel. As well, aerodynamics also studies the most efficient shapes for increased speed and fuel economy. aerodynamic sound:
See flow noise

aerodynamic stance: In order to create less drag, the vehicle is lowered closer to the ground. This improves the flow of air over the vehicle. A better aerodynamic stance helps the vehicle to go faster when it is going in a straight line as

well as give better fuel economy. Also, when a vehicle sits lower to the ground, it has a low center of gravity which makes it more stable when going through turns and enables the driver to maintain a higher speed. aerodyne: Any form of aircraft deriving lift in flight principally from aerodynamic forces. Includes aircraft glider, kite, and helicopter. Commonly called "heavier-than-air aircraft". aero-elastic divergence: Aero-elastic instability which occurs when aerodynamic forces, or moments, increase more quickly than the elastic restoring forces or couples in the structure. Generally applied to wing weakness where the incidence at the tips increases under load, so tending to twist the wings off. aero-elasticity: The interaction of aerodynamic forces and the elastic reactions of the structure of an aircraft. Phenomena are most prevalent when maneuvering at very high speed. aero-embolism: Release of nitrogen bubbles into the blood stream resulting from too rapid a reduction in ambient air pressure; the bends, encountered by undersea divers.
Also see caisson disease

aero-engine: The power unit of an aircraft. Originally a lightweight reciprocating internal-combustion engine, usually Otto cycle, as a general rule either aircooled radial, in-line, vee, or liquid-cooled vee; gas turbines gradually superseded reciprocating engines from 1945 for large civil and military aircraft but reciprocating engines are still widely used in small aircraft.
Also see ducted fan gas turbine ramjet turbojet turboprop

turboramjet turborocket variable cycle engine

aerofoil: British spelling for airfoil: a body shaped like a wing so as to produce an aerodynamic reaction (lift) normal to its direction of motion, for a small resistance (drag), in that plane; e.g., a wing, plane, aileron, tailplane, rudder, or elevator.
Also see air foil

aerogel: A silicon-based solid with a porous structure with 99% of its volume as open space, used as an insulator between sheets of things like glass. aero-isoclinic wing: A sweptback wing which has its torsional and flexural stiffness so adjusted that the angle of attack remains constant as the wing bends under flight loads, instead of decreasing with deflection toward the tip, which is the normal geometric effect. aerological diagram: A thermodynamic diagram used for plotting the results of upper-air soundings usually containing, as reference lines, isobars, isotherms, dry adiabatics, saturated adiabatics, and lines of constant saturation humidity mixing ratio. aerology: The study of the free atmosphere. aeronautical engineering: The branch of engineering concerned with the design, production, and maintenance of aircraft structures, systems, and power units. aeronautical fixed services: (AFS) A telecommunication service between fixed stations for the transmission of aeronautical information, particularly navigational safety

and flight planning messages. aeronautics: All activities concerned with aerial locomotion. aerophone: Group of musical instruments in which the air in a tube-shaped resonator is excited to vibrate. aeroplane: British spelling for airplane.
Also see aircraft airplane

aerospaceplane: Aircraft-like vehicle which can take off from and land on runways, maneuver in the atmosphere, operate in space, and re-enter the atmosphere. aerostat: Any form of aircraft deriving support in the air principally from its buoyancy, e.g., a balloon or airship. aero system: A roof rack designed for cars without external rain gutters. The rack is held on by clips that extend down into the door. aerothermochemistry: The chemical reactions which occur with airflow heating, e.g., a candle flame in air or the combustion of kerosine in a jet engine. aerothermodynamics: The branch of thermodynamics relating to the heating effects associated with the dynamics of a gas; in particular the physical effects produced in the air flowing over a vehicle during launch and re-entry.

aerothermo-elasticity: Aero-elasticity complicated by heating effects. aether:
See ether

AEV: Acronym for automatic expansion valve. A/F: [1] Abbreviation for "across flats" which is the distance on a nut (for instance) from one flat surface to the opposite flat surface, i.e., this is the size of the wrench needed to install or remove the nut.
Also see across corners

[2] Abbreviation for "air/fuel."
See air-fuel ratio

[3] Abbreviation for "automatic focusing" [4] Abbreviation for "audio-frequency". AFB: Acronym for "Aluminum four-barrel," as in Carter AFB carburetor. AFC: [1] Acronym for "air flow controlled" [2] Abbreviation for "automatic frequency control". AFCS: Abbreviation for automatic flight control system. affected zone:
See heat-affected zone


Said of characteristic curves of apparatus when these curves differ only in the scales of one or both coordinates. AFM: Abbreviation for audio-frequency modulation. A-frame A chassis frame which is shaped like the letter "A" where the crossbar is often the axle. It is usually found as the frame of a trailer.
Also see shear-legs

A-frame barricade: A traffic marker indicating that the road is not usable.

A/F ratio:
See air-fuel ratio

AFS: Abbreviation for aeronautical fixed services. aft: The back of a vessel.
Also see fore and aft adjustment

aft adjustment:
See fore and aft adjustment

aft cg limit:
See cg limits

afterbody: Rear portion of a flying-boat hull, aft of the main step. after bottom dead center: (ABDC) The position of the piston as it starts its way up. afterburner: A device for burning excess carbon wastes produced by the engine so that air pollution is reduced.
Also see reheat

afterburning: In an internal-combustion engine, persistence of the combustion process beyond the period proper to the working cycle, i.e., into the expansion period. afterburst: Delayed further collapse of underground workings after a rockburst. aftercooler: [1] A device in a diesel engine which removes the relatively warm air which enters the engine. [2] Chamber in which heat generated during compression of air is removed, allowing cool air to be piped underground. afterdamp: The non-flammable heavy gas, carbon dioxide, left after an explosion in a coal mine. The chief gaseous product produced by the combustion of coalgas.
Also see black damp choke damp fire damp white damp


[1] The period during which the glow plugs of a diesel engine continue to operate after the engine is started. [2] The glow of a gaseous medium immediately after the cessation of electric current or downstream of an electric discharge.
Also see persistence

afterheat: The heat which comes from fission products in a reactor after it has been shut down. after-image: Formation of image on retina of eye after removal of visual stimulus, in color complementary to this stimulus.
Also see complementary after-image

aftermarket: All products and services used in the repair and maintenance of vehicles after the vehicle has been sold. aftermarket equipment: Accessories and replacement parts added to a vehicle after it has been sold. aftermarket overdrive: An overdrive device which is not original equipment, but has been added after it has been sold. aftermarket part: Goods not for use as original equipment in the production of light-duty vehicles or heavy-duty vehicles, i.e., products and services used in the repair and maintenance of these vehicles. aftermarket rustproofing: Although most vehicles come from the manufacturer with some rustproofing, there is no guarantee that every part of the exposed chassis and frame will be protected from the elements and the possibility of rust.

Therefore rustproofing is applied by the owner of the vehicle to reduce the possibility of rust. If this rustproofing is not done when the vehicle is new, it might seal in the rust and create a greater problem. afterpeak: Space abaft the aftermost bulkhead. Lower part frequently used as freshwater tank; upper part may be used as storeroom. afterpeak bulkhead: First main transverse bulkhead forward of the sternpost. after perpendiculars: A vertical line at the intersection of the summer load line and the after side of the rudder post or sternpost, or the centerline of the rudder stock if there is no rudder post or sternpost. after-start enrichment: When an engine is first started, it needs a little richer fuel-air mixture (i.e., more fuel, less air). In a carbureted engine, this is accomplished by the choke (which restricts the amount of air). In a fuel injected engine, the after-start enrichment device increases the amount of fuel. As the engine warms up, the device gradually reduces the amount of enrichment. Some devices just reduce the amount gradually over time without sensing the temperature of the engine. after top dead center: (ATDC) A term used in timing the relation of the spark and the crankshaft. The position of the piston as it starts its way down. Ag: Symbol for silver (argentum). AG: Acronym for "air-guard". AGC:

Abbreviation for automatic gain control. aged catalyst: A catalyst which has already been in service. Opposite to a fresh catalyst. age equation:
See age theory

age-hardening: [1] Aluminum and some metal alloys will become hard and even brittle with age which is an unwanted characteristic. On the other hand when paint or cement harden over time, this process may be a desirable characteristic. [2] The production of structural change spontaneously after some time; normally it is useful in improving mechanical properties in some respect, particularly hardness.
Also see precipitation hardening

See aging

See driver and Vehicle Licensing Agency energy Protection Agency

agent: An intermediary with legal authority to operate on behalf of the manufacturer.
Also see activating agent addition agent aggressive agent air-entraining agent anti-knock agent bonding agent degreasing agent oxidizing agent reducing agent release agent rustproofing agent

softening agent

agent fee: Although you can register your vehicle and obtain your licence from a government office, some states and provinces permit an agent to perform that same service and allow the agent to collect an extra fee for the service. In this way the lineup at the government office is reduced. age theory: In nuclear reactor theory, the slowing down of neutrons by elastic collisions. The age equation relates the spatial distribution of neutrons to their energy. The equation is given by. . where q is the slowing-down density and τ is the Fermi age. It was first formulated by Fermi who assumed that the slowing-down process is continuous and so is least applicable to media containing light elements. agglomerate: Assemblage of particles rigidly joined together, as by partial fusion (sintering) or by growing together. agglomerating value: Index of the binding (sintering) qualities of coal which has been subjected to a prescribed heat treatment. aggregate: [1] Assemblage of powder particles which are loosely coherent [2] Mixture of sand and gravel or crushed rock used in making concrete. Graded aggregate has a graded size distribution so that the particles fit better together, requiring less cement in the mix.
Also see coarse aggregate fine aggregate

[3] A mass consisting of rock or mineral fragments. aggressive:

A French expression to indicate the reinforced front, rear, and side safety structures of a vehicle. If the strengthened structure causes more than normal damage to another vehicle, a pedestrian, or the occupants of the vehicle, then that structure is aggressive. aggressive agent: A corrosive material or chemical which attacks metal to pit them. Also called aggressive medium.. aggressive medium: A corrosive material or chemical which attacks metal to pit them. aggressivity:
See aggressive

aging: [1] The cracking, checking, or general deterioration produced by exposure of an adhesive, coating or sealer to the weather or some other given set of conditions for a length of time [2] The deterioration of rubber properties by oxidation over a period of time. [3] A change in the properties of some metals after heat treatment or cold working (i.e., hammering or bending when metal is cold). [4] The final stage of precipitation hardening, producing an increase in strength and hardness in metal alloys, due to precipitation of second phase particles from supersaturated solid solution over a period of days at room temperature, or several hours at an elevated temperature (called artificial aging) [5] Loss of strength in the cladding or the pressure vessel in a nuclear reactor due to irradiation. Artificial aging would be the simulation of such processes by increasing the rate of irradiation to obtain information more rapidly [6] Change in the properties of a substance with time. A change in the magnetic properties of iron, e.g., increase of hysteresis loss of sheet-steel laminations; also the process whereby the subpermanent magnetism can be removed in the manufacture of permanent magnets [7] The exposure of freshly printed fabrics to steam to produce fully developed colors.
Also see artificial aging

tire aging

aging test:
See accelerated aging test

agitation: Vigorous movement of film and solutions during processing to ensure that fresh chemicals are brought in contact with the emulsion. agitation cup: A type of spray gun paint container which has an agitator. agitator: [1] A device used to cause motion in confined fluid [2] A device for mixing paint by shaking the container. [3] A tank, usually cylindrical, which has a mixing device such as a propeller or airlift pump near the bottom. Finely ground mineral slurries (the aqueous component perhaps being a leaching solution) are exposed to appropriate chemicals for purpose of extraction of gold, uranium, or other valuable constituents. Types include pachuca tank or Brown agitator. A-glass: Designation for a glass fiber of composition (percentage by weight). SiO2 = 72%. Na2O = 14%. CaO = 10%. MgO = 2.5%. Al2O3 = 0.6%. which is similar to that of the soda-lime-silica glass used for windows and bottles. Its resistance to water, mineral acids, and alkalis is much less than that of C-glass and E-glass fibers. AGO: Abbreviation for automotive gas oil. AGR:

Abbreviation for advanced gas-cooled reactor. agreement:
See Free Trade Agreement of the Americas General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade North American Free Trade Agreement

Agreement of the Americas:
See Free Trade Agreement of the Americas

Agreement on Tariffs:
See General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade

Agreement on Tariffs and Trade:
See General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade

See hard aground

AGS: Abbreviation for aircraft general standard. AGVS: Acronym for "Automated Guided Vehicle System." a.h.: Abbreviation for ampere-hour. AHAI: Acronym for "Association of the Hungarian Automotive Industry". AHAP: Acronym for "As High As Possible." AHARA:

Acronym for "As High As Reasonably Achievable". ahm: Abbreviation for ampere-hour meter. ahoogah: The sound of a particular kind of horn. AHRA: Acronym for "American Hot Rod Association." AH Rim: A wheel rim which is able to run even when the tire is flat and provides safety in case of a puncture. AIAA: Abbreviation for American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics. AIADA: Acronym for "American International Automobile Dealers Association". AIAM: Acronym for "Association of International Automobile Manufacturers". AIA-SAP: Acronym for "Automotive Industry Association" (Czech Republic). AIA-ZAP: Acronym for "Automotive Industry Association" (Slovakia). aided:
See computer-aided


See suspension aids

aileron droop: The rigging of ailerons so that under static conditions their trailing edges are below the wing trailing-edge line, pressure and suction causing them to rise in flight to the aerodynamically correct position. ailerons: Surfaces at the trailing edge of the wing, controlled by the pilot, which move differentially to give a rolling motion to the aircraft about its longitudinal axis. AIMA: Acronym for "Associação dos Industriais de Montagem de Automóveis" (Portugal). aimer: A tool for aiming headlights.

aiming: Adjusting the direction of the headlight beams to shine without blinding oncoming traffic and yet providing the maximum illumination whether in low beam or high beam. air: [1] Abbreviation for "air conditioner." [2] A bicycling or motorcycling term describing the space or gap between the tires and the ground when the bike takes a jump. Both tires must be off the ground before it can be called "air" as in the expression, "I really caught air on that last jump." [3] A gas containing approximately 80% nitrogen, 20% oxygen, and a small portion of other gases. One of the essential factors in a combustion engine (fuel, air, proper proportion of mixture, compression, timing, and spark).
ambient air bath air Also see external mix air L-jetronic air flow proper proportion of air cap meter and fuel

charge air cold air driver air bag electric air control valve electric air switching valve

fuel air mixture fuel air ratio heater air pipe idle air bleed screw idle air jet internal mix air cap

lateral air passage low-profile air cleaner modular air strut oil bath air cleaner paper air cleaner passenger-side air bag

pulse air principle pulse air system ram air secondary air

AIR: An acronym for "Air Injection Reactor" system of reducing objectionable exhaust emissions.
Also see air injection

air absorption: Absorption of sound waves propagating in air, caused by molecular relaxation processes and viscosity. air and fuel:
See proper proportion of air and fuel

air aspirator system: (AAS) A passive air injection system that uses a one-way valve instead of an air pump to introduce extra air into the exhaust stream. air bag: A device which is part of the passive safety system. In the event of an accident, sensors will cause the airbag to be deployed so that your head will be pillowed by the bag instead of hitting the dash.
Also see driver air bag passenger-side air bag side impact air bag

airbag: A device which is part of the passive safety system. In the event of an accident, sensors will cause the airbag to be deployed so that your head will be pillowed by the bag instead of hitting the dash.
Also see

driver air bag passenger-side air bag side impact air bag

airbag module: All the components that make up the airbag system: Airbag, inflator, cover, and sensor. Also called airbag unit.. airbag restraint system: A system which uses an airbag to restrain occupants in the event of a collision. They may be placed on the dash or doors or even in the shoulder strap. Also called passive restraint system.. air-bag system:
See supple mental restraint inflatable air-bag system

airbag unit: All the components that make up the airbag system: Airbag, inflator, cover, and sensor. Also called airbag module.. air bellows: A rubber bladder or sleeve filled with compressed gas or air. Found on some suspension systems to provide cushioning.
Also see air suspension

air bells: Minute bubbles which have adhered to the emulsion during processing of film, leaving small circular spots where it has been protected from chemical action. air-blast circuit breaker: A form of circuit-breaker or switch in which an arc is deliberately drawn between two contacts. The arc is cooled by a blast of high pressure air which removes ions, thereby extinguishing the arc and breaking the circuit. Also called air-blast switch. air-blast switch:

A form of circuit-breaker or switch in which an arc is deliberately drawn between two contacts. The arc is cooled by a blast of high pressure air which removes ions, thereby extinguishing the arc and breaking the circuit. Also called air-blast circuit breaker. air bleed:
See adjustable off-idle air bleed auxiliary air bleeds compensating jet idle air bleed screw

air bleed screw:
See idle air bleed screw

airborne missile control system: (AMCS) A method of controlling missile attacks from a secure command position. airborne radiometric surveying:
See aerial radiometric surveying

airbox: The container which holds the air filter. air brake: [1] A system of braking which is usually found on large truck in which compressed air pushes against a brake piston or diaphragm in order to apply the brakes to stop or slow the vehicle. [2] An extendable device, most commonly a hinged flap on wing or fuselage, controlled by the pilot, to increase the drag of an aircraft. Originally a means of slowing bombers to enable them to dive more steeply, it is an essential flight control on clean jet aircraft and sailplanes [3] A mechanical brake operated by air-pressure acting on a piston [4] An absorption dynamometer in which the power is dissipated through the rotation of a fan or propeller. air break: [1] An inverted opening placed in the chimney of a gas furnace to prevent back pressure from outside wind from reaching the furnace flame or pilot.

[2] Term describing a switch or circuit breaker with contacts in air. airbrush: [1] A paint spray gun used for precise detailing work and custom painting. [2] The act of using an airbrush. air bypass valve: (ABPV or ABV) a backfire-suppressor valve used in air injection systems. During high engine vacuum conditions such as deceleration, it vents pressurized air from the air pump to the atmosphere in order to prevent backfiring. At other times, it sends air to the exhaust manifold. On vehicles with a three-way catalyst, it sends air to the oxidation catalyst only when the engine warms up. Also called an anti-backfire valve, diverter valve, or gulp valve. air cap:
See external mix air cap internal mix air cap

air capacitor: A capacitor in which the dielectric is nearly all air, for tuning electrical circuits with minimum dielectric loss. air capacity:
See breathing capacity

air cell: A small auxiliary combustion chamber used in certain types of compression-ignition engines, for promoting turbulence and improving combustion. air charge temperature: (ACT) The temperature of the air being forced into the carburetor or fuel injection system. An ACT sensor measures this temperature. air charge temperature sensor:

(ACTS) a thermistor sensor that inputs the temperature of the incoming air stream in the air filter or intake manifold to the computer. It can be located in the intake manifold (EFI systems) or the air cleaner. On carbureted vehicles, if the air is cold, it signals the choke to let off slowly. It then alters engine speed after the choke is off and below a certain temperature, dumps air from the air injection system to the atmosphere for catalyst protection. air classifier: Appliance in which vertical, horizontal, or cyclonic currents of air sort falling ground particles into equal-settling fractions or separate relatively coarse falling material from finer dust which is carried out. Also called air elutriator. air cleaner: A device which filters the air entering the engine to remove airborne impurities, dust, dirt, and bumblebees. Also called air filter.
Also see bath air cleaner bath air cleaner low-profile air cleaner oil bath air cleaner paper air cleaner thermostatic air cleaner

air cleaner bi-metal sensor: (ACL BI-MET) a component of a thermostatic air cleaner system. It senses the temperature of incoming fresh air and bleeds off vacuum when the air is warm. When the air is cold, the sensor directs vacuum to the air cleaner vacuum motor. air cleaner duct and valve vacuum motor: (ACL DV) a component of thermostatic air cleaner systems. It opens and closes the air duct valve to provide heated or unheated air to the engine in accordance with the temperature of the incoming air.

air cleaner element: The replaceable filter which prevents impurities from the air which enters the combustion chamber. Also called air filter element.

air cleaner horn: Many air cleaner canisters have a spout or horn extending from the edge of the canister into which the air is taken in.
Also see heated intake

air coil: Coil on some types of heat pumps used either as an evaporator or a condenser. air compressor: A device which compresses air and stores the air into a tank so that the compressed air can be used in a shop to fill tires, run tools, spray paint, etc. In a vehicle, it can be used in brake systems, leveling systems, automatic tire inflation systems, and air supply systems. air-conditioned: The state of exchanging warm air for cold so that a vehicle or home is cooler than the outside temperature. air conditioner: (A/C) or (Air) [1] A device used to control temperature, humidity, cleanliness, and movement and sometimes the air purity, in an enclosed space [2] A system of devices which causes a reduction or control of the temperature and humidity within the cab of a vehicle. It was first offered on the 1941 Packard. Two types are used in vehicles: Receiver-dryer type and accumulator type.
Also see compressor


air conditioner clutch compressor signal: (ACCC signal) the input to the computer regarding the status of the air conditioner clutch (engaged or disengaged). air-conditioning: A system or process for controlling the temperature, humidity, air movement, and sometimes the purity of the air in an enclosed space.
Also see automatic air-conditioning

air conduction: The passing of noise energy along an air path, as contrasted with structureborne conduction of vibrational energy. air control:
See electric air control valve

air control valve: (ACV) a vacuum-controlled diverter valve (or a combination bypass/diverter valve) in an air injection system that diverts air pump air to either the upstream (exhaust manifold) or downstream (oxidation catalyst) air injection points as necessary.
Also see electric air control valve

air-cooled apparatus: An electric apparatus in the heat caused by the losses is removed solely by natural or fan-assisted air flow. air cooled:
See air cooled engine

air-cooled condenser: A heat exchanger which transfers the heat of compression from condensing coils to surrounding air. This may be done either by convection or by a fan or blower.

air cooled engine: An engine which generally has large fins or ribs and is often exposed to the outside air. The heat of the engine is dissipated through the fins of the engine. In contrast, the heat in a liquid-cooled engine is reduced by channels throughout the inside of the engine through which liquid (antifreeze) passes. Most older Volkswagens and motorcycles use air cooled engines.

air-cooled engine:
See air cooled engine

air-cooled machine: A machine in which the heat caused by the losses is removed solely by natural or fan-assisted air flow. air-cooled transformer: A transformer in the heat caused by the losses is removed solely by natural or fan-assisted air flow. air cooler: [1] Mechanism designed to lower temperature of air passing through it [2] The cold "accumulator" used in the Lindé process of air liquefaction for the preliminary cooling of the air. air cooling: The cooling of hot bodies by a stream of cold air, instead of liquid (water) cooling.
Also see charge air cooling

air core: Coil of wire not having a metal core. air core solenoid:

Solenoid which has a hollow core instead of a solid core. air correction jet: A small orifice which permits air to enter the emulsion tube of a carburetor. aircraft: Any mechanically driven heavier-than-air flying machine with wings of fixed or variable sweep angle. Subdivision: landplane, seaplane (float seaplane and flying boat), amphibian. aircraft design: The specification of an aircraft, following compromises between requirements of performance, economy, and safety. It includes external aerodynamic shape, and the spatial arrangement of flying surfaces, engines, control surfaces and internal systems. Gross weight, take-off weight, landing weight, and load are all legal values in specification and contract, and verification is proof of the design by ground and flight tests. New concepts include an inherently unstable aircraft controlled continuously by on-board computers. aircraft engine:
See aero-engine

aircraft flutter: Term used for the rapid fluctuations in very-high-frequency reception, affecting sound and vision; due to a secondary transmission path, or rapidly shifting phase, set up by reflection from an aircraft. aircraft General Standard: (AGS) Term referring to small parts or items such as bolts, nuts, rivets, fork joints, etc. which are common to all types of aircraft. aircraft noise: noise from propeller, engine, exhaust, and that generated aerodynamically over the surfaces; characterized by unstable low frequencies.
Also see

jet noise

air cushion:
See airbag

air dam: An attachment called a "spoiler" which is usually located below the front bumper. Its design shape and placement helps to reduce the flow of air under the vehicle. It may help to increase the flow of air to the radiator and engine compartment, affect aerodynamic drag, or affect positive and negative lift. air data system: (ADS) A centralized unit into which are fed the essential physical measurements for flight, e.g., airspeed, Mach number, Pitot and static pressure, barometric altitude, stagnation air temperature. From this central source, data are transmitted to the cockpit dials, to flight and navigational instruments, and to computers. air deflector: A panel which is positioned at an angle on the roof of a truck or on the front of the hood to cause the air to flow over the vehicle. The hood air deflector (often made of transparent plastic) is designed to prevent bugs from hitting the windshield. British term is "air shield." air diffuser: Air distribution outlet or grille designed to direct airflow into desired patterns. air door: In a mine ventilating system, a door which admits air or varies its direction. air dose: The radiation dose in röntgens delivered at a point in free air. airdox:

US system for breaking coal in fiery mine by use of injected high-pressure air. air drag: Resistance to the motion of a body passing through the Earth's atmosphere, most serious in the lower regions, producing changes in the geometry of the orbit, even causing the body to re-enter. More generally the term atmospheric drag is used in reference to other planets. air drilling: Drilling method which uses air instead of mud as the cooling and debris removal medium. Faster and easier than mud drilling, it cannot prevent water ingress and emergency mud equipment will then be necessary. Also called gas drilling.. air dry: [1] Allowing paint to dry at ambient (surrounding) temperatures, without the aid of an external heat source. [2] Said of minerals, pulp and paper in which moisture content is in equilibrium with that of atmosphere. The basis of sale for wood pulp; pulp with a conventionally accepted theoretical moisture content is usually 100% on total mass. air-dry: Allowing paint to dry at ambient (surrounding) temperatures, without the aid of an external heat source. air drying adhesives: Adhesives that can be dried at room temperature without the use of heat. This type of adhesive consists of solid particles dissolved or dispersed in a liquid. When the liquid evaporates, it leaves the dry adhesive film. Most elastomer based adhesives are of this type. air duct: A tube or channel which permits heated and ventilated air to enter the passenger compartment, building, or machinery to provide heating, cooling, or ventilation.

aired up: Said of an oil plunger pump which no longer sucks because gas or air has filled the suction chamber. air ejector: A type of air pump used for maintaining a partial vacuum in a vessel through the agency of a high-velocity steam jet which entrains the air and exhausts it against atmospheric pressure. air elutriator:
See air classifier

air engine: [1] An engine in which air is used as the working substance. Rapid heating from an external source expands the air in the cylinder with consequent motion being imparted to a piston. After transfer to a compression cylinder, for rapid cooling, the air is returned to the working cylinder for the next cycle. Also called hot-air engine. [2] A small reciprocating engine driven by compressed air.
Also see Stirling engine

air-entraining agent: Resin added to either cement or concrete in order to trap small air bubbles. air equivalent: The thickness of an air column at 15°C and 1 atmosphere pressure which has the same absorption of a beam of radiation as a given thickness of a particular substance. air escape: Device for releasing excess air from a water pipe. A valve is opened by a float when sufficient air has accumulated and closed in time to prevent loss of water. air exhauster:

[1] A suction fan. [2] A vacuum pump. airfield:
See alternate airfield

air filter: A device for removing impurities from the air which enters the combustion chamber.
Also see air cleaner canister air filter centrifugal force air filter

air filter element: The replaceable filter which prevents impurities from the air which enters the combustion chamber. Also called air cleaner element.

air filtration:
See air filtration system

air filtration system: A system that cleans smog, pollen, exhaust smoke, and odors out of the air. Cleans both interior circulated air and that coming from the outside. air-float table: Shaking table in which concentration of heavy fraction in sand-sized feed is promoted by air blown up through the porous deck. Used in desert work. Also called air table.. airflow:

The passage of air which moves around an object (esp. a vehicle) or through an air duct (e.g., ventilation system or exhaust system).
Also see L-jetronic air flow meter hot-wire airflow meter mass airflow meter

air flow controlled: (AFC) a Bosch term for its early pulse fuel injection systems; usually refers particularly to the system which uses an L-Jetronic air mass sensor. air flow meter: [1] A meter which measures the rate at which air enters the engine. In Bosch systems, any device that measures the amount of air being used by the engine. The control unit uses this information to determine the load on the engine. The two most common examples of airflow meters are the airflow sensor used in the Bosch L-Jetronic and the air mass sensor used in the Bosch LH-Jetronic systems. [2] An instrument, mainly experimental, for measuring the airflow in ducts
Also see L-jetronic air flow meter hot-wire airflow meter mass airflow meter

airflow meter:
See air flow meter

airflow sensor: A device in an electronically controlled fuel injection system which detects the amount of air entering the combustion chambers. Continuous injection systems use an airflow sensor plate to measure airflow volume; electronic systems use a vane or flap-type airflow sensor. air flue: A flue which is built into a chimney stack so as to withdraw vitiated air from a room.

air foil: An aerodyna mic device used to improve traction by increasing the downward force on either end of the car. It can be compared to an airplane wing with this primary difference: A wing is designed to provide lift so it can fly; the air foil pushes the vehicle closer to the ground. Although they may be called "wings," they are properly air foils. They increase the

cornering ability, improve stability, but add aerodyna mic drag. airfoil section: The cross-sectional shape or profile of an airfoil. airframe: The complete aircraft structure without power plant, systems, equipment, furnishing, and other readily removable items. air frost: A screen temperature below 0°C.
Also see wind frost

air fuel:
See air-fuel ratio

See air-fuel ratio

See air-fuel ratio

air-fuel mixture:
See rich air-fuel mixture lean air-fuel mixture

air fuel ratio:
See air-fuel ratio

air-fuel ratio: (A/F ratio) The mass of air supplied to the engine divided by the mass of fuel supplied in the same period of time. The stoichiometric, or chemically

correct, air-fuel ratio is the exact ratio necessary to burn all the carbon and hydrogen in the fuel to carbon dioxide and water with no oxygen remaining. The fuel-air ratio is the reciprocal of the air-fuel ratio.
Also see lean air-fuel mixture rich air-fuel mixture

air gap: [1] The space bet magnetic poles or between rotating and stationary assemblies in a motor or generator [2] Usually found on regulators, it is the distance between the contact armature and the iron core that when magnetized, draws the armature down. [3] It is also the distance between the two electrodes of a spark plug.
Also see spark air gap

[4] Gap with points or knobs, adjusted to breakdown at a specified voltage and hence limit voltages to this value. [5] Section of air, usually short, in a magnetic circuit, esp. in a motor or generator, a relay, or a choke. The main flux passes through the gap, with leakage outside depending on dimensions and permeability. air-gap torsion meter: A device for measuring the twist in a shaft by causing the relative rotation of two sections to alter the air-gap between a pair of electro-magnets, the resulting change in the current flowing being indicated by an ammeter. air gate: Passage from interior of a mold to allow the escape of air and other gases as the metal or plastic enters.
Also see riser

airglow: The faint permanent glow of the night sky, due to light-emission from atoms and molecules of sodium, oxygen, and nitrogen, activated by sunlight during the day.

air-guard: (AG) An American Motors air injection system that uses an air pump to supply air into the exhaust manifold to reduce HC and CO emissions. air gulp system: A system in vehicles with secondary air injection or induction, which prevents an very rich mixture of air-fuel from entering the inlet manifold during deceleration. If it did enter, unburned fuel would be forced over the hot exhaust system causing backfiring (i.e., uncontrolled detonation). The air gulp system prevents this condition by allowing a quantity of air to combine with the rich mixture in the inlet manifold. air gulp valve: A diverter valve which adds an amount of air to the rich air-fuel mixture entering the intake manifold during deceleration. air hammer: A hammer that is powered by compressed air air handler: Fan-blower, heat transfer coil, filter, and housing parts of a system. air-hardening steel: Steel with sufficient carbon and other alloying elements to allow sections over 500 mm (20 in) to harden fully when cooled in air or other gas from above its transformation temperature. Also called self-hardening steel.. airheads: A term for older, air-cooled BMW Boxer Twin motorcycles. air heater: [1] Direct-fired heater, in which the products of combustion are combined with the air. [2] Indirect-fired heater, in which the combustion products are excluded from the air flow. Both can be operated in a recirculation system, by which a proportion of the heated air is returned to and passed through the heating chamber.

Also see air preheater

air hoist: Air winch or other mechanical hoist actuated by compressed air. air hold fitting: A tool which uses air pressure to keep the valves closed when working on an OHV engine. The device is screwed into the spark plug holes and air pressure keeps the valves from dropping down. In this way the valve seal or valve spring can be replaced without removing the cylinder head. air horn: [1] The upper part of a carburetor into which the air is drawn. The choke butterfly is located in this air horn. [2] It is also a term used for a warning horn which is operated by forcing compressed air through a reed.

air horn baffle: Used on some Rochester Quadrajet carburetors to prevent incoming air from forcing fuel into the secondary wells through the bleed tubes. Prevents secondary-nozzle lag during heavy acceleration. air induction:
See air injection cold air induction

air infiltration: Leakage of air into rooms through cracks, windows, doors, and other openings. airing: Removal of sulphur from molten copper in a wirebar furnace, together with slag-forming impurities.

air injection: A system that injects fresh air into the exhaust ports or a thermal reactor, for additional conversion of carbon monoxide to carbon dioxide and combustion of unburned hydrocarbons (unburned fuel vapors) found in the exhaust gases as it comes in contact with the high heat in the exhaust manifold. Also called air induction.. air injection manifold: The duct inside the cylinder head or the tube outside the cylinder head feeding secondary air into the exhaust ports. air injection reaction:
See air Injection Reaction system

air injection reaction system: (AIR system) The AIR system helps to reduce hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide levels in the exhaust by injecting air into the exhaust ports of each cylinder during cold engine operation, or directly into the catalytic converter during normal operation. It also helps the catalytic converter to reach proper operating temperature quickly during warm-up. If a GM cars has an air pump, the system is an AIR otherwise it is a PULSAIR system. air injection system: (AIS) any system that injects air into the exhaust stream to promote more complete oxidation of unburned exhaust gases. air inlet valve: An adjustable door, often vacuum operated, in the plenum blower assembly that permits election of outside or inside air for automotive heating and cooling systems. air insulation: Insulation for part of an electrical circuit provided by atmospheric air, e.g., a high-voltage transmission line, which is suspended between transmission towers (pylons), is insulated for the section between the towers by atmospheric air.

air intake: [1] Any opening introducing air into an aircraft; the opening for the main engine air is usually implied if unqualified. [2] The opening through which air enters a component such as the carburetor, fuel injection system, radiator, heating system, or ventilation system. [3] Vent in a carburetor through which air is sucked to mix with the gasoline vapor from the jet.
Also see auxiliary air intake cold air intake

air-intake guide vanes: radial, toroidal or volute vanes which guide the air into the compressor of a gas turbine, or the supercharger of a reciprocating engine. air interface: The physical specification and operating protocols governing the radio links to and from a mobile telephone. air jet:
See idle air jet

air jet spinning: Method of converting staple fibers into yarn: they are spun together by jets of air which strike the fibers tangentially, making them rotate. air jet texturing:
See textured yarn

air jig: Use of pulses of air to stratify crushed ore into heavy and light layers. Used in waterless countries. airlance: Length of piping used to work compressed air into settled sand or to free choked sections of process plant, restoring aqueous flow.

air laying: Method for forming a web by collecting fibers from an air stream on a mesh ready for manufacturing a non-woven fabric. air leg: Telescopic cylindrical prop expanded by compressed air, used to support a rock drill. airless spraying: A paint spraying process where the coating material (i.e., paint) is not atomized by a stream of air. Instead, it is subjected to high pressure and forced through a narrow jet or nozzle which causes it to be atomized. airless spray gun: A paint spraying tool used in airless spraying.

airlift: A jet of air or neutral gas used to move solid or liquid material during processing to avoid necessity for pumps, particularly in "maintenancefree" radioactive environments. airlift pump: An air-operated displacement pump for elevating or circulating pulp in cyanide plants.

air line: [1] A pipe, hose, or duct in a vehicle which permits the flow of air or vacuum. [2] The supply line coming from an air compression tank to drive air tools or inflate tires. [3] Straight line drawn on the magnetization curve of a motor, or other electrical apparatus, expressing the magnetizing force necessary to maintain the magnetic flux across an air-gap in the magnetic circuit. air liquefier: A type of gas refrigerating machine based on the "Sterling" or hot-air engine cycle. air lock: [1] A bubble of air trapped in a fluid circuit which interferes with normal circulation of the fluid. [2] Device by which access is obtained to the working chamber (filled with compressed air to prevent entry of water) at the base of a hollow caisson. The worker at surface enters and is shut in an air-tight chamber filled with air at atmospheric pressure. Pressure within this air-lock is gradually raised to that used in the working chamber, so that the worker can pass out through another door and communicate with the working chamber. air log: An instrument for registering the distance travelled by an aircraft relative to the air, not to the ground. air management system: (AMS) used to control the injected air to the exhaust manifold and catalytic converter. This improves the pollutant conversion efficiency in the converter. air manometer: A pressure gauge in which the changes in volume of a small quantity of air enclosed by mercury in a glass tube indicate changes in the pressure to which it is subjected.

airmanship: Skill in piloting an aircraft. air mass: A part of the atmosphere where the horizontal temperature gradient at all levels within it is very small, perhaps of the order of 1°C per 100 km.
Also see frontal zone

air mass flow: In a gas turbine power plant, the quantity of air which is ingested by the compressor, normally expressed in pounds or kilograms per second. air mass sensor: An airflow meter that uses the changing resistance of a heated wire in the intake airstream to measure the mass of the air being drawn into the engine. Also referred to as a hot-wire sensor. air meter: An apparatus used to measure the rate of flow of air or gas. air micrometer: A control in a paint spray gun which adjusts the amount of air. air-mileage unit: An automatic instrument which derives the air distance flown and feeds it into other automatic navigational instruments. air miles per gallon: The number of miles flown through the air for each gallon of fuel burnt by the propulsion units. air mixture:
See fuel air mixture

air monitor:

Radiation (e.g., γ-ray) measuring instrument used for monitoring contamination or dose rate in air. air outlet: The vent or opening where the passage of air exits -- especially in systems for air conditioning, ventilation, and defrosting as air enters the passenger compartment or flows out of the compartment. air outlet valve: A vacuum operated door which directs air flow into the heater core or ducts, usually located in or near the plenum blower assembly. A vacuum operated door which directs air flow into the heater core or ducts, usually located in or near the plenum blower assembly. air passage:
See lateral air passage

air pipe:
See heater air pipe

air pocket: Colloquial term for a localized region of rising or descending air current. Causes an abrupt vertical acceleration as an aircraft passes through it, severity increasing with speed and also with low wing loading. Also called bump.
Also see vertical gust

air pollution: Contamination of the earth's atmosphere by various natural and man-made pollutants such as smoke, gases, dust, etc. airport markers: Particolored boards defining areas on an airfield, e.g., boundary makers which indicate the limits of the landing area, taxi-channel markers for taxi tracks, obstruction markers for ground hazards, and runway visual markers, situated at equal distances, by which visibility is gauged in bad weather.

airport meteorological minima: The minimum cloud base (vertical) and horizontal visibility (expressed as runway visual range, RVR) in which landing or takeoff is permitted at a particular aerodrome. ICAO standards:
CATEGORY HEIGHT RVR 1 200 ft (60 m) 2600 ft (800 m) 2 100 ft (30 m) 1300 ft (400 m) 3a zero 700 ft (210 m) 3b 150 ft (45 m) zero

air position: The geographical position which an aircraft would reach in a given time if flying in still air. air-position indicator: An automatic instrument which continually indicates air position, incorporating alterations of course and speed. air preheater: System of tubes or passages, heated by flue gas, through which combustion air is passed for preheating before admission to the combustion chamber, thus appreciably raising flame temperatures and returning to the combustion chamber some heat otherwise lost.
Also see recuperative air heater regenerative air heater

air pressure: [1] The atmospheric pressure. [2] Tire pressure. [3] The force of air coming from a compressor used to power air tools or apply air brakes. air principle:
See pulse air principle

air pump: [1] The device that supplies the fresh air needed by the air injection system. [2] A reciprocating or centrifugal pump used to remove air, and sometimes the condensate, from the condenser of a steam plant.
Also see air ejector


[3] Any device used for transferring air from one place to another. A compressor increases the pressure, a vacuum pump reduces the pressure and a blower causes a rapidly moving air blast

air quality: The extent to which air is free from contaminants, conventionally taken to be the respiratory irritants nitrogen dioxide and sulphur dioxide. air ratio: The ratio of actual intake air volume to the air volume theoretically needed for complete combustion of a particular amount of the fuel. This ratio is represented by the Greek letter lambda (which looks like the letter "y" upside-down).
Also see fuel air ratio

air receiver: An air tank which holds the compressed air created by a compressor. air-recirculation system:
See automatic air-recirculation system

Air Registration Board: (ARB) The airworthiness authority of the UK until its functions were taken over in 1972 by the Civil Aviation Authority. air resistance: The resistance of the air to forward movement, sometimes called "aerodynamic drag." This is a factor of the shape of the vehicle, the objects which stick out (i.e., mirrors, mufflers, bumpers), the amount of turbulence at the rear of the vehicle, the nature of the vehicle's skin surface, and the amount of air going through the vehicle for cooling and ventilation. The faster you go, the greater the air friction (air friction = velocity x velocity). The faster you go, the greater the amount of power needed to overcome this drag (power = velocity x velocity x velocity). air route: In organized flying, a defined route between two aerodromes; usually provided with direction-finding facilities, lighting, and emergency-landing grounds.
Also see airway

air scoop: A forward facing aerodyna mic device or opening used to duct cool outside air to some part of the vehicle such as the carburetor intake, the brakes, the radiator,

or an oil cooler. airscoop:
See air scoop

air screw: Any type of screw designed to rotate in air; defined in 1951. Term now obsolete and replaced by propeller, a device for propelling aircraft, and fan, a rotating bladed device for moving air in ducts or wind tunnels.
Also see bypass air screw rotor.

air seal: Curtain of air maintained in front of kiln or furnace door to aid retention of heat or in front of a workstation to reduce dust entry. air select valve: A valve in a two-stage catalytic converter with secondary air injection. It is operated by a solenoid and is triggered by the electronic control module. It directs air to the exhaust valve ports or to the midbed catalytic converter, depending on operating conditions. air-sensing thermostat: The unit in which sensing element is located in refrigerated space. air sensor: A device which checks for the presence of air pollutants entering the passenger compartment. If the pollutant concentration is too high, it operates flaps to cut off the external air to the air conditioning system. air shaft: An air passage, usually vertical or nearly vertical, which provides for the ventilation of a tunnel or mine. air shield:

British term for air deflector. airship: Any power-driven aerostat. In a non-rigid airship, the envelope is so designed that the internal pressure maintains its correct form without the aid of a built-in structure; small, and used for naval patrol work. A rigid airship has a rigid structure to maintain the designed shape of the hull, and to carry the loads; usually a number of ballonets or gas bags inside the frame; large, used for military purposes in World War I, and having limited commercial use until 1938. A semi-rigid airship has a partial structure, usually a keel only, to distribute the load, and maintain the designed shape of the envelope or ballonets; intermediate size. air shock absorber: A shock absorber or damper which has a rubber bladder filled with compressed air. As the air pressure increases the vehicle is raised. The system is used in automatic leveling suspensions. air shooting: [1]Charging of shot-hole so as to leave pockets of air, thus reducing the shatter-effect of a blast. [2] In seismic prospecting, producing an explosion in air, above the rock formation under examination, to propagate a seismic wave. air shower:
See cascade shower

air silencer: A device which is placed in the air cleaner assembly to reduce the sucking noise that air makes as it enters. air solenoid:
See bypass air solenoid

air space: The part of the atmosphere which lies above a nation and which is therefore under the jurisdiction of that nation.

air-spaced coil: Inductance coil in which the adjacent turns are spaced (instead of being wound close together) to reduce self-capacitance and dielectric loss. airspeed: Speed measured relative to the air in which the aircraft or missile is moving, as distinct from groundspeed.
Also see equivalent airspeed indicated air-speed true airspeed

air spring: A high pressure air-filled spring used in the suspension fork of some bicycles."
Also see air bellows air suspension

air springing:
See air suspension

air, standard:
See standard air

air standard cycle: A standard cycle of reference by which the performance of different internal-combustion engines may be compared, and their relative efficiencies calculated. air standard efficiency: The thermal efficiency of an internal-combustion engine working on the appropriate air standard cycle. air stop:

A registered trademark for Michelin tubes. airstrip: Unidirectional landing area, usually of grass or of a makeshift nature. air strut:
See modular air strut

air superiority fighter: Combat aircraft intended to remove hostile aircraft from a volume of airspace and so establish control of the air. air surveying:
See aerial surveying

air-suspended power booster: A type of power booster that contains atmospheric pressure in both chambers of the booster when the brake pedal is at res. When the pedal is applied, the front chamber is opened to manifold vacuum, causing the diaphragm of the booster to move toward the master cylinder which assist the driver in the application of the brakes. air suspension: A suspension system using air rather than metal springs to support the vehicle and control ride motions. Air springing results in a smoother ride, because the natural frequency of vibration of an air spring does not vary with loading as it does with metal springs. Air springs can be made very soft for the lightly loaded condition and the pressure automatically increased to match any increase in load, thus maintaining a constant sprint

vibration period any load. air suspension power booster: A type of power booster that contains atmospheric pressure in both chambers of the booster when the brake pedal is at rest. When the pedal is applied, the front chamber is opened to manifold vacuum causing the diaphragm of the booster to move toward the master cylinder which assists the driver in the application of the brakes. air-swept mill: in dry grinding of rock in a ball mill, use of a modulated current of air to remove sufficiently pulverized material from the charge in the mill. air switching:
See electric air switching valve

air switching valve: (ASV) a valve in an air injection system that senses intake manifold vacuum and during heavy loads, dumps part of the air pump output to the air cleaner to reduce air injections system pressure.
Also see electric air switching valve

AIR system:
See air injection reaction system

air system:
See pulse air system

air table:
See air-float table

air tank: An air container which holds the compressed air created by a compressor. air temperature:
See ambient air temperature

air-to-air intercooler: A heat exchanger used on a turbocharged engine, which uses liquid coolant from the rad to cool the air coming from the turbo into the intake manifold. air tool: A tool such as an impact driver or drill which is powered not by electricity, but by air pressure coming from an air compressor. air traffic control: (ATC) The organized control, by visual and radio means, of the traffic on air routes, and into and out of aerodromes. ATC is divided into the following categories: a. general area control, including defined airways. b. control zones of specified area and altitude around busy aerodromes. c. approach control for regulating aircraft landing and departing. d. aerodrome control for directing aircraft movement on the ground and giving permission for take-off. Air traffic control operates under two systems: a. visual flight rules. b. more severely, instrument flight rules. Since World War II great advances in radar technology have enabled airtraffic controllers to be given very complete "pictures" of the position of aircraft, not only in flight, but also when maneuvering on the ground. air-traffic control center: An organization providing air-traffic control in a control area; and flight information in a region. air-traffic controller: Someone who is licensed to give instructions to aircraft in a control zone. air transformer: A device which is placed between the compressor and a paint spray gun to provide clean spraying air and to regulate the oil pressure. Air Transport Association:

(ATA) A US organization noted particularly for its specification which sets a standard to which manufacturers of aircraft and associated equipment are required to produce technical manuals for the aircraft operator's use. The specification is accepted by International Air Transport Association as the basis for international standardization. air trap: A trap which, by a water-seal, prevents foul air from rising from a sink, wash basin, drain, or sewer. Also called drain trap, stench trap, and Ubend. air valve: A valve in a spray gun which controls the flow of air by the operation of the trigger.
Also see auxiliary air valve

air valve carburetor:
See air-valve carburetor

air-valve carburetor: A type in which a spring-closed or weight-closed air valve opens in response to engine demand. This valve, through suitable linkage, varies the fuel-orifice opening to secure the desired mixture ratio throughout the range of operation. SU and Stromberg CD carburetors operate on this principle, referred to also as constant-vacuum, constant-depression, or variable- venturi.
Also see constant-vacuum carburetor

air vent: Valve, either manual or automatic, used to remove air from the highest point of a coil or piping assembly. air volume: The amount of air. air volume spraying:

A method of spray application which involves higher volume and lower pressure of air than high-pressure air spraying. air wall: Wall of an ionization chamber designed to give same ionization intensity inside the chamber as in open space. This means the wall is made of elements with atomic numbers similar to those for air constituents. air washer: Device used to clean air while increasing or lowering its humidity. airway: [1] A specified three-dimensional corridor (the lower as well as the upper boundary being defined) between control zones which may be entered only by aircraft in radio contact with air-traffic control [2] Underground passage used mainly for ventilation. airworthy: [1] Fit for flight aircraft, aero-engine, instrument or equipment. [2] Complying with the regulations laid down for ensuring the fitness of an aircraft for flight. [3] Possessing a certificate of Airworthiness. Airy disk: Circular image of a point source of light formed by a lens. Named after Sir George Airy. Airy points: The optimum points for supporting a beam horizontally to minimize the bending deflection. The distance apart of the points is equal to l/(n²-1) where l is the length of the beam and n the number of supports. Airy's integral: The factor 1.22, by which the dimensions of the diffraction pattern produced by a slit must be multiplied to obtain the dimensions of the pattern due to a circular aperture.

Airy spirals: The spiral interference patterns produced when quartz, cut perpendicularly to the axis, is examined in convergent light circularly polarized. AIS: Acronym for " air injection system". AIV: Acronym for "atmospheric/automatic inlet valve," a system used on early motorcycle engines in which the intake valve is held shut by a weak spring and opens by atmospheric pressure when the falling piston creates a vacuum in the cylinder. Akermanite: The calcium-magnesium end-member, Ca2MgSi2O7, of the melilite group of minerals. Akulon: Trade Name for Dutch nylon-6 polymer used for moldings and fibers. Al: Abbreviation for "aluminum." alabaster: A massive form of gypsum, often pleasingly blotched and stained. CaSO4.2H2O. Because of its softness it is easily carved and polished, and is widely used for ornamental purposes. Oriental alabaster (also called Algerian onyx and onyx marble) is a beautifully banded form of stalagmitic calcite. Alain:
See Prost, Alain


Acronym for "As Low As Possible." ALARA: Acronym for "As Low As Reasonably Achievable." Used of radiation levels or decontamination. alarm: A warning sound made by a security or safety device to warn off thieves, alert the driver to take some preventative measures (e.g., secure the seat belts), or warn those around the vehicle (e.g., backup warning alarm).
Also see back-up alarm car alarm

alarm flag:
See flag indicator

alarm system: A theft protection system which may do one or more of the following: Sound the horn or an auxiliary siren, flash the lights, lock the hood and trunk, make the ignition inoperative, put the engine in a "limp home" mode (i.e., greatly reduce speed), notify the police, and alert the vehicle owner. alarmed: Protected by an alarm system. alaskite: Leucocratic variety of alkali feldspar granite. Albada viewfinder: Viewfinder with a lightly silvered plano-concave objective which reflects frame marks placed on the eyepiece and at the focus of the mirror. Also called bright-line viewfinder. albedo:

[1] A measure of the reflecting power of a non-luminous body, such as the surface of a planet, expressed as the ratio of energy reflected in all directions to total incident energy. [2] Ratio of the neutron flow density out of a medium free from sources, to the neutron flow density into it, i.e., reflection factor of a surface for neutrons. albert: A former standard size of note-paper, 192x102 mm (6 x 4 in). albertite: A pitch-black solid bitumen of the asphaltite group. albite: The end-member of the plagioclase group of minerals. Ideally a silicate of sodium and aluminum, but commonly contains small quantities of potassium and calcium in addition, and crystallizes in the triclinic system. albumen process: Process in which dichromated albumen (egg white) is used as a lightsensitive coating when preparing surface plates for lithography and line blocks for relief printing. ALCL: Acronym for " assembly line communications link". Alclad: Composite sheets consisting of an alloy of the Dural type (to give strength) coated with pure aluminum (to give corrosion resistance). alcohol: [1] A general term for compounds formed from hydroxyl groups attached to carbon atoms in place of hydrogen atoms; in particular, ethanol. [2] A substance used as fuel.
See methanol

[3] A beverage which impairs a driver's skill in operating a vehicle safely. Although the law has set down limits of the amount of alcohol allowable in the bloodstream before a person is considered drunk, the effects of the slightest amount of alcohol can impair one's driving skill.
Also see grain alcohol methyl alcohol wood alcohol

alcohol brine: Water and alcohol solution which remains a liquid below 32°F (0°C). alcohol content:
See blood alcohol content

alcohol fuel: Volatile liquid fuel consisting wholly or partly of alcohol, able to withstand high-compression ratios without detonation. alcohol level:
See blood alcohol level

Alcomax: UK equivalent of Alnico permanent magnet alloy. aldehyde resins: Highly polymerized resinous condensation products of aldehydes obtained by treatment of aldehydes with strong caustic soda. aldehydes: A group of compounds containing the CO-- radical attached to both a hydrogen atom and a hydrocarbon radical. ALDL: [1] Acronym for "assembly line diagnostic link" a diagnostic connector. [2] Acronym for " assembly line data link".

See deer alert voice alert system

alert system:
See voice alert system

alexandrite: A variety of chrysoberyl, the color varying, with the conditions of lighting, between emerald green and red. Alfa-Romeo: A vehicle brand of which all 1925-48 models are classic cars. The following models are milestone cars:
• •

All 1956-64 Giuletta Spider models All 1959-61 Giuletta/Giulia Sprint Speciale models All 1949 6C 2500 Super Sport models

. Click for books on Alfa

Alfa Romeo:
See Alfa-Romeo

Alfin: A trade name to describe the bonding of a steel piece with a light alloy that has fins. The fins help to dissipate the heat. For instance a steel brake drum produces a lot of heat in the braking process (and thus reduces the effective braking ability) so an alloy heat sink is bonded to the drum to bleed off the heat.
Also see Alfin process.

Alfin process: A procedure developed by the Fairchild Engine and Airplane Corporation to secure light alloy to steel. Alford antenna: Antenna comprising a vertical cylindrical tube with longitudinal slots, often used to transmit very high or ultrahigh frequency.

al fresco driving: Driving in a convertible with the top down. algae: Low form of plant life, found floating free in water. algal corrosion: Impairment of structure and systems by algae and other micro-organisms. Algerian onyx:
See alabaster

aliasing: [1] Error in making real-time spectra of short signals or of directivity in sound fields. Caused by insufficient number of data points. [2] Image imperfections resulting from limited detail in a raster display, e.g., resulting in diagonal lines appearing stepped. A-licence: Basic private pilot's licence in the UK. alien tones: Frequencies, harmonic and sum-and-difference products, introduced on sound reproduction because of non-linearity in some part of the transmission path. align: [1] Process of bringing two or more items into mating conjunction so that all the bolt holes and locating pins fit properly. [2] Process of adjusting the wheels and other devices so that they are in a straight line. align bore:

A machining operation which corrects an engine's out-of-round and/or warped main bearing housings. It may be done with either stationary or portable equipment.
Also see align hone

See wheel aligner

align hone: A machining operation which corrects an engine's out-of-round and warped main bearing housings with a special honing mandrel. It must be done with stationary equipment. aligning punch: A tool shaped like a thin rod used to make sure holes line up when assembling two or more components. Especially used on items which may move to one side before the other side can be aligned or another component installed or when the gasket is likely to slip out of place.

aligning set:
See clutch aligning set

aligning tool:
See clutch aligning tool

alignment: [1] When referring to wheel alignment, it is the proper adjustment of a vehicle's front or rear suspension for camber, toe-in, toe-out, kingpin inclination or steering axis inclination, and turning radius or toe-out on turns, caster, and ride height. Four-wheel alignment is necessary for frontwheel drive vehicles. [2] The adjustment of two objects to bring them into the proper relation to each other. [3] The setting in line (usually straight) of successive lengths of a railway which is to be constructed [4] The plan of a road or earthwork [5] The setting in a true line of a number of points, e.g., the centers of the bearings supporting an engine crankshaft

[6] Process of orientation of e.g., electric or magnetic dipoles when acted on by an external field. During magnetization, the alignment of domains is changed by the magnetizing field [7] Adjustment of preset tuned circuits to give optimum performance
Also see door alignment four-wheel alignment four wheel alignment front-end alignment front end alignment wheel alignment

alignment gap: The distance between two adjacent auto body panels. When an alignment gap varies too much, it is a sign of poor assembly quality. alignment gauge:
See wheel alignment gauge

alignment pin: A pin or stud used to align one part with another, such as the pins used to align a cylinder head on an engine block. alignment stud: A pin or stud used to align one part with another, such as the pins used to align a cylinder head on an engine block. align ream: Machining or hand process which enlarges the inside diameter of bushings to the correct size. aliquot: A small sample of material assayed to determine the properties of the whole, e.g., in process control, the representative fraction whose quantitative analysis gives information on the assay grade. Term often applied to radioactive material.
Also see aliquot part

aliquot part: In sampling for process control, a representative fraction whose quantitative analysis gives information on the assay grade. aliquot scaling: In a piano, the provision of extra wires above the normal wires. These are not struck, but are tuned very slightly above the octave of the struck strings below, so that by sympathetic vibration the musical quality of the note is enhanced. aliquot tuning:
See aliquot scaling

See keep alive memory

alive memory:
See keep alive memory

alkaline battery: A storage battery which uses an alkaline electrolyte (dilute potassium hydroxide). alkaline degreasing: A process of removing an oily or greasy substance with the use of an alkaline solution. Often used in preparing a surface for painting. all-alloy engine: An engine which uses a light alloy for the block, crankcase, sump, and cylinder head. all-aluminum body: A body shell which is mostly made of aluminum. Allan valve: Once popular slide-valve design with an internal passage designed to reduce valve travel and wear.

Allard: A vehicle brand of which the 1946-56 Series J2, K2, K3 models are milestone cars. all-burnt: The moment at which the fuel of a missile or spacecraft is completely consumed. all-electric signalling: A railway system in which the signals and points are controlled and operated electrically.
Also see electropneumatic signalling

all electronic ignition:
See breakerless

all-electronic ignition:
See breakerless

Allen key:
See Allen wrench

Allen screw: A fastening device (either a wood screw type or bolt threads) with a recessed hexagon hole in the head. Also called a hex hole screw.. Allen's loop test: A modification of the Varley loop test for localizing a fault in an electric cable; it is particularly suitable for high-resistance faults in short lengths of cable. all-enveloping body: A modern passenger car body style in which the fenders, headlamps, and radiator grille are one smooth body line. It contrasts with the style before World War II where the fenders and headlights were separate from the

main body. Allen wrench: An rod with six sides and often L-shaped. Used to remove certain screws and fastenings, especially set screws. Sometimes called "hex wrenches" or "Allen key." alligator: A colloquial term for a large piece of a tire on the road. alligator clip: A small spring clip which is "X-shaped." As you squeeze the two "legs" of the clip, the other two jaws (usually serrated) open. Used to make temporary electrical connections. Larger ones are used at the ends of jumper cables. The British call it a "crocodile clip." all-insulated switch:
See shockproof switch

allithium: Aluminum-lithium alloys. all-moving tail: A one-piece tailplane, also controlled by the pilot as is the elevator. Also called flying tail and "stabilator."
Also see T-tail

allobar: A mixture of isotopes of an element differing in proportion from that naturally occurring. allochromatic: Having photoelectric properties which arise from micro-impurities, or from previous specific irradiation.

allochromy: Fluorescent reradiation of light of different wavelength from that incident on a surface.
Also see Stokes' law

alloter: A uniselector used to improve the efficiency of distribution of line-finders, by automatically pre-selecting and pre-connecting the first available linefinder in the group to which it has access. all-out braking: A situation where the driver uses the maximum braking effort possible. Although this seems to be the best way to stop a vehicle, in fact it may not because there may be the tendency to swerve or the brakes may overheat and lose effectiveness. It is better to pump the brakes (if ABS is not available) to control steering and get maximum braking. allowable deficiencies: Aircraft systems or certain items of their equipment, tabulated in the flight or operating manual, which even if unserviceable will not prevent an aircraft from being flown or create a hazard in flight. allowance:
See mileage allowance

allowances: Fuel reserves, usually specified as time factors under certain conditions, as distance plus descent, or as a percentage (by weight or volume) of the cruising fuel for a given stage. allowed band: Range of energy levels permitted to electrons in a molecule or crystal. These may or may not be occupied. allowed transition: Electric transition between energy levels which is not prohibited by any quantum selection rule.

alloy: A mixture of two or more elements, especially where one is aluminum.
Also see aluminum alloy antimony alloys eutectic alloy minilite alloy wheel polymer alloy zinc alloy

alloy cast-iron: Cast-iron containing alloying elements in addition to carbon and the normal low levels of manganese and silicon, usually some combination of nickel, chromium, copper, and molybdenum. These elements may be added to increase the strength of ordinary irons, to facilitate heat treatment, or to obtain martensitic, austenitic, or ferritic irons. alloy engine:
See all-alloy engine

alloying: [1] The process of making an alloy [2] The addition of one or more elements to a pure metal to alter the pure metal's properties such as strength, elongation, weight reduction, etc. alloy junction: A junction formed by alloying one or more impurity metals with a semiconductor. Small buttons of impurity metal are placed at desired locations on a semiconductor wafer; heating to melting point and rapidly cooling again produces regions of p-type conduction or n-type conduction, according to choice of impurity. Also called fused junction. alloy layer:
See zinc-iron alloy layer

alloy piston:

A piston made primarily of aluminum. alloy reaction limit: Concentration in alloy of a specific component, below which corrosion occurs in a given environment. alloys: Colloquial term for alloy wheels. alloy steel: [1] A steel to which elements not present in carbon steel have been added, or in which the content of manganese or silicon is increased above that in carbon steel. [2] Molybdenum alloy steel of 150M psi and above after heat treating. Used for clevis pins and (4037, 4137) some screws. Aircraft quality alloy steel (4130,4340,8740) is used extensively in the Aerospace Industry for bolts, screws and clevis pins. Tensile strength minimum of 120M psi.
Also see high-speed steel nickel steel stainless steel

alloy wheel: A generic term used to describe any non-steel road wheel. The usual alloys are either aluminum or magnesium; the latter material led to the common usage of the term " mag wheel," often referring to any non-steel wheel.
Also see minilite alloy wheel three-piece alloy wheel two-piece alloy wheel two-piece forged alloy wheel

all-pass network: A network which introduces a specified phase-shift response without appreciable attenuation for any frequency. all-steel body: A vehicle body shell which is made entirely of steel rather than one with a wooden frame with steel panels or steel frame with aluminum panels.

Allström relay:
See relay

all terrain: For use on any kind of ground surface (not on lakes or ocean, though). all terrain bike: (ATB) A bicycle with straight handlebars, sturdy fat tires, and widerange gearing designed for off-road use. Also called mountain bike.

all-terrain bike: (ATB) A bicycle with straight handlebars, sturdy fat tires, and wide-range gearing designed for off-road use. Also called mountain bike. all terrain tire: A tire which has a number of lugs or knobs used to propel the vehicle over rough surfaces. all terrain vehicle: A vehicle used in rough surface conditions. Also called off-road vehicle.. allure libre: A self-paced long-distance bicycle ride as promoted by the Audax Club Parisien, the Randonneurs Mondiaux, and the Randonneurs USA. You can ride at your own pace so long as you finish within the time limit. This is not a race where riders are recognized for finishing ahead of other riders. The important thing is to finish the ride. all-weather tire: A tire that can be used on roads that are bare or covered with rain, snow, or ice.

all wheel drive:
See all-wheel drive

all-wheel drive: (AWD) A variation of four-wheel drive (4WD) designed to improve onroad traction in unfavorable road conditions or for ultra high performance driving. All-Wheel Drive (AWD) reduces wheel slippage and provides greater driver control over the vehicle. AWD usually does not require the driver to actively engage the system and does not have a low range. AWD automatically splits engine torque between the front and rear wheels as needed. All-Wheel Drive is generally an on-road system and is not designed for off-road use. all-wheel steering:
See four-wheel steering

Alnico: US trade mark for a high-energy permanent magnet material, an alloy of aluminum, nickel, cobalt, iron, and copper. Alnico magnet: A magnet using (Al) aluminum, (Ni) nickel, and (Co) cobalt in its construction. Aloxite: Trade name designating a proprietary fused alumina and associated abrasive products. alpaca: The fine, strong hair of the alpaca of South America, the fabric made from such hair. This animal belongs to the camel family and is a close relative of the llama and the vicuña. Alpert Gauge:
See Bayard and Alpert Gauge

alpha-beta brass: Copper-zinc alloy containing38-46% (usually 40%) zinc. It consists of a mixture of the α-constituent (see alpha brass) and the β-constituent (see beta brass). alpha brass: A copper-zinc alloy containing up to 38% zinc. Consists constitutionally of a solid solution of zinc in copper. Commercial alpha brasses of several compositions are made. All are used mainly for cold-working.
Also see copper alloys

alpha bronze: A copper-tin alloy consisting of the alpha solid solution of tin in copper. Commercial forms contain 4 or 5% of tin. This alloy, which differs from gun metal and phosphor bronze in that it can be worked, is used for example for coinage, springs, and turbine blades.
Also see copper alloys

alpha chamber: Ionization chamber for measurements of alpha radiation intensity. Also called alpha counter tube.. alpha counter: Tube for counting alpha particles, with pulse selector to reject those arising from beta and gamma rays. alpha counter tube:
See alpha chamber

alpha cut-off: Frequency at which the current amplification of a transistor has fallen by more than 3 dB (0.7) of its low-frequency value. alpha decay: Radioactive disintegration resulting in emission of alpha particle. Also called alpha disintegration..

alpha decay energy: The sum of the kinetic energies of the alpha particle emitted and the recoil of the product atom in a radioactive decay. Also called disintegration energy.. alpha disintegration:
See alpha decay

alpha emitter: Natural or artificial radioactive isotope which disintegrates through emission of alpha rays. alpha iron: One of the polymorphic forms of iron, stable below 1179K. Has a bodycentered cubic lattice, and is magnetic up to 1041K. alpha particle: Nucleus of helium atom of mass number four, consisting of two neutrons and two protons and so doubly positively charged. Emitted from natural or radioactive isotopes. Often written α-particle. alpha pulp: Wood pulp processed so that only a very small percentage of hemicellulose remains. Also called dissolving pulp.. alpha radiation: Alpha particles emitted from radioactive isotopes. alpha ray: Stream of alpha particles. alpha-ray spectrometer: Instrument for measuring the energy distribution of α-particles emitted by a radioactive source.

alpine gearing: A gearing system in which a shift between chainwheels on a bicycle is equivalent to one-and-a-half shifts on the freewheel. alteration:
See load alteration effect

alteration effect:
See load alteration effect

alternate airfield: An airfield designated in a flight plan at which a pilot will land if prevented from landing at the intended destination. alternating current: (AC) An electric current that first flows one way in the circuit and then the other. This is the type used in homes. It contrasts with direct current. alternating-gradient focusing: The net focusing effect achieved using a series of alternate converging and diverging lenses because, under suitable conditions, the rays will strike the diverging lenses nearer to the axis. Using magnetic or electrostatic lenses, the idea has been used for the design of electron synchrotrons and ion linear accelerators. alternating gradient synchrotron: A synchrotron modified by having magnetic-field gradiens around the orbit alternating toward and away from the center of the orbit. This produces a focusing effect which reduces beam divergence caused by the mutual repulsion of the particles in the beam. Proton energies of up to 500 GeV and electron energies of about 10 GeV can be achieved. alternating light: A navigation mark identified during darkness by a light showing alternating colors.
Also see

flashing light occulting light

alternating stress: The stress induced in a material by a force which acts alternately in opposite directions. alternative routing: The manual or automatic diversion, to a prearranged secondary route, of traffic which originates at an instant when the primary route is not available. alternator: (ALT) A device which produces alternating current (AC) by converting the engine's turning (mechanical) energy into alternating electrical current at all engine speeds. The AC must be rectified (converted from AC to DC) before reaching the vehicle's electrical system. The alternator is driven by a belt at the front of the engine. Alternators replaced the direct-current (DC) generators used up to the 1960's because they were less efficient especially at idle. The electrically demanding options like air conditioning forced the use of alternators over generators. Altima: A model of automobile manufactured by Nissan in Japan

. Click for books on Altima

altimeter: [1] An instrument to reveal the height (or barometric pressure) above sea level. [2] An aneroid barometer used for measuring altitude by the decrease in atmospheric pressure with height. The dial of the instrument is graduated to read the altitude directly in feet or meters, the zero being set to ground or aerodrome level.
Also see encoding altimeter radio altimeter recording altimeter

altitude: [1] The height in feet or meters above sea level. For precision in determining the performance of an aircraft, this must be corrected for the deviation of the meteorological conditions from that of the International Standard Atmosphere. [2] The angular distance of a heavenly body measured on that great circle which passes, perpendicular to the plane of the horizon, through the body and through the zenith. It is measured positively from the horizon to the zenith, from 0° to 90°. [3] The line through the vertex of a geometrical figure or solid perpendicular to its base. [4] The length of the line of definition #3.
Also see cabin altitude pressure altitude

altitude compensation system: A barometric switch and solenoid used to provide better drivability over 4000 feet (1200 meters) above sea level. altitude compensator:
See aneroid altitude compensator

altitude level: Sensitive spirit level which ensures that theodolite is truly horizontal with respect to the telescope when vertical angles are measured. altitude switch:

A switching device generally comprising electrical contacts, actuated by an aneroid capsule which in turn is deflected by change in atmospheric pressure. The contacts are adjusted to make or break a warning circuit at the pressure corresponding to a predetermined altitude. altitude valve: A manually or automatically operated valve fitted to the carburetor of an aero-engine for correcting the mixture strength as air density falls with altitude. alum.: Abbreviation for " aluminum." Alumel: Trade name for an alloy of nickel with up to 5% aluminum, manganese, and silicon, used with chromel in thermocouples. alumina: A form of aluminum oxide, Al2O3 used as a substrate for ceramic catalysts and as an abrasive.
Also see activated alumina corundum

alumina beads: Tiny beads of alumina used in some catalytic converters. alumina trihydrate: Al2O33H 2O. Used as a fire-retarding additive in plastics. aluminium: British spelling for aluminum. aluminous cement:
See high-alumina cement

aluminum: (Al or Alum) A silver-white metal which is used in cars because of its lightness. In pure form, it does not have the strength of the same size of iron. Thus vehicle manufacturers use aluminum in an alloy form to produce body panels, wheels, engine blocks, transmission housings, differential housings, and even frames. British spelling adds an "i" near the end of the word: "aluminium" and pronounces it al-you-MIN-ee-um instead of ah-LOO-min-um.
Also see cast aluminum

aluminum alloy: A metal which is formed from aluminum and another metal. aluminum anode cell: A cell with an aluminum anode immersed in an electrolyte which does not attack aluminum. The cathode may also be of aluminum or some other metal, e.g., lead. Such cells can be used as rectifiers or as high-capacitance capacitors.
Also see electrolytic capacitor

aluminum antimonide: A semiconducting material used for transistors up to a temperature of 500°C. aluminum body:
See all-aluminum body

aluminum-brass: Brass to which aluminum has been added to increase its resistance to corrosion. Used for condenser tubes. Contains 1-6% Al, 24-43% Zn, 5571% Cu.
Also see copper alloys

aluminum bronze: Copper-aluminum alloys which contain 4-11% aluminum, and may also contain up to 5% each of iron and nickel. These alloys have high tensile

strength, are capable of being cast or cold worked, and are resistant to corrosion.
Also see copper alloys

aluminum-steel cable:
See steel-cored aluminum

aluminum oxide: A metallic abrasive used to manufacture sandpaper and sanding discs. aluminum wheel:
See alloy wheel

aluminized: Something that is coated with aluminum or aluminum paint. aluminizing:
See hot-dip aluminizing

Alvis: A vehicle brand of which the Speed 20, 25, and 4.3 litre models for 192548 are classic cars.

AM: Acronym for amplitude modulation. amagat: The unit of density of a gas at 0°C and one atmosphere pressure; usually 1 amagat-1 mole per 22.4 dm³. amalgam retort: Iron vessel in which the mercury is distilled off from gold or silver amalgam obtained in amalgamation.

Also see amalgamation pan

ambient: Surrounding on all sides. ambient air: Air outside and surrounding the vehicle. ambient air temperature: The temperature of the surrounding air. ambient illumination: Background uncontrollable light level at a location. ambient noise: [1] Random uncontrolled and irreducible noise at a location, or in a valve or circuit. [2] The noise existing in a room or any other environment, e.g., the ocean. ambient sensor: A device which samples and detects changes in the temperature of the ambient air. ambient switch: An outside air temperature sensing switch which prevents operation of the compressor and the recirculating air mode below an outside temperature of 40°F. ambient temperature: The surrounding air temperature. The temperature of fluid (usually air) which surrounds object on all sides. ambient temperature switch: A control device in an air conditioning system which delays the compressor action when the outside temperature is low.

ambiophony: Technique of sound reproduction which creates an illusion to the listener of being in a very large room. ambipolar: Said of any condition or property which applies equally to positive and negative charge carriers (e.g., positive or negative ions, holes, electrons) in a plasma or semiconductor. ambulance: A vehicle designed for carrying sick or injured people.

AMC: Acronym for "American Motors Corp" an organization which merged with Chrysler Corporation.
. Click for books on AMC

AMCS: Acronym for airborne missile control system. American Automobile Labelling Act: (AALA) regulations requiring vehicle manufacturers to include content information on vehicle labels for cars and trucks for sale in the U.S. after October 1, 1994. American Free Trade:
See North American Free Trade Agreement

American Free Trade Agreement:

See North American Free Trade Agreement

American Industrial Classification:
See North American Industrial Classification System

American Industrial Classification System:
See North American Industrial Classification System

American Motors: A vehicle brand of which the 1968-70 AMX models are milestone cars. American produced:
See North American produced

American Society for Testing Materials: (ASTM) Society for developing and publishing agreed standards. American standard pipe thread: Type of screw thread commonly used on pipe and fittings to assure a tight seal. American Standard Wire Gauge:
See Brown and Sharpe Wire Gauge

American water turbine:
See mixed-flow water turbine

AM/FM: A radio capable of receiving amplitude modulation (AM) and frequency modulation (FM) signals. AMIA: Acronym for " Asocicion Mexicana de la Industria Automotriz". amidship:

The middle portion of a ship or car. Amilcar: A vehicle brand of which the 1925-1948 Supercharged Sports models with required application are classic cars. aminoaldehydic resins:
See urea resins

aminoplastic resin: One derived from the reaction of urea, thiourea, melamine, or allied compounds (e.g., cyanamide polymers and diaminotriazines) with aldehydes, particularly formaldehyde (methanal). ammeter: An electric instrument used to measure the rate of electrical current flow in amperes. ammonia: Chemical combination of nitrogen and hydrogen (NH3). Ammonia refrigerant is identified as R-117. ammonia clock: An accurate clock controlled by the periodic inversion of the ammonia molecule with a frequency of 2.3786 x 1010Hz.
Also see atomic clock

amorphous: Term describing a material without the periodic, ordered structure of crystalline solids. amorphous head: A head composed of laminated amorphous alloy layers which improves signal-to-noise ratio and reduces friction by comparison with ferrite-type heads.

amorphous metal: A material with good conductivity, electrical and thermal, and with other metallic properties but with atomic arrangements that are not periodically ordered as in crystalline metal solids.
Also see metallic glass

amorphous semiconductor: Semiconductor prepared in the amorphous state. It tends to have a much lower electrical conductivity than its crystalline counterparts, and is typically made from hydrogenated amorphous silicon or chalcogenide glass. amp: Uncommon abbreviation for " ampere." It is preferred to use A. amperage: The strength of an electric current in amperes. Electron or current flow of one coulomb per second past a given point in circuit. amperage rating: The strength of an electric current in amperes. ampere: [1] (A) A unit of measurement used in expressing the rate of electrical current flow in a circuit. It is determined by dividing the voltage by the resistance. [2] A unit of electric current equivalent to flow of one coulomb per second [3] That current which, if maintained in two parallel conductors of infinite length, of negligible cross-section, and placed one meter apart in vacuum, would produce between the conductors a force equal to 2x10-7Nm-1.
Also see absolute ampere


[1] Measurement of the ability of a battery to deliver a stated amount of current for a stated period of time. The higher the amp/hr. rating, the more powerful the battery. [2] Unit of charge equal to 3600 coulombs or 1 ampere flowing for one hour. ampere hour capacity: A measurement of storage battery ability to deliver a specified current over a specified length of time. ampere-hour efficiency: In an accumulator, the ratio of the ampere-hour output during discharge to the ampere-hour input during charge. ampere-hour meter: (ahm) A meter designed to record the product of current and time (ampere-hours) for a given circuit or passing at a given point. If the voltage is constant, the meter can be calibrated as an energy (kilowatthour) meter. Ampère's law: The relation between the magnetizing field H around a conductor, length l, carrying a current i, given by the formula:

See back ampere-turns

Ampère's rule: Rule giving the direction of the magnetic field associated with a current. If the conductor is grasped with the right hand, the thumb pointing in the direction of the current, the fingers will curl around the conductor in the direction

of the field. Also called righthand rule.

Ampère's theory of magnetization: A theory based on the assumption that the magnetic property of a magnet is due to currents circulating in the molecules of the magnet. ampere-turn: (At) SI unit of magneto-motive force, which drives flux through magnetic circuits, arising from one ampere flowing around one turn of a conductor. ampere-turn amplification, gain: Ratio of the load ampere-turns to the control ampere-turns in a magnetic amplifier.. ampere turns: Term used to measure magnetic force. Represents product of amperes times number of turns in coil of electromagnet. ampere-turns per meter: SI unit of magnetizing force, magnetic field intensity. amphibian: Aircraft capable of taking off and landing on land or water, e.g., seaplane or flying boat with retractable landing gear, or land plane with hydroskis. amphoric: Like the sound made by blowing across a narrow-necked vase. amp/hr. rating: Measurement of the ability of a battery to deliver a stated amount of current for a stated period of time. The higher the amp/hr. rating, the more powerful the battery.

amplidyne: A rotating magnetic amplifier, widely used as a power amplification device, in which a small increase in power input to the field coils produces a large boost in power output. amplified spontaneous emission: Unwanted noise in an erbium-doped fiber amplifier arising from amplification of spontaneous as opposed to stimulated emission. Its optical power in bandwidth B centered on frequency v is (G-1)μhvB for each polarization state of the fiber, where G is the power gain and μ the inversion factor of the amplifier (unity when ideal). amplifier: A device used to increase the electron flow in an electric or vacuum circuit. It produce a greater electrical signal such as the radio signal. Most automobile radios have a built-in amplifier; but a few have a separate amplifier which is sometimes located in the trunk.
Also see acoustic amplifier audio-frequency amplifier balanced amplifier booster amplifier ignition amplifier

amplitude: [1] A confusing term occasionally used for the argument of a complex number. It would more naturally be taken to mean the modulus, and is best avoided. [2] The maximum value of a periodically varying quantity during a cycle, e.g., the maximum displacement of a vibrating particle from its midposition, the maximum value of an alternating current or the maximum displacement of a sine wave. amplitude discriminator:
See pulse-height discriminator

amplitude distortion: Distortion of waveform arising from the non-linear static or dynamic response of a part of a communication system, the output amplitude of the signal at any instant not having a constant proportionality with the

corresponding input signal. amplitude limiter: One which separates synchronizing signals in a TV signal from the video (picture) signal. Also called limiter. amplitude modulation: (AM) A type of radio wave in which the amplitude changes rather than the frequency.
Also see frequency modulation

amplitude peak: Maximum positive or negative excursion from zero of any periodic disturbance. amplitude shift keying: A form of amplitude modulation in which the amplitude of the carrier assumes only certain discrete values, allowing transmission of digitally coded information. AMPS: Abbreviation for advanced mobile phone system. amps:
See cold cranking amps

amputee spinner: A device which is attached to a steering wheel to allow disabled people to steer a vehicle.


Acronym for " air management system". AMSL: Abbreviation for above mean sea level. AMVIR: Acronym for " Association of Motor Vehicle Importers Representatives" (Greece). anaerobic sealer: A substance used to prevent bolts and screws from loosening up and backing out. Anaerobic sealers do not require oxygen for activation. The Loctite® brand is the most widely used anaerobic sealer. anaglyph: Pair of stereoscopic images reproduced in two colors, generally red and blue-green, for viewing with corresponding color filters, one for each eye, to give a three-dimensional sensation. anallatic lens: Special lens which, when correctly placed between the object glass and the eyepiece lens of a tacheometric telescope, optically reduces the additive constant for the tacheometer to zero. anallatic telescope: Telescope which, when used in tacheometry, has a zero additive constant. anallatism:
See center of anallatism

analog: A display which uses a dial rather than a read-out of numbers (digital). British spelling is analogue. analog clock:

The traditional clock with rotating hands. Contrast with digital clock. analog cluster: An instrument panel display using dials. Opposite to electronic cluster. analog filter: Filter suitable for use with analog signals, i.e., those which are continuous with time. Contrast with digital filter. analog speedometer: A speedometer which shows the speed by a needle on the dial of a gauge. It contrasts with a digital speedometer

analogue: British spelling of analog. analogue cluster:
See analog cluster

analogy: Correspondence of pattern or form between mechanical and electrical quantities, or vice versa; e.g., a network of resistance, capacitance and inductance can be made to represent a complex mechanical system, or a stretched rubber membrane for the potential distributions between electrodes in electronic tubes. analysis:
See Fe analysis finite-element analysis

analysis meter:

A registering meter used to determine the loading of groups of circuits with calls, particularly for determining the correctness or otherwise of grading. analyzer: A device for evaluating something.
Also see engine analyzer exhaust-gas analyzer exhaust gas analyzer Ndir analyzer non-dispersive infrared analyzer

anamorphic: A widescreen image that has been laterally compressed or squeezed, either optically by an anamorphic lens or electronically. anamorphic lens: Lens with cylindrical elements giving different magnification in horizontal and vertical directions. In wide-screen cinematography the image is compressed laterally in the camera and expanded to compensate in projection. The equivalent term anamorphotic is rare. anastigmat lens: A photographic objective designed to be free from astigmatism or at least one extra-axial zone of the image plane. anatomic saddle: A bicycle seat that is designed with cut out sections or bumps to accommodate your ischial tuberosities (i.e., sit-down bones).

ANC: Acronym for "at no extra cost". anchor:

[1] A mounting point on the vehicle frame or unibody for a non-structural but stressed component, such as a seat or seat belt. [2] The stationary portion of a leading/trailing drum brake on which the heels of the brake shoes ride.
Also see belt anchor belt anchor brake anchor

anchorage: The point where something is attached -- such as where the seat-belt is attached to the frame.
Also see belt anchorage seat belt anchorage

anchor bolt: [1] A bolt used to secure frameworks, stanchion bases, etc. to piers or foundations, and having usually a large plate washer built into the latter as anchorage [2] The bolt which goes through a bracket to secure something. British term is "through bolt." anchor clamp: A fitting attached to the overhead contact wire of a tramway or railway to support the wire, and also to take the longitudinal tension and prevent movement of the wire in a direction parallel to the track. anchor gate: A heavy gate, such as a canal lock gate, which is supported at its upper bearing by an anchorage in the masonry such as an anchor bolt. anchor end: The end of a brake shoe that's attached to or positioned against a fixed point on the backing plate. anchor pin: The stationary portion of a duo-servo drum brake on which the tops of the brake shoes rest. The secondary shoe bears against the anchor pin when

the brakes are applied and the vehicle is moving forward. Conversely, when the vehicle is backing up and the brakes are applied, the primary shoe bears against it. anchor plate: The stationary portion of a leading/trailing drum brake on which the heels of the brake shoes ride.
Also see caliper mounting bracket

anchor ring:
See toroid torus

ancien: A male veteran bicycle rider who has completed a 1200 kilometer randonnée. ancienne: A female veteran bicycle rider who has completed a 1200 kilometer randonnée. ancillaries: The various components attached to the main part of the engine and driven by the engine itself -- such as the alternator, generator, power steering pump, supercharger, fuel pump, and water pump. anechoic room: A room in which internal sound reflections are reduced to an ineffective value by extremely high sound absorption, e.g., by using glass-fiber wedges. Also called dead room. anelasticity: [1] Any recoverable deformation which deviates from linear elastic behavior. [2] Any structural inhomogeneity or discontinuity which would dampen or attenuate an elastic wave propagating in a body.

anelectric: Term once used for a body which does not become electrified by friction. anemometer: Instrument for measuring the rate of airflow or motion. aneroid altitude compensator: A bellows device, installed integrally with the APT system on some post1975 Rochester Quadrajet carburetors, that automatically compensates for changes in altitude by raising or lowering the primary metering rods, thus richening or leaning out the air/fuel mixture in accordance with changes in air pressure. aneroid-type thermostat: An older style thermostat located in the engine coolant system. It has a metal expandable bulb partially filled with acetone, alcohol, or another volatile liquid. As the coolant reaches operating temperature, the liquid in the bulb will boil and expand the bulb, closing the valve to allow coolant to the radiator. ANFAC: Acronym for " Asociacion Espanola de Fabricantes de Automoviles y Camiones" (Spain). ANFAVEA: Acronym for " Associação Nacional de Veículos Automotores" (Brazil). ANFIA: Acronym for " Associazione Nazionale Fra Industrie Automobilistiche" (Italy). angels: Radar echoes from an invisible and sometimes undefined origin. Highflying birds, insect swarms, and certain atmospheric conditions can be responsible.

See cam angle included shallow angle ackermann caster angle angle slip angle angle departure lock angle spark angle approach angle angle offset angle spark ignition attack angle dwell opening angle angle azimuth angle dwell angle rake steep angle blade angle front triangle ramp-over steering angle bragg angle heading angle angle steering knuckle bunching angle ignition angle rear triangle angle brewster angle roll angle swivel angle thread angle tire deviation angle tire slip angle toe-in angle triangle-split system valve angle yaw angle

angle bar:
See angle iron

angle bars: On rotary presses, bars at an angle to transfer one or more webs of paper over each other, or the web to the other side of the press, or at right angles to its previous direction. Also called turner bars. angle bead: A small rounded molding placed at an angle formed by plastered surfaces to protect from damage. angle bearing: A shaft-bearing in which the joint between base and cap is not perpendicular to the direction of the load, but is set at an angle. angle block: A cylinder block that doesn't have a deck at 90 degrees to the cylinders A small wooden block used in woodwork to make joints, esp. right-angle joints, more rigid. angle bracket: [1] A bracket projecting from the corner of a building beneath the eaves, and not at right-angles to the face of the wall. [2] A bracket consisting of two sides set at right angles, often stiffened by a gusset. Also called gallows bracket.

angle cutter: A machine to which the cross cut knife is not at a right angle to the edge of the reel, for cutting sheets of paper from the reel. angled deck: British term for canted deck. angledozer: A bulldozer with a blade able to be set in such a way to push material to the side of the road. Usually called a grader or motor grader. angle elevation: The vertical angle measured above the horizontal, from the surveyor's instrument to the point observed. angle grinder: A power tool (driven by electricity or compressed air) which has abrasive discs. The tool helps to remove old paint or rough metal surface angle iron: Mild steel bar rolled to an L-shaped cross-section, used in structural work. Legs may be equal or unequal and leg lengths up to 800 mm are available. Also called angle, angle bar, angle steel, and L-iron. angle modulation: Any system in which the transmitted signal varies the phase-angle of an otherwise steady carrier frequency, i.e., phase and frequency modulation.

angle-nose pliers: A pair of pliers with long jaws that are bent at right angles to aid in gripping something which cannot be reached with regular pliers.

angle of advance: [1] The angle in excess of 90° by which the eccentric throw of a steamengine valve gear is in advance of the crank. [2] The angle between the position of ignition and outer dead center in a spark-ignition engine, optimizes combustion of the fuel. angle of approach light: A light indicating an approach path in a vertical plane to a definite position in the landing area. angle of arrival: Angle of elevation of a descending wave. angle of attack: The angle between the chord line of an airfoil and the relative airflow, normally the immediate flight path of the aircraft. Also called (in error) angle of incidence. angle-of-attack indicator: An instrument which senses the true angle of incidence to the relative airflow, and presents it to the pilot on a graduated dial or by means of an indicating light. angle of bank:

See angle of roll

angle of bite: Maximum angle obtainable between the roll radius where it first contacts the metal and the line joining the centers of the two opposing rolls, when rolling metal. Also called angle of nip PICTURE. angle of contact: [1] The angle subtended at the center of a pulley by that part of the rim in contact with the driving belt. [2] The angle made by the surface separating two fluids (one of them generally air) with the wall of the containing vessel, or with any other solid surface cutting the fluid surface. For liquid-air surfaces, the angle of contact is measured in the liquid. angle of cut-off: The largest angle below the horizontal at which a reflector allows the light- source to be visible when viewed from a point outside the reflector. angle of deflection: The angle of the electron beam in a cathode-ray tube relative to the axis. angle of departure: Angle of elevation of maximum emission of electromagnetic energy from an antenna. angle of depression: The vertical angle measured below the horizontal, from the surveyor's instrument to the point observed. Also called plunge angle. angle of flow: Angle, or fraction of alternating cycle, during which current flows, e.g., in a thyristor. Also called conduction angle. angle of friction: The angle between the normal to the contact surfaces of two bodies, and the direction of the resultant reaction between them, when a force is just

tending to cause relative sliding. angle of heel: The angle through which a floating vessel (boat or ship) or pontoon tilts owing to eccentric placing of loads, etc.; the angle of inclination of a ship due to "rolling" or to a "list." It is the angle formed between the transverse center line of the ship when on "even keel" and when inclined. angle of incidence: Angular setting of any airfoil to a reference axis.
Also see angle of attack

PICTURE @ PROPELLER. angle of lag: In ac circuit theory the phase angle by which the current lags behind the voltage.
Also see phase angle

angle of lead: In ac circuit theory the phase angle by which the current leads ahead of the voltage.
Also see phase angle

angle of lock: The angle between the line through the center of the wheel seen from above when turning a corner and the same line when going straight. angle of minimum deviation: The minimum value of the angle of deviation for a ray of light passing through a prism. By measuring this angle (θ) and also the angle of the prism (α), the refractive index of the prism may be calculated by means of the formula: PICTURE.

angle of nip: The maximum included angle between two approaching faces in a crushing appliance such as a set of rolls, at which a piece of rock can be seized and entrained. angle of obliquity: The deviation of the direction of the force between two gear teeth in contact, from that of their common tangent. angle of pressure: The angle between a gear tooth profile and a radial line at its pitch point PICTURE @ gear wheel. angle of reflection: The angle which a ray, reflected from a surface, makes with the normal to the surface. The angle of reflection is equal to the angle of incidence. angle of refraction: The angle which is made by a ray refracted at a surface separating two media with the normal to the surface.
Also see refractive index Snell's law

angle of repose: The greatest angle to the horizontal which the inclined surface of a heap of loose material (e.g., a powder, earth, or gravel, or an embankment) can assume and remain stationary. angle of roll: The angle through which an aircraft must be turned about its longitudinal axis to bring the lateral axis horizontal. Also called horizontal angle of bank. angle of slide: Slope at which heaped rock commences to break away.

angle of stall: The angle of attack which corresponds with the maximum lift coefficient. angle of twist: The angle through which one section of a shaft is twisted relative to another section when a torque is applied. angle of view: The angle subtended at the center of the lens by the limits of the image recorded; in still photography this is taken as the diagonal of the negative area; but in motion picture and TV work, it is the width of the frame. angle parking: A system of parking on the side of the street where the car is about 45 degrees from parallel with the edge of the street. The British term is "echelon parking"

angle plate: Cast-iron plate with the faces machined truly square and having slots on each face for clamping bolts. Used to hold work when marking off on a surface plate or when machining on a lathe face plate or machine tool table. angle ply laminate: Laminated material of wood or fiber-reinforced composites in which the angles between the orientation directions of the laminae are not 90°; commonly used angles are 30°, 45°, and 60°. angle screwdriver: A tool that is shaped like the letter "L" and has a blade at either end. angle steel:

See angle iron

angle stone:
See quoin

angle valve: Type of globe valve design, having pipe openings at right angles to each other. Usually, one opening is on. angora: The hair of the angora rabbit or the soft yarn and fabric made from it. ångström: Unit of wavelength for electromagnetic radiation covering visible light and X-rays. Equal to 10-10m. The unit is also used for interatomic spacings. Symbol Å Superseded by nanometer (=10-9m) but still used widely in crystallography. Named after the Swedish physicist A. J. Ångström (181474). angular acceleration: The rate of change of angular velocity; usually expressed in rad s-2. angular contact bearing: A ball bearing for radial and thrust loads in which a high shoulder on one side of the outer race takes the thrust. angular displacement: The angle turned through by a body about a given axis, or the angle turned through by a line joining a moving point to a given fixed point. angular distribution: The distribution relative to the incident beam of scattered particles or the products of nuclear reactions. angular frequency:

Frequency of a steady recurring phenomenon, expressed in rad s-1, i.e., frequency in hertz multiplied by 2π. Symbol ω or p. Also called pulsatance, radian frequency. angular magnification: The ratio of the angle subtended at the eye by an image formed by an optical instrument to the angle subtended by the object at the unaided eye. angular momentum: The moment of the linear momentum of a particle about an axis. Any rotating body has an angular momentum about its center of mass, its spin angular momentum. The angular momentum of the center of mass of a body relative to an external axis is its orbital angular momentum. In atomic physics, the orbital angular momentum of an electron is quantized and can only have values which are exact multiples of Dirac's constant. In particle physics, the angular momentum of particles which appear to have spin energy is quantized to values that are multiples of half of Dirac's constant.
Also see momentum

angular motion:
See rotation

angular thread:
See vee thread

angular velocity: The rate of change of angular displacement, usually expressed in rad s- 1. angular vibration: Side to side movement or shimmy of a tire.
Also see dynamic balance

anharmonic: Said of any oscillation system in which the restoring force is non-linear with displacement, so that the motion is not simple harmonic.

See dihedral angle

anhydrous calcium sulphate: Dry chemical made of calcium, sulphur, and oxygen (CaSO4) aniline foils: Blocking foils which contain dyestuff; used chiefly for leather. anion: Negative ion, i.e., atom or molecule which has gained one or more electrons in an electrolyte, and is therefore attracted to an anode, the positive electrode. Anions include all non- metallic ions, acid radicals and the hydroxyl ion. In a primary cell, the deposition of anions on an electrode makes it the negative pole. Anions also exist in gaseous discharge. Compare cation. anisodesmic structure: A structure giving a crystal marked difference between its bond strengths in the intersecting axial planes. anisotropic: Term describing any material whose physical properties depend upon direction relative to some defined axes (e.g., crystalline axes, fiber orientation, draw direction) in the material. These properties normally include elasticity, thermal and electrical conductivity, permittivity, permeability, refractive index, strength etc. Also said of such processes as etching when certain directions are preferred. anisotropic conductivity: Property of a body which has a different conductivity for different directions of current flow (electrical or thermal). anisotropic dielectric: Dielectric in which electric effects depend on the direction of the applied field, as in many crystals.

anisotropic etching: Describes an etching process which proceeds preferentially in one direction. In semiconductor processing when dry etching is accomplished with energetic ion bombardment, the lateral etch rate may be substantially less than the vertical rate so that under- cutting is avoided, allowing narrow, steep-sided features to be defined. Compare isotropic etching. anisotropy: [1] Something that has different mechanical properties when measured in different directions [2] Term describing a property of a substance when that property depends on direction as revealed by measurement, e.g., crystals and liquid crystals in which the refractive index is different in different directions, or when magnetic dipoles align with certain crystal axes in magnetic materials.
Also see anisotropic

anneal: To remove hardness from metal by heating, usually to a red color, then allowing it to cool slowly. Unlike steel, copper is annealed by heating, and then plunging it into cold water. It is the reverse of hardening. annealing: Process of heat treating metal to get desired properties of softness and ductility (easily formed in to a new shape). For example: heating and slow cooling of a piece of iron.
Also see back annealing box annealing bright annealing

annealing furnace: An oven or furnace with controllable atmosphere in which metal is annealed. annealing point:

One of the reference temperatures in glass production. annihilation: Spontaneous conversion of a particle and its antiparticle into radiation, e.g., positron and electron yielding two gamma-ray photons each of energy 0.511 MeV. annihilation radiation: The radiation produced by the annihilation of an elementary particle with its corresponding antiparticle. annual load factor: The load factor of a generating station, supply-undertaking or consumer, taken over a whole year. annular: Something in the form of a ring. annular ball bearing: A ball bearing with a non-adjustable inner and outer race or races. annular combustion chamber: A gas turbine combustion chamber in which the perforated flame tube forms a continuous annulus within a cylindrical outer casing. annular gap: Something in a circular gap. annular gear: A ring in the shape of an annulus with gear teeth cut on the periphery for engagement with a pinion. Usually shrunk fit on to a mating diameter, e.g., starter ring on automobile flywheel. annulus: A hollow gear which is in the form of a ring with internal teeth.

Also see epicyclic gearbox

annunciator: [1] Any device for indicating audibly the passage of a train past a point. [2] Arrangement of indicators which display details on operational condition and functioning of complex plant. Also called indicator. anode: [1] In an electrical circuit it is the positive pole. It is that part of an electrical circuit to which electrons are flowing. [2] British term describing the electrode, in a valve or tube, held at a positive potential with respect to a cathode, and through which positive current generally enters the vacuum or plasma, through collection of electrons. The US term is plate
Also see sacrificial anode soluble anode

anode breakdown voltage: The voltage required to trigger a discharge in a cold-cathode glow tube when the starter gap (if any) is not conducting. It is measured with any grids or other electrodes grounded to cathode. anode brightening:
See electrolytic polishing

anode cell:
See aluminum anode cell

anode characteristic: Graph relating anode current and anode voltage for an electron tube. anode dark space: Dark zone near the anode in a glow-discharge tube. anode dissipation:

Generally, the energy produced at the anode of a thermionic tube and wasted as heat owing to the bombardment by electrons, specifically, the maximum permissible power which may be dissipated at the anode. anode drop: The voltage between the positive column and the anode of a gas discharge tube. It may be positive, zero, or negative, depending on the gas pressure, but not the discharge current. Also called anode fall. anode efficiency: Ratio of ac power in the load circuit to the dc power supplied to the anode of a valve amplifier or oscillator. anode fall:
See anode drop

anode feed: Supply of direct current to anode of a tube, generally decoupled, so that the supply circuit does not affect the condition of operation of the tube. anode modulation: Insertion of the modulating signal into the anode circuit of a valve, which is oscillating or is rectifying the carrier. Also called plate modulation. anode mud:
See anode slime

anode polishing:
See electrolytic polishing

anode saturation: Limitation of current through the anode of a valve, arising from current, voltage, temperature, or space charge. anode slime: Residual slime left when anode has been electrolytically dissolved. It may contain valuable by-product metals. Also called anode mud.

anode strap: Connecting strip between alternate anode segments of a multi-cavity magnetron Used for mode selection and control. anode tap: Tapping point on the inductance coil of a tuned-anode circuit, to which the anode is connected. The position of the tap is adjusted so that the tube operates into the optimum impedance. anodic:
See hard anodic coating

anodic coating: A protective, decorative, or functional coating which is formed in the anodizing process. Also called anodic film or anodic oxide layer.
Also see hard anodic coating

anodic etching: A method of preparing metals for electrodeposition by making them the anode in a suitable electrolyte and at a suitable current density. anodic film:
See anodic coating

anodic oxide layer:
See anodic coating

anodic protection: System for passivating steel by making it the anode in a protective circuit Compare cathodic protection. anodic treatment:
See anodizing


By electrolytic action, this is the process of coating or plating a metal (usually aluminum) with a thin protective film or material such as chrome. It is sometimes applied with colored dye. anodized: An electroplating process commonly performed on aluminum parts, which forms a thin protective film on the surface of the metal. Anodizing is sometimes accompanied by the use of a colored dye, which gives a lustrous colored finish to the aluminum parts. anodizing: The process by which a hard, non-corroding oxide layer is deposited on aluminum.
Also see color anodizing hard anodizing integral color anodizing

anodizing bath: A tub in which the anodizing process is performed. anodizing tank: A tub in which the anodizing process is performed. anomaloscope: An instrument for detection and classification of defective color vision. Two colors are mixed, and the result matched with a third. anomalous dispersion: The type of dispersion given by a medium having a strong absorption band, the value of the refractive index being abnormally high on the longer wave side of the band, and abnormally low on the other side. In the spectrum produced by a prism made of such a substance the colors are, therefore, not in their normal order. anomalous magnetization: Irregular distribution of magnetization, e.g., when consequent poles exist as well as main poles on a magnetic circuit.

anomalous scattering:
See scattering

anomalous viscosity: A term used to describe liquids which show a decrease in viscosity as their rate of flow (i.e., velocity gradient or shear strain rate) increases. Also called non-Newtonian fluids or pseudo-plastic fluids. Advantage is taken of this behavior when injection molding polymer melts. anorthic system:
See triclinic system

ANS: Acronym for "anti-noise system". ANSI: Acronym for "American National Standards Institute". answer print: First print from the edited negative of the film shown to the producer for approval before release. ant:
See p. ant

antagonizing screws:
See clip screws

See solar antapex

antechamber: A small auxiliary combustion-chamber, used in some compression-ignition engines, in which partial combustion of the fuel is used to force the burning mixture into the cylinder, so promoting more perfect combustion.

antenna: A device which pulls in radio reception. A power antenna automatically rises when the radio is turned on and lowers when it is shut off. Some cars had the antenna wires imbedded in the windshield. Also called aerial.
Also see adcock antenna alford antenna antifading antenna aperiodic antenna artificial antenna balancing antenna beam antenna beavertail antenna beverage antenna power antenna whip antenna

antenna changeover switch: Switch used for transferring an antenna from the transmitting to the receiving equipment, and vice versa, protecting the receiver. antenna downlead: Wire running from the elevated part or conductor of an antenna down to the transmitting or receiving equipment. antenna effect: [1] Errors arising when a directional antenna, used in an electronic navigation system, picks up radiation from a non-intended direction, as a result of imperfections in the radiation pattern. [2] Spurious effects in radio-direction finding systems caused by stray capacitance between a loop antenna and ground. antenna efficiency:
See radiation efficiency

antenna feeder: The transmission line or cable by which energy is fed from the transmitter to the antenna.

antenna field: Map showing electromagnetic field strength produced by an antenna in the form of contour lines joining points of equal field intensity; it may be in azimuth or any plane of elevation. Also called radiation pattern. PICTURE. antenna gain: Ratio of maximum energy flux from an antenna, to that which would have been received from a non-directional aerial radiating the same power.
Also see directional gain

antenna impedance: Complex ratio of voltage to current at the point where the feeder is connected. antenna load:
See dummy load

antenna noise temperature: The temperature of a black body which, when placed around an antenna similar to the real one, but loss-free and perfectly matched to the receiver, produces the same noise power, within a specified frequency band, as the real antenna in its operating environment. antenna resistance: Total power supplied to an antenna system divided by the square of a specified current, e.g., in the feeder, or at the ground connection of an open wire antenna. antenna-shortening capacitor: A capacitor connected in series with an antenna to allow operation at a frequency other than its natural resonant one.
Also see loaded antenna

anthropogenic: Man-made, the opposite of natural, used particularly of radiation and nuclear particles. anti-aliasing: Treatment of video picture signal elements to reduce the effects of aliasing. antibackfire valve:
See anti-backfire valve

anti-backfire valve: (anti-BFV) Valve used in air injection reaction ( exhaust emission control) system to prevent backfiring during the period immediately following sudden deceleration by diverting the air coming from the air pump away from the exhaust ports. Otherwise the exhaust gases which contain unburned gasoline could mix with fresh air and cause unwanted backfiring.
Also see air bypass valve

antibaryon: Antiparticle of a baryon, i.e., a hadron with a baryon number of -1. The term baryon is often used generically to include both. anti-BFV: Acronym for " anti-backfire valve". antibonding orbital: Orbital electron of two atoms, which increases in energy when the atoms are brought together, and so acts against the closer bonding of a molecule. anti-capacitance switch: A switch designed to have very little capacitance between the terminals when in the open condition. anti-cathode:

The anode target of an X-ray tube on which the cathode rays are focused, and from which the X-rays are emitted. anti-chip coating: A resilient coat of "paint" between the primer and the top coat to protect the body shell from chipping damage caused by gravel or stones. anticlutter: Term describing a circuit or part of a radar system designed to eliminate unwanted echoes (clutter) and permit the display of signals which might otherwise abe obscured. Often takes the form of a gain control which automatically reduces gain immediately after the transmitted pulse and gradually restores it during the interval leading up to the anticipated return echo. anticoincidence counter: System of counters and circuits which record only if an ionizing particle passes through particular counters but not through the others. anticollision beacon: A flashing red or blue light which is mounted above and below an aircraft to make it conspicuous when flying in control zones or other busy areas. anti-corrosion: A substance used to protect against rust.
Also see Nordic Anti-Corrosion Code

Anti-Corrosion Code:
See Nordic Anti-Corrosion Code

anti-corrosion warranty: Manufacturers usually state that all body sheet metal components are warranted against rust-through corrosion for 6 years or 160,000 kilometers (100,000 miles), whichever comes first. anti-corrosive:

That which prevents or limits corrosion. anticyclotron tube: A type of travelling wave tube. anti-dazzle mirror: A mirror that can be set to reduce the glare of the lights from a vehicle following your vehicle.
Also see dimming mirror

anti-dieseling solenoid:
See idle-stop solenoid

See anti-dive system

See anti-dive system

anti-dive system: A dive is the action of the front of the vehicle to point downward during braking. The suspension in cars is designed to remove this tendency. anti-drum compound: A sticky material which is applied to the inside of panels to reduce the noise caused by vibration or "drumming". anti-extrusion ring: Nylon or cetal ring fitted to heavy duty rubber seal to prevent extrusion through sealed gap. antifading antenna: An antenna which confines radiation mainly to small angles of elevation, to minimize radiation of sky waves which are prone to fading. For medium-wave transmitters, the antenna is usually a vertical mast about 60% of a wavelength high. adaptive arrays are also used to combat fading

in higher-frequency applications. antiferromagnetism: Phenomenon in some magnetically ordered materials in which there is an antiparallel alignment of spins in two interpenetrating structures so that there is no overall bulk spontaneous magnetization. Antiferromagnetics have a positive susceptibility. The antiparallel alignment is disturbed as the temperature increases until at the Néel temperature the material becomes paramagnetic. antifouling composition: A substance applied in paint form to ships' bottoms and structures subject to the action of sea water, to discourage marine growths. antifreeze: A chemical (usually ethylene glycol) added to the cooling system to prevent the coolant from freezing in cold weather. It also inhibits the formation of rust and other deposits which may clog the radiator and other cooling passageways. Its resistance to freezing is better with a mix of 50:50 with water than 100% antifreeze. anti-friction bearing:
See antifriction bearing

antifriction bearing: A bearing containing rollers, needles, or balls plus an inner and outer race. The bearing is designed to roll instead of slide thus minimizing friction between two moving parts. To avoid disintegration, the bearing must use lubrication (i.e., wet friction)

anti-friction metal:

See white metal

anti-g: Resistant to the effects of high acceleration, esp. of an astronaut's equipment. anti-g suit: A close-fitting garment covering the legs and abdomen, which is inflated, either automatically or at will by the wearer, so that counter-pressure is applied when blood is displaced away from the head and heart during high-speed maneuvers. Colloquially, g-suit. anti-g valve: [1] A spring-loaded mass type of air valve which automatically regulates the inflation of an anti-g suit according to the acceleration (g) loads being imposed. [2] A valve incorporated in some aircraft fuel systems to prevent engines being starved of fuel under specific g loads. antihalation: The use of backing to reduce halation in plates or films. anti-icing: Protection of aircraft against icing by preventing ice formation on windshield panels, leading edges of wings, tail units, and turbine engine intakes. The most common methods are to apply continuous heating by hot air tapped from an engine, by electrical heating elements, or periodically inflating rubber bags. Compare de-icing. anti-incrustator: A substance used to prevent the formation of scale on the internal surfaces of steam boilers. anti-induction network: A network connected between circuits to minimize crosstalk. anti-knock additive:

See anti-knock agent

antiknock agent:
See anti-knock agent

anti-knock agent: A substance like tetraethyl lead which is added to gasoline to raise the octane number and reduce the gasoline's tendency to detonate, knock, or ping. In unleaded gasoline, tetraethyl lead is not used because of its environmental danger. anti-knock agents:
See anti-knock agent

anti-knock index: The measure of the anti-knock properties of a brand and type of gasoline. It is defined as half the sum of the research octane number (RON) and motor octane number (MON). antiknock substances: Substances like lead (IV) ethyl added to fuel to lessen its tendency to detonate or "knock" in an engine. antiknock value: The relative immunity of a volatile liquid fuel from detonation in a gasoline engine as compared with some standard fuel.
Also see knock rating octane number

antilepton: An antiparticle of a lepton. Positron, positive muon, antineutrinos, and the tau- plus particle are antileptons. antilift:
See anti-lift


Lift is the action of the rear end of the vehicle to rise during braking. The suspension in cars is designed to remove this tendency. antilock brake: (ABS)
See anti-lock brake system

anti-lock brake: (ABS)
See anti-lock brake system

anti-lock brake controller: CAB Chrysler Corporation's term for the electronic control unit. anti-lock brake system: (ABS) Sometimes called "anti-skid brakes." A device which senses that one or more of the wheels are locking up during braking. It monitors the rotational speeds of the wheels and reduces hydraulic pressure to any wheel it senses locking up.It is controlled by both mechanical and electronic components. When you apply the brakes, the ABS will regulate the flow of brake fluid being delivered to the brake calipers. It must be remembered that a wheel cannot be steered unless it is rolling; so if the wheel is locked up, there is no steering control. By the use of electronic computers, the brakes rapidly alternate (at a rate of 30 times per second) from full pressure to full release. This process will also alternate from the left-front wheel and the right-rear wheel and switch to the right-front wheel and left-rear wheel. In this way both maximum braking and maximum steering control is allowed during braking. Before the advent of ABS, drivers were advised to pump the brakes to maintain the same effect. However, the human foot cannot pump the brakes faster than the computer control. Also, steady application of the brakes without ABS may cause brake failure ( brake fade) because of the excess heat. Never pump the brakes if you have ABS. When you firmly apply the brakes with ABS, you may feel a pulsing sensation and hear a banging noise. The abbreviation ABS comes from the German anti blockier system. anti-lock braking system:
See anti-lock brake system


See antiparticle

See aluminum antimonide

antimony alloys: Alloys containing antimony, which is an essential constituent in type metals, bearing metals (which contain 3-20%), in lead for shrapnel (10%), storage battery plates (4- 12%), roofing, gutters, and tank linings (6-12%). antimony black: Finely powdered antimony, which gives plaster casts a metallic look. antimuon: Antiparticle of a muon. antineutrino: Antiparticle to the neutrino. As for the neutrino there are three types of antineutrino, associated with the electron, muon, and tau lepton. antineutron: Antiparticle with spin and magnetic moment oppositely oriented to those of neutron. antinode: At certain positions in a standing wave system of acoustic or electric waves or vibrations, the location of maxima of some wave characteristics, e.g., amplitude, displacement, velocity, current, pressure, voltage. At the notes these would have minimum values. anti-noise:
See anti-noise system

anti-noise system: (ANS) A noise counteraction system. This is a sophisticated system which has a number of small microphones placed around the vehicle to detect driving noises. A computer microprocessor analyzes these noises and

generates matching counter-frequencies which are sent to small speakers located in the passenger compartment. In this way the road noises are cancelled or erased. anti-ozone compound:
See ozone compound

antiparallax mirror: Mirror positioned on an arc adjacent to the scale of an indicating instrument, so that the parallax error in reading the indication of the pointer is avoided by aligning the eye with the pointer and its image. antiparticle: A particle that has the same mass as another particle but has opposite values for its other properties such as charge, baryon number, or strangeness. The antiparticle to a fundamental particle is also fundamental, e.g., the electron and positron are particle and antiparticle. Interaction between such a pair means simultaneous annihilation, with the production of energy in the form of radiation. antipercolation valve:
See anti-percolation valve

anti-percolation valve: A device for venting vapors from the main discharge tube, or the well, of a carburetor. The vented vapors are not released into the atmosphere, but rerouted into an evaporative emission canister where they are stored until the next time the vehicle is started. Thus it provides a richer mixture needed for starting.
Also see percolation

antipolarizing winding: Winding on a transformer or choke which carries a direct current to neutralize the magnetizing effect of another direct current. antiproton:

Short-lived particle, half-life 0.05μs, identical to the proton, but with negative charge; annihilating with normal proton, it yields mesons. Also called negative proton. antiquark: The antipaticle of a quark. anti-rattle spring: A component in disc brakes shaped like the letter "X" and made of spring steel. It applies radial pressure to the brake pads to prevent rattling. Also called spreader spring. antiresonance frequency: Frequency at which the parallel impedance of a tuned circuit rises to a maximum. antiroll bar:
See anti-roll bar

anti-roll bar: Sometimes called the "anti-sway bar," "stabilizer bar," or even (incorrectly) "rollbar." It is usually a round bar which connects the left wheel suspension assembly with the right side. It may be found at the front and/or rear. Its main function is to keep both wheels rolling at the same rate when meeting bumps; but it also affects handling. A front anti-roll bar increases understeer and a rear bar increases oversteer. antiroll device:
See brake anti-roll device

anti-roll device:
See brake anti-roll device

anti-rust treatment:

See rustproofing

antisag bar: A vertical rod connecting the main tie of a roof truss to the ridge to support it against sagging under its own weight. antiscuffing: The ability of a precision insert bearing to resist scuffing or scratching the shaft journal in the event that the oil surface skin is destroyed. anti-set-off spray: Spray used to apply a layer of fine particles to the surface of each freshly printed sheet to prevent contact with the succeeding sheet so that set-off does not occur. anti-set-off tympan cover: A top cover for the second cylinder of any perfecting press, flat-bed, or rotary, consisting of a material coated with very small glass beads. anti-siphon bleeds: Small holes drilled into the cluster to prevent main-system fuel from continuing to flow when the throttle is closed, stopping airflow through the carburetor. antiskid:
See anti-skid

anti-skid: (ASBS) A computer controlled automotive device which senses when one or more of the wheels are locking up during braking. It eases up on the amount of hydraulic pressure to that wheel. It must be remembered that a wheel cannot be steered unless it is rolling; so if the wheel is locked up, there is no steering control. By the use of electronic computers, the brakes rapidly alternate from full power to none so that both maximum braking and maximum steering control is allowed. If you jam on the brakes, you will feel a pulsing sensation. Sometimes called " anti-lock brakes."

antismog device: A special part or system designed to reduce or eliminate emission of noxious gases from exhaust of engine. antisolar glass: Glass which absorbs heat from sunshine and reduces glare, but transmits most of the light. antisound: Sound signal with same amplitude but opposite phase of some unwanted sound signal so that both signals cancel each other when superimposed. Used in active control. anti-spin parachute: A small parachute, normally in a canister, which may be fixed to the tail (occasionally to the wing tips) of an aircraft or glider for release in emergency to lower the nose into a dive and so assist recovery from a spin. It is jettisoned after use. Colloquially spin chute. anti-spin regulation: (ASR) The control or prevention of wheelspin under power, normally by means of electronic sensing and in conjunction with anti-lock brakes. anti-spin regulation traction control system: (ASC) The system which prevents wheelspin.
Also see anti-spin regulation

antispray film: An oil film placed on the surface of accumulator cells to prevent the formation of acid spray due to the bursting of gas bubbles during the charging process. anti-spray flap:
See mudflap


See anti-squat system

See anti-squat system

anti-squat system: Squat is the action of the rear end of the vehicle to point downward during hard acceleration. The suspension in cars is designed to remove this tendency. Contrasts with anti-dive system. anti-squeal shim: A shim (metal plate) placed behind the brake piston or the brake pad to reduce noise when the brakes are applied. anti-stall dashpot: A diaphragm unit mounted on the carburetor that allows air to escape slowly from its vacuum chamber to prevent throttle plate(s) in the carburetor from closing too suddenly--and stalling the engine--during deceleration. anti-stokes lines: Those in scattered or fluorescent light with frequencies greater than that in the incident radiation, because of departure of atoms or molecules from their normal states. antisurge valve: A valve for bleeding off surplus compressor air to suppress the unstable airflow due to surge in a gas turbine engine. anti-sway bar:
See anti-roll bar

antisymmetric: Pattern or waveform in which symmetry is complete except for one particular feature, e.g., sign of electric charge, direction of current, or of components in waveform. A system containing several electrons must be described quantum mechanically by an antisymmetric eigenfunction.

anti-theft system: Any device (mechanical or electrical) which tends to reduce the theft of a vehicle. It may involve an alarm system, ignition lockouts, steering locks, steering wheel locks, transmission locks, and/or wheel locks. anti-tipper: An arm, usually with a small wheel attached at the outer end, which is secured to the back of a wheelchair to prevent the chair from falling on its back and thereby injuring the patient. antitippers:
See anti-tipper

anti-transmit receive tube: (ATR tube) Gas discharge tube which isolates a pulsed radar transmitter from the antenna so that echoes can be received. Compare transmit receive tube. anti-vibration mounting: [1] Because the engine, transmission, differential, and other components tend to vibrate when in motion, noise increases and there is possible wear at the points of contact with the frame members. Rubber blocks are used to cushion the vibration at the mounting points. [2] Rubber springs designed to absorb vibrations from engines, etc. Care needed in design and materials selection to match vibration frequency with main damping peak of elastomer. antung: Slub-free, plain-weave fabric made from wild silk. A-number: The telephone number from which a call originates in an intelligent network Compare B-number and C-number. anvil:

[1] A heavy iron block (often steel faced) on which something is placed for forging or hammering. [2] The lower wheel of a wheeling machine which shapes metals. anvil chisel:
See anvil cutter

anvil cutter: A chisel with a square shank for insertion in the hardy hole of a smith's anvil, the cutting edge being uppermost. A-panel: The side panel used to fill the gap between the rear edge of the front fender and the front edge of the doors. α-particle:
See alpha particle

See " Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation.

ape hangers: A term coined at the height of the custom-bike movement to describe tall handlebars that forced the rider to reach skyward to grasp the controls, making the rider adopt an ape-like posture. aperiodic: [1] Said of any potentially vibrating system, electrical, mechanical, or acoustic, which, because of sufficient damping, does not vibrate when impulsed. Used particularly of the pointers of indicating instruments, which having no natural period of oscillation, do not oscillate before coming to rest in the final position, and so give their ultimate reading as fast as possible. [2] Said of any device or circuit (e.g., antenna, amplifier) which does not exhibit any variation in characteristics with varying frequency of applied signals. aperiodic antenna:

An antenna with useful efficiency over a range of radio frequencies, terminated to minimize resonance by reflection, e.g., rhombic antenna, wave antenna. Also called non-resonant antenna. aperture: [1] The opening, usually circular, through which light enters an optical system, such as a camera lens; its area may be varied by an iris diaphragm to control the amount of light passing.
Also see f-number numerical aperture stop

[2] The rectangular opening at which motion picture film is exposed in a camera or projector. [3] The effective area over which an aerial extracts power from an incident plane wave. The aperture (A) and gain (G) are related by the equation: G=4πA/λ², where λ is the wavelength.
Also see door aperture lamp aperture valve aperture windshield aperture

aperture correction: One form of enhancement of signal differences at image boundaries to increase apparent sharpness. aperture distortion: Distortion arising from the scanning spot having finite, instead of infinitely small, dimensions. aperture efficiency: The ratio of an antenna's actual directivity to the theoretical figure which would be obtained with ideal aperture illumination, i.e., with uniform electromagnetic field strength over its aperture. aperture grille: The Trinitron picture tube equivalent of a shadowmask, with vertical slits instead of holes through which the electron beams pass.

aperture number:
See f-number

aperture panel: A large side panel of a vehicle making up the rear fender, door frame, and side window frame.
Also see side aperture panel sunroof aperture panel

aperture plate: Plate carrying the opening at which film is exposed or projected. apex: The top of a triangle. In racing, it is the point or area closest to the inner corner. apex seal: A wedge shaped device found on the tips of the triangular rotor in rotary (Wankel) engines. Its purpose is to prevent the escape of compressed gas or combustion gases. It may also release engine heat. API: Acronym for "American Petroleum Institute," the organization that classifies oil. APIA: Acronym for "Association of Automotive Manufacturers and Importers" (Romania).

API scale: Abbreviation for American Petroleum Institute scale. Scale of relative density, similar to Baumé scale. Degrees API=(141.5/s)-131s, where s is the relative density of the oil against water at 15°C. A pillar:
See A-post

A-pillar: When you look at the side of a car, the pillar that is attached to the windshield and supports the roof is called the "A-post" or "A-pillar." There are two to each car. Generally the middle post is the B-post and the back post is the C-post.

Apjohn's formula: A formula which may be used for determining the pressure of water vapor in the air from readings of the wet and dry bulb hygrometer. The formula is: pt=pw-0.00075H(t-t w)[1-0.008(t- tw)], where pw is the saturated vapor pressure at the temperature (tw) of the wet bulb, H is the barometric height, and t is the temperature of the dry bulb. aplanatic: Said of an optical system which produces an image free from spherical aberration. aplanatic refraction: Refraction at a surface under conditions in which there is no spherical aberration and in which the sine condition is satisfied. apochromatic lens:

A lens so designed that it is corrected for chromatic aberration for three wavelengths thus reducing the secondary spectrum. apochromatic objective: Microscope objective in which spherical and chromatic aberrations have been corrected as completely as possible. A-point: Temperature above which steel can be hardened. The equilibrium point of the transformation temperature. Also called Ae point. Apollo: A vehicle brand of which the 1963-66 models are milestone cars. apomecometer: Instrument based on optical square, for measuring heights and distances. A post:
See A-post

A-post: When you look at the side of a car, the post that is attached to the windshield and supports the roof is called the "A-post" or "A-pillar." There are two to each car. Generally the middle post is the B-post and the back post is the C-post.

apostilb: A unit of surface luminance used in the case of diffusing surfaces, numerically equal to 1/100000 lambert (1/πc dm-2). apparatus:

See air-cooled apparatus Beckmann apparatus

apparent cohesion: Cohesion of silts and sands due to surface tension in the enclosed films of water; these films tend to pull the silt grains together. apparent expansion:
See coefficient of apparent expansion

apparent horizon:
See visible horizon

apparent particle density: The mass of a particle of powder divided by the volume of the particle excluding open pores but including closed pores. apparent powder density: The mass of the powder divided by the volume occupied by it under specified conditions of packing. apparent power: The volt-amperes, i.e., the product of volts and amperes in an ac circuit or system. apparent resistance:
See impedance

apparent viscosity: Term applied to the viscosity of many non-Newtonian fluids (e.g., polymers). Specifically to viscosity calculated using Poiseuille's formula. appearing: Term referring to the depth of the actual printed matter on a page, exclusive of traditional white line at foot. Also called inclusive page depth. appendages:

Structures extending beyond the main hull. They include items like shafting, rudder, bossing, struts, and bilge keels. Applegate diagram: Presentation of the bunching and debunching of an electron beam in a velocity-modulation tube, e.g., a klystron. apple paint:
See candy apple paint

appleton layer:
See f-layer

appliance: A British term for a fire engine. application: [1] The use to which something is put. [2] The process of putting something on something else. [3] The act of applying adhesives. For adhesives and coatings, the principal methods of application are: brushing, spraying, dipping, stencilling, flowing, stamp-padding, roll coating, knife coating, squeegeeing, or trowelling with spatula or notched trowel. For sealers: spatula, caulking gun, flow gun, pressure extrusion units and spray gun.
Also see wet-on-wet application

applicator: [1] A tool for putting something on something else, e.g., a spreader or brush. [2] Electrodes used in industrial high-frequency heating or medical diathermy; often specially shaped to fit the sample or body.
Also see heating inductor

applied potential tomography: A system of medical imaging based on the measurement of the electrical impedance, at about 50 kHz frequency, between many electrodes placed around the body.

applied power: For an electrical transducer, the power which would be received if the load matched the source in impedance. That applied is not equal to the actual power received, because of the reflection arising from non-equality of impedance matching. applied stress: The stress induced in a member under load. appliqué: appliqué Ornament, frequently of fabric or plastic, attached to the surface of a fabric to give a three-dimensional effect. apply: To put something on something else. approach:
See arc of approach

approach angle: The most sharply angled incline the vehicle can make without its front scraping the ground. Measured in degrees, it's the angle formed on one side by the horizontal axis, and on the other by a straight line connecting the forward edge of the front tire and the most prominent front-end feature extending beyond that line -- the bumper, fog lamps, tow hook, etc. approach control radar: (ACR) A surveillance radar which shows on a cathode-ray tube display the positions of aircraft in an aerodrome's traffic control area. approach lights: Lights indicating the desired approach to a runway, usually of sodium or high- intensity type and laid in a precise pattern of a lead-in line with crossbars at set distances from the runway threshold.
Also see

angle of approach light

approach speed: The indicated air speed at which an aircraft approaches for landing. approval certificate:
See type approval certificate

See born-oppenheimer approximation

Aprilia: A well-regarded Italian motorcycle manufacturer, known for 250 GP race bikes that are tiny and lightweight. apron: [1] The paved area directly below the racing surface that separates the track from the infield. [2] The panel under the vehicle's doors or the panel acting as an air dam at the front of a vehicle. [3] A kick panel. [4] A firm surface of concrete or "tarmac" laid down adjacent to aerodrome buildings to facilitate the movement, loading and unloading of aircraft. [5] In a lathe, that part of the saddle enclosing the gear operated by the lead screw. [6] Flexible strip used as film support in some types of processing tank. [7] A strip of rubber, metal, or other material at the outlet from the flow box to seal the gap between it and the machine wire.
Also see fender splash apron front apron rear apron

apron conveyor: A conveyor for transporting packages or bulk materials, consisting of a series of metal or wood slats (also rubber, cotton, felt, wire, etc.) attached to an endless chain. Also called slat conveyer.

APT: Acronym for "adjustable part throttle" APU: Acronym for auxiliary power unit AQL: Acronym for " acceptable quality level". Aquadag: Trade mark for a colloidal suspension of graphite in water. aquaplaning: Also called hydroplaning. A dangerous tendency for a tire to ride on a thin film of water, thus creating a loss of driver control until tire contact with the road surface returns. aquatread: A tread pattern of a tire designed to dissipate water lying on the road and provide good traction in the rain. aqueduct: An artificial conduit, generally elevated on columns, used to convey a water supply aqueous solution: A water-based solution. Ar: The transformation temperature on cooling of the phase changes in iron and steel, subscripts indicating the appropriate change. AR: Acronym for analytical reagent Arago Point:

The bright spot found along the axis in the shadow of a disk illuminated normally Arago's rotation: Experiments (conducted by Arago before the discovery of electromagnetic induction by Faraday) in which a rotating copper disk was made to cause rotation of a pivoted magnet Araldite: A trade name for range of epoxy resins used for adhesives, encapsulation of electrical components, etc. ARB: Acronym for Air Registration Board arbitration bar: Test bar, cast with a given heat of metal, to determine whether the main casting is to specifications. arbor: [1] A rotating shaft in a lathe or drill. [2] Cylindrical or conical shaft on which a cutting tool or part to be machined is mounted. [3] The axis or shaft upon which a rotatable part is mounted: the shaft upon which a gear or wheel is mounted.
Also see mandrel

arc: [1] The discharge of electric current across a gap of two electrodes. The term given to the flow of electricity through a gaseous space or air gap. [2] A welding term referring to the flow of electricity through the air which produces high temperatures.
Also see arc welding shielded arc short arc spray arc

track arc

ARC: [1] Acronym for Aeronautical Research Council in the UK. [2] Acronym for Ames Research Center in the USA arc absorber: Same as a spark absorber , but referring to a discharge likely to be destructive if not extinguished. arc-back: Flow of electrons, opposite to that intended, in a mercury-arc rectifier. Caused by a heated spot on the anode acting as a cathode, leading to possible damage. arc baffle: Means of preventing liquid mercury contacting an anode in a mercury-arc rectifier. Also called splash baffle arc blow: A welding term referring to the tendency for an arc to wander or whip from its normal course during arc welding. It is caused by magnetic changes. arc crater: Depression formed in electrodes between which an electric arc has been maintained. In arc welding, the depression which occurs in the weld metal. arc cutting: A welding term referring to making a kerf in a metal using the energy of an electric arc. arc duration: Time during which an arc exists between the contacts of an opening switch or circuit breaker. In ac circuits usually measured in cycles, varying between half a cycle and perhaps 20 cycles.

arc furnace: An electric furnace in which the heat is produced by n electric arc between carbon electrodes, or between a carbon electrode and the furnace charge. arch:
See fender arch flared wheel arch wheel arch

arch bridge: A bridge that depends on the principle of the arch for its stability.
Also see rigid arch three-hinged arch

arch dam: Dam in which the abutments are solid in rock at sides of impounding area. arch extension:
See wheel arch extension

Archimedean drill: A drill in which to-and-fro axial movement of a nut on a helix causes an alternating rotary motion of the bit Archimedean screw: An ancient water-lifting contrivance: a hollow inclined screw (or a pipe wound in helix fashion around an inclined axis) which has its lower end in water so that, on rotation of the "screw," water rises to a high level. Archimedes' principle: The principle that when a body is wholly or partly immersed in a fluid it experiences an upthrust equal to the weight of fluid it displaces; the upthrust acts vertically through the center of gravity of the displaced fluid.

architectural acoustics: The study of propagation of sound waves in buildings, the results being applied to the design of studios and auditoriums for optimum audition and to the noise isolation of buildings. arch piece:
See stern frame

arch protector:
See wheel arch protector

arch stone: A wedge-shaped stone used as a constituent part of an arch. Also called voussoir arcing: [1] The action of electricity when it leaps the gap between two electrodes. Usually causes premature wear of breaker points. [2] A faulty paint spraying technique where the spray gun is not moved along the panel surface at a uniform distance. Instead it is moved toward the panel when starting and moved away toward the end of the panel. The result of this technique is an uneven application of paint. [3] A process where the brake shoes are ground to the proper curvature for the drums they are to be used with. Modern brake shoes are pre-arced. arcing contact: An auxiliary contact fitted to a switch or circuit breaker which opens after and closes before the main contact and receives most of the damage due to arcing. Designed for easy replacement. Also called arcing tips arcing, electrical:
See electrical arcing

arcing-ground suppressor:
See arc suppressor

arcing ring:

Circular or oval ring conductor, placed concentrically with a pin insulator or a string of insulators for deflecting an arc from the insulator surface which could be damaged. arcing shield:
See grading shield

arcing tips:
See arcing contact

arcing voltage: Voltage below which a current cannot be maintained between two electrodes. arc lamp: A form of electric lamp which makes use of an electric arc between two carbon electrodes as the source of light. It has an extremely high intrinsic brilliance, and is therefore used for searchlights and spotlights.
Also see automatic arc lamp carbon arc lamp

arc of approach: The arc on the pitch circle of a gearwheel over which two teeth are in contact while approaching the pitch point arc of contact: The arc on the pitch circle of a gearwheel over which two teeth are in contact. arc of recess: The arc on the pitch circle of a gearwheel over which two teeth are in contact while receding from the pitch point. arc process:
See bredig's arc process

arc resistance: The ability of an insulator to withstand high-voltage sparking arc spectrum: A spectrum originating in the non-ionized atoms of an element; usually capable of being excited by the application of a comparatively low stimulus, such as the electric arc.
Also see spark spectrum

arc spraying: Method of fusing (and thence depositing) refractory ceramic and metal powders by blowing them through an electric arc or plasma. Used for applying a variety of thin and thick film coatings. Also called plasma spraying arc-stream voltage: Voltage drop along the arc stream of an electric arc, excluding the voltage drops at the anode and cathode. arc-suppression coil:
See Petersen coil

arc suppressor: A device for automatically grounding the neutral point of an insulatedneutral transmission or distribution line if an arc to ground occurs. Also called arcing-ground suppressor arc-through: Overflow of electron stream into an intended non-conducting period. arc voltage: [1] The electrical potential (pressure or voltage) across the arc. [2] The total voltage across an electric arc, i.e., the sum of the arc stream voltage, the voltage drop at the anode and the voltage drop at the cathode. The term is frequently used in connection with arc welding, and with the arc in a switch or circuit breaker.

arc welding: Welding by using an electric current to melt both the metal to be welded and the welding rod or electrode that is being added.
Also see atomic arc welding automatic arc welding inert arc welding pulse arc welding

are: A metric unit of area used for land measurement. 1 are=100m²=119.6 yard².
Also see hectare

area: [1] The sunken space around the basement of a building, providing access and natural lighting and ventilation. [2] A measure of the extent of a surface. [3]In plane surveying, the superficial content of a ground surface of definite extent, as projected onto a horizontal plane. area-moment method: A method of structural analysis based on the slope and displacement of any part of the structure area rule: An aerodynamic method of reducing drag at transonic speeds by maintaining a smooth cross-sectional variation throughout the length of an aircraft. Because of the effect of the wing, this often results in a "waspwaist" on the fuselage or the addition of bulges to the wing or fuselage. argand burner: A form of gas-burner or oil-burner in which air is admitted to the inside of a cylindrical wick, ensuring a large area of contact between the flame and the fuel.

argon laser: Laser using singly ionized argon. It gives strong emission at 488.0, 514.5, and 496.5 nm. ARINC: Acronym for Aeronautical Radio Incorporated, an American organization whose membership included airlines, aircraft constructors, and avionics component manufacturers. It publishes technical papers and agreed standards, and finances research. arm: A part attached to or projecting from something.
a-arm a arm actuator arm adjustable rocker arm ball joint rocker arm breaker arm branch check arm brush-holder arm contact arm Also see control arm leading arm crankarm long and short arm door check arm suspension drop arm pitman arm flex arm radius arm suspension rocker arm forked rocker arm rocker arm cover high lift rocker rocker arm shaft arm rotor arm idler arm semi-trailing arm knuckle arm stay lateral arm steering arm steering gear arm steering knuckle arm throttle arm tie rod arm torque arm track control arm trailing arm transverse arm

ARM: Acronym for anti-radiation missile armature: [1] In a relay, regulator, horn, etc., it is the movable part of the unit which indicates the presence of electric current as the agent of actuation. [2] Piece of low-reluctance ferromagnetic material (keeper) for temporarily bridging the poles of a permanent magnet, to reduce the leakage field and preserve magnetization. [3] In a starter or generator, it is the portion that revolves between the pole shoes, made up of wire windings of copper on an iron core or axle. When it revolves, an electric current is induced.
Also see bar-wound armature

armature bars: Rectangular copper bars forming the conductors on the armature in large electric machines having only a few conductors per slot. armature brake: A mechanical or electrical component in a starter used to stop the armature movement after the starter motor has been switched off. armature coil: An assembly of conductors ready for placing in the slots of the armature of an electric machine. armature conductor: One of the wires or bars on the armature of an electric machine. armature end connections: The portion of the armature conductors which project beyond the end of the armature core, and which are used for making the connections among the various conductors. Also called overhang armature end plate: The end plate of a laminated armature core. It is of sufficient mechanical strength to enable the laminations to be clamped together tightly to prevent vibration. Also called armature head armature head:
See armature end plate

armature ratio: Ratio of distance moved by the spring buffer of an electromagnetic relay, to that moved by the armature. armature reactance: A reactance associated with the armature winding of a machine, caused by armature leakage flux, i.e., flux which does not follow the main magnetic circuit of the machine.

armature reaction: The magnetic field in an electrical machine produced by the armature current armature relay: A relay operated electromagnetically, thus causing the armature to be magnetically attracted. armature shaft: The primary shaft on which the armature is mounted in a starter or generator. armature winding: The complete assembly of conductors carried on the armature and connected to the commutator or to the terminals of the machine. Armco: Trade name for a soft iron with less than 1% impurities. Can be rolled or formed with deep corrugations as in circular culverts or traffic barriers. arm cover:
See rocker arm cover

See béton armé

arming press: A form of blocking press used for stamping designs on book covers armor-clad switchgear:
See metal-clad switch gear

armor clamp: A fitting designed to grip the armoring of a cable where it enters a box. Also called armor gland and armor grip

armor gland:
See armor clamp

armor grip:
See armor clamp

armor plate: Traditionally, specially heavy alloy steel plate hardened on the surface; used for the protection of fighting vehicles and ships. There is also a form of armor plate based on aluminum alloy particularly suitable for fast moving military vehicles. armor-plated: Panels and glass that are extra thick to be bullet-proof. armour: British spelling of "armor" armrest: A projection upon which the occupants can rest or support their arms. Usually located on the door panel and sometimes in the center of the front seats or the center of the rear seat. arms:
See bracket arms control arms high lift rocker arms

arm shaft:
See rocker arm shaft

armstrong: A colloquial term for manual steering. Without power assist, steering will need a strong arm, thus the name. Armstrong oscillator:

The original oscillator, in which tuned circuits in the anode and grid circuits of a valve are coupled. Armstrong-Siddeley: A vehicle brand of which the 1925-1948 models with required application are classic cars. arm suspension:
See flex arm suspension long and short arm suspension semi-trailing arm suspension swing arm suspension

See Arnolt Bristol

Arnolt Bristol: A vehicle brand of which the 1952-62 models are milestone cars. array: An assembly of two or more individual radiating elements, appropriately spaced and energized to achieve desired directional properties.
Also see active array adaptive array beam antenna binomial array

arrested failure: The taking of a cable off voltage before failure is complete and its examination to determine the mechanism of breakdown. arrester: A device which prevents a certain action. For example, a spark arrester is a special pipe mounted in the end of the exhaust pipe which prevents any burning gasses from coming out with the possible danger of igniting any combustibles in the area (i.e., setting the forest on fire).
Also see lightning arrester

arrester gear: [1] A device on aircraft carriers and some military aerodromes, usually consisting of a number of individual transverse cables held by hydraulic shock absorbers, which stop an aircraft when its arrester hook catches a cable. [2] A barrier net, usually of nylon or webbing, attached to heavy drag weights, which stops fast aircraft from over-running the end of the runway in an emergency. arrester hook: A hook extended from an aircraft to engage the cable of an arrester gear, mainly on aircraft carriers. arrest points: Discontinuities on heating and cooling curves, due to absorption of heat during heating or evolution of heat during cooling, and indicating structural (phase) changes occurring in a metal or alloy. Arrhenius's rate equation: Equation giving the rate R of a thermally activated, physical process: R=R0exp(Ea/kT) where R0 is a constant, Ea is the activation energy , k is Boltzmann's constant and T is the absolute temperature. arris edge: Small bevel, of width not exceeding 1/16 in (1.5 mm), at an angle of approximately 45° to the surface of the glass. arrival:
See angle of arrival

arrive: The finish line of a brevet or randonnée. arrow: Light steel wire pin, bent into ring at one end and perhaps flagged with piece of bright cloth, used to mark measured lengths in chain traversing.

Also see Pierce-Arrow

arsenical copper: Copper containing up to about 0.6% arsenic. This element slightly increases the hardness and strength and raises the recrystallization temperature. artesian well: A well sunk into a permeable stratum which has impervious strata above and below it, and which outcrops at places higher than the place where the well is sunk, so that the hydrostatic pressure of the water in the permeable stratum is alone sufficient to force the water up out of the well. Named from Artois (France). articulated: Jointed. An articulated rod is made of two sections with a moveable joint which permits its shape to go from perfectly straight to right angle.
Also see articulated bus articulated truck

articulated blade: A rotorcraft blade which is mounted on one or more hinges to permit flapping and movement about the drag axis articulated bus: A large bus with an accordion-like section in the middle of the body which allows the bus to turn sharply around corners as it articulates at that part of the bus. articulated mounting: A term used where parts are connected by links and links are anchored to provide a double hinging action. articulated truck: A large truck with two sections to allow it to turn sharply around corners.

articulation: [1] The means by which an architect gives definition to the individual elements of a building. [2] The connection of two parts in such a way (usually by a pin joint) as to permit relative movement.
Also see axle articulation

artificial aging: Method of accelerating the hardening of particularly aluminum alloys at slightly elevated temperatures.
Also see precipitation hardening

artificial antenna: Combination of resistances, capacitances, and inductances with the same characteristics as an antenna except that it does not radiate energy. It is used in place of the normal antenna for purposes such as repair and checking of a transmitter, or for re-tuning of the transmitter on to a different frequency. Also called dummy antenna, and phantom antenna. artificial daylight: Artificial light having approximately the same spectral distribution curve as daylight, i.e., having a color temperature of about 4000K artificial disintegration: The transmutation of non-radioactive substances brought about by the bombardment of the nuclei of their atoms by high-velocity particles, such as alpha particles, protons, or neutrons artificial ear: Device for testing earphones which presents an acoustic impedance similar to the human ear and includes facilities for measuring the sound pressure produced at the ear. artificial earth:
See counterpoise

artificial feel: In an aircraft flying control system, esp. with automatic control of flying surfaces, in which the pilot's control actions are modified to provide forces moving the flying controls, a natural feel, opposing the pilot's actions, which is fed back from the controls. Since these forces vary mostly with dynamic air pressure as in q=½ev² artificial feel is sometimes known as qfeel artificial ground:
See counterpoise

artificial horizon: An apparatus, for example a shallow trough filled with mercury, used in order to observe altitudes of celestial bodies with a sextant on land, i.e., where there is no visible horizon. The reflection of the object in the artificial horizon is viewed directly and the object itself indirectly by reflection from the index glass of the sextant.
Also see gyro horizon

artificial line: Repeated network units which have collectively some or all of the transmission properties of a line. Also called simulated line artificial rubber:
See synthetic rubber

artificial stability: An automatic flight control system which provides positive stability to an otherwise unstable or neutrally stable aircraft. artificial traffic: Automatically generated calls which are deliberately mixed with subscriber- originated traffic to sample the overall service provided by the switching equipment of an automatic exchange, by recording or holding faults recognized by test equipment. artificial voice:

Loudspeaker and baffle for simulating speech in testing of microphones. ASA: Formerly, abbreviation for American Standards Association. Now known as American National Standards Institute. ASA speed: Abbreviation for American Standards Association photographic speed rating, expressed on a arithmetic scale. Now replaced by ISO speed asbestos: A heat resistant and non-burning fibrous mineral widely used for brake shoes, clutch linings, etc. Asbestos is a health hazard and the dust created by brake systems should never be inhaled or ingested. asbestos-free: Something that has no asbestos -- especially brake and clutch linings. asbestosis: An incurable lung disease caused by the inhalation of asbestos fibers. ASBS:
See anti-skid braking system

See anti-spin regulation

ascending stroke:
See up-stroke

ASD: Acronym for automatic slip-control differential. asdic: Abbreviation for allied submarine detection investigation committee. Underwater acoustic detecting system which transmits a pulse and

receives a reflection from underwater objects, particularly submarines, at a distance. Also used by trawlers to detect shoals of fish. Equivalent to US <SONAR< I>, now the preferred term. ASE: National Institute for Automotive Service Excellence. ASEAN: Acronym for Association of South East Asian Nations. ash frame: A frame of a car made of wood from the ash tree and covered with aluminum panels. ashtray: A device for holding cigarette ashes. ASIA: Acronym for "Automotive Service Industry Association". Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation: (APEC) An organization established in 1989 to promote trade and investment in the Pacific Basin. APEC now comprises eighteen countries located in and around the Pacific Ocean: Australia, Brunei, Canada, Chile, China, Hong Kong, Indonesia, Japan, Malaysia, Mexico, New Zealand, Papua New Guinea, the Philippines, Singapore, South Korea, Taiwan, Thailand, and the United States. ASME: Acronym for "American Society of Mechanical Engineers." ASME boiler code: Standard specs issued by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers for the construction of boilers.

aspect: On railways the indication given by a colored light signal, as contrasted with that of a semaphore arm signal. A multiple-aspect signal (MAS) conveys more information.
Also see attitude

aspect ratio: [1] The ratio of length to width of rectangular air grille or duct. [2] The relationship in a tire or wheel between the distance from the rim to the tread and the tire's width (i.e., ratio of section height to section width). Thus, in a P185/80R13 tire, 80 is the aspect ratio, showing the height is 80% of the width. A lower aspect ratio describes a shorter, wider tire. [3] In a wing, it is the relationship of its span (horizontal length) to its chord (height). Important for induced drag and range/speed characteristics. Defined as S²/A where S is the span and A is the area. Normal figure between 6 and 9, lesser values than 6 being low aspect ratio, greater than 9 high aspect ratios. [4] Ratio of the length of a fiber or wire to its width or diameter. [5] (AR) Ratio of the width to the height of the reproduced picture or computer screen, e.g., 4x3, often expressed with the height as unity. 1.33:1. Wide-screen systems have aspect ratios between 1.65:1 and 2.35:1. [6] In a Tokamak type of fusion machine, the ratio of the major to minor radii of the torus.
Also see ULP

aperity: Slightly raised parts of a surface which form the actual points of contact between two surfaces at a microscope level, elastically and plastically flattened to take the load (normal force). asphalt: [1] A bituminous substance found naturally in oil-bearing strata from which the volatiles have evaporated [2] a residue in petroleum distillation [3] a mixture of asphaltic bitumen and granite chippings, sand, or powdered limestone. Asphalt is used extensively for paving, road-making, damp-proof courses, in the manufacture of roofing felt and paints and as the raw material for certain moulded plastics.
Also see


aspheric surface: A lens surface which departs to a greater or lesser degree from a sphere, e.g., one having a parabolic or elliptical section aspirated:
See aspirated engine

aspirated engine:
See naturally aspirated engine normally aspirated engine

aspirating psychrometer: Device which draws sample of air through it to measure humidity. aspiration: The process of sucking or inhaling the air-fuel mixture into a combustion engine. aspirator: The air intake of a sensor. aspirator system:
See air aspirator system

aspirator valve: A check valve in an air injection system. Aspire: A model of automobile manufactured by Ford

. Click for books on Ford Aspire

ASR: [1] Acronym for anti-spin regulation. [2] Acronym for Acceleration Slip Regulation. assay ton: Used in assaying precious metals. It is equivalent to 29.160 g and 32.670 g for the short and long ton respectively. The number of milligrams of precious metal in an assay ton of ore indicates the assay value, since 1 mg of precious metal per assay ton equals 1 troy oz of precious metal per avoirdupois ton of ore. assay value: Troy ounces of precious metal per avoirdupois ton of ore. assemble: The action of putting something together from a number of component parts. assemble edit: Videotape editing in which a new scene is added to follow directly on existing material assembly: [1] The finished union of a number of parts to make a component. [2] Construction of product from several or many components. Methods used for attachment include welding, fastening, push-fit, snap-fit, lock-fit, adhesive bonding, ultrasonic welding, etc. Many products are now designed for robotic assembly.
Also see body assembly bearing assembly

assembly line: The production line where a vehicle is put together from its component parts. Often one team will work on just the engine of each vehicle while another team works on another part, etc.

assembly line communications link: (ALCL) An electrical connector used to check a vehicle engine management system while it is on the assembly line and later once it is in operation, to output its trouble codes.
Also see ALDL

assembly line data link: (ALDL) An electrical connector used on GM vehicles to check a vehicle engine management system while it is on the assembly line and later once it is in operation, to output its trouble codes. assembly Line Data Link connector: (ALDL) a diagnostic connector used in General Motors vehicles. assembly lube: A special lubricant used to coat parts that rub or rotate against each other during initial assembly. assigned frequency: The frequency assigned as center frequency of a class of transmission, with tolerance, by authority. assigning authority: A national body authorized to assign load lines to ships assist:
See autofocus assist

assisted take-off: Take-off in which the full power of the normal engines is supplemented by auxiliary means, which may or may not be jettisonable. Small turbojet or rocket motor units, powder, or liquid rockets may be used.

assist power steering:
See variable assist power steering

assist steering:
See variable assist steering

See hydraulic assisted brakes integral-type power assisted steering power assisted brakes servo-assisted

assisted brakes:
See hydraulic assisted brakes power assisted brakes vacuum assisted brakes

assisted steering:
See integral-type power assisted steering

associated emission: Emission which brings about equilibrium between incident photons and secondary electrons in ionization. association: In rotary printing, the bring together of separate webs, after printing, to pass through the folder as a complete product. Association of South East Asian Nations: (ASEAN) An organization of states (including Brunei, Myanmar, Burma, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, and Vietnam) founded in 1967 to present an united front that addresses the political, economic, and strategic dynamics of the region. assy: Abbreviation for assembly. astable circuit:

An active circuit, having two quasi-stable states, which alternates automatically and continuously between them, e.g., certain multivibrators a-stage: Stage at which a synthetic resin of the phenol formaldehyde type is fusible and wholly soluble in alcohols and acetone. astatic galvanometer: Moving magnet galvanometer in which adjustable magnets form an astatic system astatic system: Ideally an arrangement of two or more magnetic needles on a single suspension so that in a uniform magnetic field, such as the Earth's field, there is no resultant torque on the suspension. astern: A backward movement of a vessel. ASTM: Acronym for " American Society for Testing Materials". ASTM standards: Standards issued by the American Society of Testing Materials. Aston dark space: The space in the immediate vicinity of a cathode, in which the emitted electrons have velocities insufficient to ionize the gas. Aston-Martin: A vehicle brand of which the 1927-1939 models with application and all others from 1925-48 are classic cars.
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Aston Martin: A vehicle brand of which the 1948-63 models are milestone cars. All the DB4, DB5, DB6 from 1964-67 are milestone cars. Aston whole-number rule: Empirical observation that relative atomic masses of isotopes are approximately whole numbers.
Also see mass spectrograph

astrafoil: A thin, dimensionally stable transparent plastic sheet used for mounting lithographic negatives or positives astrakhan: A curled-pile woven, warp-knitted, or weft-knitted fabric designed to resemble the fleece of a still-born or very young astrakhan lamb. astrocompass: A non-magnetic instrument that indicates true north relative to a celestial body. astrodome: A transparent dome, fitted to some aircraft usually on the top of the fuselage, with calibrated optical characteristics, for astronomical observations. ASV: Acronym for " air switching valve". asymmeter: An instrument having three movements so arranged that any lack of symmetry when these are connected to a three-phase system can be observed by a single reading. asymmetric:

A pattern in which one side does not correspond to the other side. asymmetrical: [1] A pattern in which one side does not correspond to the other side. [2] Said of circuits, networks, or transducers when the impedance (image impedance, or iterative impedance) differs in the two directions. Also called <DISSYMMETRICAL< I>or non-symmetrical. asymmetrical beam: A headlight system in which one beam is of greater intensity than the other. asymmetrical conductivity: Phenomenon whereby a substance, or a combination of substances as in a rectifier, conducts electric current differently in opposite directions. asymmetrical power distribution: A system in a four-wheel vehicle in which more power is transmitted to the front wheels than the rear wheels or more to the rear wheels than the front wheels. asymmetrical tread: The tread of a tire which has different shapes/patterns and sizes of grooves in the same tire. Often they are divided into three distinct patterns: The outside shoulder, the center zone, and the inside shoulder. The outside shoulder tread will have larger shoulder elements with very few sipes to provide increased cornering stability. The center tread zone enhances steering control. The inside shoulder tread zone provides additional traction because the shape of the tread elements, sipes and larger shoulder slots help disperse water and slush. Obviously these tires must be mounted only one way so that the

outside pattern is actually on the outside of the wheel asymmetric conductor: Conductor which has a different conductivity for current flowing in different directions through it, e.g., a diode. asymmetric flight: The condition of flying with asymmetrically balanced thrust, weight, drag, or lift forces, as could occur, e.g., with one external weapon mounted under one wing, or in a twin- engine aircraft with one engine inoperative. asymmetric reflector: A reflector in which the beam of light produced is not symmetrical about a central axis. asymmetric refractor: A refractor in which the light is redirected, unsymmetrically, about a central axis. asymmetric rim: A wheel rim where the well is located outside the centerline of the wheel. Opposite of symmetric rim. asymmetry potential: The potential difference between the inside and outside surface of a hollow electrode. asymptotic freedom: The property that at small distances quarks behave asympototically as free particles. In quantum chromodynamics, strong interaction between quarks becomes stronger with distance. asynchronous motor:
See non-synchronous motor


Acronym for ampere-turn ATA: [1] Acronym for "American Trucking Association." [2] Acronym for Air Transport Association ATB: [1] Acronym for all-terrain bike. Sometimes called MTB (mountain bike), but ATB is the preferred acronym. [2] Acronym for aeration test burner

ATC: [1] Acronym for " automatic temperature control." [2] Acronym for air-traffic control ATCRBS: Acronym for air-traffic control radar beacon system. A direct development of the World War II IFF system. Operating at about 1GHz, it gives air-traffic controllers three- dimensional positional information and full identification of aircraft. ATDC:
See after top dead center

ATE: Acronym for " automatic test equipment". ATF:
See automatic Transmission Fluid transmission fluid.

athermal transformation: A solid-state reaction e.g., the martensitic transformation of steel, in which thermal activation is not required. The transformation is driven by

increasing thermodynamic instability of a metastable phase, which eventually transforms by physical shear of the crystal lattice. A thread:
See class A thread

athwartship: Across the ship, at right angles to the fore-and-aft centerline. ATM: Abbreviation for standard atmosphere.
Also see atmospheric pressure

ATM adaptation layer: In an asynchronous transfer mode network, the equipment and procedures that interface between its standardized cells and the many data types to be carried. Telephony, for example, requires a constant data rate over a fixed channel, while switched multimegabit data service will tolerate a variable data rate over a changeable connection path. ATM cell: the basic data packet handled by an asynchronous transfer mode network, consisting of a five octet header followed by 48 octets of user information. The header is used to route the cell between switches, and receives new labels at each switching point. The user information is carried unchanged across the ATM network for delivery at the far terminal. atmospheric absorption: Diminution of intensity of a sound wave in passing through the air, apart from normal inverse square relation, and arising from transfer of sound energy into heat. atmospheric acoustics: Study of the propagation of sound in the atmosphere, of importance in sound ranging and aircraft noise.

atmospheric boundary layer: (ABL) The region of the Earth's atmosphere that interacts directly with the Earth's surface. atmospheric corrosion: A gradual oxidation of metal as a result of acid rain and other corrosive substances in our polluted air. atmospheric dust spot efficiency: Measurement of a device's ability to remove atmospheric air from test air. atmospheric engine: Earliest form of practical steam engine, in which a partial vacuum created by stem condensation allowed atmospheric pressure to drive down the piston. atmospheric gas-burner system: A natural-draft burner injector, in which the momentum of the gas passing into the injector throat inspirates part of the air required for combustion. atmospheric line: A datum line drawn on an indicator diagram by allowing atmospheric pressure to act on the indicator piston or diaphragm atmospheric pressure: Pressure or weight exerted by the gasses in the air exert upon the earth and on all things exposed to it. It is measured in pounds per square inch or kilopascals. At sea level it is about 1 kg. per square centimeter or 14.72 pounds per square inch (psi). (The standard value is 1.01325x105Nm-2, 1.01325 bar, or 14.7 lbfin-2). Variations in the atmospheric pressure are measured by means of the barometer.
Also see barometric pressure standard atmosphere

atmospheric radio wave:

Any radio wave which reaches its destination after reflection from the upper ionized layers of the atmosphere. Commonly called skip atom:
See Bohr atom Bohr-Sommerfeld atom

atomospherics: British term for interfering or disturbing signals of natural origin. Also called <SPHERICS< I>. The US term is strays.
Also see static

atmospheric waveguide duct: Atmospheric layer which acts as a waveguide for high-frequency (>20 MHz) radio waves under certain conditions of temperature and humidity, giving reception far outside the normal service area. atom: A tiny particle of matter made up of electrons, protons, and neutrons. Atoms or combinations of atoms make up molecules. The electrons orbit around the center or nucleus made up of the protons and neutrons. atomic absorption coefficient: For an element, the fractional decrease in intensity of radiation per number of atoms per unit area. Symbol μa. Related to the linear absorption coefficient μ by element i in a volume V. where the material contains ni atoms of

atomic arc welding: Welding using heat created by hydrogen atoms, created by an electric arc recombining to form hydrogen molecules. The heat is used to weld delicate joints, and the hydrogen forms a shield over the weld. atomic bomb: A bomb in which the explosive power, measured in terms of equivalent TNT, is provided by nuclear fissionable material such as uranium-235 or

plutonium-239. atomic clock: A clock whose frequency of operation is controlled by the frequency of an atomic or molecular process. The inversion of the ammonia molecule with a frequency of 2.3786 x 1010Hz provides the basic oscillations of the ammonia clock. The difference in energy between two states of a caesium atom in a magnetic field giving a frequency of 9,192,631,770 Hz is the basis of the caesium clock which has an accuracy of better than one in 1013. atomic disintegration: Natural decay of radioactive atoms, as a result of radiation, into chemically different atomic products. atomic displacement cross-section: The probability of a neutron displacing an atom from its place in a crystalline solid. Measured in barns as for other cross-sections. Important in determining the lifetime of graphite moderator and structural parts of reactors. atomic frequency: A natural vibration frequency in an atom used in the atomic clock atomic plane: A solid is crystalline because its atoms are ordered in intersecting planes (i.e., atomic planes) corresponding to the planes of the crystal.
Also see X-ray crystallography

atomic scattering: The scattering of radiation, usually electrons or X-rays, by the individual atoms in the medium through which it passes. The scattering is by the electronic structure of the atom in contrast to nuclear scattering which is by the nucleus. atomic scattering factor:

The ratio of the amplitude of coherent scattered X-radiation from an atom to that of a single electron placed at the atomic center. The atomic scattering factor depends on the electron-density distribution in the atom and is a function of the scattering angle. atomic spectrum: Characteristic pattern of light frequencies emitted or absorbed by a given element due to electronic transitions between the discrete energy states of the atoms accompanied by the emission or absorption of photons.
Also see absorption lines

atomic structure: The arrangement of the parts of an atom. atomic transmutation: The change of one type of atom to another as a result of a nuclear reaction The transmutation can be produced by high-energy radiation or particles and is most easily produced by neutron irradiation. The change in atomic number means the chemical nature of the atom has been changed. Also called transformation atomization:
See lateral atomization orifice rotational atomization unit

atomization orifice:
See lateral atomization orifice

atomization unit:
See rotational atomization unit

atomize: The process of changing liquid to minute particles or a fine spray. The extent to which a spray gun breaks up paint into a fine mist, fog, or spray. atomized powder:

A powder produced by the dispersion of molten metal or other material by spraying under conditions such that the material breaks down into powder. atomizer: A device for producing a fine spray such as used on a paint spray gun. atomizing pressure: The pressure needed to atomize a liquid like paint. ATR: Acronym for attenuated total reflection atramentizing: A corrosion protection process in which steel is coated with phosphate using a zinc phosphate solution at 90° C (194° F). ATR tube: Abbreviation for anti-transmit-receive tube attachment: A fitting or accessory to be used in conjunction with a tool, such as a grinding disc for use with an electric drill.
Also see bearing attachment inner attachment face

attachment face:
See inner attachment face

attack: [1] Chemical corrosion of metal. [2] To damage something by corrosion.
Also see angle of attack base metal attack pickling attack

attack angle: The angle of the rear spoiler where it is most effective against lift. attendant parking: Parking which is left to a valet and supervised by an attendant. attenuated total reflection: Spectroscopic method of analyzing thin films on reflective substrates, esp. using infrared radiation. attenuation: [1] A reduction of noise or emission. [2] General term for reduction in magnitude, amplitude, or intensity of a physical quantity, arising from absorption, scattering, or geometrical dispersion. The latter, arising from diminution by the inverse square law, is not generally considered as attenuation proper. attenuation coefficient: The coefficient which expresses energy losses of electromagnetic radiation due to both absorption and scattering in a medium. Relevant to narrow beam conditions. Also called total absorption coefficient attenuation compensation: The use of networks to correct for frequency-dependent attenuation, e.g., in transmission lines.
Also see pre-emphasis

attenuation constant: The real part of α in the relationship ρ=ρe- αx, where ρ is a physical quantity, such as the amplitude of a wave propagating along a transmission path, and x is the distance along the path. The imaginary part of α is known as the phase constant. More simply, but less commonly defined by μ = αλ where μ is the attenuation and λ is wavelength, i.e., α is the attenuation per wavelength distance of propagation.
Also see decibel neper

propagation constant

attenuation distortion: Distortion of a complex waveform resulting from the differing attenuation of each separate frequency component in the signal. This form of distortion is difficult to avoid, e.g., in transmission lines. attenuation of X-rays: Absorption and scattering of X-rays as they pass through an object. attenuator: An arrangement of fixed or variable resistive elements designed to reduce the strength of any signal (audio- or radio-frequency) without reducing appreciable distortion. Attenuators also incorporate impedance matching to the transmission lines or circuits to which they are connected, regardless of the attenuation they introduce. For lower frequency applications they may be simply variable or fixed resistances, for high frequencies they may be pieces of resistive material, introduced into transmission lines, stripline, or waveguide. Fixed attenuators are sometimes referred to as pad. attitude: Of an aircraft in flight, the angle made by its axes with the relative airflow; the aspect is the angle made by its axes with the ground when the aircraft is on the ground. attitude indicator: A gyro horizon which indicates the true attitude of the aircraft in pitch and roll throughout 360° about these axes.
Also see heading indicator

attracted-disk electrometer: Fundamental instrument in which potential is measured by the attraction between two oppositely charged disks. attrition:

A process of wearing out an object by friction. attrition test: A test for the determination of the wear-resisting properties of stone, particularly stone for road-making. Pieces of the stone are placed in a closed cylinder, which is then rotated for a given time, after which the loss of weight due to wear is found. Attwood's formula: A formula for determining the moment of static stability at large angles of heel of a ship. Taking angle of heel θ, and the weight of the ship W, the moment where v is the volume of emerged wedge, hh1 is the distance between the cg's of emerged and immersed wedges, V is the volume of displacement, B is the center of transverse buoyancy, and G is the center of gravity. ATV: Acronym for "All Terrain Vehicle." at your back door: Trucker slang for "behind your truck" as in "You got a Smokey at your back door!". Auburn: A vehicle brand of which all 8 and 12-cylinder models from 1925-1948 are classic cars.
. Click for books on Auburn

audax: A style of group bicycle touring found in Europe (esp. France) where a road captain sets a steady pace for a group of riders. All riders are to finish together, but (unlike regular randonneuring) a sag wagon is permitted. Audax Club Parisien:

A cycle-touring club in Paris, France which begun in 1904 to promote the audax style of randonneuring. Audi: A German automobile manufacturer which began in 1899 has four interlocking rings as its emblem. These rings represent the 1932 union of four automakers (Audi, DKW, Horch, and Wanderer). Later NSU joined in 1969. Audi was owned by Daimler-Benz from 1958 to 1965, and . then by Volkswagen.

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audibility: Ability to be heard; said of faint sounds in the presence of noise. The extreme range of audibility is 20-20,000 Hz in frequency, depending on the applied intensity; and from 2 x 10-5Nm-2(ms) at 1000 Hz (the zero of the phon scale, selected as the average for good ears) to 120 dB. audible ringing tone: An audible tone fed back to a caller as an indication that ringing current has been remotely extended to the called subscriber's telephone. On circuits in UK it is heard as a double beat recurring at 2 second intervals. Also called audible signal audible signal:
See audible ringing tone

audio codec: A codec for use in a multimedia system, designed to handle a range of sound signals in addition to speech au diode:
See backward diode

audio dub: Replacing the existing audio with new audio-frequency: Frequency which, in an acoustic wave, makes it audible. In general, any wave motion including frequencies in the range of 20 Hz to 20 kHz. audio-frequency amplifier: Amplifier for frequencies within the audible range. audio-frequency choke: Inductor with appreciable reactance at audio-frequencies. audio-frequency modulation: Method of facsimile transmission in which tone values from black to white are represented by a graded system of audio-frequencies audio-frequency transformer: Transformer for use in a communication channel or amplifier, designed with a specified, normally uniform, response for frequencies used in sound reproduction. audiogram: Standard graph or chart which indicates the hearing loss (in bels) of an individual ear in terms of frequency.
Also see objective noise meter sound-level meter

audiometer: Instrument for measurement of acuity of hearing. Specifically to measure the minimum intensities of sounds perceivable by an ear for specified frequencies.
Also see noise audiometer

auditory perspective:

See stereophony

auger effect: For an atom which has been ionized by the ejection of an inner electron, the loss of energy by the ejection of an outer electron. Energies of the Auger electrons emitted are characteristic of the atomic energy levels, provided a method of determining surface composition and character. auger yield: For a given excited state of an atom of a given element, the probability of de- excitation by Auger process instead of by X-ray emission. augmentor: [1] Means of increasing forces by afterburning in a gas turbine. [2] Means of increasing forces by induced airflow in a rocket. [3] Means of increasing forces in a wing of STOL aircraft by ducting compressed air flow from a gas turbine into circulation-increasing slots and flaps to create high lift coefficients, thereby giving slow landing speeds. aural masking:
See masking

aureole: Liminous glow from the outer portion of electric arc which has a spectrum different from that of the highly-ionized core. auroral zone: Zone where radio transmission is affected by aurora ausforming: Working an alloy steel in the metastable austenite condition. The material is first heated to a temperature where the austenite is stable, i.e., above the Ac3 temperature, and is then cooled rapidly to the region of 550°C and worked to shape before any transformation to pearlite or bainite takes place. It transforms to martensite on cooling at ambient temperature and is then tempered. Strength and toughness are enhanced compared with the

same material worked conventionally in the austenite region and quenched and tempered as separate operations.
Also see isothermal transformation diagram

austempering: Heating a steel to transform it to austenite followed by cooling rapidly to a temperature above the martensitic change point, but below the critical range, so that the austenite isothermally transforms to bainite, which has properties resembling a quenched and tempered steel of the same composition.
Also see isothermal transformation diagram

austenite: The higher density, high-temperature, face-centered cubic, γ form of iron and of solid solutions based on it. In pure iron it is stable between 1183K and 1663K. austenite bay: The shape of the region around 550°C in an isothermal transformation diagram which defines the zone where austenite is metastable and remains in that condition pending transformation to pearlite or bainite austenitic steel: Steel containing sufficient amounts of nickel, nickel and chromium, or manganese to retain austenite at atmospheric temperature, e.g., austenitic stainless steel and Hadfield's manganese steel Austin Healey: A vehicle brand of which the 100-6 models from 1956-59 are milestone cars. The 3000 models from 1959-67 are milestone cars. The 100/100M model from 1953-56 are milestone cars.

. Click for books on Austin

Austro-Daimler: A vehicle brand of which the 1925-1948 models are classic cars. authentication center: A node within a personal communications network containing the database files needed to check that potential users have authority to use the system. authority:
See Lean Authority Limit Switch

Authority Limit:
See lean Authority Limit Switch

Authority Limit Switch:
See lean Authority Limit Switch

authorized dealer: A company which sells and services a particular brand of vehicle and is appointed or recommended by a manufacturer. auto: [1] Abbreviation for automatic transmission. [2] Abbreviation for automobile. auto-adhesion: Bonding together of identical surfaces, as with contact adhesives. auto-assemble: System of videotape editing in which selected scenes are transferred in their required sequence according to a pre-selected program of time-code information. auto bonnet: A British term for a car cover. autocapacitance coupling:

Coupling of two circuits by a capacitor included in series with a common branch autochoke: A term for automatic choke. autoclave: A sealable high-pressure container used for polymerization and in tire production. auto coarse pitch: The setting of the blades of a propeller to the minimum drag position if there is a loss of engine power during take-off autocollimator: [1] An instrument for accurately measuring small changes in the inclination of reflecting surfaces. Principally used for engineering metrology measurements. [2] A convex mirror used to produce a parallel beam of light from a reflecting telescope. It is placed at the focus of the main mirror. autocorrelation: Technique for detecting weak signals against a strong background level. Signal is subjected to controlled delay, the original delay signals then being fed to the autocorrelation unit which responds strongly only if delay is an exact multiple of signal period. autocross: A timed competition of low-to-medium speed driving, with one driver at a time navigating a small course defined by traffic cones. Drivers compete against one another for the fastest timed lap (sometimes multiple laps) through the course. autocue: A visual prompter which displays a script to persons in front of a TV camera. Normally mounted on the camera to give eye contact with the viewers.

autocycle: An obsolete moped which is a form of a light motorcycle with a small engine (usually below 100cc) that uses pedals to start the engine and provide some extra help getting up hills. auto dealer: A retail outlet that carries one (or in some cases in the U.S., a number of) manufacturer's product line and sells to general consumers and fleet operators. The outlet will also provide service and sell parts for the brand of vehicle that it carries. In some instances, a dealer may dual for another manufacturer's product line. autodealership: A retail outlet that carries one (or in some cases in the U.S., a number of) manufacturer's product line and sells to general consumers and fleet operators. The outlet will also provide service and sell parts for the brand of vehicle that it carries. In some instances, a dealer may dual for another manufacturer's product line. autodyne: Term describing an electrical circuit in which the same elements and valves are used both as oscillator and detector. Also called endodyne, or self-heterodyne. autodyne receiver: A receiver utilizing the principle of beat reception and including an autodyne oscillator. autoflare: An automatic landing system which operates on the flare-out part of the landing, using an accurate radio-altimeter. autofocus assist: Device which improves autofocus performance in low light by projecting a high contrast light pattern onto the subject.
Also see

automatic focusing

auto graveyard: An auto wrecker where a large number of older or disabled cars and trucks are located. autoignition: [1] The rapid burning of the air-fuel mixture as a result of a flame or hot surface, not from a spark plug. [2] The self-ignition or spontaneous combustion of a fuel when introduced into the heated air charge in the cylinder of a compression-ignition engine. Also called automatic ignition.
Also see spontaneous ignition temperature

auto-inductive coupling: Coupling of two circuits by an inductance included in series with a common branch. autojumble: A British term for a "swap meet" where parts for old cars are displayed for sale in various stalls. autoland: A landing in which the descent, forward speed, flare-out, alignment with the runway, and touchdown are all automatically controlled.
Also see autoflare autothrottle

automated guided vehicle system: (AGVS) Vehicles equipped with automatic guidance equipment which follow a prescribed path, stopping at each machining or assembly station for manual loading and unloading of parts. automatic: [1] Colloquial term for automatic transmission. [2] Anything that operates without the direct control of the driver.

Also see automatic choke automatic gearbox automatic level control automatic temperature control automatic transmission automatic transmission fluid

automatic adjuster: Brake adjusters that are actuated by the application of the park brake or by normal brake operation to compensate for lining wear. At one time, in order to activate the brake adjuster, it was necessary to operate the vehicle in reverse and hit the brakes. automatic adjusters: Brake adjusters that are actuated by the application of the parking brake or by normal brake operation, to compensate for lining wear. automatic advance: A mechanism which adjusts the ignition advance by means of centrifugal weights or by a diaphragm controlled by intake manifold vacuum. automatic air-conditioning: An air-conditioning system which automatically maintains a preset temperature.
Also see automatic temperature control

automatic air-recirculation system: A heating and ventilation system which automatically switches to the recirculation mode when the pollutant levels of the air inside the vehicle exceed certain levels; but after a certain period of recirculation, opens the intake air doors again to let some fresh air in, even if its quality is still questionable. automatic arc lamp: An arc lamp in which the feeding of the carbons into the arc and the striking of the arc are done automatically, by electromagnetic or other means.

automatic arc welding: Arc welding carried out in a machine which automatically moves the arc along the joint to be welded, feeds the electrode into the arc, and controls the length of the arc. automatic beam control: (ABC) System in a TV camera which momentarily alters the beam current in the camera tube to reduce the tailing effects on moving highlights. Also called automatic beam optimizer automatic beam optimizer:
See automatic beam control

automatic brightness control: Circuit used in some television receivers to keep average brightness levels of screen constant automatic call distribution: An intelligent network service which takes account of factors such as time of day or caller location to route calls to the appropriate point within an organization. automatic camera: Camera in which the focus lens aperture and shutter speed are selected automatically, film advance by motor drive may also be included. Priority selection may be available, for example, exposure based on either general or spot areas and with aperture or shutter speed limitations. automatic car wash:
See car wash

automatic choke: A device attached to the carburetor that automatically reduces the amount of air entering the carburetor by sensing changes in engine temperature. It is usually controlled by a coil spring which changes length as the engine is warmed or cooled.

automatic circuit-breaker: A circuit breaker which automatically opens the circuit as soon as certain predetermined conditions (e.g., an overload) occur. automatic closing system: A system which automatically closes the doors, windows, sunroof, trunk, and hood. automatic contrast control: Form of automatic gain control used in video signal channel of a television receiver. automatic control: [1] Valve action reached through self-operated or self-actuated means, not requiring manual adjustment. [2] Switching system which operates control switches in correct sequence and at correct intervals automatically. [3] Control system incorporating servomechanism or similar device, so that feedback signal from output of system is used to adjust the controls and maintain optimum operating conditions. automatic cut-out: A term frequently applied to a small automatic circuit breaker suitable for dealing with currents of a few amperes. automatic defrost:

System of removing ice and frost from evaporators automatically. automatic direction finding: (ADF) Airborne navigational aid tuned to radio source of known position. Using rotatable loop aerial mounted above in aircraft to detect the direction of the radio source by rotating until the signal is zero. automatic expansion valve: (AEV) pressure-controlled valve which reduces high-pressure liquid refrigerant to low-pressure liquid refrigerant.
Also see expansion valve

automatic exposure: (AE) A control system using a photosensor in the camera to measure scene brightness and automatically set the lens aperture/shutter speed combination. Refinements include measuring particular areas of the scene and program exposure modes. A video camera uses the video signal to determine exposure. automatic flight control system: (AFCS) A category of automatic pilot for the control of an aircraft while en route. It can be monitored by speed and altitude data signals, signals from an instrument landing system and VOR, has automatic approach capability, and is disengaged before landing. Compare autoflare, autoland, autothrottle automatic focusing: (AF) Control system for automatically setting the lens focus to the subject distance; in a simple form, this may be by means of coupled range-finder but advanced types employ completely automatic examination of the image. In an enlarger or rostrum camera, lens focus is mechanically set by the distance from the base. automatic four-wheel drive: (A4WD) A driving system that automatically engages 4WD as needed, usually by monitoring differences in individual wheel speeds and thus sensing when a tire is slipping.

automatic frequency control: (AFC) FM stations tend to drift a little, so radios have incorporated the frequency control to maintain the desired frequency automatically. automatic frost control: Control which automatically cycles refrigerating system to remove frost formation on evaporator. automatic gain control: (AGC) System in amplifiers which compensates for a wide range of input signals to give a more uniform level of output and thus accommodate for a wide range of conditions including fading, masking of antenna, and ambient light. automatic gearbox:
See automatic transmission

automatic generating plant: A small generating station, e.g., a gasoline or diesel driven generator and battery which is automatically started when the battery voltage falls below a certain value and stopped when it is fully charged. The term is also applied to the plant in small unattended hydroelectric generating stations. automatic ice cube maker: Refrigerating mechanism designed to automatically produce ice cubes in quantity. automatic ignition: Rapid, out of control combustion of the air-fuel mixture in a spark ignition engine, but not caused by an external ignition source such as a spark, flame; instead, its caused by a hot spot such as a carbon deposit in the roof of the combustion chamber. Also called auto-ignition. automatic level control: A component of the suspension which raises or lowers either (or both) the front or rear of the vehicle when there is a change in the amount of load in

the vehicle. automatic mixture control: A device for adjusting the fuel delivery to a reciprocating engine in proportion to air density. automatic muting: An automobile radio which cancels noise output when you turn the station dial. automatic observer: An apparatus for recording, photographically or electronically, the indications of a large number of measuring instruments on experimental research aircraft. automatic parachute: A parachute for personnel which is extracted from its pack by a static line attached to the aircraft. automatic phase control: In reproducing color TV images, the circuit which interprets the phase of the chrominance signal as a signal to be sent to a matrix. automatic pilot: A device for guiding and controlling an aircraft on a given path. It may be set by the pilot or externally by radio control. Also called autopilot. Colloquially called George automatic quiet gain control: Joint use of automatic gain control and muting automatic reel change: On rotary machines, equipment to attach a new reel to an old web, without stopping the machine and severing the butt end of the old web. Also called autopaster or flying paster.

automatic ride control: Electronically operated soft or firm ride as required. automatic screw machine: Fully automatic single-spindle or multiple-spindle bar stock turret lathe. automatic seat belt:
See inertia reel seat belt

automatic shutter: In a film projector, a shutter which cuts off the light when the mechanism stops, to protect the film from heat. automatic signalling: A system of railway signalling, usually with electric control, in which the signals behind a train are automatically put to "danger" as soon as the train has passed, and held in that position until the train has attained the next section of line. automatic slip-control differential: (ASD) An electronically controlled, automatic locking differential developed by Mercedes-Benz. automatic speed control:
See cruise control

automatic stabilizer: A form of automatic pilot, operating about one or more axes, adjusted to counteract dynamic instability. Also called autostabilizer.
Also see damper

automatic starter: A starter for an electric motor which automatically performs the various starting operations (e.g., cutting out steps of starting resistance) in the correct sequence, after being given an initial impulse by means of a push-

button or other similar device. automatic steering effect: Built in tendency of an automobile to resume travel in a straight line when released from a turn. automatic stoker:
See mechanical stoker

automatic substation: A substation containing rotating machinery which, as occasion demands, is started and stopped automatically, e.g., by a voltage relay which operates when the voltage falls below or rises above a certain predetermined value. automatic synchronizer: A device which performs the process of synchronization in an ac circuit automatically automatic tap-changing equipment: A voltage-regulating device which automatically changes the tapping on the winding of a transformer to regulate the voltage in a desired manner. automatic temperature control: A system which regulates the heater and air conditioner so that the temperature inside the vehicle meets the preset temperature. automatic test equipment: (ATE) An electronic equipment for testing ignition, wiring, fuel injection systems, etc. automatic tracking: [1] Servo control of radar system operated by a received signal, to keep antenna aligned on target. [2] Maintenance of head-track alignment in a helical scan VTR over a range of playback speeds. This may be achieved by control signals recorded in the video tracks (instead of a control track) or by sensing variations in radio-frequency amplitude caused by azimuth recording, with

either being used to adjust the servo mechanism or the position of heads on piezoelectric mounts.
Also see dynamic track following

automatic train stop: A catch, used in conjunction with an automatic signalling system, which engages a trip-cock on the train passes a signal at danger. automatic transmission: A mechanism of the drivetrain which takes the power from the engine and transfers it to the driveshaft or wheels. Without using a clutch, it uses a torque converter and fluid coupler to change the gear ratio. It automatically effects gear changes to meet varying road and load conditions. Gear changing is done through a series of oil operated clutches and bands. automatic transmission fluid: (ATF) A very thin viscosity liquid designed for use in automatic transmissions to transfer the movement of the torque converter to the driveshaft. However it is also recommended for use in the forks of motorcycles. When poured into the throat of an automobile carburetor, it helps to remove a build-up of carbon on the cylinder head and the domes of pistons. automatic trolley reverser: An arrangement of the overhead contact line of a tramway, located at terminal points, which ensures that the trolley collector is reversed when the direction of motion of the car is reversed. automatic tuning:

[1] System of tuning in which any of a number of predetermined transmissions may be selected by means of push-buttons or similar devices. [2] Fine tuning of receiver circuits by electronic means, following rough tuning by hand. automatic voltage regulator: A voltage regulator which automatically holds the voltage of a distribution circuit or an alternator constant within certain limits, or causes it to vary in a predetermined manner.
Also see automatic tap-changing equipment moving-coil regulator

automatic volume compression: Reduction of signal voltage range from sounds which vary widely in volume, e.g., orchestral music. This is necessary before they can be recorded or broadcast but ideally requires corresponding expansion in the reproducing system to compensate. automatic volume control: (AVC)[1]Alteration of the contrast (dynamics) of sound during reproduction by any means. By compression (compounder) a higher level of average signal is obtained for modulation of a carrier, the expansion (expander) performing the reverse function at the receiver. In high-fidelity reproduction, arbitrary expansion can be disturbing because of variation in background noise, if present. [2] An automobile radio which automatically limits the maximum volume to a preset level. automatic volume expansion: Expansion of dynamic range, e.g., by keeping peak level constant and automatically reducing the lower levels. Used to counteract loss of dynamic range through studio or recording equipment, or during transmission. automatic wear adjuster:

A device that automatically compensates for the wear of brakes or clutch. automatic welding: Welding in which the work, the torch, and/or the arc is mechanically moved and controls are used to control the speed and/or the direction of travel. automatic white balance: (AWB) A self-adjusting balancing system which monitors the lighting and corrects for changes in color temperature automatic wire stripper: A tool which removes the outer insulation from a wire by automatically adjusting to the size of the wire thus avoiding damaging the wires.

automixte system: A system of operation of gasoline-electric vehicles in which a battery, connected in parallel with the generator, supplies current during starting and heavy-load periods and is charged by the generator during light-load periods. Also called Pieper system automobile: Four-wheeled passenger motor vehicle having a seating capacity for not more than 10 people. It includes police cars and racing cars but not ambulances, hearses, or trucks. In Britain, the word "automobile" is not in frequent use and has been replaced by "motor car." automobile association: A motoring club which provides assistance to drivers including insurance, maps, travel arrangements, etc.
Also see AA AAA Royal Automobile Club

Automobile Club:
See AA AAA Royal Automobile Club

automobile engineering:
See automotive engineering

automobile industry: The manufacturing industry for building automobiles. Also called motor industry. automobile insurance: A plan which a motorist can purchase for his vehicle which will offset the repair costs of a vehicle which has been involved in an accident. Some plans are offered by a government agency while others are run by independent agencies. All plans offer the basic coverage of property damage and public liability. Others offer extra benefits which cover glass damage, theft, vandalism, etc. Automobile Labelling Act:
See American Automobile Labelling Act

automobile manufacturer: An company which designs, builds, and distributes cars and trucks. Also called motor manufacturer. automobile mechanic: An individual who repairs and maintains cars and trucks. Also called (especially in Britain) motor mechanic. automobile polish: A wax or synthetic which is designed to give a glossy, protective finish to a painted surface. Also called car polish..

automotive: Relating to or occurring in automobiles. automotive adhesive: A glue used in the manufacturing of automobiles. automotive electrician: An individual who works with designing the electrical system for automobiles. automotive electronics: The use of electronic equipment in automobiles. automotive emissions: All the different types of fumes that are expelled into the atmosphere (exhaust gas, fuel fumes, crankcase fumes) as well as the noise it makes. automotive engineering: The design and construction of automobiles. Automotive Engineers:
See society of Automotive Engineers

automotive gas oil: (AGO) US term for gas oil used mainly as diesel fuel; same as the UK term DERV Automotive Repair and Service Council:
See Canadian Automotive Repair and Service Council

automotive tool: Any of the tools used in the construction, maintenance, or repair of automobiles.

autonomics: Study of self-regulating systems for process control, optimizing performance. autonomous vehicle: Generally unmanned aircraft operating without external assistance Auto Pact base year: With respect to the Auto Pact, the 12 month period beginning on August 1, 1963, and ending on July 31, 1964. Auto Pact Canadian value added: The aggregate of the costs of parts, material, labour costs, and transportation costs that are reasonably attributed to the production of vehicles or parts by manufacturers producing vehicles in Canada. Autopar: Trade name of Chrysler Corp for its automobile parts (i.e., AUTOmobilePARts). Chrysler also uses the name Mopar to indicate its motor parts (i.e., MOtorPARts). auto parts store: Jobber and retail auto parts stores which primarily sell automotive products and conduct business at the retail level. autopaster:
See automatic reel change

See automatic pilot

autoplate: A machine which can deliver a curved stereoplate for rotary printing; built to suit the requirements of each particular rotary machine. autoradiograph:

Photographic record, usually of a biological specimen, produced by exposure to radiation from self-contained radioactive material which has been injected or absorbed. auto-reclose circuit breaker: A circuit breaker which, after tripping due to a fault, automatically recloses after a time interval which may be adjusted to have any value between a fraction of a second and 1 or 2 minutes auto reverse: A feature on a cassette player which will automatically play the next side of a cassette tape when one side is finished. autorotation: [1] The spin; continuous rotation of a symmetrical body in a uniform airstream due entirely to aerodynamic moments. [2] Unpowered rotorcraft flight, in a helicopter with engine stopped, in which the symmetrical airfoil rotates at high incidence parallel with the airflow. autoset level: A form of dumpy level for rapid operation, in which the essential features are a quick-levelling head, and an optical device which neutralizes errors of levelling so that the bubbles need not be central while an observation is being made. autostabilizer:
See automatic stabilizer

autostick: A trademark name for a form of semi-automatic transmission. It combines an automatic transmission with the gear-shifting feature of a manual transmission without the use of a foot-operated clutch. In the normal automatic transmission drive mode, the transmission behaves like any other automatic. The manual-shifting feature allows more control over the full range of rpms an engine offers. Porsche and Audi offer a related transmission technology called "Tiptronic." The Lexus GS400 also has a similar transmission but instead of using a stick to change gears it employs

buttons on the steering wheel. Several other automakers offer similar technologies. autosynchronous motor:
See synchronous induction motor

autothermic piston: An aluminum piston in which steel or alloy inserts are cast to control expansion of the piston skirt. autothrottle: A device for controlling the power of an aero-engine to keep the approach path angle and speed constant during an automatic blind landing. autotransductor: Transductor in which the same winding is used for power transfer and control autotransformer: Transformer in which both primary and secondary coils have turns in common. Step-up or step-down of voltage is accomplished by taps on common winding. autotransformer starter: A starter for squirrel-cage induction motors, in which the voltage, applied to the motor at starting is reduced by means of an autotransformer. auto wrecker: A place where old and disabled cars and truck go. The parts are removed and sold. Also called an auto graveyard. AUX: Abbreviation for "auxiliary" usually indicating those terminals on the fuse panel for non-standard equipment. auxiliary:

Additionally, supplementary. auxiliary acceleration pump: (AAP) a pump that increases driveability during cold engine operation by providing an extra amount of fuel to the acceleration nozzle to supplement the main acceleration pump. auxiliary air bleeds: Used on some idle systems to add air to the idle system downstream from the regular idle air bleed; they act in parallel with idle air bleed. auxiliary air intake: [1] An air intake for accessories, cooling, cockpit air, etc. [2] Additional intake for turbojet engines when running at full power on the ground, usually spring loaded so that it will open only at a predetermined suction value. auxiliary air valve: A device which allows air to bypass a closed throttle during engine start and warm-up, in order to maintain a higher idle speed. The auxiliary air valve provides extra air into the intake manifold during cold engine starting for a higher idle speed during warm-up. auxiliary brake light: Additional brake lights mounted at eye level in the rear window or on the rear fenders. They are designed to give a following vehicle more notice of your presence and intention of stopping. auxiliary contact:
See auxiliary switch

auxiliary drive shaft: A secondary drive shaft which powers the fuel pump, water pump, or distributor. auxiliary driving lamp:

A light which supplements the headlights such as a fog light or spot light. auxiliary driving light: A light which supplements the headlamps such as a fog light or spot light. auxiliary gearbox: An extra gearbox used in conjunction with the main (manual) gearbox to provide an additional range of speeds. auxiliary gauge: The gauge which indicates compressor inlet pressure on older Chrysler Corporation vehicles with an Evaporator Pressure Regulator (EPR) valve; also used to measure evaporator pressure on some Ford vehicles with a Suction Throttling Valve (STV). auxiliary leaf: An extra leaf in a set of leaf springs. Also called helper leaf or helper spring. auxiliary lighting: Extra lighting such as fog lights, spot light, and driving lights which are intended to improve visibility under adverse conditions. auxiliary plant: A term used in generating-station practice to cover the condenser pumps, mechanical stokers, feed-water pumps, and other equipment used with the main boiler, turbine, and generator plant. auxiliary pole:
See compole

auxiliary power unit: (APU) An independent airborne engine to provide power for ancillary equipment, electrical services, starting, etc. May be a small reciprocating or turbine.

auxiliary rotor: A small rotor mounted at the tail of a helicopter, usually in a perpendicular plane, which counteracts the torque of the main rotor; used to give directional and rotary control to the aircraft. auxiliary shaft: In an overhead cam engine, a separate shaft that drives devices such as the fuel pump, the oil pump, and the distributor. auxiliary switch: A small switch operated mechanically from a main switch or circuit breaker; used for operating such auxiliary devices as alarm bells, indicators, etc. Also called auxiliary contact auxiliary tanks:
See fuel tank

auxiliary transmission: Additional gear box increasing the gear ratio combinations when used with main transmission or multi-speed axles. auxiliary venturi:
See booster venturi

auxiliary winding: A special winding on a machine or transformer, additional to the main winding. auxometer: An apparatus for measuring the magnifying power of an optical system available power efficiency: The ratio of electrical power available at the terminals of an electroacoustic transducer to the acoustical power output of the transducer. The latter should conform with the reciprocity principle so that the efficiency in sound reception is equal to that in transmission.

available power gain: The ratio of the available power output of an amplifier to the input power; equal to power gain only when the output of the device or circuit is correctly matched to the load. available power response: For an electroacoustic transducer, the ratio of mean square sound pressure at a distance of 1 meter, in a defined direction from the "acoustic center" of the transducer, to the available electrical power input. The response will be expressed in dB above the reference response of 1 μbar²W-1 of available electrical power. avalanche: Self-augmentation of ionization.
Also see Townsend avalanche Zener effect

avalanche diode: A semiconductor breakdown diode, usually silicon, in which avalanche breakdown occurs across the entire p-n junction, giving a voltage drop which is constant and independent of current. Avalanche diodes break down much more sharply than Zener diodes. Used in high-speed switching circuits and microwave oscillators. avalanche effect: Cumulative multiplication of carriers in a semiconductor because of avalanche breakdown. This occurs when the electric field across the barrier region is strong enough to allow production and cumulative multiplication of carriers by ionization. avalanche photodiode: A photosensitive avalanche diode used as the detector in optical fiber systems. Its avalanche multiplication factor improves the receiver signalto-noise ratio by enhancing signal power without increasing thermal noise.

avalanche transistor: A transistor depending on avalanche breakdown to produce hole-electron pairs. It can give very high gain in the common-emitter mode or very rapid switching. Avalon: A model of automobile manufactured by Toyota

. Click for books on Toyota Avalon

See traction avant

AVC: Acronym for " automatic volume control". average: [1] A calculation in which the mean value or rate is determined. The average speed is determined by dividing the distance by the time (e.g., 273 kilometers divided by 3 hours = 91 kph). Average fuel consumption is determined as a ratio of fuel and distance. In the metric system, this is determined by multiplying the number of liters by 100 and dividing the result by the number of kilometers (e.g., 31.38 liters times 100 divided by 273 kilometers = 11.49 liters / 100 km). In the Imperial system divide the number of miles by the amount of fuel in gallons (e.g., 173 miles divided by 6.9 gallons = 25 mpg). [2] Loss or damage of marine property, less than total: compensation payment in proportion to amount insured. average current: The current obtained by adding together the products of currents flowing in a circuit and the times for which they flow and dividing by the total time considered. For direct current the average value is constant; for true alternating current, the average value is zero.

Average Fuel Economy:
See Corporate Average Fuel Economy

average haul distance: The distance between the center of gravity of a cutting and that of the embankment formed from material excavated from the cutting. average power output: In an amplitude-modulated transmission, the radio-frequency power delivered by a transmitter, averaged over one cycle or other specified interval of the modulating signal. average weekly earnings: Gross taxable payrolls divided by the number of employees. avgas: Abbreviation for aviation gasoline.
Also see aviation spirit

aviation bi-phase shift keying: A digital modulation scheme in which a "1" is represented by a +90° phase transition and a "0" by a -90° transition of the carrier aviation fuel: A high octane fuel used primarily in aircraft but also used in racing vehicles to improve performance. Generally liquid hydrocarbons, because of high heat of combustion per unit of fuel mass (specific energy) and volume (energy density), ease of combustion, moderate volatility and viscosity, and good thermal stability and capacity. Liquid hydrogen and pentaborane (B5H9) have also been used experimentally.
Also see aviation gasoline aviation kerosine

aviation gasoline:

(AVGAS) Blends of liquid hydrocarbons, almost all petroleum products boiling between 32° and 220°C, with anti-knock rating from 80 octane number to 145 performance number. Only small quantities are now used.
Also see aviation fuel aviation kerosine

aviation kerosine: For gas turbine engines, fuel which typically boils over the range 144°252°C. Variants include Jet A-1 (AVTUR), the international jet fuel; Jet B (AVTAG), a blend of naphtha with kerosine now being phased out except for use in cold climates; AVCAT, a naval jet fuel with high flash-point for safety in enclosed spaces in ships; AVPIN, an aviation isopropyl nitrate; and AVGARD, trade name for an additive with anti-misting properties.
Also see aviation gasoline

aviation spirit: (avgas) A motor fuel with a low initial boiling point and complying with a certain specification, for use in aircraft. Ranges from 73 to 120/130 octane rating.
Also see aviation kerosine wide-cut fuel

aviatrix: Female aviator avionics: The collective word for a spacecraft or aircraft's subsystem elements which involve electronic principles. A contraction of "aviation electronics." a-vis:
See vis-a-vis

avoidance system:
See collision avoidance system


Abbreviation for aviation isopropyl nitrate avpol: Abbreviation for aviation petrol, oil, and lubricant avtag: Abbreviation for aviation wide-cut turbine fuel.
Also see wide-cut fuel

avtur: Abbreviation for aviation turbine fuel.
Also see aviation kerosine

AWACS: Abbreviation for airborne warning and control system aware:
See environmentally aware

AWB: Acronym for automatic white balance AWD: Acronym for " all-wheel drive." awl: A pointed or flat tool used to probe nail holes and injuries as well as for installing a repair plug. awning: A canvas roof which is stretched out from a parked trailer or camper to give protection from the sun and rain. awning deck:

A superstructure deck, as the name implies. In its simplest form, it is the top deck of a two-deck ship, and places the ship in a certain category for scantling and freeboard. Axe: Trade name for a range of digital switches manufactured by the Swedish company I. M. Ericsson Telefonaktiebolaget. axes: Plural of axis axial compressor: [1] A compressor characterized by the unusual piston arrangement. The pistons are arranged horizontally around and parallel to the crankshaft axis or centerline. [2] A multistage, high-efficiency compressor comprising alternate rows of moving and fixed blades attached to a rotor and its casing respectively. axial engine: Turbine engine with an axial-flow compressor. axial-flow compressor: A compressor in which alternate rows of radially-mounted rotating and fixed airfoil blades pass the air through an annular passage of decreasing area in an axial direction. axial-flow turbine: Characteristic aero-engine turbine, usually of 1-3 rotating stages, in which the gas flow is substantially axial axial pitch: The distance from any point on one thread or helix to the corresponding point on the next thread or helix measured along the axis of the screw or helix. axial ratio:

Ratio of major to minor axis of polarization ellipse for e.g., a wave propagated in waveguide, polarized light. Also called ellipticity axial response: The response of a microphone or loudspeaker, measured with the soundmeasuring device on the axis of the appearance being tested. axial runout: Variation from the plane normal to its axis of a rotating part. Its wobble, rather than its eccentricity. Compare radial runout axiotron: Valve in which the electron stream to the anode is controlled by the magnetic field of the heating current axis: [1] The centerline, whether real or imaginary, around which a thing rotates. [2] One of the three axes of an aircraft, which are the straight lines through the center of gravity about which change of attitude occurs: longitudinal or drag axis in the plane of symmetry (roll); normal or lift axis vertically in the plane of symmetry (yaw); and the lateral or pitch axis transversely (pitch).
Also see wind axes

[3] Of a lens, the line of symmetry of the optical system; the line along which there is no refraction.
Also see cam-ground piston moment of inertia steering-swivel axis swivel axis eccentric bolt pivot axis steering axis inclination torque hotchkiss drive roll axis steering axis trailing arm kingpin axis self-aligning torque steering geometry kingpin inclination static balance steering knuckle angle.

axis inclination:
See steering axis inclination swivel axis inclination

axis of a weld:

An imaginary line along the center of gravity of the weld metal and perpendicular to a cross section of the weld metal. axle: An axle is a shaft on which the wheels revolve. A fullfloating axle is used to drive the rear wheels. It does not hold them on nor support them. A semi-floating or onequarter floating axle is used to drive the wheels, hold them on, and support them. A threequarter floating axle is used to drive the rear wheels as well as hold them on, but it does not support them. A live axle holds the wheels and transmits power to the wheels. A dead axle or beam axle merely holds the wheels, but does not transmit power to the wheels.
Also see ackermann axle Elliot axle rear axle housing tandem axle back axle Elliot type axle rear axle ratio three-quarter floating banjo axle front axle reverse-Elliot type axle beam axle full-floating axle axle torque tube axle cambered axle gross axle weight rating reversed Elliot axle trailing axle dead axle hypoid axle rigid axle twin axle de Dion axle I-beam axle rigid axle connection twist-beam rear axle driven axle Jeantaud axle and semi-floating axle two-speed axle driving axle steering slewed axles weissach axle drop-center live axle spread axle z-axle. axle low pivot swing axle steering axle dropped axle rear axle crossmember stub axle dual axles rear axle differential swing axle .

axle and steering:
See jeantaud axle and steering

axle articulation:

The degree to which an axle can move up and down. Off-road vehicles need a great deal of axle articulation to allow for extremely uneven terrain, such as rocks or gullies. axle-box: Box-shaped housing containing the axle bearings and lubricant. Constrained laterally on guides and supports the weight of vehicle through springs. axle casing: A British term indicating a tubular housing which encloses the differential and half-shafts along with their bearings. The US term is " axle housing". axle connection:
See rigid axle connection

axle crossmember:
See rear axle crossmember

axle differential:
See rear axle differential

axle drive: The ring gear and pinion inside a differential housing.
Also see final drive

axle end gear:
See axle end gears

axle end gears: The two gears, one per axle, that are splined to the inner ends of the drive axles. They mesh with and are driven by the spider gears. axle flange: Flange to which a road wheel attaches at the end of an axleshaft.

axle housing: An American term indicating a tubular housing which encloses the differential and half-shafts along with their bearings. The British term is " axle casing."
Also see rear axle housing, banjo type rear axle housing rear axle housing, split type

axle housing banjo:
See rear axle housing, banjo type

axle housing banjo type:
See rear axle housing, banjo type

axle housing split:
See rear axle housing, split type

axle housing split type:
See rear axle housing, split type

axle load:
See axle weight

axle parallelism: Axles are determined to be parallel, thus minimizing tire wear, if a measurement between two or more axles is equal at both ends of the axle. axle ratio:
See back axle ratio rear axle ratio

See dual axles

axle shaft: [1] The short shaft which connects the differential and the drive shaft on each side of an independent suspension configuration.

[2] The drive shaft or halfshaft of a rigid axle. axle stand: An adjustable height tripod used to support a vehicle when working underneath it. Although you can raise the car with the jack, use an axle stand for safety. axle track: Distance between centerlines of tire tread measured across axle. axle tramp: A form of wheel hop which is usually found in live rear axle cars. It occurs when sudden torque loads on the suspension cause the driven wheels to shake violently by slightly rotating the wheels and then springing back. axle tube: The part of the axle housing which covers the half-shaft or a tubular rigid axle. axle weight: The part of the weight of the vehicle which rests on the wheels of the axle.
Also see gross axle weight rating

axle weight rating:
See gross axle weight rating

axle wind up: The phenomenon in which the torque transmitted to the wheels by the axle which causes the live axle to turn in its own centerline.

axonometry: Measurement of the axes of crystals Ayrton:
See Senna, Ayrton

azeotrope: Having constant maximum and minimum boiling points. azeotropic mixture: Example of azeotropic mixture: refrigerant R-502 is mixture consisting of 48.8 % refrigerant R-22 and 51.2% R-115. The refrigerants do not combine chemically, yet azeotropic mixture provides refrigeration characteristics desired azimuth: [1] The angle between the vertical plane containing a line or celestial body and the plane of the meridian, conventionally measured from north through east in astronomical computations, and from south through west in triangulation and precise traverse work.
Also see azimuth angle

[2] The angle, normally 90°, between the direction of motion of the film or tape and the slit or gap in the optical or magnetic head.
Also see bearing

azimuthal power instability: Abnormal neutron behavior which results in uneven nuclear conditions in the reactor azimuth angle: Horizontal angle of observed line with reference to true north. azimuth marker: Line on radar display made to pass through target so that the bearing may be determined.

azimuth recording: Employing heads with opposed azimuth angles to minimize crosstalk between adjacent tracks, each head attenuating the other recorded signal. Removes the need for guard bands. Also called slant-azimuth recording azimuth stabilized PPI: Form of plan position indicator display which is stabilized by a gyrocompass, so that the top of the screen always corresponds to north. azodicarbonamide: (ADC) Blowing agent used in structural foam molding to create foam core. Decomposes at about 190° C to give CO, CO2, and N2 gases. azusa: US radio-tracking system for missile guidance. BA: An abbreviation for "British Association" which is a term used to describe a series of fine, small diameter threads for electrical and precision equipment babbitt: An alloy of tin, copper, and antimony having good antifriction properties. Used as a facing for bearings. babbitt metal: See babbitt

baby seat: A specially designed seating device (which is not generally standard equipment) to hold safely very young children (usually under the weight of 10 kilograms).

BAC: Acronym for "Blood Alcohol Content" back:
See blow back die-back die back kamm back popping back spine-back

back axle: The rear axle back axle ratio: See final drive ratio backbone: See backbone frame. backbone chassis: See backbone frame

backbone frame: A frame, having the cross-section of a rectangular box, that runs along the center of the vehicle and occupies the space between the seats. This box generally divides at the front, running along each side of the gearbox and engine up to a crossmember to which the front suspension pieces are attached. At the rear a similar triangular frame encloses the final-drive housing and provides attaching points for the rear suspension. Lightness combined with high torsional rigidity are features of this frame design, made famous by Colin Chapman with the Lotus Elan.
Also see tubular backbone frame

backfire: [1] Passage of unburned fuel mixture into the exhaust system where it is ignited and causes an explosion (backfire) prematurely. [2] Sometimes ignition takes place in the intake manifold by a flame from a cylinder because the intake valve leaks. Burning of the fuel mixture in the intake manifold may be caused by faulty timing, crossed plug wires, leaky intake valve, etc. [3] A welding term referring to a short "pop" of the torch flame followed by extinguishing of the flame or continued burning of the gasses backfiring: Repeated backfires in the exhaust or the cylinders backflow scavenging: See loop scavenging backflushing: See flushing the cooling system. backhand welding: Welding in the direction opposite to the direction that the gas flame is pointing. Also called "backward welding."

backing: Some material placed on the root side of a weld to aid control of penetration.
Also see steel backing

backing pad: A rubber disc which is secured to a spindle which in turn is attached to a drill or other tool which rotates the spindle. An abrasive disc or polishing disc is secured to the backing pad. backing plate: The part of a drum brake to which the wheel cylinder(s) and the brake shoes are attached. See brake backing plate. backlash: The amount of "play" or clearance between two parts. In the case of gears, it refers to how much one gear can be moved back and forth without moving the gear into which it is meshed. backlight: The rear window of a vehicle. Most people call it a "rear window" and think of "backlight" as the taillight backlight heater: Heated rear window backlight defogging system: Heated rear window back panel: The panel of the body shell set underneath the trunk lid. It is sometimes referred to as the rear valance if the area below the trunk lid consists of only a single panel that extends down to the bottom of the body; in many designs, however, the rear valance is a separate horizontal panel that

extends from the rear bumper area downward. The British term is "rear panel" backplate: British term for brake backing plate back pressure: [1] The resistance to the flow of exhaust gases through the exhaust system. By rerouting the exhaust gases for noise suppression, a muffler causes back pressure, but a straight pipe alone causes only minimal back pressure. Some engines require back pressure, so that removing the exhaust system will cause internal damage. [2] Pressure in low side of refrigerating systems; also called suction pressure or low-side pressure
Also see exhaust back pressure negative back pressure valve negative back pressure modulated valve

back pressure modulated: See negative back pressure modulated valve back pressure modulated valve: See negative back pressure modulated valve back pressure valve: See negative back pressure valve backpressure variable transducer: (BVT) a system combining a ported EGR valve and a backpressure variable transducer to control emissions of NOx backrest: The back (upright) part of the seat against which your back reclines back-seat:

An air conditioning term which means to rotate a service valve counterclockwise all the way down until the valve is back-seated. When referring to a stem type service valve, the term has a more specific meaning-in the back-seated position, the valve outlet to the system is open and the service port in the valve is closed (its normal operating position) back seating: fluid opening/closing such as a gauge opening; to seat the joint where the valve stem goes through the valve body back-step welding: Welding small sections of a joint in a direction opposite the direction that the weld as a whole is progressing. back up: To go in reverse back up alarm: An annoying loud beeping which is repeatedly sounded when a vehicle (usually a large truck) is placed in reverse. It is designed to warn pedestrians behind the vehicle. The British term is "reversing warning signal" back up light: A white light which is located at the rear of the vehicle and is illuminated when the transmission is placed in reverse. The British term is "reversing light" back-voltage: Voltage which opposes the current when the current in an inductive circuit changes and the magnetic field cuts the conductors.
Also see self-induction back-voltage

backward welding:

See backhand welding BAC level: Blood Alcohol level badge: An emblem with a manufacturer's name and/or logo on a plate to identify a model or component.
Also see hood badge

badge engineering: When a manufacturer sells two identical vehicles but the model names are different, he is badge engineering. For example, General Motors may sell a vehicle as a Chevrolet or a Pontiac where the only difference is the model name, logo, and more or less chrome or other minor alterations. badging: The tendency of a manufacturer to engage in badge engineering baffle: An obstruction (e.g., plate or vane) used to slow down or divert the flow of gases, liquids, sound, etc. They are found in the fuel tank, crankcase, muffler, and radiator.

baffle plate: A metal plate that acts as a baffle. bag:
See air bag courier bag cruiser bag driver air bag passenger-side air bag shot bag

side impact air bag tank bag

bagger: a motorcycle equipped with saddlebags and other touring amenities bake: A process of drying or curing paint by using heat Bakelite: The trademark for a synthetic thermosetting plastic resin used in electrical parts because it is a good insulator. The name comes from its inventor, L. H. Baekeland, 1863-1944. baking finish: Paint that requires baking in order to dry baking temperature: The temperature at which a varnish or paint must be baked to develop desired final properties of strength and hardness balance: [1] The state in which weight is evenly distributed. [2] The action of applying weights or drilling holes in something to establish even weight distribution so that vibration is reduced.
Also see balance shaft off-car balance counter balance on-car balance crankshaft counter-balance spool balance valve dynamic balance static balance harmonic balancer steering wheel balance heat balance tire balance kinetic balance wheel balancer

balance control: A switching device on a stereo radio which adjusts the amount of sound coming from the left and right speakers or from the front and rear speakers

balanced crankshaft: A crankshaft with extended reinforcements to form counterbalancing or act as a vibration damper balance disc: A disc-shaped device in a centrifugal pump which is attached to the pump shaft. The disc lifts when a force is applied to the underside of the disc allowing pressure to leak past until the axial forces are balanced balanced engine: An engine in which all the reciprocating parts such as pistons and connecting rods are adjusted to exactly the same weight balance patch: A factory installed patch used to bring a new tire within quality control balance tolerances before distribution and sale. It is placed inside the tire casing and looks much like a nail hole repair patch. balance pipe: A tube which joins two or more carburetors to even out the flow difference. balancer:
See harmonic balancer wheel balancer

balance shaft: An engine will normally vibrate because of the up-and-down motion of the pistons which turn a crankshaft in one direction. A balance shaft rotates (often in the opposite direction) so that its vibration cancels some of the vibration of the engine. Sometimes an engine will have two balance shafts turning in opposite directions located on either side of the crankshaft. balance valve:

See spool balance valve balance weight: A lead weight attached to the rim of a wheel. See wheel weight. balancing: [1] Dismantling engine and reassembling it to exact specifications and tolerances. This process may help to improve engine performance, smoothness, and reliability. Sometimes called "blueprinting." See balanced engine. [2] Keeping wheels in balance.
Also see wheel balancing off-the-car balancing on-the-car balancing

balancing machine: See wheel balancing machine balancing weight: See wheel weight bald tire: A tire on which the tread is all worn away. A slick also has no tread, but this is done deliberately for racing purposes balk ring: A friction-regulated pawl or plunger used to make the engagement of gears easier. British spelling is "baulk ring"


A sphere usually made of metal when used in automotive applications.
Also see ball and spring impact swivel ball universal joint ball bearing recirculating ball and nut steering ball joint recirculating ball steering ball joint rocker arm recirculating ball worm and nut check ball recirculating ball detent ball and spring towing ball hitch ball

ball and nut: See recirculating ball and nut steering ball-and-nut steering: See recirculating ball steering ball and socket: See ball joint ball and socket joint: See ball joint ball and spring: See detent ball and spring. ballast: Any liquid or solid weight placed in a ship to change the trim, increase the draft, or to regulate the stability.
Also see dry ballast lead ballast liquid ballast

ballast ignition system: An ignition system which uses a ballast resistor connected in series with the coil primary winding and which is bypassed when the starter is engaged so that the spark is more efficient under cold weather starting

ballast tank: Tanks at the bottom or sides of a ship which are filled with seawater for ballasting purpose. ballasting: The addition of liquid or dry weight inside the tire to act as a counterbalance, to increase traction, reduce wheel spin, and dampen out bounce. ballast resistor: (BAL RES) A resistor constructed of a special type wire, the properties of which tend to increase or decrease the voltage in direct proportion to the heat of the wire. ball bearing: An antifriction bearing consisting of an inner and outer hardened steel race (or cage) separated by a series of hardened steel balls. ball bearing puller: A tool for removing a ball bearing from a shaft or from a housing ball cage: A circular frame which holds the balls in place in a ball bearing ball check valve: valve assembly which permits flow of fluid in one direction only ball end hexagon screwdriver: A tool that looks like an Allen wrench except it has a small ball at the very end. This arrangement allows it to work at various angles.

ball joint: A flexible joint using a ball and socket type of construction, used in steering linkage setups, steering knuckle pivot supports, etc. Their flexibility helps to compensate for the changes in the wheel and steering when turning or hitting a bump on the road. There are usually upper and lower ball joints attached to the upper and lower Aarms. ball joint rocker arm: A rocker arm that instead of being mounted on a shaft, is mounted upon a ball-shaped device on the end of a stud. ball joint separator: A tool for forcing out ball or tapered joints. One style is shaped like a twoprong fork with a wedge-shaped jaw which is struck with a hammer to separate the joint. Another style uses direct pressure from a screw or

screw-activated lever action to split the joint. ball joint steering knuckle: A steering knuckle that pivots on ball joints instead of on a kingpin. balloon tire: A type of low pressure tire which was first introduced in the 1920s. Its width and height were the same which gave it a rounded shape. This style was used on bicycles as well as automobiles. Ballot: A vehicle brand of which the 1925-1948 model automobiles with required application are classic cars. ball pien hammer: A hammer with two ends on the head. One is round and the other is flat. They are best used for hammering and shaping metal. Also spelled "ball peen"

ball peen hammer: A hammer with two ends on the head. One is round and the other is flat. They are best used for hammering and shaping metal. Also spelled "ball pien" ball socket: A recessed spherical well for receiving the ball in a ball joint ball steering:

See recirculating ball steering ball universal: See impact swivel ball universal joint ball universal joint: See impact swivel ball universal joint ball valve: A check valve in which a ball in a tube is used to control the flow of liquid. ball worm: See recirculating ball worm and nut ball worm and nut: See recirculating ball worm and nut BAL RES: Abbreviation for ballast resistor Bambi: Trucker slang for a deer (dead or alive) as in "There's a Bambi on the side at the 43 yardstick." band: Bands are like a metal belt which is in the shape of a circle where the two ends are close, but do not meet. They wrap around parts inside the transmission called "drums." The drums house the gears and clutches and freewheel until a certain gear needs to be applied. When first gear needs to be applied, the drum for first gear is locked up by the application of the band. By locking up the drum, the gears now drive the wheels rather than freewheel inside the drum.
Also see brake band power band

squish band

band brake: See brake band band radio: See citizens band radio bands: See band. bandwidth: The range of audio frequencies that an audio component (radio) can handle B & S: bore and stroke. B & S gage: Abbreviation for "Brown and Sharpe." A standard measure of wire diameter. B & S gauge: Abbreviation for "Brown and Sharpe." A standard measure of wire diameter. banger: [1] A colloquial term used to express the cylinders in an engine. Often used with a number such as "six banger."
Also see four banger

[2] A British colloquial term for beater (an older, cheaper, well-worn car which is still usable). [3] One who fakes an accident. See car banger

banger racing: A competition of speed on small racing tracks where older cars are driven as fast as they can go and where bumping other racing cars is permitted (encouraged??) banging: See car banging banjo: [1] Besides being a musical instrument, this is a fitting which is shaped like a banjo. It has round end that is doughnut shaped with a tube coming out from one side. It is usually used to transfer fluid from the center hole of the round end and out the lateral tube. [2] A drum-shaped central part of an axle casing containing the differential.
Also see rear axle housing, banjo type axle housing banjo

banjo fitting: a type of hydraulic fitting, shaped like a banjo, through which a hollow bolt passes, allowing fluid transfer from a hydraulic line to a hydraulic component bank: See cylinder bank banking: The slope of a track from the wall to the apron, generally measured in the corners. bar: [1] A unit of pressure. One bar equals 100 kilopascals or 14.5 psi. [2] A rod.
anti-roll bar anti-sway bar antiroll bar header bar hi-way bar highway bar Also see port bar push bar roo bar test bar tommy bar torsion bar

boring bar bull bar bumper bar busbar compensating bar compensator extension bar freeway bar gunwale bar

hood bar ladder bars landau bar landau bars levering bar locking bar clamp main bar nerf bar nudge bar

side impact bar sissy bar spring bar stabilizer bar stringer bar strut bar sway bar t-bar targa bar

track bar traction bar tread bar wear bars wheelie bar wheelie bars wobble extension bar

Barach: The author and compiler of this dictionary at Motorera.com barbershop: Trucker slang for a low overpass as in "I saw a driver take his trailer to the barbershop last week." bar clamp: A tool with a stationary head and a sliding foot for clamping purposes. Also see locking bar clamp bar ends: Short handlebar extensions which are attached to the ends of a mountain bike handlebar. bar end shifter: A bicycle gear shifter that is inserted into the each of the ends of a handlebar.

bare shell:

The shell of a car body in which all parts have been removed including doors, hood, and trunk lid barge: A flat-bottomed boat for carrying cargo or bunker oil, usually pulled by tugs.
Also see tank-barge

barge carriers: Ships designed to carry barges. BARO: [1] Acronym for barometric pressure sensor. [2] Acronym for barometric absolute pressure sensor barometric absolute pressure sensor: (BARO or BP) sends a variable voltage signal to the computer which varies in accord with atmospheric pressure, allowing adjustment of the spark advance, EGR flow, and air/fuel ratio as a function of altitude. Also called a barometric pressure sensor barometric and manifold absolute pressure sensor: (BMAP) a housing containing both BP and MAP sensors barometric pressure sensor: (BARO or BP) A sensor found in the engine management system which detects the ambient barometric pressure so that precise fuel mixture can be maintained at different altitudes barrel: [1] The air horn in the carburetor. In particular, it is that part where the throttle valve is located. If a carburetor has four openings with a throttle valve in each, it is called a "four-barrel carburetor."
Also see carburetor barrel four barrel carburetor

four barrel

[2] Another name for the carburetor barrelcylinder, cylinder barrel, four barrel, polishing barrel, and single barrel. [3] To travel fast as in "We barrelled down the highway well above the speed limit." barrel carburetor:
See four barrel carburetor single barrel carburetor twin barrel carburetor

barrel tappet: A hollow rocker arm shaped like a barrel barrier: See crash barrier barrier cream: A special cream which is applied to your hands before working on a greasy engine. When the job is over, you can wash your hands and easily remove the grease stains. Also called "invisible glove" or "silicon glove" barrier effect: The effect produced by coating metal to shield it from corrosion barrier paint: A primer which is used on bare metal to prevent corrosion. bar roof: See T bar roof bars:
See ladder bars landau bars

wear bars wheelie bars

bar suspension: See torsion bar suspension base: [1] The lowest supporting part of an upright member. [2] The bottom layer or coating in a series of paint coats. [3] The major ingredient, other than pigments and filler, that make up the non-volatile portion of an adhesive, coating, or sealing compound
Also see bead base edison base flat base rim taper flat base rim lithium base grease load base negative load base rim well base

base and clear system: Paint finish which is made up of a colored base coat (usually a metallic finish) and clear lacquer coat base circle: As applied to the camshaft the lowest spot on the cam, the area of the cam directly opposite the lobe or nose. No lift is produced by the base circle. Also called cam heel base coat: The first coat in a paint system. It is either the undercoat or primer or a colored coat which is covered by clear lacquer base gasket: The gasket directly below the cylinder and between the cylinder and crankcase. Also called "cylinder gasket." base grease:

See lithium base grease base idle: The idle speed determined by the throttle lever setting on the carburetor or throttle body while the idle speed control (ISC) motor, or any other computer-controlled idle speed control device, is fully retracted and disconnected. base interest rate: The interest paid on the usage of the vehicle during a lease. It is the "cost" of a lease before factoring in discounts, fees, and penalties and is not directly comparable to the APR for a loan. Lowering the base interest rate is one of the methods manufacturers use to subsidize leases. The phrase "money factor" measures the same cost and can be converted into a base interest rate. For example, to convert a money factor of 0.00276 into an approximate base interest rate would multiply the money factor by 24. The result would be 0.0662 or 6.6%. baseline: A fore-and-aft reference line at the upper surface of the flat plate keel at the centerline for flush shell plated vessels. Vertical dimensions are measured from a horizontal plane through the baseline, often called the molded baseline. base material: Any material (metal or plastic) which needs to be coated base metal: [1] Metal that is under a coating or that needs to be coated. [2] Metal to be welded, cut, or brazed. base model: The least expensive vehicle with the least amount of features as standard equipment. It has the smallest engine and often manual transmission as well as few power equipment. Base models constitute only a small percentage of the cars sold. Sometimes called a "stripper" or "stripped down" unit.

baseplate: A strong metal plate which is the main support for something. See distributor baseplate base rim:
See flat base rim flat base rim taper

base rim taper: See flat base rim taper basic ignition setting: The ignition setting on a non-running engine according to the specifications. After the engine is running, the timing can be set more accurately basic ignition timing: The ignition timing on a non-running engine according to the specifications. After the engine is running, the timing can be set more accurately basic price: The price of a vehicle without including any optional accessories, taxes, delivery charges, etc. basic timing: The ignition timing on a non-running engine according to the specifications. After the engine is running, the timing can be set more accurately basin: See building basin basket case:

An old car which probably does not run. Often many engine and transmission parts have been removed and are either missing or stored in the trunk or a "basket" bastard: A file (a tool) which has a coarse cut bastard file: A file with a coarse cut

bat: A lump or collection of something.
Also see fibreglass

batch: [1] A number of things which are produced as a group. [2] A mixture of natural and synthetic rubber with other material such as fillers, chemicals, and vulcanizing agents in the production of tires batch number: A number which may be added to a serial number to identify when the product was manufactured. In this way, when a problem occurs to some products of the same batch, action can be taken to correct or replace others from the same batch. bath: [1] A tub into which something is immersed. [2] A liquid solution used for cleaning, plating, or maintaining a specified temperature.
Also see anodizing bath galvanizing bath oil bath air cleaner primer bath sealing bath

zinc bath

bath air: See oil bath air cleaner bath air cleaner: See oil bath air cleaner bathtub: Bodywork resembling an upside-down bathtub used on the rear of some Triumph motorcycles. It was introduced in 1957 and dropped in the early 1960s. It was also used on Nash cars of the 50's battens:
See cargo battens hatch battens

battery: An electrochemical device for producing electricity by converting chemical energy. The typical automotive lead-acid battery supplies the source of power for cranking the engine and also provides the necessary electrical energy for the ignition system. In addition, it can (for a limited time) furnish current when the electrical demands of the vehicle exceed the alternator or generator output. Also called the "storage battery."
Also see discharged battery high energy battery accumulator battery primary battery disconnect the battery isolate the battery alkaline battery rechargeable battery lead-acid battery booster battery secondary battery dry battery low-maintenance battery charged battery sodium-sulphur battery dry charged battery check the battery storage battery flat battery low battery dead battery top up the battery gel cell battery maintenance-free battery

battery acid: Electrolyte (usually sulphuric acid) in each of the battery cells battery brush: A specially designed brush set which cleans the outside terminals of the battery post as well as the inside of the battery cable so that good contact is made.

battery cap: Small caps which seal each battery cell battery capacity: The amp-hour capacity battery cell: Individual compartments in a battery which is filled with electrolyte. Sixvolt batteries have three cells, 12-volt batteries have six cells battery case: The box made of polypropylene holding several chambers (cells) which have lead plates and filled with electrolyte. battery charge: The condition or state of the amount of electricity in a battery battery charge indicator:

An instrument which shows the state of charge in a battery battery charger: An electric device which is plugged into an electrical outlet (e.g., 110 volt AC) and connected to the two terminals of the battery to restore the state of charge in the battery. One of leads coming from the charger is red and the other is black. The red lead is clamped on the positive post of the battery while the other is clamped on the frame of the vehicle. battery charging: The process of renewing the battery by passing an electric current through the battery in a reverse direction. battery charging station: With the advent of electric cars, there needs to be places where their batteries can be recharged periodically -- thus is born the battery charging station. Also called a "charging point." battery clamp: A hold down device which secures the battery from moving around battery compartment: A place in the vehicle where the battery is located. In cars and trucks it may be found under the hood (usually toward the front), under one of the seats, or in the trunk. In motorcycles it is found in the middle of the bike, under the seat battery condition: See battery charge battery connector: A plug on battery-powered vehicles to connect the batteries to the charging station Battery Council International:

A group which makes decisions related to battery composition and disposal. battery cover: The top of the battery case. It has several holes (covered with caps) for access to the battery cells. battery discharge controller: A device on a vehicle which is driven by an electrical motor. It triggers a warning indicator when the battery power drops below a certain level. battery discharge indicator: An instrument on a vehicle which is driven by an electrical motor which indicates the percentage of the maximum charge of the battery battery earth: British term for battery strap or ground strap battery filler: A device with a long hollow tube with a rubber bulb at one end. It is used for inserting into a container of battery acid and sucking up the acid, then inserting into the battery cell to fill it. However, motorcycle batteries arrive from the manufacturer with no electrolyte (battery acid). Battery acid comes in a large plastic container with a rubber hose to which a metering clamp is attached. The container is usually placed on a higher shelf so that it is fed into the battery by gravity and regulated by the metering clamp battery fill line: A horizontal line on the side of a translucent battery case which indicates the level to which you fill it with electrolyte. Usually there are two lines indicating a minimum level and maximum level. battery fluid: See battery acid

battery hold down clamp: See battery clamp battery ignition: Any system where the battery supplies the initial voltage to power the starter motor and fire the spark plugs battery ignition system: See battery ignition battery is dead: The battery does not have enough electrical power to start the car battery is flat: The battery does not have enough electrical power to start the car battery post: The terminal on a battery to which the cable is attached. Older automobile batteries used a round post which stood up from the top of the battery. To avoid confusion, the positive post has a larger diameter than the negative. On newer batteries the post may or may not be abandoned in favor of a terminal on the side of the battery. On motorcycle batteries, the posts are usually flat with a hole for bolting the cables to them. battery state indicator: See battery charge indicator battery strap: [1] A wire cable or braided wire strap to transfer electricity. It can be found between the engine block and the chassis because the engine is isolated from the chassis by rubber mounts. Also called ground strap. See ground wire. [2] A rubber strap with metal hooks at each end and is used to secure a battery in place, especially on motorcycles battery terminal:

[1] A battery post on the top of the battery or a lug with a hole on the side of the battery. [2] The clamp at the end of a battery cable battery tester: [1] A voltage meter or hydrometer for checking the state of charge of a battery. [2] An instrument for checking the condition of the battery cells

battery tray: A metal or plastic on which the battery sits. baudelot cooler: heat exchanger in which water flows by gravity over the outside of the tubes or plates baulk ring: British spelling for balk ring bay: See engine bay bayonet bulb:

See bayonet cap bayonet cap: A cylindrical base of an electric bulb, usually with two pins projecting on either side, which engage in J-shaped slots to lock the bulb securely in its socket. bayonet fitting: See bayonet socket bayonet socket: A socket for receiving a bayonet cap. It has two slots on either side (usually J-shaped) to accommodate the bulb's pins. BBDC: Acronym for "before bottom dead center." bbl: Abbreviation for "barrel," as in 4-bbl carburetor. BCDD: Acronym for boost-controlled deceleration device BCI: Acronym for "Battery Council International." BCM: Acronym for body computer module BDC: Acronym for "bottom dead center." bead:

[1] The portion of a tire which fits onto the rim of the wheel. On a tubeless tire, the contact of the bead with the rim seals the air into the tire. Bead heel, bead sole, and bead toe form a foot-like shape. Also see tire bead. [2] A small ball-like particle used in bead blasting or in some catalytic converters. [3] In welding, it is the appearance of the finished weld. It describes the neatness of the ripples formed by the metal while it was in a semi liquid state.
Also see dual bead tire rim bead seat taper rim bead seat rolled bead single bead

bead base: The part of the tire bead which is in contact with the rim bead seat bead blaster: A cleaning device for removing paint and contaminants from an object. See bead blasting bead blasting: A cleaning process which uses glass beads which are forced by air pressure against the object to be cleaned. This system removes paint and contaminants from objects which are awkwardly shaped. bead breaker: A device used to remove a tire from its rim by releasing the tension the bead has upon the rim. bead core: The ring of steel wires in the tire's bead. Also called bead wires beaded edge: The edge of a body panel or upholstery panel wrapped around a wire or other stiffening item

beaded edge tire: An older form of high-pressure tire with projecting beads beader: A power tool for forming beads on the edges of body panels bead expander: A device used in the mounting of tubeless tires to prevent inflation air from escaping and bring the tire beads against the tapered bead seat area (rim). bead heel: The portion of the tire bead in contact with the rim flange beading: The action of forming a step in the middle of a panel (not at the edge) which creates a shallow indentation to reinforce the panel.
Also see fender beading

bead lock: See tire bead lock bead movement: Movement of the bead on the rim caused by improper inflation, excessive loading, improper design, improper seating, or improper rim or tire size. Also called "bead rocking." See bead unseating bead point: A feathered rubber extension of the bead toe used where a flap is not required; protects the tube from chafing between bead toes and rim base. beads: See lubricate beads bead seat:

The portion of the wheel rim below the rim flange providing radial support to the bead of the tire.
See also rim bead seat taper rim bead seat safety bead seat

bead seat mat: A seat cover made of a network of wood beads bead seats: See contre pente on both bead seats bead seat taper: See rim bead seat taper bead seat diameter: The measurement of tire diameter, at the bead heel, where it seats on the rim. It is marked on the tire sidewall following section width. bead separation: A situation where the bead comes off the wheel rim bead tire: See dual bead tire bead toe: The bottom portion of the tire bead in contact with the rim bead seat bead unseating: Shifting of the tire bead from its seat on the wheel rim which often leads to the removal of the tire. See bead movement bead wires: Steel wires wound around the circumference and placed in the beads. Their tension prevents the beads from lifting over the rim flanges. Also

called bead core beam: [1] A projection of light.
Also see dipped beam headlight beam setting high beam high beam indicator low beam main beam main beam indicator sealed beam

[2] A supporting bar.
Also see asymmetrical beam cant beam deck beam door beam hatch beam I-beam knee, beam molded beam pulling beam side impact intrusion beam transom beam

[3] The width of a ship. Also called breadth. beam axle: A rigid or dead axle which supports the non-driven wheels. See axle. beam indicator: A light on the instrument panel which comes on when the high beams are activated. Also called high beam indicator beam headlight: See sealed beam headlight beam indicator:

See high beam indicator main beam indicator

beam knee: Bracket between a deck beam and frame beam setting: See headlight beam setting beam unit: See sealed beam unit bear: [1] To turn, as in the expression, When you get to the corner, bear right. [2] Trucker slang for a highway patrol police officer named for Smokey the Bear because they both wore similar hats. bear bait: Trucker slang for a leader in a group of trucks as in "Looks like Swift is the bear bait tonight" where "bear" refers to a police officer (i.e., Smokey the Bear). bear cave: Trucker slang for a police station on the highway (also called a zoo) as in "The bear cave is empty tonight so watch out." bearing: [1] The area of a unit in which the contacting surface of a revolving part rests in order to minimize wear and friction between two surfaces. [2] An antifriction reducing device that is usually found between two moving parts. The babbitt bearings found between the connecting rod and the crankshaft are lubricated and cushioned with oil, and the front wheel bearings must be repacked with grease at regular intervals. Bearings can be ball or roller type.
antifriction bearing Also see con rod bearing quill-type bearing sleeve bearing

ball bearing friction bearing big-end bearing insert bearing camshaft bearing jet bearing carrier bearings main bearing clutch pilot bearing support clutch release bearing main bearing needle bearing clutch throwout pilot bearing bearing plain bearing clutch thrust bearing precision insert connecting rod bearing bearing

quill bearing radial bearing re-metalling the bearings release bearing rod bearing roller bearing rolling bearing sealed bearing shell bearing

small end bearing spigot bearing split bearing tapered roller bearing throw-out bearing throwout bearing thrust bearing timken bearing timken roller bearing wheel bearings

bearing assembly: When more than one load needs to be supported, several bearings are used making up the bearing assembly. For instance, a crankshaft may have two bearings (one at each end) as well as a few more in the middle bearing attachment: See split bearing attachment bearing block: The two halves of metal which encase a bearing. bearing cage: See ball cage bearing cap: A rigid, semicircular part which encloses and holds the outer shell of a shell bearing bearing clearance: The amount of space left between a shaft and the bearing surface, this space is for lubricating oil to enter. bearing cone: [1] taper roller bearing.

[2] The inner race in an adjustable axial or radial ball bearing bearing crush: The additional height which is purposely manufactured into each bearing half to ensure complete contact of the bearing back with the housing bore when the engine is assembled bearing cup: [1] Retainers, held in place by bolts and nuts, that hold the bearings in place. Also called bearing shell. [2] The bearing race that curves around the outside of a ring of ball bearings and works in conjunction with a cone. bearing face: The bottom part of a nut or bolt head which clamps down on the surface of the part it is securing. bearing housing: The cavity into which the bearing fits bearing knock: The noise created by movement of a part in a loose or worn bearing bearing material: The metal layer which forms the surface of the wear part of the bearing bearing puller: A tool used to remove bearings from a shaft by pulling them off. It has two or more arms which circle around the back side of the bearing and a center post which butts up against the end of the shaft. As the center post is screwed down, the arms pull the bearing toward the end of the shaft.
Also see ball bearing puller

bearing race: In ball or roller bearings, it is one of the two steel rings on either side of the ball or roller bearing scraper: A small, triangular tool that looks like a file without teeth. Used for deburring and chamfering the edges of camshaft bearings bearing separator: A tool used to separate double bearings or close-fitting gears when a conventional bearing puller cannot be used

bearing shell: One of a pair of thin semicircular steel cups lined with an alloy such as coper-lead or lead-indium, which together enclose a shaft or other rotating member, and are held in a circular housing which can be divided into two halves. bearing spin: A type of bearing failure in which a lack of lubrication overheats the bearing until it seizes on the shaft, shears its locking lip, and rotates in the housing or block bearing spread: A purposely manufactured small extra distance across the parting faces of the bearing half, in excess of the actual diameter of the housing bore. Thus the diameter is slightly greater than the housing into which a shell bearing is being placed. Thus the bearing is forced into place to reduce its movement. See interference fit bearing support: See main bearing support

bearing surface: The area of the bearing that is in actual contact with the shaft or other supporting member bearing tang: A notch or lip on a bearing shell used to correctly locate the bearing during assembly bear in the air: Trucker slang for an overhead highway patrol as in "Slow down Roadrunner you got a bear in the air past the next rest area." bear meat: Trucker slang for a speeding truck without a radar detector as in "That gearjamming large car is bear meat." bear report: Trucker slang for asking for the location of the cops as in "Can I get a bear report there Covenant." beast: A vehicle which performs very well. beater: [1] An old or collectible vehicle that is in drivable condition, but looks terrible inside and out, and probably is missing many original parts. Often used to describe a vehicle that is past the easy restoration stage but still contains many good driving miles. It is also a term for "urban combat car" and is usually used in conjunction with the word winter, as in winter beater, which is a vehicle that is so far gone, it is sacrificed to the salt covered roads of winter. It is a disposable collectible that is driven until it disintegrates. In other words, it looks as if someone had been beating it for quite a while. British term is banger. [2] A device for hitting something.
Also see panel beater

See off-the-dolly panel beating on-the-dolly panel beating panel beating spring beating

beating spoon: See spring beating spoon bed: Any flat surface used as a support.
Also see catalyst bed low bed test-bed

bedbuggers: Trucker slang for moving companies as in "Bedbuggers on the side of the road." bedding-in oil: British term for break-in oil bed in: British term for break-in beefed-up: [1] Colloquial term for making something stronger. [2] Colloquial term for modifying or improving something so it will work faster or more efficiently. Similar to souped up Beema: Colloquial term for BMW Beemer:

Colloquial term for BMW Beetle: Colloquial term for the original rear-engined volkswagen.
Also see split-window Beetle

before bottom dead center: (BBDC) As the crankshaft rotates, it brings the piston down to a place just before it reaches bottom dead center. before top dead center: (BTDC) As the crankshaft rotates, it pushes the piston up to a place just before the top of its movement. before upper dead center: (BUDC) As the crankshaft rotates, it pushes the piston up to a place just before the top of its movement. bell: [1] A device mounted on a bicycle and used to warn pedestrians and other bikes of your approach. [2] A component that is shaped like half a ball or egg. Also see spray bell bell housing: Sometimes called "clutch housing." The metal covering around the flywheel and clutch (of a manual transmission) or torque converter assembly (of an automatic transmission). bell mouth: Bell-shaped air intake attached to some carburetors bellows: A sealed, accordion-type chamber (gas filled or vacuum) which expands and contracts in accordance with temperature changes or provides a seal during movement of parts. Used as an air conditioning control device on

many systems. Also see air bellows bellows seal: method of sealing the valve stem. The ends of the sealing material are fastened to the bonnet and to the stem. Seal expands and contracts wit the stem level belt: [1] A reinforcing band, normally textile, fiberglass, or steel, which runs around the circumference of a tire and strengthens the tread area.
Also see cog belt

[2] A circular band which is used to transfer power from one component to another. For instance, a fan belt is used to transfer power from the engine to the alternator, water pump, and air conditionercompressor.
Also see cam belt diagonal belt serpentine belt camshaft drive belt drive belt stabilizer belt cog belt fan belt static belt cogged belt ring belt steel thrust belt timing belt toothed belt v-belt vee-belt

[3] An attaching strap.
automatic seat belt hip belt inertia reel seat belt safety belt integrated safety belts seat belt See lap belt shoulder belt rear seat belt three-point seat belt Y-belt

belt anchor: The point where the end of the seat belt is attached belt anchorage: The point where the end of the seat belt is attached. See seat belt anchorage belt drive: In order to transmit power from a source to a destination, some kind of connection is needed. A bicycle, for instance, uses a chain drive to transmit the power from pedalling action to the rear wheel. A belt drive uses a

leather or rubber belt to transfer power from one pulley to another thus increasing or decreasing the speed of rotation of the driven pulley through mechanical advantage. For instance the alternator is rotated by a belt (sometimes called the "fan belt") which is driven by a shaft which is directly attached to the crankshaft. Some motorcycle models (like Harley Davidson and Honda) have a belt drive to transmit power to the rear wheels. Since a belt drive requires no lubrication (in contrast with chain drive) it is one of the cleanest final drive systems. belt-drive system: A final-drive system that transmits the power to the rear wheel via a drive belt belted bias tire: A tire which uses both cross-ply and radial-ply patterns with added belts (such as used on radial-ply tires) on diagonal body plies (as in cross-ply tires). As a result the tire has stiffer sidewalls than tires with just straight radial plies. belted piston: A piston with a continuous steel band cast into the skirt below the rings for controlling skirt expansion. belted radial tire: See steel belted radial tire belted tire: A tire with a stabilizing belt of two or more plies of steel, fiberglass, etc., running circumferentially around the tire between the carcass and the tread rubber. The carcass can be either radial or bias ply. See bias belted tire. belt end: The part of the seat belt which has the bracket which is attached to the floor pan. Some cars attach this end to the car seat itself. belt line:

The horizontal line that runs around the body of the vehicle just below the bottom of the glass panels(greenhouse). The British term is "waistline" belt mounting: See belt anchor belt pulley: See timing belt pulley belt retractor: A device which automatically pulls the seat belt back into its reel belts: See integrated safety belts belt sander: A power sanding tool with a rotating belt of sandpaper

belt slack: The looseness of a belt (either the drive type belt or a seat belt) belt slip: When a drive belt is not as tight as it should be, it will slip on the pulley and thus will not transmit power. If a driven pulley is seized, the belt will also slip. belt system:

seat-integrated belt system seat-integrated seat belt system

belt tensioner: A device consisting of an idler pulley which is usually located between the drive and driven pulleys. It can be adjusted to increase the tension on the belt.
See seat belt tensioner timing belt tensioner

belt transmission:
See belt drive variable belt transmission

belt up: A British term for buckle up belt warning light: See seat belt warning light belt webbing: Strong fabric material used for seat belts bench: [1] A workbench. [2] A test bed for studying or repairing an engine.
Also see bench test straightening bench

bench grinder: A power tool mounted on a workbench with one or two grinding wheels

bench seat: A front seat which runs from the left door to the right door. The alternative is bucket seats.
Also see split bench seat

bench test: A determination of the power output of an engine when it is mounted on a test bed. Also it can be checked for oil leaks, fuel consumption, emission levels, etc. bench vise: A vise which is mounted on a workbench bend: See free bend test bender:
See fender bender tube bender

bending: See lower bending die bending die: See lower bending die

bending pliers: Pliers with flat, smooth jaws used to hold sheet metal in place bending spring: coil spring which is placed on inside or outside of tubing to keep it from collapsing while bending it bending strength: The ability of metal to resist bending Bendix:
See Bendix type starter drive pre-engaged Bendix starter

Bendix drive: See Bendix type starter drive. Bendix screw: A helical screw on the shaft of a starter motor Bendix starter: A starter motor with a Bendix drive.
Also see pre-engaged Bendix starter

Bendix type starter drive: A self-engaging starter drive gear, the gear moves into engagement when the starter starts spinning and automatically disengages when the starter stops. Also called inertia drive bend test: See free bend test benefits:

See employee benefits Bentley: A vehicle brand of which the 1925-1945 models are classic cars. The 1946-67 models are milestone cars.
Click here for books on Bentley

Benz: A vehicle brand of which the 1925-1948 models with required application are classic cars.
Also see Mercedes-Benz

benzene: (C6H6) A constituent of gasoline benzol: A by-product of manufacture of coke. Sometimes it is used as an engine fuel berline: A term used during World War I which describes a closed luxury vehicle with small windows. The passengers were able to see out; but their privacy was maintained because it was difficult to see in. bernoulli's Theorem: in stream of liquid, the sum of elevation head, pressure head, and velocity remains constant along any line of flow provided no work is done by or upon liquid on course of its flow; decreases in proportion to energy lost in flow better half: Trucker slang for a husband or wife as in "I sure do miss my better half." between duals:

See kissing between duals between perpendiculars: See length between perpendiculars between wheel spacer: An obsolete circular metal plate having a bolt hole circle and center bore and fitting between the faces of disc wheels to provide additional dual clearance. bevel: The angle that one surface makes with another when they are not at right angles.
Also see gutter bevel

bevel differential: A differential which has bevel gears for its main elements. This allows the input and output shafts to be at right angles to one another.
Also see spur differential

bevel drive shaft: A shaft with a bevel gear at one end or both ends. It is used primarily for driving an overhead camshaft bevel gear: A gear shaped like the wide end (frustum) of a cone, used to transmit motion through an angle. They are found in differentials.
Also see spiral bevel gear.

bevel gear drive: A transmission which is used to drive one or more shafts which do not line up with the output shaft. Also called bevel gear transmission bevel gear transmission:

A transmission which is used to drive one or more shafts which do not line up with the output shaft. Also called bevel gear drive bevel joint: A piston ring gap in which the two ends of the ring are tapered. beverage holder: A circular clip located on the center console, door panel, or dashboard which is designed to hold a cup or bottle. Also called cup holder bezel: The crimped edge of metal that secures the glass face to an instrument. A bezel can be either decorative or functional. Some bezels are threaded and secure switches and control buttons to the dash, console, or steering column.

B-flange: A type of passenger car wheel bhp: Abbreviation for brake horsepower.
Also see SAE gross bhp

BHS: Acronym for bimetal heat sensor bias: The acute angle at which the cords in the tire fabric intersect the circumferential centerline of the finished tire.
Also see

brake bias.

bias belted tire: A type of tire construction in which there are bias plies as well as a belt of steel or synthetic (rayon, nylon, or fiberglass) cords between the carcass and the tread. The belt overlaps the bias plies and wraps around the circumference. The cords and belt cross each other at bias angles. biased: See spring-biased bias ply tire: A tire having two or more carcass plies arranged in a criss-cross manner and diagonally to the beads and travels approximately 1/3 the distance around the circumference before attaching to the other bead. Each cord in the next ply is arranged in the same manner, but in the opposite direction. Also called a "conventional tire" or "cross-ply tire" bias tire: A type of tire construction in which the tire cords or plies run diagonally from bead to bead. Generally in passenger cars, there are two plies of fabric. In a P185/80D13 tire, the "D" indicates a bias-ply tire. Sometimes called a "conventional" tire.
Also see belted bias tire

bib: A leather or vinyl covering for the front of a vehicle. See tank bib

bicycle: A two-wheel non-motorized vehicle in which the two wheels are not side-by-side but in line. Also called "bike."
Also see all terrain bike mountain bike coaster penny-farthing girl's bike quadricycle loaded tourer randonneuring mixte frame sports tourer tandem tourist tricycle unicycle velocipede.

bicycle carrier: A device which is attached to the rear bumper or to the roof of a vehicle to carry a bicycle

bicycle lock: A horseshoe-shaped metal locking device which will reach around a small pole (e.g., parking meter) and the frame of a bicycle.

big-block: See big-block engine big-block engine: A large V-8 engine produced in the '60s and '70s. It typically has a castiron block and head and is fed by a carburetor. Contrasts with small-block engine. Although both engines were of the same displacement, the bigblock engine was larger in overall size than the small-block engine. Thus, as vehicles grew smaller and more equipment was stuffed into the engine bay, the small-block engine was favored over its larger brother.

big end: The end of the connecting rod which fits around the crankpin big-end bearing: See big-end bearing big-end bearing: The bearing in the end of the connecting rod that attaches to the crankshaft.

big-end bolt: One of the bolts attaching the big-end cap to the connecting rod big-end cap: The detachable end of the connecting rod which fits on the crankpin Big Jim: A colloquial term for a device for opening door locks. It is a flexible metal strip about an inch wide and very thin and has a J-shaped end. It is inserted between the door window and the door frame to trigger the latch big rig: A large truck -- usually a tractor-trailer unit big/tall rubber: Trucker slang for 24 inch tires as in "I just bought new big rubber for my rig." big three:

General Motors, Ford, and Chrysler. big Twins: The engines in the larger Harley-Davidson bikes bihexagon: A twelve-sided figure. Some nuts and bolt heads have twelve sides. bihexagonal: Having 12 sides bihexagon socket: A tool socket which fits 12-sided nuts and bolts bike: A two-wheel vehicle -- either a bicycle or a motorcycle.
Also see all-terrain bike girl's bike mountain bike street bike touring bike

bike crossing: A place on the highway (usually marked by a sign) indicating a relatively safe place for a bicycle to cross to the other side. Motorists are advised that slow moving bicycles may be on the road.

bike lock: A horseshoe-shaped metal locking device which will reach around a small pole (e.g., parking meter) and the frame of a bicycle.

BIL: Acronym for "Bilimportorenes Landsforening" (Norway). Also Acronym for "Bilindustrief”reningen" (Sweden) bilge: A recess area fitted at the curved section between the bottom and the side into which water drains from holds or other spaces. bilge bracket: A vertical transverse flat plate welded to the tank top or margin plate and to the frame in the area of the bilge. bilge keel: A long longitudinal fin fitted on the curved of a ship at the turn of the bilge to reduce rolling bilge strake: Shell plates at the bilge area billet: [1] A section of a log split lengthwise as you would make firewood. [2] A small bar of iron or steel bill of lading: The cost or the paperwork describing the cost of a vehicle's load or freight.

bimetal: Two types of metal bonded into a strip and formed into a coil. Each type of metal has different thermal expansion characteristics, so the coil straightens when heated and coils up when cold. Bimetals are used mainly to open and close choke plates on carbureted vehicle bimetal heat sensor: (BHS) a strip (usually coiled) consisting of two metals with different expansion characteristics. Bimetal strips are used in thermostatically controlled devices because they move or bend toward the metal that expands least when heat is applied bimetallic corrosion: When two different metals are attached to each other, some electrons tend to move from one metal to the other. This action happens especially when there is a little moisture between the two pieces.
Also see galvanic corrosion

bimetallic sensor: Consists of thermocouple, an arm made of two dissimilar metals with different rates of thermal expansion, that flexes in accordance with temperature changes. Used as a temperature sensor. Also called bimetal sensor bimetal sensor: Consists of a thermocouple, an arm made of two dissimilar metals with different rates of thermal expansion, that flexes in accordance with temperature changes. Used as a temperature sensor. Also called bimetallic sensor Bimmer: Colloquial term for BMW binder:

The ingredient in a paint that holds or suspends the pigment particles together.
Also see binders.

binder bolt: On a bicycle, the bolt used to fasten a stem inside a steerer tube or a seatpost inside a seat tube. Some are quick-release type. binders: Vehicle brakes. binding: [1] The rubbing of brake shoes against the drum or of brake pads against the disc. [2] The strip material turned over along the edge of a carpet or mat.
Also see edge binding

bingo cards: Trucker slang for the paper cards that hold trucking permits from different states as in "Better get your bingo cards out, they're checkin' em at the chicken coop." binnacle: The cluster of instruments and switches mounted in a circular casing on or near the steering column biocide: A product which kills any fungus or microbes that may have contaminated diesel fuel. biodegradable: A product which is capable of being decomposed by bacteria into harmless elements without danger to the environment. biodiesel:

Diesel fuel made from animal or vegetable fats bit: [1] A tool for boring or cutting which fits into a drill. See drill bit. [2] The tip of a screwdriver.
Also see hexagon bit hex bit screwdriver bit socket bit twisty bits

bit adapter: A tool (like a screwdriver) with a hollow socket (instead of the blade) to accept a variety of bits bite: [1] A vehicle's ability to adhere to the road (especially to a racing track). [2] The ability of a tool to secure itself to a fastener as in I want my wrench to get a good bite on that bolt. bits: See twisty bits bitter end: The inboard end of a ship's anchor chain that is secured in the chain locker

bituminous paint: Black or dark colored tarry paint which contains bitumen. Used for the protection of exposed metal parts. BL: Acronym for "British Leyland" black:

See carbon black black and white checkered flag: A flag which is waved at the finishing line in races to indicate the winner. black box: [1] A recording device which reveals conditions just prior to a crash. [2] A control unit black chromium plating: An electroplating deposit of a black chromium layer for decorative purposes blackening:
See bulb blackening lamp blackening

black flag: A flag which is colored black and is waved at a race. It indicates that the driver must return to his pit for consultation. It means that the driver has violated a serious racing rule such as spilling fluid on the track or was speeding on the pit road. black flag with orange circle: As with the black flag for infractions, the black flag with orange circle means the driver must bring the car to the pits on the next lap. This flag indicates there is a serious mechanical problem with the car that can endanger the driver or others. Ignoring this black flag can bring severe penalties as it represents a dangerous situation Blackhawk: A vehicle brand of which the 1925-1948 models are classic cars.

blacksmith hammer: A special hammer for hitting and shaping heated iron.

black smoke: Incompletely burned fuel in the exhaust indicating the fuel mixture is too rich blackwall: Tires which do not have any white or red coloring.
See whitewall red line

black and white flag: The black and white flag is used in some series to indicate unsportsmanlike conduct. This is typically held motionless next to a pit board with the car number on it. The driver may be penalized when this flag is shown bladder: A hollow bag which can be inflated. In some instances, fuel tanks will become rusty inside. A possible cure is to install a bladder. This is done by flushing out the rust chips, applying an acid solution to remove any oil/gas residue, and coating the inside with a plastic compound. When done correctly, this plastic coating does not dissolve when it comes in contact with gasoline. blade: [1] A straight narrow flat part like the end of a screwdriver or knife.

[2] The part of a windshield wiper (blade rubber) which contacts the windshield. [3] One of the vanes of a rotor or impeller.
Also see bumper blade bumping blade fan blade feeler blade fork blade

blade connector: A plain metal tongue for forming electrical connections bladed impeller: A rotating part of a centrifugal pump that has blades or vanes blade rubber: The rubber strip that fits into the arm of a windshield wiper blades: See fork blades blank: See sheet metal blank blanking piece: A flat piece of metal which closes off a tube. Also called a "blanking plate"

blanking plate: A flat piece of metal which closes off a tube. Also called a "blanking piece" blanking plug: A rubber stopper for filling in the holes of sheetmetal such as drain holes in the floorpan

See ocean liner blast horn sand blast

blast cleaning: The removal of corrosion, dirt, paint, etc. by a blast of abrasive particles.
Also see bead blasting sand blasting

blaster: See bead blaster blast freezer: low -temperature evaporator which uses a fan to force air rapidly over the evaporator surface blast horn: See ocean liner blast horn blasting:
See bead blasting grit blasting shot blasting

bleed: [1] To remove air bubbles from hydraulic lines and components of a system.
Also see air bleed air bleed screw idle air bleed screw compensating jet

. [2] To reduce the air pressure in tires that have been run, warmed up, and thus increased from their starting pressure -- an action which should be

avoided. bleed down: The collapse of a hydraulic lifter as oil drains out bleeder: The valve or screw used to vent the air out of a liquid-filled system.
See brake bleeder pressure bleeder

bleeder nipple: See bleeder screw bleeder screw: A hollow screw used to open a bleeder valve to allow fluid and air bubbles from a system like the brake system during a bleeding process.
Also see idle air bleed screw

bleeder valve: [1] A valve on a wheel cylinder, caliper, or other hydraulic component that is opened to purge the hydraulic system of air [2] The device which vents air from the brake system. bleeding: See brake bleeding bleed screw: A screw used to release the air from a system like the brake system.
Also see idle air bleed screw

bleed valve: [1] A valve with small opening inside which permits a minimum fluid flow when valve is closed.

[2]The device which vents air from the brake system. bleeding: [1] The action of venting air from a liquid-filled (hydraulic) system. [2] Reducing the air pressure in tires that have been run, warmed up, and thus increased from their starting pressure -- an action which should be avoided. [3] Slowly reducing the pressure of liquid or gas from a system or cylinder by slightly opening a valve [4] The separation of components of a dried adhesive, coating, or sealer film, resulting in an oil-like stain on the surfaces to be bonded, or on finishes [5] A lower (older or previous) color coming through a fresh coat of paint. bleeding a system: Remove air bubbles from a brake system, a fuel injection system, or a cooling system so that they won't impede the flow of liquid through that system. bleeding the brakes: This refers to the removal of air from the hydraulic system, bleeder screws are loosened at each wheel cylinder, (one at a time) and brake fluid is forced from the master cylinder through the lines until all air is expelled. blem: An abbreviation for blemish. blemish: A tire with a slight imperfection in appearance that will not affect tire life or safety. Also called a "blem." blind: See car blind blind quarter:

An unusually wide C-pillar enclosing the rear seat area blind rivet: A pop rivet blind spot: An area not visible from the driver's seat. It is usually the area behind the rear quarter and not visible in the mirrors. When approaching another vehicle in a lane beside you, avoid being in its blind spot. Also do a shoulder check before switching lanes to check for vehicles in the blind spot blinkie: A red taillight on a bicycle which has a switch which turns it to a steady light or a flashing (blinking) light

blister: [1] A bubble on a paint surface. [2] A localized bubble on the surface of a tire, normally caused by a separation between plies or between surface rubber and a ply. blistering: The formation of bubbles on the paint surface. BLM: Acronym for the "Bureau of Land Management." BLMC: Acronym for "British Leyland Motor Corporation"

block: That part of the engine containing the cylinders.
Also see bearing block bighollowing block block block hydraulic heater control brake block block long block brake long block pad engine cylinder monoblock block rubbing die block ENsanding block block en block short block tread block engine valve block block keel blocks heater engine block

block coefficient: The ratio of the underwater volume of a ship to the volume of a rectangular block with the same effective lengths, draft and beam block deck: The cylinder head gasket surface block engine:
See long block engine short block engine

block heater: A devices which, during very cold weather, keeps the engine warm when the vehicle is not being used -- thus making cold starts easier. The free end

is plugged into 110 volt AC wall socket. It is especially important for starting diesel engines at very low temperatures.
Also see cylinder block heater engine block heater

blocking ring: See balk ring blocks: See keel blocks block sanding: The process of using a wooden block wrapped in sandpaper to sand the material. blood alcohol content: The amount of alcohol in the bloodstream as a result of drinking liquor blood alcohol level: The amount of alcohol in the bloodstream as a result of drinking liquor bloom: A surface film on rubber, caused by the migration to the surface of sulphur, wax, or other unreacted ingredients of the compound. It may be protective to the tire and detrimental only if appearance is a major factor. blooming: A formation of an undesired thin surface film or a milky white haze or mist on paintwork. It is caused when paint is applied during humid, cold conditions as moisture is trapped in the wet film blow: To become defective either by leaking or burning through.
Also see arc blow

striking blow

blow back: Because of a sticky valve or the intake valve closing late, some of the airfuel mixture is blown back through the carburetor blowby: The mixture of fuel-air which is lost past the piston rings and causes fumes that form acid and sludge in the crankcase and smoking from the oil filer hole. Generally there is a loss of engine power. Most are removed through the PCV system. blow-by: The mixture of fuel-air which is lost past the piston rings and causes fumes that form acid and sludge in the crankcase and smoking from the oil filer hole. Generally there is a loss of engine power. Most are removed through the PCV system. blowdown: The escape of gases between the opening of the exhaust valve and the piston reaching bottom dead center, or in a two-stroke engine between exhaust port opening and transfer port opening. blowdown period: In a two-stroke engine, it is the time between the exhaust port opening and the transfer port opening which should be sufficiently long enough to allow time for the cylinder pressure to drop below the crankcase pressure, so that the exhaust gases can be expelled more easily blower: [1] Also called a "supercharger" or "turbocharger." This is a pump which forces air into the cylinders at higher than atmospheric pressure. The increased pressure forces more air into the cylinders than what would be drawn in normally. In this way the engine can burn more fuel and thus produce more power. There are two main types of blowers: the turbocharger, which uses some of the waste heat energy in the exhaust gases to drive a compressor and pump the air; and the belt-driven or shaftdriven supercharger which uses engine power to pump air.

[2] A fan for an interior heating and ventilating system or even for an aircooled engine.
Also see heater blower

blower fan: An electric motor-driven fan which forces air through the evaporator and duct assembly, then forces the cooled air out of the duct work and circulates it through the vehicle passenger compartment blower motor resistor: A device which regulates fan speed blow gun: A paint spray gun with a wide nozzle which is fed by air pressure. It is used to blow out crevices in material that is otherwise hard to reach. blowlamp: A British term for blow torch blown: [1] An engine equipped with a turbocharger or supercharger. [2] An engine which is ruined. Usually the piston is seized.
Also see blown head gasket.

blown head gasket: A gasket that has a break between the opening for the cylinder and an opening for the coolant. The coolant will leak into the combustion chamber. This condition can be diagnosed by a loss in coolant and white smoke out the exhaust. blowoff valve: A one-way valve that opens to the atmosphere above a certain set pressure to relieve excessive internal pressure buildup; often used with a turbocharger installation to limit boost pressure to the engine. Also called pressure-relief valve.

Also see wastegate

blow-off valve: See blowoff valve blow out: To clean a dirty or blocked pipe by blowing compressed air through it blowout: A sudden rupturing of tire body, causing complete loss of air pressure which flattens the tire. blow-out: A sudden rupturing of tire body, causing complete loss of air pressure which flattens the tire. blow-over: A respray of doubtful quality, often poorly prepared and carelessly masked. blowpipe: Another term applied to the oxyacetylene torch blow through: A turbocharger system in which the turbocharger blows air through the carburetor(s) or fuel injector(s), i.e., the air and fuel mixing occurs downstream from the turbocharger

blow torch: A tool which is attached to a bottle of flammable gas. The gas is ignited to give an intense flame for brazing and soldering. The British term is "blowlamp"

bluebird: Trucker slang for a Martin Truck company's truck as in "Can I get a smokey report there Bluebird." blue book: A listing of the current prices for used cars, based on age, condition, and optional equipment. Available at banks, loan offices, libraries, and insurance companies. blue flag: The blue or passing flag has different meanings depending on how it is held and whether it is used during practice, qualifying or racing. Generally when it is held motionless it is an indication to a driver that there is a faster car following closely behind, but not yet close enough for a pass. A waving flag generally indicates that the driver is about to be overtaken and should take care to permit the following vehicle a safe pass. Some drivers resist moving over for an overtaking car when they feel they are racing for position. Controversy can follow the use of the passing flag. Some tracks use a blue flag with a diagonal yellow stripe.

blueing: The blue color that appears on chrome pipes when subject to intense heat. In some cases, it can be removed; but most often it is permanent. blueprinting: Dismantling engine and reassembling it to exact specifications and tolerances. This process may help to improve engine performance, smoothness, and reliability. Sometimes called "balancing." blue smoke: The color of the exhaust which indicates that oil is escaping into the combustion chamber and abeing burned. It is probably due to worn rings, valve seals, etc. blushing: The formation of a whitish or misty appearance on the finish color of the paint surface. BMAP: Acronym for barometric and manifold absolute pressure sensor BMC: Acronym for "British Motor Corporation" BMEP: Acronym for brake mean effective pressure BMW: Acronym for "Bayerische Motoren Werke." A vehicle brand of which the 1925-48 models 327, 328, 327/328, and 335 are classic cars. The 507 models for 1957-59 are milestone cars.
Click here for books on BMW

BMW roundel: The little black, blue, and white BMW checkerboard logo. board: A printed circuit board.
Also see circuit board dash board on board diagnostics printed circuit board running board shifting board

board diagnostics: See on board diagnostics board test: A test of a printed circuit board boardwalk: Trucker slang for a bumpy road as in "I don't run 78 often cause it's a real boardwalk." boat chock: A cradle or support for a lifeboat. boat trailer: A trailer for carrying a boat BOB: Acronym for break-out box bobbers: the custom bikes American riders built after WWII where the owners cut off, or "bobbed," much of the bodywork.

bobtail: Trucker slang for traveling without a trailer as in "It sure can be hairy to bobtail in the rain." bodge: A British term to describe work that is done poorly or with defective materials bodily harm: Physical injury to a person caused by an accident bodily injury: Physical injury to a person caused by an accident body: [1] The main portion of an automobile. Often it refers just to the outside shell. [2] The main part of a housing. [3] The shank of a bolt. [4] In welding, it refers to the main structural part of a regulator. [5] A term used in describing the thickness or consistency (viscosity) of an adhesive, coating or sealer
Also see all-aluminum body all-enveloping body all-steel body aluminum body coachbuilt body distributor body dump body integral body and frame fabric body construction fibreglass body parallel middle body fully galvanized spark plug body body special body half-round body file stressed body throttle body headlight body tire body torpedo body unit body valve body

body and frame: See integral body and frame construction body and frame construction: See integral body and frame construction

body assembly: The building up of the automobile body from its various components body builder: A person who builds automobile bodies, i.e., coachbuilder. body-colored: Something that is painted the same color as the body.
Also see color-coded

body component: Any structural part that makes up the body of a vehicle. body computer module: (BCM) Key element of self-diagnostic system used to control vehicle functions based on monitored inputs body construction: The manufacturer of a vehicle body body file: When patching hole in a body panel and filling it with body putty, a body file, which is a hand tool, is used for smoothing the putty to conform to the contour of the body.
Also see half-round body file

body filler: A substance (often with the name Bondo) which is a paste used to fill minor imperfections in a body panel. It hardens and is shaped to fit. It can also be painted to match the rest of the vehicle. body flange: A point on the body where two panels overlap, forming a small step

body framing: An assembly of the body components body fuel injection: See throttle body fuel injection body glass: The windshield, backlight (rear window), and side windows of a vehicle body hammer: A hammer with a large flat pounding surface for removing dents body housing: See valve body housing body-in-white: In the process of building a vehicle, this is a body shell after everything is welded but before it is painted body injection: See throttle body injection body jack: A hydraulic tool for pushing or pulling body panels into shape body lead: An alloy of lead and tin which is used to fill dents and seems in a body panel to establish a smooth surface. When heated it flows easily to fill the imperfections body panel: The sheet metal that forms the outside body pieces. body plan:

A drawing showing the forms of the various cross sections, the curvature of the deck lines at the side, and the projections, as straight lines of the waterlines, the buttock lines, transverse elevations and the diagonal lines body putty: A malleable material designed to smooth on dented body areas, upon hardening, the putty is dressed down and the area painted. Also called "bondo." body rattle: A noise in the bodywork usually cased by loose parts, badly fitting doors, hood, or trunk lid body repair: After a vehicle has suffered an accident or has corroded panels, the body needs to be repaired to bring it back to like-new condition body roll: The rocking or tilting motion of a vehicle when it goes around the corner body sealer: A tar-like substance which is used to seal body joints body separator plate: See valve body separator plate body shell: The bare skeleton of a vehicle with all the wheels, doors, hood, trunk lid, etc. removed body shop: A service outlet specializing in vehicle body repair work. body side molding:

A protective stripe along each side of the vehicle running from the leading edge of the front fender, along the door panel(s) to the rear end of the back fender. It may be solid plastic or rubber attached directly to the panels while others are attached to a metal strip which in turn is attached to the panels. body spoon: A tool with a flat contoured working surface like a spoon. It is used to slap out dents and is sometimes used in place of a dolly when it is too difficult to reach behind the panel body stripe: A decorative stripe applied to a motorcycle fuel tank or the outside of a car to enhance the appearance. Sometimes model names are also part of the stripes. body styling kit: An additional set of bolt-on parts (like spoilers, air dams, fender skirts, laker pipes, wings) which are intended to improve the looks, performance, and efficiency body tub: The bare body shell (minus the doors, trunk lid, hood, fenders) which is lowered onto the chassis at the time of assembly bodywork: The complete body structure mounted on the chassis of a vehicle with a separate chassis, and the complete sheet metal panel for unibody vehicles. bog: A hesitation usually experienced when starting out. bogie: An assembly of four wheels on two axles with common suspension, usually on heavy commercial vehicles, trailers, and older Ski-Doos®

bogie wheel: One of the suspension wheels on an older Ski-Doo boil: The process of change from a liquid to a gas through the application of heat. boiler: closed container in which a liquid may be heated and vaporized boiler, high-pressure: see high-pressure boiler boiler horsepower: term now seldom used, meaning equivalent to a heating capacity of 33,475 BTU/hr (9804 watts) boiler, hot water and low-pressure steam: a boiler furnishing hot water at pressures not more than 30 psi gauge (308 kPa) or steam at pressures not more than 15 psi gauge (205 kPa) boiling point: The exact temperature at which a liquid begins to boil or changes to a gas (i.e., vaporizes). The boiling point of a liquid decreases with increasing altitude, and increases with pressurization. The coolant in a modern radiator/coolant system can be as high as 260°F (127°C).
Also see dry boiling point wet boiling point

boiling temperature: temperature at which a fluid changes from a liquid to a gas bold-up: The application of retread or repair rubber.

bolster: [1] A supporting brace. [2] The act of supporting.
Also see hexagonal bolster

bolt: A securing device upon which a nut is threaded. It usually has a nut-type head. It is usually measured not so much by the size of the wrench required to secure the bolt; but by the diameter of the threads, the thread pitch, the length of the bolt under the head, and the strength of the bolt.
Also see cylinder head bolt anchor bolt locking lug bolt big-end bolt lug bolt eccentric bolt binder bolt mounting bolt fixing bolt carriage bolt octagonal bolt flange bolt coach bolt octagonal head bolt four bolt mains countersunk bolt pivot bolt hexagon bolt crankarm fixing bolt round head bolt hex bolt shear bolt stirrup bolt through bolt u-bolt wheel bolt wheel lug bolt

bolt and nut: A pair of objects with matching screw threads. When either the bolt or the nut is turned, it moves with great force. Often used as fixing devices. The nut is the circular piece that looks like a ring with threads on the inside hole. The bolt is the shaft with threads.
Also see pivot bolt.

bolt hole: The hole in metal through which a bolt must be inserted or screwed in place.
Also see wheel bolt hole.

bolt hole circle: See wheel bolt hole circle. bolt mains:

See four bolt mains bolt-on: Accessories which are easily secured to an automobile with just a few bolts rather than having to be welded in place. Usually done by the owner. bolt-on fender: A fender which is secured with bolts rather than being welded in place. bolt-on goodies: Accessories which are easily secured to an automobile, but are often for show rather than function. bolt-on kit: A group of parts available in one package which the owner can attach himself. bolt-on wing: British term for bolt-on fender bomb: A vehicle which is in very poor shape, "The car is a bomb and not worth a nickel." In contrast, it can mean a vehicle which has great acceleration, "The car flew down the track like a bomb." bond: [1] A state of adhesion. [2] The act of connecting two components by means of a glue or adhesive or to cause them to adhere [3] The junction of the weld metal and the base metal [4] The grip exerted by one material on another. [5] The attachment between two surfaces that have been joined. bonded abrasive: A grinding part which is made of very hard particles which have been glued together to form a wheel, bar, rod, or cone used to wear down or

smooth metal. bonded brake lining: brake lining that is attached to the brake shoe by an adhesive rather than by rivets. bonded lining: Brake lining cemented to shoes or bands with high-temperature adhesive and cured under pressure and heat resulting in the elimination for the need for attaching rivets bonding:
See adhesive bonding panel bonding

bonding agent: A material which provides adhesion bonding method: A procedure of joining two components with adhesive bonding range: the time during which a satisfactory bond can be made. It is usually expressed in two numbers, the first number being the time in minutes one must wait after applying adhesive before trying to bond the surfaces, and the latter number being the longest drying period within which satisfactory bonds can be made, usually ten to 30 minutes after applying the adhesive bondo: See body putty. bond strength: the force or strength necessary to break a bond between 2 adhering surfaces or materials

See A bone T-Bone backbone frame herringbone gears wishbone.

boned: See T-boned bonk: A term used to describe a condition experienced when running out of energy while riding a bicycle or running. bonnet: British term for vehicle hood.
Also see auto bonnet

bonnet badge: British term for hood badge bonnet bump rubber: British term for hood bump rubber bonnet bumper: British term for "hood bumper" or hood bump rubber bonnet landing panel: British term for hood landing panel bonnet liner: British term for hood liner bonnet lock:

British term for hood lock Bonnet pin: British term for hood pin bonnet pin kit: British term for hood pin kit bonnet release: British term for hood release bonnet stay: British term for hood rod bonnet support: British term for hood rod bonnet tape: British term for hood tape bonus: See no-claims bonus boogie: Trucker slang for top gear as in "I've got 'er up in the boogie now" book:
See blue book paint chip book

booming: [1] A noise caused by interruptions to the flow of air such as an open windows. [2] Low pitched resonance, especially in the exhaust.

[3] Thumping sound coming from large stereo woofers boost: [1] The amount of positive pressure created in an intake system above normal atmospheric pressure by a turbocharger or supercharger. Normal atmospheric pressure is 14.7 psi. A blower providing 10 psi boost increases the pressure to 24.7 psi. Boost is sometimes measured in atmospheres where one atmosphere equals 14.7 psi. Thus 24.7 psi is about 1.7 atmospheres.
Also see on boost off-boost

[2] The action of jump starting one battery from another. [3] To increase power, charge, or pressure, etc.; or to amplify volume, audio sound, etc. boost-activated ignition retard: On a turbocharged engine, a system which retards the ignition timing when the intake manifold is under pressure, in order to reduce the chance of detonation boost-controlled deceleration device: (BCDD) a valve that, during deceleration, is triggered into action by high intake manifold vacuum the BCDD valve allows an additional source of air and fuel to enter the intake manifold during deceleration to obtain a more burnable mixture boost control valve: See blowoff valve booster: [1] A radio device which amplifies the signal or the audio output to the speakers. Because of its size it is mounted in the glovebox, under the dash, in the center console, under the seat, or in the trunk. [2] A device incorporated in vehicle system (such as brakes and steering), to increase the pressure output or decrease amount of effort required to operate, or both.

[3] A common term applied to the case of a compressor when used as the first stage in the cascade refrigerating system
Also see brake booster hydraulic brake booster power booster spring booster vacuum booster vacuum brake booster

booster battery: A second battery used in commercial vehicles to give a little more power when starting. booster cable: See jumper cables booster coil: A secondary ignition coil which increases the intensity of the spark booster venturi: A small venturi located immediately above and concentric with the main venturi in a carburetor. Boosters are designed to amplify the weak venturi vacuum signal that occurs during low airflow conditions boost gauge: An instrument or meter which indicates boost pressure boosting: See start boosting boost pressure: Pressure in the intake system of a supercharged engine when the supercharger operates. See the first definition of boost. boost sensor:

A sensing device in a supercharger. It is located in the choke tube which sends a signal to the ignition control unit according to pressure conditions. In turn, the control unit adjusts the ignition timing for the best performance. boost valve: A valve in a hydraulic system which increases the pressure boot: [1] British term for a trunk. [2] The rubber or plastic cover located at either end of the spark plug cable to insulate the connections between the cable ends and the spark plug and distributor terminal. Always grasp the cable by the boot when removing it. See spark plug boot. [3] The protective cover of the ball joint that holds the grease. [4] The cover that protects the suspension forks on a bicycle or motorcyle from dirt and grime.
Also see dust boot CV joint boot

[4] The covering around the CV joint. [5] A simple protective device (sometimes a piece of tube, tire, etc., cut to size) placed between the casing and tube. It offers temporary protection for the tube against pinching by an injury in the casing. It is not a repair of the injury and is unsafe to use. [6] A denver boot, which is a device which clamps on the wheels of a parked car to immobilize it. Also called a heavy yellow boot. [7] A colloquial term for the action of going very fast as in, We were booting along as fast as the snowmobile would go. booted: A vehicle which has been disabled by a denver boot is said to be "booted." booted version: British term for trunk model booth:

low-bake booth paint booth spray booth

boot handle: British term for trunk handle bootlid: British term for trunk lid boot puller: See spark plug boot puller boots: See boot. boot spoiler: British term for trunk spoiler border shopping: See Canadian cross border shopping bore: [1] The cylinder hole itself.
Also see piston bore.

[2] The diameter or width of the cylinder. [3] As a verb, it means to cut a circular hole. [4] With the word "full" it means to go fast.
Also see full bore center bore cylinder bore wheel center bore

bored: To increase the diameter of the cylinder.

Also see stroked.

bore diameter: The diameter of the cylinders. It is usually measured in either inches or millimetres. When a cylinder is bored out because of scoredwalls, it is increased by "ten thou" of an inch (0.01") or 0.25 mm. bore-stroke ratio: The relation between the diameter of the cylinder bore and the length of the stroke of the piston. If the stroke is longer than the cylinder bore diameter then the engine is called a long stroke engine. If the stroke is shorter than the cylinder bore diameter then the engine is called a short stroke engine. If the stroke is the same as the distance of the cylinder bore diameter then the engine is called a square engine Borgward: A German automobile manufacturer which began by Carl F. W. Borgward in 1921.
Click for books on Borgward

boring bar: A machine with a stiff bar that has multiple cutting bits used to cut engine cylinders to a specific size. As used in garages, to cut worn cylinders to a new diameter or bearing bores in proper alignment with each other. boring: Renewing the cylinders by cutting them out to a specified size, a boring bar is used to make the cut. boss: An extension or strengthened section that holds the end of a pin or shaft. For example, the holes in the piston through which the piston pin is placed would easily break the thin walls of the piston when under pressure. The area around the hole (on the inner side of the piston) are

strengthened to prevent breakage. This area is the piston boss.
Also see gudgeon pin boss horn boss piston pin boss.

bossing mallet: A hammer with a pear-shaped wooden head used for shaping and stretching metal over a sandbag or wooden block. botch: [1] A repair job which is very poorly done. [2] To do a repair job poorly botched-up job: A colloquial term for a poor repair which will not be permanent. bottle: See acetylene bottle bottle cage: A water bottle holding bracket which is mounted to the frame of bike either with a clamp or by screws into a pair of braze-on nuts

bottled gas: (LPG) (liquefied petroleum gas or propane) gas compressed into strong metal portable tanks. The gas, when confined in the tank, under pressure, is in liquid form.

bottle jack: A hydraulic lifting device which is in the shape of a bottle

bottleneck: A traffic situation where the road narrows to the point where traffic is excessively slowed bottom: [1] The lowest point. See door bottom. [2] To lower something. [3] To reach the end of its travel (i.e., bottom out). [4] To make contact with the road.
Also see double bottom

bottom bracket: Bicycle component that is inserted into the bottom bracket shell. The bottom bracket consists of the crank axle (bottom bracket spindle), ball bearings, and (in older style bottom brackets) a fixed cup and an adjustable cup. Crankarms are bolted to the bottom bracket. Also see adjustable bottom bracket. sealed bottom bracket, splined bottom bracket, and square tapered bottom bracket bottom bracket, adjustable: See adjustable bottom bracket

bottom bracket, sealed: see sealed bottom bracket bottom bracket shell: The barrel shaped portion of the frame into which the bottom bracket is inserted. The seat tube, down tube, and chain stays are connected to the bottom bracket shell. bottom bracket spindle: The axle to which both of the crankarms are attached. The spindle length is measured in millimeters from one end of the spindle to the other. bottom bracket, splined: See splined bottom bracket bottom bracket, square tapered: see square tapered bottom bracket bottom dead center: (BDC) The lowest point of the piston and connecting rod travel in a cylinder. In a horizontally opposed engine, it is sometimes called the outer dead center. Opposite to top dead center.
Also see after bottom dead center before bottom dead center

bottom dumps: Trailers that unload through bottom grates. bottom end: [1] All the moving parts in the crankcase and their bearings. [2] the bottom part of the engine, where the crankshaft and usually the transmission resides [3] The lower range of engine revolutions bottom end gasket kit:

All the gaskets below the base gasket (crankcase gaskets and inspection cover gaskets) and all the O-rings and replaceable spacers in the bottom end of an engine.
Also see top end gasket kit.

bottom gear: The lowest gear in a transmission. bottoming: [1] A situation where the suspension reaches the end of its travel. [2] A situation where the lowest part of the chassis touches the ground, especially on a bump bottom out: To reach the end of its travel. bottom tank: In a thermosyphon water-cooling system, this is the bottom radiator tank.
Also see header tank radiator tank

boulevard: Trucker slang for interstate highway as in "Once we hit the boulevard we can put some miles behind us." bounce: [1] When referring to valves, it indicates a condition where the valve is not held tightly closed in the seat even though the camshaft has not opened it. Also called "flutter" or valve bounce [2] When referring to a distributor, it indicates a condition where the points make erratic contact when they should remain closed. See contact bounce. [3] When referring to suspension, it indicates an up-and-down motion called "jounce" and "rebound." You can test it by pushing down and releasing a corner of a vehicle

bound electron: See bound electrons. bound electrons: Electrons in the inner orbits around the nucleus of the atom, they are difficult to move out of orbit. bourdon tube: A circular, hollow piece of thin metal tubing that is used in some instruments, pressure on the hollow section causes it to attempt to straighten, the free end then moves a needle on the gauge face. Used in pressure gauges bow:
See header bow hinge bow hood bow main bow spring bow

bowden cable: a cable or wire inside a metal or rubber housing used for remote control of a valve or other device bowed: A bent shape. bowden cable: A wire control cable within a metal or rubber sheath and used for activating a valve, clutch, choke, or accelerator bowl: See float bowl. bowl vent:

(BV) connects the float bowl to the carburetor's air inlet. Depressurizes the fuel being pumped into the float bowl by the fuel pump and acts as a vapor separator by allowing vapors in the float bowl to escape into the carburetor air inlet. Bowl vents are cut at a 45-deg angle and face incoming air so that reference pressure remains the same regardless of airflow bowl vent port: (BVP) the port in the carburetor which vents fumes and excess pressure from the float bowl to maintain atmospheric pressure bowser: A tanker used for refuelling military ground vehicles or airplanes bow thrusters: A propeller at the bow of the ship, used during maneuvering to provide transverse thrust bow wow: A vehicle in very bad shape. A dog. bow-wow: A vehicle in very bad shape. A dog. box: [1] Colloquial term for a transmission.
Also see crash gearbox

[2] A term for an electrical or electronic device.
Also see E-box crash recorder control box fuse box control unit

[3] A silencer.
black box cdi box crash box Also see rocker box steering box trigger box stuffing box roof box tail light box

panhard rod mounting box

slush box squirt box transfer box

boxed rod: A connecting rod in which the I-beam section has been stiffened by welding plates on each side of the rod. boxer: a two-cylinder engine with the pistons opposing each other, resembling fists flying away from each other. boxer engine: A horizontally opposed engine. box member: A structural part made as a box section box section: A closed panel structure of square cross section which is used to strengthen a vehicle's underbody box spanner: A British term for a hollow tube with a socket at each end and two holes through which a bar can be inserted to turn the wrench. The bar is called a T-bar; but the British call it a tommy bar box van: A British term for a cube van with a large cargo box behind the driver's cab. box wrench: A tool designed to secure or remove a bolt or nut. Each end of the wrench fits around the bolt head or nut. British term for "ring spanner." In contrast, see open end wrench. boxy:

A derogatory description of a car that has square angles instead of smooth curved lines. boy: See low boy boyle's Law: law of physics: volume of a gas varies as pressure varies, if temperature remains the same. Example: if absolute pressure is doubled on quantity of gas, volume is reduced one half. If volume becomes doubled, gas has its pressure reduced by half boy racer: A low-cost car without much sophistication or performance; but it does have a very sleek and sporty appearance. boy scouts: Trucker slang for State police as in "There's a bunch of boyscouts waiting for you at the 157." BP: Acronym for barometric absolute pressure sensor or barometric pressure sensor BPA: Acronym for bypass air solenoid B-pillar: The center body pillar on sedans. It connect the sills and provides roof support. Sometimes referred to as simply post, as in 1957 Chevy two-door post. On a true hardtop design these pillars are missing, leaving uninterrupted glass area along the sides of the car. Also called "Bpost." B pillar:

See B-post. B post: B-post. B-post: The center body post on sedans. It connect the sills and provides roof support. Sometimes referred to as simply post, as in 1957 Chevy two-door post. On a true hardtop design these pillars are missing, leaving uninterrupted glass area along the sides of the car. Also called "Bpillar." BPS: Acronym for exhaust back pressure transducer valve BPV: [1] Acronym for bypass valve. [2] Acronym for exhaust back pressure transducer valve bra: A protective cover, usually of leather or vinyl, which is mounted to the front of a vehicle to protect the finish from stones.
Also see stealth Bra

brace: A support beam to give reinforcement between two objects.
Also see roof brace speed brace

bracing: [1] To stiffen something by using a brace. [2] A brace. See cross bracing bracket: a support device which is often a right-angled shape.

Also see bilge bracket bottom bracket bumper bracket drive end bracket end bracket fender support bracket margin bracket slip-ring end bracket spring bracket towing bracket tripping bracket wing support bracket

bracket set: See chassis bracket set braided hose: A rubber hose which is covered in a woven material or braided wire. Used for various hoses under the hood. brake: [1] To slow down a vehicle. [2] The mechanism that converts motion (kinetic energy) into heat energy through friction. The most common instance is found in the wheels of cars where the brake shoes or disc pads are designed to press against the brake drum or brake disc.
Also see air brake E-brake jam on the brakes anti-lock brakes emergency brake jam the brakes anti-lock brake engine brake juice brake system fixed-caliper disc leading brake shoe armature brake brake low brake pedal assisted brakes fixed-cam brake master brake band brake flexible brake pipe cylinder bleeding the floating caliper disc maximum brake brakes brake power bonded brake flushing the brakes mechanical brakes lining foot brake non-servo brake cable brake forward brake shoe park brake caliper disc brake four wheel disc park brake cantilever brakes brakes extension clutch brake high-mounted brake parking brake primary forward brake shoe prony brake pumping the gas brakes pump the brakes reverse brake shoe rim brake riveted brake lining rollercam brake self-energizing brake shoe service brake servo action brake servo brake

light hinged-caliper disc brake coaster brake hub brake disc brake hydraulicallydisc brake gauge activated brakes disc brake rotor hydraulically-assisted disc brakes brakes double leading hydraulic assisted brake shoe brakes drum brake hydraulic brake dual brakes booster duo-servo brake hydraulic brakes inboard brake jake brake

console parking brake lever strut shooting brake parking brake lever single-anchor selfenergizing brake parking brake pedal sliding-caliper disc brake parking brake sprag brake pin slider caliper spring brake disc brake U-brake power assisted uni-servo brake brakes vacuum assisted brake power brake ventilated brakes press brake primary brake shoe

brake adjuster: A device which moves the brake drum shoes closer to or further apart from the drum. brake adjusting spanner: A British term for brake wrench brake adjusting wrench: A wrench which is used to adjust the brake shoes brake anchor: A steel stud or pin upon which one end of the brake shoes is either attached to or rests against. The anchor is firmly affixed to the backing plate. brake, anti-lock: See anti-lock brakes. brake antiroll device: See brake anti-roll device. brake anti-roll device:

A unit installed in the brake system to hold brake line pressure when the vehicle is stopped on an upgrade, when the vehicle is stopped on the upgrade and the brake pedal released, the anti-roll device will keep the brakes applied until either the clutch is released or as on some models, the accelerator is depressed. brake backing plate: A rigid metal (steel) plate, located inside the brake drum, on which the wheel cylinder, brake shoes, and other brake parts are mounted. The braking force applied to the shoes is absorbed by the backing plate.

brake balance: the ratio of front-to-rear braking force brake band: A band, faced with brake lining, that encircles a brake drum, it is used on several parking brake installations. It differs from brake shoes in that brake shoes squeezes against the inside surface of a drum while a brake band squeezes against the outside surface of a drum. brake bias: The front/rear distribution of a vehicle's braking power. For the shortest stopping distance, brake bias should match the vehicle's traction at each end during hard braking brake modulation -- the process of varying pedal pressure to hold a vehicle's brakes on the verge of lockup. Ideally, the brakes will unlock with only a slight reduction in the pressure needed to lock them. Typically, however, a considerable pressure reduction is required. brake bleeder:

A valve attached to each wheel brake. This valve can be opened and closed to allow air to be removed or bled from the brake lines. brake bleeding: See bleeding the brakes. brake block: See brake pad. brake booster: [1] A mechanical device which attaches to the brake system to multiply the force the driver applies with his foot (or hand as in the case of a motorcycle). The device uses air, vacuum, or hydraulic fluid to accomplish this purpose. Sometimes called "power assisted brakes," "vacuum assisted brakes," "hydraulically assisted brakes," or just "power brakes." In most cars, the boost comes from engine intake vacuum. In motorcycles it comes from hydraulic fluid. [2] An arch (usually built from aluminum or carbon fiber) which attaches to the brake bosses of a bicycle in conjunction with the brake. The powerful braking force of V-Brakes or linear pull brakes can cause frames and forks to flex and waste energy which could have been applied to the rims. The booster acts as a brace to prevent frame flex

induced during braking.
Also See hydraulic brake booster vacuum brake booster

brake boss: The brazed-on pivots attached to frames and forks for cantilever and "V" style brakes. Shift lever bosses are brazed-on pivots for down-tubemounted shift levers. Most newer "road" bicycles have the shifters mounted on the handlebars, so they use the old-style lever bosses as attachment points for housing stops brake cable: [1] A wire cable which activates the brakes. Used on motorcycles, trailers, and automobile parkbrakes. [2] A wound steel cable running from the brake levers of a bicycle to the brake calipers. brake cable housing: The outer, colored housing into which a brake cable is inserted. brake caliper: The component of a disc brake that converts hydraulic pressure into mechanical energy. See calipers. brake check: Trucker slang for jamming on your brakes in traffic as in "Watch out we're doing a break check up ahead." brake console:
See parking brake console computer brake control

brake cylinder: A cylinder containing a movable piston actuated by hydraulic pressure to push fluid through the lines and wheel cylinders and force the brake lining or pads against a drum or disc.

Also see wheel cylinder master brake cylinder

brake disc: The component of a disc brake that rotates with the wheel and is squeezed by the brake caliper and pads, which creates friction and converts the energy of the moving vehicle into heat. A British term for brake rotor. brake disc type: A braking system that instead of using the conventional brake drum with internal brake shoes, uses a steel disc with caliper type lining application, when the brakes are applied, a section of lining on each side of the spinning disc is forced against the disc thus imparting a braking force. This type of brake is very resistant to brake fade.
Also see disc brake.

brake dive: The action of the front end of a vehicle as it dips down when the brakes are applied. Opposite to squat.
Also see anti-dive system anti-lift anti-squat system

brake drum: A cast iron or aluminumhousing bolted to the wheel, that rotates around the brake shoes. When the shoes are expanded, they rub against the machined inner surface of the brake drum and exert a braking effect upon the wheel to slow or stop the vehicle.

brake drum lathe:

A machine to refinish the inside of a brake drum. brake dust: The dust created as the brake linings wear down in normal use. Brake dust usually contains dangerous amounts of asbestos brake extension: See park brake extension brake fade: Reduction or loss in braking force due to loss of friction between brake shoes and drum (or brake pads and disc). Caused by heat buildup through repeated or prolonged brake application. brake failure: The total inability of the brakes to function. May be caused by worn out pads or shoes, broken hydraulic lines, broken cable or other linkage, nonfunctioning master cylinder, low or empty brake fluid reservoir, etc. brake feel: A discernible, to the driver, relationship between the amount of brake pedal pressure and the actual braking force being exerted. A special device is incorporated in power brake installations to give the driver this feel. brake fluid: A special fluid used in hydraulic brake systems to stop or slow the vehicle. Never use something else in place of regular fluid. There are four types of brake fluid on the market. DOT 3, DOT 4, DOT 5, and DOT 5.1.
Also see silicone brake fluid

brake fluid reservoir: In an automobile, it is a translucent tank located in front of the master cylinder. It usually has two chambers containing brake fluid. In a motorcycle, it may be found on the handlebar (for the front brake) or near the back of the bike (for the rear brake).

brake flushing: Cleaning the brake system by flushing with alcohol or brake fluid. This is done to remove water, dirt, or any other contaminant, flushing fluid is placed in the master cylinder and forced through the lines and wheel cylinders where it exits at the cylinderbleed screws. brake gauge: See disc brake gauge brake hood: A plastic, rubber, or leather covering mounted around the brake levers to keep out the dust and to provide a non-abrasive placement for the hands during cycling brake horsepower: (bhp) A measurement of the actual usable power (not calculated power) measured at the output shaft (usually the crankshaft) rather than at the driveshaft or the wheels. Thus none of the auxiliaries (gearbox, generator, alternator, differential, water pump, etc.) are attached. It is called the brake horsepower because the shaft power is usually measured by an absorption dynamometer or "brake." This is not the brake on the vehicle's wheels but a testing device applied to the shaft. This instrument is applied to stop or absorb the rotation of the output shaft and returns a value. Compare SAE gross horsepower and SAE net horsepower.
Also see horsepower

brake hose: A flexible high-pressure hose that is reinforced. It connects between the brake pipes and the brake assembly. It needs to be flexible because of the constant movement of the suspension brake lathe: The machine used to resurface the friction surfaces of brake discs or drums

brake lever: [1] A blade attached to the right side of a motorcycle handlebar which usually activates the front brake. [2] A device for activating the park brake. [3] A curved blade found on either side of a bicycle handlebar which activates the front or rear brakes

Also see parking brake lever

brake lever strut: See parking brake lever strut brake light: A red light at the rear of the vehicle which is activated when the brakes are applied. Also called "stop light."
Also see high-mounted brake light auxilliary brake lights

brake line: See brake lines. brake lines: A system of hoses and metal tubes through which the brake fluid flows from the master cylinder to the brake calipers at each wheel. Cracks or breaks in these lines will cause the fluid to leak out and result in loss of brakes. brake lining:

A heat-resistant friction material (usually asbestos) that is attached to the brake shoe (either riveted or bonded). When the shoe is pressed against the brake drum, the lining grabs the inside of the drum, which stops the vehicle and also prevents the drum and the shoe from wearing each other away.
Also see bonded brake lining riveted brake lining

brake lock: See steering wheel and brake lock brake master cylinder: The part of the hydraulic brake system which stores the brake fluid. As the brake pedal is applied pressure is forced against a small movable piston in the master cylinder to push hydraulic fluid through the lines to the wheel cylinders and force the brake linings against the drum (in the case of drum brakes) or force the brake pads against the disc (in the case of disc brakes). brake mean effective pressure: (BMEP) The average pressure in the cylinders of an engine divided by its mechanical efficiency, i.e., the ratio of the power actually delivered at an output shaft to the power developed in the cylinders. It is used as an indication of torque.

brake pad: [1] The friction material or lining which is secured to metal plates. They press against the brake disc or rotor to enable the wheel to stop. They are to be distinguished from brake shoes which press against the inside of a drum.

[2] On a bicycle, brake pads are blocks of rubber-like material fastened to the end of the brake caliper; they press against the wheel rim when the brakes are applied. Also called "brake block." Sometimes the term "brake pad" refers to both the pad and the metal backing.
Also see ceramic brake pad sintered metal brake pad

brake pads: See brake pad. brake pad wear indicator: A device which detects the thickness of the brake pad by using an Lshaped strap which will scrape against the disc when the pad thickness is below tolerance. Others use an electrical circuit in which a worn pad closes an electrical circuit that illuminates a light on the dash panel. brake pedal: A foot operated device which engages the brakes to stop or slow the rotation of the wheels.
Also see low brake pedal parking brake pedal spongy brake pedal

brake pipe: A steel pipe used to transmit the brake fluid. See flexible brake pipe

brake piston: On a motorcycle, pressure from the brake lever (when squeezed) forces the brake fluid to flow from the master cylinder down through the brake line and into the caliper. The pressure of the brake fluid causes the piston to push the brake pad to rub against the disc, thus stopping movement of the motorcycle. brake, power:
See power brakes maximum brake power

brake pressure modulator valve: (BPMV) a combined assembly of the electronic control unit and hydraulic control unit, used in tome GM vehicles, Also called the Electro-Hydraulic Control Unit (EHCU) brake puck: See brake pads. brake pucks: See brake pads. brake pulling: A situation where the vehicle moves to one side when the brakes are applied. It is usually due to uneven application of the brakes from side to side. brake, parking:
See parking brake emergency brake

brake proportioning valve: A valve that limits braking force to the front or rear wheels, usually as a function of pedal effort or line pressure, loading of the vehicle or front-rear weight transfer, to prevent wheel locking and provide the most effective braking. brake rod: A long rod which connects between the brake pedal and the brake actuating lever. brake rotor: The brake disc which is attached to the wheel and is surrounded by a brake caliper.
Also see disc brake rotor

brakes, antilock: See anti-lock brakes. brakes, anti-lock: See anti-lock brakes. brakes, cantilever: see cantilever brakes brake servo: A device which multiplies the driver's physical effort in applying the brakes by using manifold vacuum brake servo unit: See brake servo

brake shoe: That part of the brake system, located at the wheels, upon which the brake lining is attached. There are usually two shoes (curved or arcshaped pieces) in each wheel. When the wheel cylinders are actuated by hydraulic pressure they force the brake shoes apart and bring the lining into contact with the brake drum. In this way the vehicle is slowed or stopped. On a bicycle, it is the metal part that holds a brake pad and is bolted to the end of a brake caliper.
Also see double leading brake shoe forward brake shoe leading brake shoe primary brake shoe primary forward brake shoe reverse brake shoe secondary brake shoe self-energizing brake shoe single leading brake shoe trailing brake shoe.

brake shoe grinder: A grinder used to grind brake shoe lining so that it will be square to and concentric with the brake drum. brake shoe heel: That end of the brake shoe closest to the anchor bolt or pin. brake shoe return spring: A spring which is attached to the two brake shoes. After the brake is applied, this spring pulls the shoes away from the drum

brake shoes: The components of a drum brake assembly that are surfaced with brake lining and forced against the brake drum to generate friction brake shoe toe: The free end of the shoe, it is not attached to or resting against an anchor pin. brake sidepull: See sidepull brake brakes linear pull: see linear pull brakes brakes, power: See power brakes. brakes V: see V brakes brake system: A system that uses hydraulic pressure to enable your vehicle to slow and stop safely. Consists of the master cylinder, brake lines, and disc or drum brakes at each wheel.
Also see anti-lock brake system

brake system cleaner: A type of solvent designed exclusively for cleaning brake system components. It will not destroy plastic, rubber, or synthetic rubber components and it dries quickly, without leaving a residue brake test: A testing procedure which determines the efficiency of a vehicle's brakes in order to pass safety tests

brake torquing: A procedure generally used in performance tests to improve the off-theline acceleration of a vehicle equipped with an automatic transmission. It is executed by firmly depressing the brake with the left foot, applying the throttle with the vehicle in gear to increase engine rpm, then releasing the brakes. Brake torquing is particularly effective with turbocharged cars because it helps overcome turbo lag. brake warning light: An indicator light on the dash which indicates problems such as low fluid level in the brake fluid reservoir, a malfunction in any of the hydraulic brake circuits, or excessive wear of the brake pads or shoes. It also illuminates when the parkbrake is applied. When the ignition is first started, the light will illuminate momentarily to show that the light is working. brake wrench: A wrench which is used to adjust the brake shoes. The British call it a "brake adjusting spanner." braking: The action of operating the devices for slowing the motion of a vehicle.
Also see dual-circuit braking active braking time heavy braking system all-out braking hydraulic braking dual-line braking cadence braking system system diagonal split braking late braking dual braking system system light braking engine braking effect regenerative braking stab braking trail braking

braking distance: A measurement of the distance that a vehicle will travel from the time the brakes are first applied to the actual moment it stops.
Also see stopping distance

braking effect: See engine braking effect

braking efficiency: braking effort as a percentage of the weight of the vehicle braking effort: The amount of strength needed by the operator to bring a vehicle to a stop or the amount of resistance in the brake system braking force: The amount of strength needed by the operator to bring a vehicle to a stop or the amount of resistance in the brake system braking ratio: The distribution of braking effort between the front and rear wheels braking system: All the components that contribute to stopping the vehicle.
Also see anti-lock braking system diagonal split braking system dual-circuit braking system dual-line braking system dual braking system hydraulic braking system secondary braking system single-circuit braking system single-line braking system

braking time: See active braking time brand number: A series of identifying numbers and letters which some companies burn into the sidewall rubber of a truck tire to show their initials, mounting date, etc. brass hammer: A hammer with a brass head. Because the head is softer than steel it is used for hitting a steel object without damaging that object

brass punch: A drift or punch made of brass which is used to remove bushings and bearing races because brass does not score or mark steel. brass hammer: A hammer with a brass head which is used to pound steel pins etc. into place without damaging them.

braze: To join two pieces of metal together by heating the edges to be joined and then melting drops of brass or bronze on the area. Unlike welding, this operation is similar to soldering, except a higher melting point material is used. braze on: See braze-ons. braze-on: See braze-ons. braze-ons: Parts for mounting shift levers, cable guides, pump pegs, chain hangers, front and rear eyelets, derailleurs, water bottle cages, and racks, which are fastened to a bicycleframe through a type of soldering process known as brazing.

braze welding: Making an adhesion groove, fillet, or plug connection with a brazing alloy brazing: Making an adhesion groove, fillet, or plug connection with a brazing alloy brazing flux: Substance applied to surfaces to be joined by brazing or soldering to keep oxides from forming and to produce joints. breadth: See beam break: [1] The action of an item when it no longer holds integrity -- usually resulting in unusable pieces.
See impact break circumferential break

[2] To dismantle a vehicle for parts. [3] To separate as when a switch breaks contact when it is shut off [4] Trucker slang for "I'd like to break-in" or "interrupt" as in "Can I get a break." break-10: Trucker slang for "I want to talk (on channel 10)" as in "Can I get a break one-oh." break away: See breakaway breakaway: The action of a wheel when it turns very rapidly and loses traction so that there is no contact with the ground. Bias-belted tires and radial tires resist the breakaway action better than a bias ply tire. Also see spark breakaway

breakaway barricade: A road obstruction which is designed to warn motorists that the road is unpassable or that there is construction in a particular lane. It is easily dismantled (thus "breakable").

breakbulk vessel: A general, multipurpose, cargo ship that carriers cargoes of nonuniform sizes break down: [1] To cease to operate as in our car broke down on the highway. [2] To lose its insulating effectiveness breakdown: [1] A failure of a mechanism or vehicle as in we had a breakdown on the highway. [2] A loss of insulating effectiveness breakdown recovery: Rescue of a vehicle that has suffered a breakdown by towing it to a service station, etc. breakdown service: A service provided by a tow-truck in providing repairs at the place where the breakdown occurred breakdown truck:

A tow-truck breaker: [1] A person who dismantles a vehicle for parts. Also called a dismantler. [2] A cushioning layer between the belt layers and the tread in radial tires. [3] A device for removing contact. [4] Trucker slang for a CB'er who asks to use a channel as in "Who's that breaker out there."
Also see bead breaker chain breaker circuit breaker contact breaker dual breaker points glaze breaker

breaker arm: The movable part of a pair of contact points in a distributor or magneto. breaker cam: The lobed cam rotating in the ignition system which interrupts the primary circuit to induce a high tension spark for ignition.

breaker gap: See contact breaker gap breaker plate: The movable plate inside the distributor to which the points and the condenser are attached.
Also see

contact breaker plate

breaker point:
See breaker points contact breaker point

breaker points: A mechanical switch in the distributor with two metal contact points (usually made of silver, platinum, or tungsten) that open and close. When the points are closed, energy is stored in the primary windings of the coil. When the breaker points open, this energy is transferred to the secondary windings of the coil and stepped up, resulting in a high voltage to fire the plugs. The air gap between the breaker-point surfaces is critical. If the gap is too small, the timing is retarded, if too wide advanced. Also called "points," "contact points," and "ignition points."
Also see dual breaker points contact breaker point.

breakerless: A distributor or ignition system where the mechanical switching device (such as points or contacts) are replaced by an electronic switching device through the use of transistors. They are also called "contactless" or "allelectronic ignitions." breaker strip: Strip of wood or plastic used to cover joint between outside case and inside liner of refrigerator breaker's yard: A British term for a salvage yard

breaker-triggered transistorized ignition: A transistorized ignition system whose distributor is the same as that of a coil ignition system, but whose contact breaker switches only the control current of the transistor, not the primary current. Usually not fitted as original equipment. break in: See break-in. break-in: Period of operation between the installation of new or rebuilt parts and the time in which the parts are worn to the correct fit, driving at a reduced and varying speed for a specified mileage to permit parts to wear to the correct fit. British term is "run-in." break-in oil: Special formulated oil used in a new engine for a specified amount of time so that all bearing surfaces, etc. are properly seated. break one-oh: Trucker slang for "I want to talk (on channel 10)" as in "Can I get a break one-oh." break-out box: (BOB) a service tool that tees-in between the computer and the multi-pin harness connector. Once connected in series with the computer and the harness, this test device permits measurements of computer inputs and outputs breakover: The area of a dent in a panel where the sheet metal is actually buckled into the opposite direction of its normal shape break time: The length of time the contact breaker points remain open. Opposite to dwell

break up: British term for dismantling a vehicle and selling the parts. Similar to part out breakwater: Plates fitted on a forward weather deck to form a V-shaped shield against water that is shipped over the bow breasthook: A triangular plate bracket joining port and starboard side stringers at the stem. breathalyze: To administer a breathalyzer test breathalyzer: A device into which a driver blows to determine the amount of alcohol in his breath (and thus in his blood) breathalyzer test: A test given by the police to determine if a driver has exceeded the allowable alcohol content in his system. breather: A vent in the crankcase for relieving internal pressure or admitting air.
Also see crankcase breather oil breather pipe oil breather

breather pipe: A pipe opening into the interior of the engine. It is used to assist ventilation the pipe usually extends downward to a point just below the engine so that the passing air stream will form a partial vacuum thus assisting in venting the engine.

Also see oil breather pipe

breather port: The small passage between the master cylinder fluid reservoir and the area behind the primary cups of the pistons. This port allows fluid from the reservoir to fill the area behind the cups when the brakes are applied, which prevents air bubbles from traveling around the lips of the primary cups as the brakes are released. See replenishing port breathing: The action of taking in air for combining with fuel for burning as energy and then exhausting it. See breathing capacity. breathing capacity: The volume of air that enters the cylinder during each intake stroke. Volumetric efficiency is determined by comparing the actual volume of air with the maximum possible amount. Also called "air capacity." breath test: See breathalyzer test breeching: Space in hot water or steam boilers between the end of the tubing and the jacket brevet: Literally, the word means "certificate," "patent," or "diploma" in French. In randonneuring, it means two things: certification of having successfully done a randonné, and the long-distance bicycle event itself of at least 200 kilometers. Brevet and randonnée are often interchangeable terms, but a randonnée might be considered to be less structured or less formal than a brevet. Brewster: A vehicle brand of which the 1925-1948 models with required application are classic cars.

BRG: Acronym for British Racing Green bricklayer hammer: A special hammer for chipping cement blocks and bricks bridge: A metal support which is installed in the valve slot of a wheel rim and prevents the flap and tube from bulging through the slot under high pressure and high heat conditions. Also called "lemna."
Also see flying bridge house bridge navigating bridge port bridge

bridge bolts: High-strength bolts used to fasten together the halves of a split brake caliper bridged: See diode. bridge igniter: A device for detonating the air bag bridge washer: A protective thin metal washer installed at the valve stem between the flap and rim base to prevent the tube and flap from protruding through the valve slot as a result of high pressure and high temperature. bridging: A characteristic of undercoats that occurs when a scratch or other imperfection in the surface isn't completely filled. Usually due to underreducing the primer or using a solvent that dries too fast.

Also see gap bridging

bright: A lustrous, shiny finish. Opposite to matt brightening: See chemical brightening brine: Water saturated with a chemical such as salt Brinell hardness: A test of a metal's hardness by hydraulically pressing a hard ball into the metal Bristol: See Arnolt Bristol. British Association: (BA) A term used to describe a series of fine, small diameter threads for electrical and precision equipment British Leyland: (BL) A former manufacturer of British automobiles, now called the Rover Group British Motor Corporation: (BMC) A former manufacturer of British automobiles which changed its name to British Leyland and then to the Rover Group British Racing Green: (BRC) A dark green color which used to be the official racing color for British cars

British Standard Fine: (BSF) The fine screw thread used on most British vehicles before metrication. The coarse thread was British Standard Whitworth British Standards Institution: (BSI) An organization which prepares and issues British standard specifications British Standard Whitworth: A coarse screw thread used on British vehicles before metrication British thermal unit: (BTU) A measurement of the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of one pound of water, one degree Fahrenheit. brittle point: A low extreme temperature at which a substance (like rubber) fractures on sudden impact. broach: Bringing a metal surface to the desired shape by forcing (pushing or pulling) a multiple-edged cutting tool across the surface. broken-in: A condition in which a new engine has overcome any wear-in problems. broken storage: The spaces between and around cargo packages, including dunnage, and spaces not usable because of structural interference. broker: an intermediary with legal authority to operate on behalf of the manufacturer. bronze:

An alloy of copper and tin.
See phosphor-bronze sintered bronze

bronze welding: See braze welding Brough: A vehicle brand of which the 1925-1948 Superior with required application are classic cars. Brougham: See Cadillac Eldorado Brougham BROW: A small inclined ramp to allow passage of trucks over a hatch coaming or bulkhead door sills etc bruise: Any tire injury which weakens, breaks, or separates the carcass cords without damaging the visible rubber surface. brush: [1] A paintbrush. See airbrush. [2] The pieces of carbon, or copper, that rub against the commutator on the generator or starter motor or against the slip rings on an alternator. As they wear down, they need to be replaced.
Also see carbon brush card brush cup-shaped wire brush file card brush spark plug brush third brush wire brush


See brush. brush holder: A device which keeps the carbon brushes in an electric motor in contact with the commutator or slip ring brush spring: A spring which pushes against the back end of a carbon brush in an electric motor to force it against the commutator or slip ring.
Also see carbon brush spring

BSF: Acronym for British Standard Fine BSI: Acronym for British Standards Institution BSW: Acronym for British Standard Whitworth BTDC: before top dead center. Spark occurs on the compression stroke, before the piston reaches top dead center. B thread:
See internal thread class B thread

BTU: Acronym for "British thermal unit." The amount of heat that must be added to one pound of water to raise its temperature one Fahrenheit degree. bubble:

A small blister in the finish of paint bubble car: A type of small car which was popular in the 1950s. It had a bulbousshaped glass front to provide maximum interior room in spite of its small size. The door opened to the front of the driver. Examples are the BMW Isetta and Heinkel Trojan Bucciali: A vehicle brand of which the 1925-1948 models with required application are classic cars. bucket:
See headlight bucket rust bucket shim under bucket

bucket seat: An individual seat which is found in pairs in the front of a vehicle. Named because the curvature of the backrest and cushion resembles a cut-out bucket.

bucket tappet: valve lifters that are hollow, cylindrical, and closed at one end and used with some overhead camshafts. The flat, closed end of the tappet (bottom of the bucket) rests against the camshaft lobe with part of the valve spring and valve stem enclosed by the cylinder. Called "bucket tappets" because they are shaped like upside-down buckets.

Buckland: See AC Buckland Open Tourer. buckle: [1] A locking clasp usually found on seat belts and tie-down straps. [2] To crumple up, especially when metal bends in a vehicle accident buckled plates: Battery plates that have been bent or warped out of a flat plane buckler: A portable cover secured over the deck opening of the hawsepipes and the chain pipes to restrict the flow of water through the openings buckle up: To put your seat belt on. British term is "belt up" BUDC:

before upper dead center. Same as BTDC. budd mounting: See double cap nut. buff: As a verb it means to polish. As a noun it indicates an expert in a field or a person greatly interested in the field as in Jim is a car buff.
Also see nut

buff contour: The specked shape of a buffed retread tire. buffer: A machine used to rasp the old tread from the tire.
Also see jounce buffer

buffered radius: A dimension that ensures the proper contour of the buffed surface according to tire size and type and matrix dimensions. buffeting: Severe, pulsating force of wind. When you drive in a convertible with the top down, you will often experience this buffeting action of the wind. It is also noticeable when a vehicle is driven quickly with the windows down. buffing: [1] Smoothing and polishing a surface by using a buffing wheel and polishing paste or liquid. [2] Grinding or rasping off remaining tread rubber to give the casing proper texture to accept new retread stock and proper dimensions to fit the matrix. buffing template:

A machined device of a specific shape used to obtain the required buffed contour. buffing wheel: A disc which is covered in soft cloth or lambswool. It is powered by a tool like a drill which spins the disc to give a high gloss shine to the surface of a vehicle. buff line: The dividing line in the cross section of a tire between the buffed surface of the original tire and the new retread rubber. bug and tar remover: A solution which will dissolve bugs and tar residue. After application, it needs to be washed off or it will also remove the paint. Bugatti: A vehicle brand of which the 1925-1948 models are classic cars. The 1951 Type 101 model is a milestone car.
Click for books on Bugatti

bug deflector: A length of clear plastic which is attached to the front of the hood to prevent bugs from hitting the windshield. Also called a bug shield

bug out: Trucker slang for leaving a CB radio channel as in "I better bug out and get some shut eye." bug shield: see bug deflector

Buick: A vehicle brand of which the Riviera for 1949 and 196370 are milestone cars. The 1931-32 series 90 with required application are classic cars. The 1953-54 Skylark are milestone cars.
Click for books on Buick

Buick Century: A model of automobile manufactured by Buick

Click for books on Buick Century

Buick Electra: A model of automobile manufactured by Buick Buick Grand National: A model of automobile manufactured by Buick

Click for books on Buick Electra

Click for books on Buick Grand National

Buick Park Avenue: A model of automobile manufactured by Buick
Click for books on Buick Park Avenue

Buick Regal: A model of automobile manufactured by Buick

Click for books on Buick Regal

Buick Riviera: A model of automobile manufactured by Buick

Click for books on Buick Riviera

Buick Skylark: A model of automobile manufactured by Buick

Click for books on Buick Skylark

build: The thickness of the paint film deposited on the body during spraying (measured in mils).
Also see heavy film build

build date code: A code which tells you what day, month, and year the engine was made. Expressed alpha-numerically and stamped somewhere on the block builder: In retreading a tire, a machine used to apply tread rubber to a casing.

Also see body builder

Builders and Repairers Association: See vehicle Builders and Repairers Association building basin: A structure in which one or more ships may be built and floated by flooding the basin. build quality: The quality of workmanship and material composition in the construction of a vehicle. build up: [1] To increase the surface level of metal by welding more material on it (and later grinding it to shape) or by adding filler to it. [2] To assemble or put something together. [3] To add material to something.
See carbon build-up pressure buildup

buildup: [1] The amount a weld face is extended above the surface of the metals being joined. [2] An excess of some material as in, "There was a buildup of carbon on the top of the piston."
Also see carbon build-up

built-up crankshaft: A crankshaft which is not cast or forged as one piece, but made of several different parts. bulb: An electronic device which gives off light by the heating of an element contained with a glass enclosure. The metal base which conducts the

electricity may be a barrel with locating pins, or it may have small filament wires protruding from the base. In some cases it is a tube with contacts at either end. When replacing bulbs, especially high intensity bulbs like halogen, be sure to avoid touching the glass. The oil from your fingers will cause the bulb to overheat and burn out quickly. If you do touch the glass, you need to clean it with air dry it.
Also see alcohol bayonet bulb double filament bulb festoon bulb halogen bulb light bulb outer bulb quartz-halogen bulb quartz halogen bulb tungsten-halogen bulb

bulb, sensitive: See sensitive bulb bulk cargo: Cargo such as oil, coal, ore, woodchips, etc. not shipped in bags or containers bulk carrier: Ship designed to carry cargo such as grain, woodchips, ore, coal, etc. in bulk bulk charging: Using large containers of refrigerant to charge the system. Commonly employed with charging stations to perform complete system charges bulkhead: [1] A structural partition that separates compartments. This is generally a metal wall that extends from one side of a vehicle to the other. In the engine compartment, you would find a radiator bulkhead near the front and a firewall near the back. Another bulkhead separates the passengers from the trunk. The dashpanel is also a bulkhead.
Also see

rear bulkhead.

[2] Vertical partition walls which separates the interior of a ship into compartments or rooms.
Also see afterpeak bulkhead collision bulkhead forepeak bulkhead screen bulkhead swash bulkhead

bulkhead connector: An OEM device used to connect wiring inside the vehicle body with wiring outside the body. Usually located at the bulkhead or firewall bulkhead deck: The uppermost deck to which the transverse watertight bulkheads are carried bulk refrigerant drum: A large (e.g., 10 lbs, 25 lbs, 30 lbs) container of refrigerant generally used in professional air conditioning service shops which employ charging stations to perform complete system charges bull bar: The upward extension of a bumper to protect lights and the grille.
Also see nerf bar

bulldog: Trucker slang for a Mack truck as in "Who we got in that eastbound bulldog." bullet-point pick hammer: See pick hammer bull horn:

A warning horn that sounds like the bellow of a bull or the moo of a cow bull low: The lowest gear in a transmission. Some older transmissions listed their gears as bull low (used for getting out of a stuck condition or climbing a very steep hill), low or first (used for starting out from a stop or for climbing a moderate hill), second (used for town driving or slight hills), third (used for highway cruising). bulwark: Fore-and-aft vertical plating immediately above the upper edge of the sheer strake bump: [1] A slight rising of the pavement possibly caused by a frost heave and if severe enough will be indicated by a sign [2] The upward movement of the wheels and suspension. Also called "jounce."

Also see hood bump rubber

bump and rebound: The two stages of suspension movement requiring damping.
Also see bump rebound

bumper: Originally a bumper was a separate metal bar or blade at each end of a vehicle to prevent damaging the main part of the vehicle from damage occurred by a slight bump into an obstruction or another vehicle.
Also see bumper system

energy-absorbing bumper energy absorbing bumper front bumper hood bumper jounce bumper quarter bumper rear bumper skirt absorbing bumper bonnet bumper bumper to bumper wrapround bumper

bumper bar: A tubular bar or series of bars which are designed to protect the front of a vehicle bumper blade: A flat bar which is designed to protect the front or rear of a vehicle. bumper bracket: A device to which the bumper is attached to the frame, body, or chassis bumper filler: A small panel usually made of plastic which fits between the bumper and the body of the vehicle. bumper horn: A short bumper extension which is mounted vertically (i.e., perpendicular to the main bumper), usually one on each side of the bumper. The British term is "overrider." bumper insert: A rubber or plastic strip fitted to the width of a bumper to prevent scoring of the bumper. bumper iron: A bumper bracket

bumper jack: A device for lifting one corner of a vehicle to change a tire. Older cars used a long bar which fitted into a base. A device on the long bar had a hook which was placed in a strategic place on the vehicle. A lug wrench was inserted into the other end of the device and used to move the device up the long bar thus lifting the vehicle.

bumper panels: See side bumper panels bumpers: See jounce bumpers bumper skirt: See rear bumper skirt bumper sticker: [1] A piece of rectangular paper with a sticky back which can be attached to the back of a vehicle to promote something [2] Trucker slang for a car following too closely as in "Hey Charlie better watch out you got a bumper sticker on your backdoor." bumper system: An energy-absorbing system with some type of deformable material including hydrauliccylinders which enable the bumpers to protect the vehicle from damage in low-speed impacts. bumper to bumper: [1] A traffic condition in which a line of vehicles are stopped one after the other or are moving very slowly. [2] A way of expressing the entire vehicle from one bumper to the other.

bumping blade: An autobody tool used for slapping out slight dents (sometimes without a supporting dolly). It has slight serrations which hold the metal to avoid stretching. Also called a "bumping file." bumping file: An autobody tool used for slapping out slight dents (sometimes without a supporting dolly). It has slight serrations which hold the metal to avoid stretching. Also called a "bumping blade." bumping hammer: An autobody hammer used with a dolly for restoring a panel's shape.
Also see fender bumping hammer

bumping out: An autobody term in which a damaged panel is hit with a hammer until it is nearly the correct shape. bumping spoon: See spring beating spoon bump rubber: See hood bump rubber bump start: [1] A method of starting a manual transmission (not for automatics) vehicle by pushing it (especially down a hill) and letting in the clutch while in second gear and the ignition set to the "on" position. [2] To start a car using a bump start bump steer: When an uneven road surface causes a vehicle to steer or lose directional stability, this is called "bump steer." At the front, bump steer is associated with the tie-rod and linkage-arm relationship. It is caused by the method of locating the rear suspension, the type of rear suspension, and the geometry of the various linkages. In race cars, bump steer is designed out of the

suspension so that the handling is as precise as possible. In most cars it is present to some degree. In fact, it can be useful to allow engineers to design a small amount of understeer or oversteer into the chassis. bump stop: A cushioning device, usually rubber, that limits the upward movement of the wheels and suspension to prevent metal-tometal contact that could lead to suspension damage or failure. Also called "jounce bumpers." bundled out: Trucker slang for Trailer is fully loaded as in "As bundled out as I am those hills will really slow me down." bungee cord: A rubber tie down strap of various lengths (usually 10 mm diameter) with a metal hook on each end. Most are covered with fabric. The hooks are often plastic coated to minimize scratching. Some have an extra hook attached in the middle. Others are linked with a second cord to produce an X-shape. They are used to secure objects to a luggage rack. See bungee net. bungee net:

A specialized bungee cord shaped in the pattern of 25 squares with plastic covered hooks on two opposite sides of the net. It is used to secure objects to a luggage rack. See bungee cord and cargo net. bunk: A built-in bed on a ship bunker: Space where ice or cooling element is placed in commercial installations bunkers: Fuel consumed by the engines of a ship buoyancy: See center of buoyancy Bureau of land management: (BLM) The United States government agency within the U.S. Department of the Interior which has divided trails into four classes: Type I is at least 7 feet (213 cm) wide (enough for a family vehicle), paved, easy to traverse. Type II is also at least 7 feet (213 cm) wide, not paved, but is usually improved. However it may be rough or rutted and contain washboards. It is best travelled by high-clearance 4WD vehicles. Type III is a narrow unimproved dirt road, often with rocks, steep hills, and mud over which only 4WD should use. Type IV trails are for mountain bikes, dirt bikes, and ATVs. 2WD or 4WD vehicles are not allowed. burglar: See car burglar burned metal: A term occasionally applied to the metal which has been combined with oxygen to the end that some of the carbon has been changed into carbon dioxide and some of the iron into iron oxide. burned valves:

Valves that have become pitted so that they do not close properly burner: [1] A device which tends to consume a lot of material. [2] Device in which burning of fuel takes place.
Also see fuel burner gas burner lead burning oil burner

burning: [1] The violent combination of oxygen with any substance to produce heat. [2] The action of consuming something to produce heat, i.e., combustion.
Also see lead burning.

[3] The action of erosion or eating away. Electrical contacts are burning when they wear away; exhaust valves are burning when they pit and don't close properly. [4] flame cutting.
Also see afterburning lead burning

burnish: [1] To bring a surface to a high shine by rubbing with a hard, smooth object. [2] The process of "breaking-in" new brake pads or shoes so the linings conform to the disc or drum friction surfaces burn rate:
See cbr process controlled burn rate

burn rubber: The action of rapid acceleration where the wheels make rapid rotation, but there is only very little momentum. As a result, the driving wheels leave some rubber behind on the pavement.
Also see

peel rubber.

burnt valves: See burned valves burr: A roughness left on a cut or punched metal. A rough edge or ridge. burred wheel: A wheel which has metal slivers or roughness around the edge of the rim. burr walnut: A wood veneer used for dashboards and door trim on some cars.
Also see zebrawood

burst: To explode and suddenly lose all the air in a tire. bury the needle: Going beyond the displayed maximum speed. For example, a digital speedometer may show speeds from zero to 137 kph (85 mph) on its display. When the needle goes beyond the maximum displayed point, it may go beyond the line of sight and is considered buried. bus: [1] A large public or private passenger vehicle used for transporting many (at least 10) passengers.
Also see articulated bus single-decker bus double-decker bus.

[2] A busbar which is a heavy conductor used to carry or make a mutual connection between several circuits. busbar:

A heavy conductor used to carry or make a mutual connection between several circuits. Also called a "bus." bush: British term for bushing. bushing: [1] A protective liner or sleeve that cushions noise, friction, or movement. Suspension bushings are often made from two pipes (one inside the other) with a sleeve of rubber in the space between the two pipes. [2] Rubber bushings on the suspension system should be lubricated regularly. [3] A bearing for a shaft, spring shackle, piston pin, etc., of one piece construction which may be removed from the part.
Also see valve bushing

buster: See lock buster busy intersection: A road junction where there is a lot of traffic and may be controlled by signal lights or not. Usually a place where accidents are more likely to occur. butane: A petroleum gas that is a liquid, when under pressure. Often used as engine fuel in trucks.
Also see LPG.

butt: [1] The end joint between two plates or other members which meet end to end. [2] The square ends of a piston ring butt connector:

A solderless wire connector used to permanently join two wire ends together butted tubing: Tubing whose outside diameter remains constant but whose thickness is reduced in midsection where less strength is needed. buttermilk: Trucker slang for Any beer as in "When I get home I'm gonna get me some buttermilk." butterfly:
See butterfly valve throttle butterfly

butterfly valve: A nut with wings to be turned by thumb and finger. Sometimes called a "wing nut." butterfly valve: A small metal disc located in the carburetor that controls the flow of air into the carburetor. It is so named due to its resemblance to the insect of the same name. butt joint: [1] A piston ring gap in which the two ends of the ring are squared off. [2] A weld where the two panels are not overlapped but fit against each other end to end. button: A small disk or knob which activates something electrical when it is pressed such as a starter button.
Also see abs override button eject button frequency scan button

horn button memory button override button preset station button push button release button reset button scan button

button head: A bolt with a round head buttons: See button. buttress: A thick rubber reinforcement in the shoulder of a tire. It provides support at the edge of the tread, limits shoulder area flexing, and protects the shoulder of off-road tires. See fender strengthening buttress buttressed thread: A screw thread with one vertical and one inclined flank butt strap: A strap that overlaps the butt between two plates, serving as a connecting strength strap between the butted ends of the plating butyl: A non-porous synthetic rubber used in making inner tubes and tubeless tire liners. butyl rubber: A synthetic rubber used as a base for one type of adhesive. It has poor resistance to petroleum oils and gasoline but excellent resistance to vegetable and mineral oils; to such solvents as acetone, alcohol, phenol, and ethylene glycol; and excellent resistance to water and gas adsorption and sunlight

butyl tube: The typical material for tubes. Inexpensive, easy to repair. buy at end-of term interest rate: The effective net interest rate for the lease if, at the end of the lease, the car is purchased at the end-of-lease purchase price. buying decisions: the act of determining whether or not a product purchase or repair, will be made, and/or which product or service will be purchased. BV: Acronym for bowl vent BVP: Acronym for bowl vent port BVT: Acronym for backpressure variable transducer B/W: Black and white, usually referring to photographs. BW: Acronym for "blackwall," as in BW tires. bypass: [1] A road which avoids the congested area of a city traffic. [2] An alternate route for a flowing substance. [3] To go around something to avoid it. [4] A passage at one side of, or around, a regular passage
Also see oil cooler bypass valve oil filter oil filter bypass valve

start bypass

bypass air screw: A screw located on the airflow sensor of a fuel injection system. It adjusts the amount of air allowed into the air-fuel mixture. bypass air solenoid: (BPA) a device used to control the idle speed on some fuel-injected vehicles bypass filter: An oil filter that constantly filters a portion of the oil flowing through the engine. bypass valve: (BPV) A valve that can open and allow fluid or gas to pass through in other than its normal channel.
Also see oil cooler bypass valve oil filter oil filter bypass valve

C: [1] Abbreviation for Celsius or centigrade. [2] Abbreviation for coulomb. [3] Abbreviation for comfort. [4] Symbol for the speed of light in a vacuum. [C]: One of the Fraunhofer lines in the red of the solar spectrum. Its wavelength is 656.3045 nm; it is due to hydrogen. χ: (chi) Symbol for magnetic susceptibility C-3: Acronym for a computer command control system C3I: Acronym for computer controlled coil ignition C-4 system: Acronym for computer-controlled catalytic converter CA: API classification for diesel engine oil widely used in the late '40s and '50s. CAA: Acronym for Civil Aviation Authority CAAM: Acronym for "China Association of Automobile Manufacturers." CAB:

Acronym for Civil Aeronautics Board cab: [1] A taxi or car for hire. [2] The closed part of a truck (or even a car) where the driver sits.
Also see chassis cab

cabbage: Trucker slang for a long steep incline in Eastern Oregon as in "I jammed the brakes pullin' off of Cabbage" cab chassis: A truck chassis which includes the driver compartment. cab-forward design: A car design in which the front end is short and the footwells extended to the front axle. This design gave more passenger space and pushed the windshield further from the passengers cabin: A passenger compartment.
Also see rear cabin pillar

cabin altitude: The normal pressure altitude maintained in the cabin of a pressurized aircraft. cabin blower: An engine-driven pump, usually of displacement type, for maintaining an aircraft cockpit or cabin above atmospheric pressure. Also called cabin supercharger. cabin differential pressure: The pressure in excess of that of the surrounding atmosphere which is needed to maintain comfortable conditions at high altitude. For an aircraft

flying at 9000 m this differential would be about 60 kNm-2. cabin forward: < d>See cab-forward design clear=all> cabin-forward design: < d>See cab-forward design clear=all> cabin pillar: < d>See rear cabin pillar cabin superharger:
See cabin blower

cable: A cord generally made of strands of thin wire. Electrical cables are covered with a protective non-conducting material. Control cables are housed within an outer sleeve.
Also see shift cables, booster cable gearchange cables spark plug cable, bowden cable heavy cable speedo cable, brake cable ignition cable speedometer cable, clutch cable jumper cables speedometer drive control cable light cable, cable, starter switch control cable, stirrup cable, straddle cable, transverse cable

cable activated: A device which is controlled by a cable. As a lever or pedal is engaged, the device is correspondingly moved. The longer the cable the less efficient is the system. Cables tend to stretch and fray with use. cable-angle indicator: An indicator showing the vertical angle between the longitudinal axis of a glider and its towing cable, also its yaw and roll attitude relative to the towing aircraft. cable brake:

A braking device which is activated by a cable cable buoy: A buoy attached to an anchor and serving to mark its position. cablecar: A tram pulled by a moving underground cable, in the same manner as the cable railway. cable clamp: [1] A device for securing a cable end to the point where it connects. [2] A device which secures the outer sheath of a cable cable cover strip: See spark plug cable cover strip cable cutter: A tool for severing a cable

cable ducts: Earthenware, steel, plastic, or concrete pipes containing cables. cable form: The normal scheme of cabling between units of apparatus. The bulk of the cable is made up on a board, using nails at the appropriate corners, each wire of the specified color identification being stretched over its individual route with adequate skinner. When the cable is bound with twine and waxed, it is fitted to the apparatus on the racks and the skinners connected, by soldering, to the tag blocks. cable grip: A flexible cone of wire which is put on the end of a cable. When the cone is pulled, it tightens and bites into the sheath of the cable, and can be used to pull the cable into a duct.

cable guide: A tube which is secured in place to channel the cable which runs through it cable-laid rope: A rope formed of several strands laid together so that the twist of the rope is in the opposite direction to the twist of the strands. Compare lang lay cable lock: A thick cable with a lock at one end and which can be wrapped around a bicycle frame and a post to protect the bike from being stolen. cable loom: See spark plug cable loom cable marker: See spark plug cable marker cable operated: An item which is controlled by a cable cable railway: Means of transport whereby carriages are pulled up an incline by an endless overground or underground cable. cables: See cable. cable separator: See spark plug cable separator cable-stayed bridge: A bridge type for medium spans in which the decking is suspended by diagonal cables attached directly to the supporting tower. Can be of fan or

harp design. The decking is always in compression and is self-supporting during construction. See bridge cable-way: A construction consisting of cables slung over and between two or more towers, so that skips suspended from the cables may be moved often over long distances. It is used for transport of ore etc. Also called blondin. Cab Plus: A type of pickup truck (by Mazda) which has a second row of seating; but unlike a crew cab (which has four full size doors) it has a "half-door" that can be opened only after the main door is opened. The seating is usually a little more cramped than in a crew cab. Also called club Cab, extended Cab, king Cab, xtracab, access Cab, supercab cabriolet: Similar to the sport coupé, it has a provision for converting to an opentype body (i.e., convertible). A rumble seat is a common on older vehicles, but not mandatory feature. Mercedes-Benz distinguishes the cabriolet from the roadster in that the former has a soft-top which folds up while the roadster has a hard-top which is stored in the trunk. Also called a "drophead coupé." CACIS: Acronym for "Continuous AC Ignition System" CAD: Acronym for "computer aided design" cadastral survey: Land survey, boundary delineation. Caddy: An euphemistic name for Cadillac
Also see plug caddy

cadence: The speed your bicycle pedals turn. Professional bicycle riders have cadence of over 100 rpm cadence braking: A braking method in which the driver rapidly depresses and releases the brake pedal to bring a vehicle to an emergency stop Cadillac: The following Cadillacs are classic cars:
• • • • •

All 1925-35 models All 12-cylinder models All 16 cylinder models All 1938-41 60 Special models All 1936-48 series #67, #70, #72, #75, #80, Click for books on #85, #90

For a history of Cadillac, see Cadillac History. Cadillac DeVille: A model of automobile manufactured by General Motors' Cadillac division

Click for books on Cadillac DeVille

Cadillac Eldorado: A vehicle brand of which the 1953-58, 67-70 Eldorado models are milestone cars. Also see the history of Cadillac Eldorado.

Click for books on Cadillac Eldorado

Cadillac Eldorado Brougham: A vehicle brand of which the 1957-58 models are milestone cars. Also see history of Cadillac Eldorado. Cadillac Seville: A model of automobile manufactured by General Motors' Cadillac division

Click for books on Cadillac Seville

Cadillac 60 Special: A vehicle brand of which the 1948-49 models are milestone cars. Also see history of Cadillac. Cadillac 61 Coupe Fastback: A vehicle brand of which the 1948-49 models are milestone cars. Also see history of Cadillac. Cadillac 62: A vehicle brand of which the Sedanet and Convertible DeVille for 1948-49 are milestone cars. Also see history of Cadillac. Cadillac 75: A vehicle brand of which the Sedan/Limo for 1946-70 are milestone cars. Also see history of Cadillac. cadmium cell: A reference voltage standard, giving 1.0186 V at 20°C. Also called Weston standard cadmium cell. cadmium copper: A variety of copper containing 0.7 to 1.0% cadmium. Used for trolley, telephone, and telegraph wires because it gives high strength in cold-

drawn condition combined with good conductivity. cadmium photocell: A photoconductive cell using cadmium disulphide or admium selenide as the photosensitive semiconductor. Sensitive to longer wavelengths and infrared. It has a rapid response to changes in light intensity. cadmium-plated: Something that is covered with a coating of cadmium. It is usually used to protect aluminum and steel nuts and bolts cadmium red line: Spectrum line formerly chosen as a reproducible standard of length, wavelength 643.8496 nm. CAE: Acronym for Computer Aided Engineering caesium: British spelling for cesium CAFE: Acronym for "Corporate Average Fuel Economy." café chop: Converting a stock motorcycle into a café racer is known as doing a café chop on a bike café racer: [1] Motorcycle modified to resemble racing motorcycles from the 1950s and 60s. They are called "café racers" because their owners supposedly raced from café to café in London, where the bikes first appeared in the 1960s [2] An early sportbike motorcycle which originated in Europe. They had a low windshield and the rider was bent forward to optimize the flow of air. Its name came from those who raced from one restaurant (café) to another.

cage: [1] Any enclosure. [2] On a front derailleur of a bicycle, it is a pair of parallel plates that push the chain from side to side; on a rear derailleur, it is a set of plates in which pulleys are mounted to hold and guide the chain from cog to cog. [3] Any device for holding or securing something, e.g., a bottle cage on a bicycle. [4] When referring to bearings, it is the part which holds the balls or rollers in place. Usually called ball cage.
Also see bearing cage needle cage roller cage

[5] When referring to a vehicle, it is the safety enclosure called a "roll cage."
See differential cage integrated roll cage multi-reed cage

[6] The platform on which goods are hoisted up or lowered down a vertical shaft or guides; in mines, the steel box used to raise and lower workers, materials, or tubs. May have two or three decks. cage pedal: A bicycle pedal that is surrounded by a cage. It is found on all terrain bikes.

cage rotor: A form of rotor, used for induction motors, having on it a cage winding. Also called squirrel-cage rotor. cage winding:

A type of winding used for rotors of some types of induction motors, and for the starting or damping windings of synchronous machines. It consists of a number of bars of copper or other conducting materials, passing along slots in the core and welded to rings at each end. Also called squirrel-cage winding. Cailletet's process: A method for the liquefaction of gases based on the free expansion of a gas from a higher to a lower pressure. CAJAD: Acronym for "Canadian Association of Japanese Automobile Dealers" cake: The rectangular casting of copper or its alloys before rolling into sheet or strip. cal: Abbreviation for calorie CAL: Acronym for Computer Aided Lighting calandria: Closed vessel penetrated by pipes so that liquids in each do not mix. In evaporating plant the tubes carry the heating fluid and in certain types of nuclear reactor, e.g., CANDU reactors, the sealed vessel is called a calandria calcium chloride: A chemical (salt) which is added to water in a liquid ballast. calcium sulphate: Chemical compound (CaSO4), which is used as a drying agent or desiccant in liquid line driers

calcium tungstate screen: A fluorescent screen used in a cathode-ray tube; it gives a blue and ultraviolet luminescence. calculation: See load distribution calculation calendering: A thin layer of rubber inside the tire casing which covers the carcass cords to protect them from moisture and to protect the tube from chafing by the cord body. In tubeless tires, calendering consists of a layer of air proof butyl rubber. caliber: [1] The internal diameter or bore of a pipe, esp. the barrel of a fire-arm. [2] The arrangement of the various components of a watch or clock. Also spelled calibre. calibrate: As applied to test instruments it is the procedure of adjusting the dial needle to the correct zero or load setting to determine accurate measurements. calibrated airspeed: (CAS) Indicated airspeed corrected for position error and instrument error only. Not to be confused with equivalent airspeed or true airspeed. Also called rectified airspeed calibration: [1] Marking the measuring units on an instrument or checking their accuracy calibration oil: Oil which is used in a tester for checking injection nozzles, meeting SAE J967D specifications

calibre: See caliber California wheel: A name given to a spoked wheel produced by particular manufacturer. Although the wheel is popular in the East and Midwest of United States, it is not common in California or other Western states. caliper: [1] The apparatus on disc brakes which hold the disc pads and straddles the disc. When actuated the pads press against the disc to stop or slow the vehicle.

Also see brake caliper floating caliper disc brake pin slider caliper disc brake swinging caliper

[2] On bicycles, the brake arms that reach around the sides of a wheel to press brake pads against the wheel rim. [3] (British spelling is calliper). An adjustable measuring tool that is placed around (outside caliper) or within (inside caliper) an object and adjusted until it just contacts. It is then withdrawn and the distance measured between the contacting points.
Also see dial caliper outside spring caliper digital caliper pocket caliper inside spring caliper pocket slide caliper machinists' caliper vernier caliper

caliper disc:

floating caliper disc brake pin slider caliper disc brake

caliper disc brake:
See floating caliper disc brake pin slider caliper disc brake

caliper gauge: A caliper (definition #3) caliper mounting bracket: The component that connects a brake caliper to the steering knuckle, hub carrier, or rear axle calk: To fill seams in a wood deck with oakum or hammer the adjoining edges of metal together to stop leaks. Also spelled "caulk" calking: See caulking call: See close call calliper: Alternate spelling for caliper Cal-look: A style modification of small vehicles which first started in California. Most of the chrome is removed and the vehicle is painted a bright color like yellow, light blue, and red. calorescence: The absorption of radiation of a certain wavelength by a body, and its reemission as radiation of shorter wavelength. The effect is familiar in the

emission of visible rays by a body which has been heated to redness by focusing infrared heat rays onto it. calorie: Two different calorie units are used by scientists. The calorie used by medical science is a small heat unit. It equals the heat required to raise the them of one gram of water one degree Celsius. The calorie used by engineering science is a large heat unit. It is equal to the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of one kilogram of water one degree C. In the SI system it is recommended that the Joule unit of energy be used in place of the calorie calorific value: A measure of heating value of fuel calorimeter: An instrument to measure amount of heat given off by a substance when burned CAM: Acronym for "Computer Aided Manufacturing" cam: [1] A designed bump on a shaft or disc which causes a rocking motion in an adjacent part. [2] A metal disc with irregularly shaped lobes used in the camshaft to activate the opening and closing of the valves and in the distributor, to force the points to open. [3] A colloquial name for the camshaft. [4] A name for the breaker cam.
Also see adjuster cam double overhead cam fast idle cam intake cam closing cam dual overhead cam engine floating cam overhead cam distributor cam exhaust cam inlet cam single-overhead cam

cam-and-lever steering: A steering system in which a conical peg mounted on a lever engages in a helically cut groove on a cylindrical drum. Also called "cam-and-peg

steering" cam-and-peg steering: See cam-and-lever steering cam-and-roller steering: A steering system in which a tapered disc or a set of discs or rollers engage with a helically cut, tapered groove on a cylindrical drum cam angle: See dwell. Camaro: A series of pony cars from the Chevrolet division of General Motors. It is often misspelled as "Camero" because of a mispronunciation. The 1967-69 SS/RS V-8 and Z-28 models are milestone cars. Also see Chevrolet Camaro
Click for books on Camaro

cam belt: See timing belt camber: [1] A wheel alignment adjustment of the inward or outward tilt on the top of the wheel when viewed from the front of the vehicle. Tipping the top of the wheel center line outward produces positive camber. Tipping the wheel center line inward at the top produces negative camber. When the camber is positive, the tops of the tires are further apart than the bottom. Correct camber improves handling and cuts tire wear. Camber is measured in degrees. See wheel camber.

[2] The rise of a deck of a ship, athwartship cambered axle: An axle that has a slight arch which curves upward at the center so that the wheels can tilt outward at the top. In this way it is better than an axle which might sag under load. camber thrust: The side force generated when a tire rolls with camber. Camber thrust can add to or subtract from the side force a tire generates. cam chain: A timing chain which controls the overhead camshaft. cam design: See cam profile camel: A padded fender to keep a vessel away from a pier or quay to prevent damage to the hull or pier camelback: [1] Uncured retread rubber in crescent shape, available in various widths and depths according to size and type of tire being retreaded. [2] A container for supplying water for cyclists

Also see die size

Camel Grand Touring Prototype: (GTP) An International Motorsports Association's (IMSA) premier racing category until 1993 when it was replaced by the controlled cars World Sports Car Championship. GTP cars were the most powerful and the fastest on most road racing circuits in North America at that time. Over the years, many automakers fielded factory teams in this series including Ford, Toyota, Jaguar, Nissan, and Porsche. cam engine:
See dual overhead cam engine twin cam engine

camera: Trucker slang for Police radar unit as in "There's a local yokal with a camera just ahead." camero: See Camaro cam face: The surface of a cam lobe

cam follower: The unit that contacts the end of the valve stem and the camshaft. The follower rides on the camshaft and when the cam lobes move it upward, it opens the valve. Also called "valve lifter" or "tappet." cam ground piston: See cam-ground piston. cam-ground piston: A piston with a skirt that is ground slightly egg-shaped or oval-shaped. The widest diameter of the skirt is at right angles to the piston-pin axis. When it is heated, it becomes round. The design allows for a closer fit in the cylinder so that there is a reduction of blowby gas, cylinder scuffing, and piston slap. cam heel: The lowest point of a cam opposite the lobe. Also called base circle cam lobe: See cam lobes. cam lobes:

The bumps on a cam that contact and activate such devices as the lifters, which operate the valves, and the rubbing block, which causes the points to open and close, as the cam spins with the distributor shaft. cam lubricator: A device, often in the form of a wick, for lubricating the contact breaker cam in the distributor campaigning: Racing a particular vehicle for an entire season. camper: A structure which fits into a truck bed for camping purposes. It usually has beds and possibly cooking and washing facilities. Also called a "truck camper" or slide-in camper.
Also see van camper

camping: See folding camping trailer camping trailer: A trailer containing camping equipment.
Also see folding camping trailer soft-top trailer hard-top trailer trailer

cam profile: The shape of each lobe on a camshaft. These shapes determine when the valves open or close. cam/rocker:

See opening cam/rocker cam/rocker: See opening cam/rocker cam roller: Rotating wheel acting as a cam follower Camry: A model of automobile manufactured by Toyota

Click for books on Camry

camshaft: A shaft with cam lobes (bumps) which is driven by gears, a belt, or a chain from the crankshaft. The lobes push on the valve lifters to cause the valves to open and close. The camshaft turns at half the speed of the crankshaft.

double-overhead cam double overhead camshaft exhaust camshaft

Also see inlet camshaft overhead camshaft intake race camshaft camshaft three-quarter race overhead cam camshaft

single-overhead camshaft twin camshaft twin overhead camshaft

camshaft bearing: Usually a plain bearing which supports the camshaft camshaft drive: A connection between the crankshaft and camshaft by means of gears, chain, drive belt, shaft, or eccentric shaft to maintain the ratio of 1:2. camshaft drive belt: A timing belt camshaft drive sprocket: A sprocket attached to a crankshaft (either at one end or somewhere in the middle) which drives the camshaft with the use of a chain camshaft end play: The amount of lateral movement of the camshaft once it is installed camshaft engine: See twin camshaft engine camshaft gear: A gear that is used to drive the camshaft. camshaft housing: That part of the engine which encloses the camshaft and often other parts of the valve train. camshaft journal:

That part of the camshaft that runs in one of its bearings camshaft pulley: The pulley on the end of the camshaft for the camshaft drive belt camshaft sprocket: The sprocket on the camshaft which (through a chain) is driven by the camshaft drive sprocket can: [1] A tube in a canned motor pump which insulates the motor winding. [2] A muffler. [3] A container for liquid or other substances.
Also see oil can

Canada-U.S. Free Trade Agreement: (FTA) Implemented in January 1989 to eliminate all tariffs on U.S. and Canadian goods by January 1998 and to reduce or eliminate many nontariff barriers. Canadian Automotive Repair and Service Council: (CARS) A not-for-profit organization established to serve the human resource and training needs of the Canadian car and truck repair and service industry. Canadian cross border shopping: cross border shopping describes the purchasing by Canadian consumers of products in the United States. Of particular interest is the decision by these buyers to obtain their products in the U.S., even though similar products are available in the Canadian market. Canadian Environmental Protection Act: (CEPA) act where the goal is pollution prevention and protection of Canadians from toxic substances.

cancellation: See noise cancellation candela: (cd) A basic unit of luminous intensity. If, in a given direction, a source emits monochromatic radiation of frequency 540 x 1012 Hz, and the radiant intensity in that direction is 1/683 watt per steradian, then the luminous intensity of the source is 1 candela. candle: See candle power. candle power: A measurement of the light producing ability of a light bulb. candy apple paint: A bright color (usually red) paint (often with metal flakes) with a transparent clear coat candy paint: A bright color (usually red) paint (often with metal flakes) with a transparent clear coat canister: A small metal box or can.
Also see activated carbon canister adsorption canister charcoal canister vapor canister

canister air filter: A centrifugal force air filter canister purge shut-off valve: (CPSOV) a vacuum-operated valve that shuts off canister purge when the air injection diverter valve dumps air downstream

canister purge solenoid: An electrical solenoid that opens the canister purge valve between the fuel vapor canister line and the intake manifold when energized canister purge valve: Valve used to regulate the flow of vapors from the evaporative canister to the engine canned motor pump: A glandless pump with a special type of submersible or "canned" motor, whose stator winding is insulated from the fluid pumped by a tube, the socalled can cannibalize: The action of removing good parts from one vehicle in order to put them into another vehicle. canning: The insertion of the catalyst element into the converter shell of a catalytic converter cannular combustion chamber: A gas turbine combustion system with individual flame tubes inside an annular casing. canonical assembly: Term used in statistical thermodynamics to designate a single assembly of a large number of systems which are such that the number of systems with energies lying between E and E+dE is proportional to e-Eθ, where θ is a parameter characteristic of the assembly canopy: [1] The transparent cover of a cockpit.

[2] The fabric (nylon, silk, or cotton) body of a parachute, which provides high air drag. Usually hemispherical, but may be lobed or rectangular in shape. Also see ribbon parachute cant: Slope of rail or road curve whereby outer radius is superelevated, to counteract centrifugal thrust of traffic. cant beam: Beams supporting the deck plating in the overhanging portion of the stern. canted deck: The flight deck of an aircraft carrier prolonged diagonally from one side of the ship, so that aircraft may fly off and land on without interference to or from aircraft parked at the bows. The British term is angled deck cant frame: A frame connected at the upper end to the cant beams cantilever: An arm that projects from a source and supports cables.
Also see cantilever brake

cantilever brake: [1] A bicycle rim brake with pivoting arms mounted on fork blades or seatstays at or below rim level. The two brake arms are connected by a straddle cable with the brake cable attached to the midpoint of the straddle cable. [2] A type of ATB brake characterized by having the two brake arms connected by a straddle cable with the brake cable attached to the midpoint of the straddle cable. This type of brake was used on ATB bicycles (as well as tandems, touring, and cyclocross bicycles) before the invention of the V-Brake cantilever brakes:

See cantilever brake. cantilever bridge: A bridge formed of self-supporting projecting arms built outward from the piers and meeting in the middle of the span, where they are connected together. Also see suspended span cantilever deck: A bridge where the deck slab is fixed above the main beams or trusses and is cantilevered beyond the outer beams or trusses. cantilever spring: [1] A leaf spring which is mounted upside down and attached to the vehicle at its mid-point. This system is no longer in use in modern vehicles. [2] A quarter-elliptic leaf spring cantrail: The roof rail canvas top: The convertible top. canyon: A nuclear energy term for a long narrow space often partly underground with heavy shielding for essential processing of wastes from reactors. cap: [1] A protective round cover which is secured to something. [2] A covering over the bed of a truck. [3] The base of a light bulb which fits into a socket. [4] Cleaner air package system of reducing the amount of unburned hydrocarbons in the automobile exhaust.
air cap dust cap Also see inner cap nut radiatorcap

battery cap bayonet cap bearing cap big-end cap car cap cold cap distributor cap double cap nut

end cap external mix air cap filler cap flip-top filler cap fuel cap full cap hot cap hubcap

insulating cap internal mix air cap net cap cost oil filler cap outer cap nut plug cap pressure cap pressure radiator cap

radiator pressure cap roto cap safety pressure cap spark plug cap spindle cap top cap valve cap valve spring cap

capacitance: (c) [1] The property which opposes any change in voltage in an electrical circuit. The property of a nonconductor by which it stores electrical energy when separated surfaces of the nonconductor are maintained at a difference of potential. Capacitance is measured by the ratio of the charge induced to the potential difference and is proportional to the area of the conducting plates and the dielectric constant of the nonconducting material, and inversely proportional to the separation of the plates (mks unit: farad). [2] property of a nonconductor (condenser or capacitor) that permits storage of electrical energy in an electrostatic field. [3] Of an isolated conductor, the ratio of the total charge on it to its potential; C=Q/V. Also see farad stray capacitance capacitance bridge: An ac bridge network for the measurement of capacitance. Also see Schering bridge Wien bridge capacitance coefficients: Charges (q1, ..., qn) of a system of conductors can be expressed in terms of coefficients of electric induction (Cij) by the following equations: q1 = C1∞V1 + C12(V1-V2 ) + ... + C1n(V1 - Vn) q2 = C21(V2 - V1) + C2∞V2 + ... + C2n(V2 - Vn) qn = Cn1(Vn - V1) + Cn2(Vn - V2) + ... + Cn∞Vn where Ckm = Ckm(m ≠ k) and Cm∞ = Cm1 + Cm2 + ... + Cm(n-1) + Cmn

They are the fundamental relations for partial capacitances of a number of conductors, e.g., electrodes in valves, conductors in cables, variable aircapacitors. capacitance coupling: Interstage coupling through a series capacitance or by a capacitor in a common branch of a circuit. capacitance grading: Grading of the properties of a dielectric, so that the variation of stress from conductor to sheath is reduced. The inner dielectric has the higher permitivity. Ideally, the grading is continuous and the permittivity varies as the reciprocal of the distance from the center. See condenser bushing capacitance integrator: Resistance-capacitance circuit whose output voltage is approximately equal to the time integral of the input voltage. capacitative load: Terminating impedance which is markedly capacitative, taking an ac leading in phase on the source emf, e.g., electrostatic loudspeaker. capacitative reactance: Impedance associated with a capacitor. Has a magnitude in ohms equal to the reciprocal of the product of the capacitance (in farads) and the angular frequency of the supply (in rads s-1). Also introduces a 90° phase angle such that the current through the device leads the applied voltage. capacities: See fluid capacities capacitive discharge: (CD) A type of ignition system. It can be either all-electronic or breaker point controlled. The primary power is drawn from the engine's battery and put into the CD power supply, where it is changed from 12 volts direct current to about 300 volts of pulsating direct current that is stored in a capacitor (condenser). The release of this energy through the coil is

governed by a silicon-controlled rectifier (SCR). When the SCR switch is closed, the voltage stored in the capacitor is supplied to the coil, which acts as a voltage step-up transformer boosting firing voltage to around 30,000 volts to fire the plugs. capacitive reactance: The opposition or resistance to an alternating current as a result of capacitance; expressed in ohms capacitor: [1] A device which gives capacitance, usually consisting of conducting plates or foil separated by layers of a dielectric. A potential difference applied across the plates induces a separation of charge centers in the dielectric, thus storing electrical energy. [2] Type of electrical storage device used in starting and/or running circuits on many electric motors
Also see absorption capacitor condenser ignition capacitor

capacitor bushing: See condenser bushing capacitor controlled electronic ignition:
See electronic ignition system capacitive discharge

capacitor discharge ignition: (CDI) See capacitive discharge capacitor loudspeaker: See electrostatic loudspeaker capacitor microphone:

See electrostatic microphone capacitor modulator: Capacitor microphone, or similar transducer, which, by variation in capacitance, modulates an oscillation either in amplitude or frequency capacitor motor: Single-phase induction motor with an auxiliary starting winding connected in series with a condenser (capacitor) for better starting characteristics. capacitor-resistance law: (C-R law) Law relating to exponential rise or decay of charge on capacitor in series with a resistor, and, by extension, to signal distortion on long submarine cables. capacitor start: Starting unit for electric motor using series capacitance to advance phase of current. capacitor-start motor: Motor which has a capacitor in the starting circuit capacitor terminal: See condenser bushing capacitron: See band ignitor tube capacity: [1] The ability to contain or hold something. [2] Maximum production attainable under normal conditions. With regard to normal conditions, the company's operating practices are to be followed with respect to the use of production facilities, overtime, workshifts, holidays, etc. [3] The output of an electric motor or other electrical equipment. [4] The volume of fluid which a pump can handle.

[5] A measure of the theoretical maximum amount of refrigerationproduced output, measured in tons or BTUs per hour [6] Refrigeration rating system. Usually measured in BTU per hour or watts. [7] Sometimes used to mean capacitance
Also see air capacity cubic capacity load capacity ampere hour capacity energy net capacity battery capacity engine capacity nominal capacity breathing capacity fuse passenger capacity carrying capacity fuse capacity ply rating rated capacity reserve capacity seating capacity top off work capacity

capacity plan: A plan outlining the spaces available for fuel, cargo, ballast, fresh water, etc, with guides on weight and volume for spaces at various drafts and displacements capacity rating: See rated capacity cap-and-pin type insulator: A special form of the suspension insulator cap cost:
See capitalized cost net cap cost

cap cost reduction: See capitalized cost reduction cape chisel: A metal cutting chisel shaped to cut or work in channels or grooves capillarity: A phenomenon associated with surface tension, which occurs in fine bore tubes or channels.

capillary: A tube with a very small bore used for temperature gauges capillary action: The property of a liquid to move into small spaces if it has the ability to "wet" these surfaces capillary tube: A tube usually gas-filled, with a precisely calibrated length and inside diameter, used to connect the remote bulb or coil to the expansion valve or thermostat. A tube with a very small bore used for temperature gauges. Also called pressure sensing line capitalized: See net capitalized cost capitalized cost: The total price of the vehicle, in effect, its purchase price. In theory, the cap cost should equal the amount you would pay for the vehicle if you were purchasing the vehicle. When a lease is made, the dealer sells that vehicle to the leasing company (for the cap cost), which then leases the the vehicle to you.
Also see net capitalized cost

capitalized cost reduction: A fancy name for a cash down payment, money you pay up front that is applied to the final purchase price of a lease. A large cap cost reduction will, of course reduce the monthly payments, but it will also negate one of the big advantages of leasing. However, if you own your present car, you may be able to use it, as a trade-in, to satisfy the cap cost reduction to start the lease. Remember, you must pay sales tax on any cap cost reduction you make. Another source of capital cost reduction may be dealer or manufacturer participation. Dealers and manufacturers will sometimes lower the cap cost or offer a rebate that reduces the cap cost. A dealer or manufacturer cap cost reduction does lower your total out-of-pocket dollars, unlike a cap cost reduction that you must pay.

capital expenditures: expenditures to acquire or add to capital assets that will yield benefits over several accounting periods. Included are cost of procuring, construction, installing new durable plants, machinery and equipment where for replacement, addition or for lease or rent to other companies including subsidies. cap nut: A nut that is closed at the threaded end often with a dome. Also called box nut or dome nut.

Also see double cap nut inner cap nut outer cap nut

capping: [1] Installing a new tread on a tire carcass.
Also see retreading.

[2] Door molding or capping cap screw: See socket head screw capstan: [1] A stump with a vertical axis used for handling mooring and other lines. [2] A vertical drum or spindle on which rope is wound, it is rotated by manpower or by hydraulic or electric motor. [3] Roller providing the constant speed drive in a magnetic tape recorder. capstan-head screw: A screw having a cylindrical head provided with radial holes in its circumference. It is tightened by a tommy bar inserted in these holes.

capstan lathe: A lathe in which the tools required for successive operations are mounted radially in a tool-holder resembling a capstan; by revolving this, each tool in turn may be brought into position in exact location. capstan nut: A nut which is tightened in the same way as a capstan-head screw capstan screw: A screw or bolt with a round head and one or more holes through it into which a bar may be inserted for securing or removing it capstat: A wax-type thermostat at the base of the jet of a SU carburetor, which expands and reduces fuel flow when the underhood temperature rises.
Also see temperature compensator

See advance capsule vacuum capsule

captive: Something that is permanently located in the desired position captive balloon: A balloon anchored or towed by a line. Usually the term refers only to spherical balloons. Special shapes (e.g., for stability) are called kite balloons captive finance company: A leasing or finance company which is affiliated with an automobile manufacturer or distributor.

captive import: an imported motor vehicle or part manufactured by another automaker usually for sale under the brand name of the importer. captive nut: A nut which fits into a cage and is welded in place. This is done where the nut is not easily accessible. capture: Any process in which an atomic or nuclear system acquires an additional particle. In a nuclear radiative capture process there is an emission of electromagnetic radiation only, e.g., the emission of gamma rays subsequent to the capture of a neutron by a nucleus. car: [1] A wheeled vehicle such as an automobile, a section of a train, or a streetcar. The word is an abbreviation of "carriage" -- a device to carry people or goods. [2] In an airship, the part intended for the carrying of the load (crew, passengers, goods, engines, etc.). It may be suspended below, or may be inside the hull of envelope.
donor car 49-state car dream car bubble car edwardian car champ car electric car city car estate car classic car executive car collector car family car compact car fleet car company car forty-nine state competition car car concept car full-size car cult car funny car cycle car Also see hybrid car intermediate car kit car luxury car mass-produced car mid-size car milestone Car Society milestone cars motor car multi-storey car park new car dealer open car pace car parts car passenger car wheel passenger car pony car production car program cars recycling car shopping car solar car spares car sports car stock car street car sun car super car touring car town car veteran car vintage car volume car

car accident: A collision between two or more vehicles (or between a vehicle and a stationary object), whether the vehicles are cars or trucks. Some are minor like a fender bender while others are totalled.
Also see

written off

caravan: [1] A group of vehicles (belonging to one organization) which follows after one another. [2] A British term for camping trailer or a mobile home. caravanning: A British term for travelling with a camping trailer carb: An abbreviation for "carburetor." car banger: A British term for a person or organization which fakes a car accident in order to defraud an insurance company car banging: The act of faking a car accident in order to defraud an insurance company carbide: A binary combound of metals with carbon. Carbides of group IV to VI metals (e.g., silicon, iron, tungsten) are exceptionally hard and refractory. In group I and II, calcium carbide (ethynide) is the most useful. See cemented carbides and cementite See silicon carbide carbide tools: Cutting and forming tools used for hard materials or at high temperatures. They are made of carbides of tungsten, tantalium, and other metals held in a matrix of cobalt, nickel, etc., and are very hard with good compressive strength. car blind: A curtain or pull-down covering for the backlight (i.e., rear window) to obscure the bright headlights of a following vehicle. Some are also used for side windows for privacy. It is generally illegal to use them on the

driver's side window or the windshield. carbon: [1] The hard or soft, black deposits found in the combustion chamber, on the plugs, under the rings, on and under the valve heads, etc. Although it is not a metal, it is a good conductor of electricity. [2] An element which forms various kinds of steel when combined with iron. In steel, it is the changing carbon content which changes the physical properties of the steel. [3] Carbon is used in a solid form as an electrode for arc welding, as a mold to hold weld metal, or for motor brushes.
Also see activated carbon high carbon steel low carbon steel medium carbon

carbon arc: An arc between carbon electrodes, usually limited to pure carbon rather than flame carbon electrodes carbon-arc lamp: Obsolete light source from the arc between carbon electrodes. carbon-arc welding: Arc welding carried out by means of an arc between a carbon electrode and the material to be welded. carbon black: A by-product of the petroleum industry used as a pigment and to give body in the manufacture of rubber products, both natural and synthetic. Carbon is the black residue from burning petroleum. carbon brush: A block of carbon to which a copper wire (or braided cable) is attached at one end and the other end rubs against a commutator, collector ring, or slip ring to transmit electricity

carbon brush spring: See brush spring carbon build-up: A deposit of burned oil which collects in the combustion chamber on the top of the piston and the head. Too much carbon build-up can lead to an inefficient engine and sticky valves. carbon button: See carbon microphone carbon canister: See activated carbon canister carbon contact: In a switch, an auxiliary contact designed to break contact after and to make contact before the main contact to prevent burning of the latter; it is of carbon and designed to be easily removable. carbon-core leads: High tension wire going from the distributor to the coil or the spark plugs. Each wire has a core of carbon or graphite rather than copper wire to conduct the electricity. Carbon-core wire is not recommended for most small engines such as motorcycle engines. carbon dating: Dating method which uses the fact that atmospheric carbon dioxide contains a constant proportion of radioactive 14C, formed by cosmic radiation. Living organisms absorb this isotope in the same proportion. After death it decays with a half-life 5.57x10³ years. The proportion of 12C to the residual 14C indicates the period elapsed since death. Also called radiocarbon dating carbon dioxide: (CO2) A colorless, odorless, non-toxic gas which is a product of breathing and the combustion process. Sometimes used as refrigerant: Refrigerant # is R-744

carbon dioxide laser: Laser in which the active gaseous medium is a mixture of carbon dioxide and other gases. It is excited by glow-discharge and operates at a wavelength of 10.6 μm. Carbon dioxide lasers are capable of pulsed output with peak power up to 100 MW or continuous output up to 60 kW. carbon-dioxide welding: Metal arc welding using CO2 as the shielding gas. carbon gland: A type of gland used to prevent leakage along a shaft. It consists of carbon rings cut into segments and pressed into contact with the shaft by an encircling helical spring or garter spring carboned up: covered with a thick deposit of carbon. In Britain it is called "coked up" carbon fiber: Threadlike strands of pure carbon that are strong and flexible. Carbon fiber can be bound in a plastic resin matrix to form a strong composite. It is light-weight and stronger than steel. Can also be spelled "carbon fibre." carbon fibre: A high-tech material favored in many motorcycle applications because it is extremely strong, light and expensive. The distinctive look of carbon fiber has become trendy. Also see carbon fiber. carbon filter: Air filter using activated carbon as a cleansing agent carbon fouling: The situation that occurs when the two electrical terminals of the spark plug are coated with carbon causing a reduction in efficiency leading to intermittent firing or complete failure.

carbonization: The steeping of wool in a dilute solution of sulphuric acid, or its treatment by hydrochloric acid gas (dry process). This converts any cellulosic impurities into carbon dust and thereby facilitates their removal. carbonize: Building up of carbon on objects such as spark plugs, pistons, heads, etc. carbonized filament: Thoriated tungsten filament coated with tungsten carbide to reduce loss of thorium from the surface. carbonizing: Another term for carburizing or reducing carbon knock: When there is a build-up of carbon in the combustion chamber, uncontrolled ignition will take place causing a knocking noise. carbon microphone: A microphone in which a normally dc energizing current is modulated by changes in the resistance of a cavity filled by granulated carbon which is compressed by the movement of the diaphragm. The diameter of the cavity is frequently very much less than that of the diaphragm, and it is then known as a carbon button. carbon monoxide: (CO) A deadly, colorless, odorless, and tasteless gas found in the engine exhaust. Toxic even in relatively small concentrations. Formed by incomplete burning of hydrocarbons. Thus at its greatest with a rich mixture. carbon pile voltage transformer: Variable electrical resistor made from disks or plates of carbon arranged to form a pile.

carbon pin: A thin cylinder of carbon located in the distributor cap to transfer high tension electricity from the coil to the rotor to the high tension leads going to the spark plugs. carbon resistor: Negative temperature coefficient, non-inductive resistor formed of powdered carbon with ceramic binding material. Used for low-temperature measurements because of the large increase in resistance as temperature decreases. carbon steel: A steel whose properties are determined principally by the amount of carbon present and contains no other deliberate alloying ingredient except those necessary to ensure deoxidation and physical quality. Also called plain carbon steel. See steel
See high carbon steel low carbon steel

carbon tetrachloride: A liquid often used in fire extinguishers. The fumes are toxic -- avoid inhaling. carbon tracking: A trace of carbon found inside the distributor cap which leads away some electricity, thus causing the engine to misfire. carbonyl powders: Metal powders produced by reacting carbon monoxide with the metal to form the gaseous carbonyl. This is then decomposed by heat to yield powder of high purity. carborundum: Trade name for silicon carbide abrasives.

carborundum wheel: See grinding wheel carboy: Large, narrow-necked container, usually of balloon shape, having a capacity of 201 or more. carbs: Abbreviation for carburetors.
Also see dual carbs

carburation: British term for carburetion carburetion: The mixture of vaporized fuel and air in the proper proportions for combustion in an engine carburetor: Optionally spelled "carburette r" or "carburetto r." A device that vaporizes fuel and mixes it with air in proper quantities and proportion s to suit the varying needs of the engine.

A filter screens the air which is drawn into the carburetor. Here the gasoline mixes with the air and this fuel vapor enters the combustio n chamber through the intake valve where it is compresse d and burned.
Also see sidedraft carburetor single-barrel air-valve carburetor feedback carburetor carburetor air valve carburetor fixed-choke carburetor slide carburetor barrel carburetor fixed-jet carburetor starting carburetor compound carburetor flood the carburetor stromberg carburetor cross-draft carburetor four-barrel carburetor su carburetor double-barrel four barrel carburetor tamperproof carburetor hif carburetor carburetor downdraft carburetor horizontal draft twin-choke dual carbs carburetor carburetor dual carburetors progressive carburetor twin barrel carburetor

twin carburetors two-stage carburetor updraft carburetor variable-choke carburetor variable-venturi carburetor vv carburetor

carburetor adapter: An adapter that is used to fit or place one type of carburetor on an intake manifold that may not be originally designed for it. Also used to adapt four-barrel carburetors to two-barrel manifolds.

carburetor barrel: The tube-like part of the vehicle through which air flows and is mixed with vaporized fuel. The choke butterfly valve is located at the top of the carburetor barrel, and the throttle valve is located at the bottom. Midway through, the barrel narrows, and this part is called the "venturi." Carburetors can have one, two, or four barrels. carburetor circuit: A series of passageways and units designed to perform a specific function idle circuit, full power circuit, etc. carburetor circuits: See carburetor circuit. carburetor engine: A combustion engine which uses a carburetor instead of fuel injection. carburetor icing: The formation of ice on the throttle plate or valve during certain atmospheric conditions. As the fuel nozzles feed fuel into the air horn it turns to a vapor. This robs heat from the air and when weather conditions are just right (fairly cool and quite humid) ice may form.
Also see icing

carburetor throat: See venturi carburetor venturi: See venturi carburetter: British spelling for carburetor. carburettor:

See carburetor. car burglar: A person who steals object from a car, but does not steal the car itself.
Also see car thief

carburization: The process of creating carbon steel by increasing the carbon content of steel to reach the desired degree of hardness carburizing: [1] A carburizing flame in welding terms is an oxygen-fuel gas flame with a slight excess of the fuel gas. [2] A method of case-hardening low carbon steel in which the metal component is heated above its ferrite-austenite transition in a suitable carbonaceous atmosphere. Carbon diffuses into the surface and establishes a concentration gradient. The steel can subsequently be hardened by quenching either directly or after re-heating to refine the grain structure. It is usually lightly tempered afterwards, producing a hard case over a tough core. car cap: A waterproof cover which encloses just the greenhouse (i.e., the roof, windshield, side glass, and backlight) car care product: One of several items for taking care of the outward finish of the car (i.e., cleaners, polish, wax, preservers) as well as the interior pieces (e.g., dash cleaners, upholstery cleaners and sealers) carcass: The primary structure of a tire body with its cords, plies, rim wires, etc. apart from the tread itself. Structurally the carcass should hold air and provide strength to the tire, but would not wear well without the tread. Car Club of America:

See Classic Car Club of America car cover: A cover which encloses the entire vehicle to protect the finish from the elements. car crash: A car accident card: The graduated dial or face of a magnetic compass to which the card and needle are firmly connected. See file card brush cardan: See cardan joint. cardan joint: A type of universal joint named after the Italian Cardan who developed the concept in the 16th century. In the 17th century, Robert Hooke of England developed and patented the conventional universal joint. Sometimes it is called the "Cardan universal" or the "Hooke universal." It has two yokes at right angles to each other. Cardan mount: Type of gimbal mount used for compasses and gyroscopes. cardan shaft: A shaft with universal joints at each end cardan universal: See cardan joint. card brush:

See file card brush car dealer: See new car dealer cardinal planes: In a lens, planes perpendicular to the principal axis, and passing through the cardinal points of the lens. cardinal points: For a lens system, the two principal foci, the two nodal points and the two principal points. For a lens used in air, the principal points coincide with the corresponding nodal points. For a lens of negligible thickness the principal points and the nodal points all coalesce at a single point at the optical center of the lens. cardioid: A heart-shaped curve with polar equation r=2a(1+cosθ). An epicycloid in which the rolling circle equals the fixed circle. cardioid directivity: Special shape of a directivity. It is produced by superimposing the fields of a monopole and a dipole, and has the shape of a cardioid. care product: See car care product car-floor contact: A contact attached to the false floor of an electrically controlled lift; it is usually arranged to prevent operation of the lift by anyone outside the car while a passenger is in the lift. cargo:
See bulk cargo general cargo

cargo area: The space within a station wagon or van for carrying goods or the bed of a pickup truck for carrying goods cargo battens: Strips of wood fitted inside the frames to keep cargo away from hull steelwork. Also called sparring cargo box: A type of container mounted on the roof of a vehicle

cargo net: A type of bungee net usually found in the trunk of a car to secure packages from moving around; but also found behind or beside a seat.

cargo port: Opening in a ship's side for loading and unloading cargo. cargo shifting: Movements or changing positions of cargo from one place to another which can easily endanger the seaworthiness of the ship cargo ship: See dry cargo ship Carina: A model of automobile manufactured by Toyota

Click for books on Carina

car insurance: An insurance policy (mandatory in most states and all of Canada) to cover possible damage to the vehicle or property or passengers, etc. Sometimes basic insurance is abbreviated PL&PD (public liability and property damage). Also called "motor insurance" car jacker: A person who steals a car at gunpoint. car jacking: A process of stealing a car while the driver is still in it. The car may be stopped at a traffic light when a car jacker appears with a gun and demands that the driver get out, then he drives away with the car. If it happens to you, give him the car -- your life is worth more than the vehicle. car key: An unlocking device for the ignition switch, doors, trunk, gas cap, etc. car lot: A place where vehicles are sold by an independent dealer car mechanic: See mechanic Carnot cycle: An ideal heat engine cycle of maximum thermal efficiency. It consists of isothermal expansion, adiabatic expansion, isothermal compression, and adiabatic compression to the initial state. Carnot's theorem: Theorem stating that no heat engine can be more efficient than a reversible engine working between the same temperatures. It follows that the efficiency of a reversible engine is independent of the working substance and depends only on the temperatures between which it is working.

car park: A parking area usually located within a building.
Also see multi-storey car park

carpeting: The action of covering the passenger compartment floor (and sometimes the trunk floor) with a form-fitting rug or carpet. car phone: A telephone that is installed in a vehicle, but has recently been replaced by personal cell phones.
Also see cellular phone

car polish: A product which enhances the shine of the paintwork of a vehicle car radio: A radio receiver which is installed (usually in the dash) in a vehicle carrene: Refrigerant in Group One (R-11). Chemical combination of carbon, chlorine, and fluorine carriage: [1] A horse-drawn vehicle for people to ride in. [2] A railroad vehicle for passengers.

carriage bolt: A bolt that has a smooth dome head (like a mushroom) so that no screwdriver or wrench can remove it from the dome-side.

carriage spring: See laminated spring carriage-type switchgear: See truck-type switchgear carriageway: See dual carriageway carrier: [1] A real or imaginary particle responsible for the transport of electric charge in a material. In oxide ceramics, electrons hopping between ions, diffusing oxygen ions and mobile cations can also transport charge. See carriers. [2] A device for conveying the drive of a face-plate of a lathe to a piece of work which is being turned between centers. It is clamped to the work and driven by a pin projecting from the face-plate. [3] A frame for holding a negative in an enlarger or slides in a projector. [4] Non-active material mixed with, and chemically identical to, a radioactive compound. Carrier is sometimes added to carrier-free material. [5] A vehicle for communicating in formation, when the chosen medium itself cannot convey the information but can convey a carrier, on to which the information is impressed by modulation. [6] In radio transmission, the output of the transmitter before it is modulated. See frequency modulation. [7] The frequencies chosen for sending many signals simultaneously along a single communication channel by frequency-division multiplex. [8] A thin substance that helps another substance to reach its goal. For example, a spray grease may have a carrier which transports the grease to its destination. Then the carrier dries up leaving the grease behind.

See barge carriers contract carrier lng carrier bicycle carrier differential carrier luggage carrier bulk carrier hub carrier ore-bulk-oil carrier carrier bearing jet carrier ore carrier

pinion carrier planet carrier product carrier spare tire carrier

carrier bearing: The bearings upon which the differential case is mounted. carrier bearings: See carrier bearing. carrier mobility: The mean drift velocity of the charge carriers in a material per unit electric field. carrier noise: Noise which has been introduced into the carrier of a transmitter before modulation. carrier, pinion: See pinion carrier. carrier, planet: See planet carrier. carrier power: Power radiated by a transmitter in absence of modulation. carriers: In a crystal of semiconductor material thermal agitation will cause a number of electrons to dissociate from their parent atoms; in moving about the crystal they act as carriers of negative charge. Other electrons will move from neighboring atoms to fill the space left behind, thus causing the holes where no electrons exist in the lattice to be transferred from one atom to another. As these holes move around they can be considered as carriers of positive charge. See impurity.

See barge carriers top carriers

carrier wave: An unmodulated radio wave produced by a transmitter on which information is carried by amplitude or frequency modulation. carrosserie: French term for coachwork. carrozzeria: Italian term for coachwork. carrying capacity: The maximum load that a tire is allowed to carry with a particular wheel and rim. Also called "load capacity." carrying-current: See instantaneous carrying-current CARS: Acronym for "Canadian Automotive Repair and Service Council" car society: See milestone Car Society car sponge: A large sponge for washing the exterior of a vehicle car stereo: A listening device in an automobile which usually has an AM/FM radio and often a cassette player, CD player, and/or CD changer. It also includes at least a pair of speakers.

car tax: A government imposed tax which is added to the price of a new car. Some governments charge a road-use tax and call it a car tax. cartesian diver: See diver car test: A test of a vehicle's roadworthiness, reliability, and performance. car theft: Unauthorized removal (i.e., stealing) of a car or the items in or on a car.
Also see car jacking

car thief: A person who steals a car. If someone steals just the objects from a car, he is a car burglar.
Also see car jacker

car tire: An automotive tire which is used exclusively on a passenger car, not a light truck, etc. cartography: The preparation and drawing of maps which show, generally, a considerable extent of the Earth's surface. cartridge:
See can filter cartridge oil filter cartridge

cartridge bottom bracket: A bottom bracket with protective seals to keep water and grime from penetrating to the bearings. Also called "sealed bottom bracket"

cartridge brass: Copper-zinc alloy containing approximately 30% zinc. Possesses high ductility; capable of being heavily cold-worked. Widely used for cold pressings, cartridges, tubes, etc. See copper alloys. cartridge starter: A device for starting aero-engines in which a slow-burning cartridge is used to operate a piston or turbine unit which is geared to the engine shaft. cart spring: A leaf spring used in small trailers. carvac: A small, hand-held vacuum cleaner which is either battery-operated or which is plugged into the accessory outlet or cigarette lighter socket. car wash: [1] A place where you can get your car cleaned. Some are automatic (you drive through and large brushes clean the car) while others provide a bay with spray wands and brushes for you to do the labor.
Also see automatic car wash

[2] A product like soap which is added to water for the purpose of cleaning a vehicle. car wax: A polish which may be in a paste or a cream and used in protecting the finish of a car. car wheel: See passenger car wheel CAS:

Acronym for "cleaner air system" cascade: The arrangement of stages in an enrichment or reprocessing plant in which the products of one stage are fed either forward to the next closely similar or identical stage or backward to a previous stage, eventually resulting in two more or less pure products at each end of the cascade. The classic examples are gaseous or centrifugal enrichment plants. An ideal cascade is the arrangement of stages in series and in parallel which gives the highest yield for a given number of units (e.g., centrifuges) and a given separation factor. cascade generator: High-voltage generator using a series of voltage-multiplying stages, esp. when designed for X-ray tubes or low-energy accelerators. cascade particle: Particle formed by a cosmic ray in a cascade shower cascades: Fixed airfoil blades which turn the airflow around a bend in a duct, e.g., in wind tunnels or engine intakes. cascade shower: Manifestations of cosmic rays in which high-energy mesons, protons, and electrons create high-energy photons, which produce further electrons and positrons, thus increasing the number of particles until the energy is dissipated. Also called air shower. cascade systems: Arrangement in which two or more refrigerating systems are used in series; uses evaporator of one machine to cool condenser of other machine. Produces ultra-low temps cascading of insulators: Flashover of a string of suspension insulators; initiated by the voltage across one unit exceeding its safe value and flashing over, thereby imposing additional stress across the other units, and resulting in a complete flashover of the string.

case: That part near the surface of a ferrous alloy which as been so altered as to allow case-hardening.
See basket case battery case chain case converter case differential case top case transfer case

case harden: The action of hardening the surface of steel. casehardened: A piece of steel that has had the outer surface hardened while the inner portion remains relatively soft. casehardening: The action of adding carbon to the surface of a mild steel object and heat treating to produce a hard surface. cases: The two clam-shell-like halves in the bottom end of the engine surrounded by a metal shell cash register: Trucker slang for Toll booth as in "I'm comin' up on a cash register at highway 88" cash value: See actual cash value casing: [1] The outside shell of something such as the shell of an alternator or starter motor.

Also see axle casing differential casing spiral casing turbine casing volute casing

[2] The tire casing. casing factor: That portion of the load supported by tire casing stiffness instead of air pressure. casing head gasoline: A term used to describe the lighter parts of petroleum products, which were obtained from natural gasoline by condensing natural gas from an oil well cask: See flask casket: See flask cassette: [1] A type of bicycle gear cluster that slides on a freehub rather than threads on it. The freehub body is attached to the rear hub. [2] A cartridge containing magnetic tape that can be inserted into a player for listening or viewing (e.g., an audio cassette or video cassette). cassette cogs: The individual cogs that make up a bicycle cassette. cassette compartment: A storage place for audio cassettes cassette hub:

More recent type of rear hub designed to accept the cassette type of gear cluster. The cassette hub has the rotating, ratcheting freehub body attached to the hub for the cassette to slide onto and be secured by a lockring. cassette player: A unit which plays (but does not record) audio cassettes and is often linked with a stereo unit in an automobile cassette size: The size of a bicycle cassette is described by the number of teeth on the smallest cog and the number of teeth on the largest cog. An example of a common size for road racing would be 12 x 21. cast: [1] To shape molten metal by pouring it into a mold. [2] A model or result made by pouring metal into a mold.
See cast iron casting die cast

castellate: Formed to resemble a castle battlement: e.g., a castellated nut castellated: See castellated nut. castellated nut: A nut with several lugs protruding from one end making it look like the turrets on the top of the wall of a castle. This nut is used on a shaft with a hole drilled in it. It is secured to the shaft by passing a cotter pin through an opening in the nut and through the shaft hole.

caster: A wheel alignment adjustment that positions the wheels like the casters on a chair or shopping cart, so the tires follow naturally in a forward straight line. In a truck or older car, the top of the kingpin is either forward (negative) or toward the rear of the vehicle (positive). On a turn, the wheels will tend to straighten out when the steering wheel is released. If the car has independent front suspension, the upper ball joint is set forward or rearward in relation to the lower ball joint. Caster is measured in degrees.
Also see trail distance

caster action: The self-centering action which causes a caster wheel to move into a straight-ahead position. caster angle: The inclination or angle that a wheel makes when measuring the distance between the vertical post and the offset of the wheel placement. caster offset: The distance on the ground between where the vertical post would touch the ground if it were extended and the point where the wheel touches the ground. Also called caster trail caster trail: The distance on the ground between where the vertical post would touch the ground if it were extended and the point where the wheel touches the ground. Also called caster offset caster wobble: A condition generally produced in the front wheels when they are attached to the ends of a beam axle. It is particularly noticeable on rough roads and the shimmy at the steering wheel makes it difficult to control the vehicle.

You have probably seen this condition in a shopping cart that has caster wheels that wiggle or fluctuate back and forth and will not roll in a straight line. cast holes: Holes made in cast objects by the use of cores, in order to reduce the time necessary for machining, and to avoid metal wastage. casting: [1] A process technology that delivers a liquid molten metal into a purpose-built mold. After cooling, the solid metal surface has the shape of the mold cavity. [2] Pouring metal into a mold to form an object. [3] A metallic article cast in the shape required, as distinct from one shaped by working.
Also see die casting lost-foam casting process malleable castings monobloc casting sand casting thin-wall casting

casting copper: Metal of lower purity than best selected copper. Generally contains about 99.4% of copper. casting ladle: A steel ladle, lined with refractory material, in which molten metal is carried from the furnace to the mold in which the casting is to be made. casting number: The number cast into a block, head, or other component when the part is cast. Casting numbers can be helpful when identifying an engine or its parts, but they are not completely accurate, because castings are sometimes machined differently casting process:

See lost-foam casting process castings: Metallic forms which are produced by pouring molten metal into a shaped container or mold.
Also see malleable castings

casting wheel: Large wheel on which ingot molds are arranged peripherally and filled from stream of molten metal issuing from furnace or pouring ladle. cast-in-situ concrete piles: A type of pile formed by driving a steel pipe into the ground and filling it with concrete, using the pipe as a mold, or by a similar method. cast iron: [1] An alloy of iron and more than 2% carbon. It is used for engine blocks and transmission and differential cases because it is relatively cheap and easy to mold into complex shapes. [2] Any iron-carbon alloy in which the carbon content exceeds the solubility of carbon in austenite at the eutectic temperature. Widely used in engineering on account of their high fluidity and excellent casting characteristics. Carbon content usually in the range of 2-2.3%. Some kinds are brittle and others difficult to machine. See ductile cast-iron, grey iron, spherulitic graphite cast-iron. cast-iron: See cast iron castle: See castellated nut. castle nut: British term for castellated nut -- a six-sided nut in the top of which six radial slots are cut. Two of these line up with a hole drilled in the bolt or screw, a split pin can be inserted to prevent turning.

castle section: A panel with humps or ribs which strengthen the panel. They are called "castle" because from the end they look like the turrets of a castle castor: British spelling of caster. cast spoke assembly: That part of the vehicle consisting of the brake drum and wheel spider, having 3, 5 or 6 spokes. cast spoke type: A type of dual mounting wheels where two demountable rims are mounted directly on the spoke wheel and drum assembly held apart by a spacer band and locked in place by clamps and nuts which attach to studs in the spoke face. cast steel: Shapes that have been formed directly from liquid by casting into a mold. Formerly applied to wrought objects produced by working steel made by the crucible process to distinguish from that made by cementation of wrought-iron, but both of these methods are long obsolete. cast welded rail joint: A joint between the ends of two adjacent rails made in position using the thermite process. cat: An abbreviation for catalytic converter catadioptric: An optical system using a combination of refracting and reflecting surfaces designed to reduce aberrations in a telescope.

catalan process: Reduction of haematite to wrought-iron by smelting with charcoal. catalog: See parts catalog catalyst: [1] A substance that changes the rate of a chemical reaction without itself being used up. [2] A special agent which is added to a plastic body filler or resin or paint to speed up the hardening process.
Also see aged catalyst fresh catalyst metal catalyst oxidizing catalyst particulate catalyst pellet catalyst reducing catalyst three-way catalyst two-way catalyst

catalyst bed: A layer of catalyst-coated material such as pellets or ceramic in a catalytic converter through which the gases pass. catalyst charge: A catalyst-coated material such as pellets or ceramic in a catalytic converter. catalyst coating: A catalytic layer catalyst container: A housing of a catalytic converter. Also called a "converter shell" catalyst contamination:

A reduction of efficiency because of impurity deposits catalyst degradation: A reduction of efficiency because of impurities or overheating. Also called catalyst deterioration catalyst deterioration: A reduction of efficiency because of impurities or overheating. Also called catalyst degradation catalyst efficiency: See catalytic efficiency catalyst indicator: A light on the instrument panel which glows when a prescribed distance has passed in order to remind the driver to have the catalytic converter replaced. catalyst substrate: A base material which carries the catalytic layer or coating. Also called catalyst support catalyst support: A base material which carries the catalytic layer or coating. Also called catalyst substrate catalytic:
See catalytic converter dual-bed catalytic converter mini catalytic converter open-loop catalytic converter pellet-type catalytic converter primary catalytic converter three-way catalytic converter

catalytic activity:

The rate a catalytic converter purifies the exhaust system catalytic converter: A pollution-control device found on the exhaust system of all cars since its introduction in 1974 which acts like an afterburner to reburn unburned gas in the tail pipe. It looks like a small muffler and is usually made of stainless steel. It contains platinum, rhodium, or palladium which is a catalyst for the chemical reaction needed to burn off any unburned hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide by turning them into water vapor, carbon dioxide and other less toxic gases.
Also see dual-bed catalytic converter lean burn engine mini catalytic converter open-loop catalytic converter pellet-type catalytic converter primary catalytic converter single-bed 3-way catalytic converter three-way catalytic converter two-way catalytic converter

catalytic efficiency: The effectiveness of a catalyst in purifying exhaust gases catalytic layer: A thin layer of catalyst such as platinum and supported by a ceramic or metal carrier material catamaran: A double hulled vessel cataphoretic painting: A process of applying the first coat of paint to the body of a car by positively charging the paint particles and then dunking the metal into the paint. A current is turned on so that the positively charged paint is attracted to the negative metal panel. Also called cathodic electropainting catapult:

an accelerating device for launching an aircraft in a short distance. It may be fixed or rotatable to face the wind. It is usually used on ships which have no landing deck, having been superseded on aircraft carriers by the accelerator. During World War II, fighters were carried on (catapult armed merchant ships) for defence against long-range bombers. Land catapults hae been tried but have been superseded by RATOG and STOL aircraft. catback: A performance exhaust system upgrade which consists of new pipes from the catalytic converter to the tail pipe which increases horsepower. These new pipes are larger, thus, more exhaust can exit the system. The faster the exhaust can exit, the more horsepower you gain. catch: See safety catch catch basin: See catch pit catcher: The element in a velocity-modulated ultrahigh frequency or microwave beam tube which abstracts, or catches, the energy in a bunced electron stream as it passes through it. See buncher catcher foil: Aluminum sheet used for measuring power levels in nuclear reactor by absorption of fission fragments. catching diode: Diode used to clamp a voltage or current at a predetermined value. When it becomes forward-biased it prevents the applied potential from increasing any further. catchment area: The area from which water runs off to any given river valley or collecting reservoir. Also called catchment basin

catchment basin: The area from which water runs off to any given river valley or collecting reservoir. Also called catchment area catch net: See cradle catch pit: A small pit constructed at the entrance to a length of sewer or drain pipe to catch and retain matter which would not easily pass through the pipes. Also called catch basin. See sump catch plate: A disk on the spindle nose of a lathe, driving a carrier locked to the work. catch points: Trailing points placed on an up-gradient for the perpose of derailing rolling stock accidentally descending the gradient. See spring points catch-water drain: A drain to catch water on a hillside, with open joints or multiple perforations to take in water in as many places as possible. cat E: Category E damage to an aircraft; equivalent to a total loss or "write off." category: See speed category catenary construction: A method of construction used for overhead contact wires of traction systems. A wire is suspended, in the form of catenary, between two supports, and the contact wire is supported from this by droppers of different lengths, arranged so that the contact wire is horizontal. See

compound catenary construction cathead: [1] The sheave assembly on the top of crane jib. [2] A lathe accessory consisting of a turned sleeve having four or more radial screws at each end; used for clamping on to rough work of small diameter and running in the steady while centering. Also called spider cathetometer: An optical instrument for measuring vertical distances not exceeding a few decimeters. A small telescope, held horizontally can move up and down a vertical pillar. The difference in position of the telescope when the images of the two points whose separation is being measured are lined up with the cross-wires of the telescope, is obtained from the difference in vernier readings on a scale marked on the pillar. Also called reading microscope and reading telescope cathode: [1] In an electric circuit, the negative terminal. Electrons leave at this terminal. [2] In an electronic tube or valve, an electrode through which a primary stream of electrons enters the inter-electrode space. During conduction, the cathode is negative with respect to the anode. Such a cathode may be cold, electron emission being due to electric fields, photo-emission, or impact by other particles, or thermionic, where the cathode is heated by some means. [3] In a semiconductor diode, the electrode to which the forward current flows. [4] In a thyristor, the electrode by which current leaves the thyristor when it is in the ON state. [5] In a light-emitting diode, the electrode to which forward current flows within the devie. [6] In electrolytic applications, the electrode at which positive ions are discharged, or negative ions formed. cathode coating: A low-work function surface layer applied to a thermionic or photocathode in order to enhance electron emission or to control spectral characteristics. The cathode coating impedance is between the base metal and this layer.

cathode copper: The product of electrolytic refining, after which the cathodes are melted, oxidized, poled, and cast into wire-bars, cakes, billets, etc. cathode efficiency: Ratio of emission current to energy supplied to cathode. Also called emission efficiency cathode follower: A valve circuit in which the input is connected between the grid and ground, and the output is taken from between the cathode and ground, the anode being grounded to signal frequencies. It has a high input impedance, low output impedance, and unity voltage gain. See common-collector connection cahode glow: Glow near the surface of a cathode, its color depending on the gas or vapor is the tukbe. If an arc takes place in a partial vacuum, it may fill the greater part of the discharge tube. cathode luminous sensitivity: Ratio of cathode current of photoelectric cell to luminous intensity. cathode modulation: Modulation produced by signal applied to cathode of valve through which carrier wave passes. cathode poisoning: Reduction of thermionic emission from a cathode as a result of minute traces of adsorbed impurities. cathode ray: A stream of negatively charged particles (electrons) emitted normally from the surface of a cathode in a vacuum or low-pressure gas. The velocity of the electrons is proportional to the square root of the accelerating potential,

being 6x105ms-1 for one volt. They can be deflected and formed into beams by the application of electric or magnetic fields, or a combination of both, and are widely used in oscilloscopes and TV (in cathode-ray tubes), electron microscopes and electron-beam welding, and electron-beam tubes for high frequency amplifiers and oscillators. cathode-ray oscillograph: An oscillograph in which a permanent (photographic or other) record of a transient or time-varying phenomenon is produced by means of an electron beam in a cathode-ray tube. Deprecated term for cathode-ray oscilloscope cathode oscilloscope: (CRT) Device for displaying electronic signals by modulating a beam of electrons before it impinges on a fluorescent screen cathode ray tube: A sealed tube on which graphs or pictures are displayed like a TV screen cathodic electropainting: A process of applying the first coat of paint to the body of a car by positively charging the paint particles and then dunking the metal into the paint. A current is turned on so that the positively charged paint is attracted to the negative metal panel. Also called cataphoretic painting cathode spot: Area on a cathode where electrons are emitted into an arc, the current density being much higher than with simple thermionic emision cathodic chalk: A coating of magnesium and calcium compounds formed on a steel surface during cathodic protection in sea water cathodic etching: Erosion of a cathode by a glow discharge through positive-ion bombardment, in order to show microstructure

cathodic protection: [1] The action of protecting metal from electrochemical corrosion by using it as the cathode of a cell with a sacrificial anode. [2] In ships and offshore structures, corrosion can be prevented by passing sufficient direct current through the sea water to make the metal hull a cathode. See sacrificial anode cathodoluminescence: The emission of light, with a possible afterglow, from a material when irradiated by an electron beam, such as occurs in the phosphor of a cathodray tube cathodophone: Microphone utilizing the silent discharge between a heated oxide-coated filament in air and another electrode. The discharge is modulated directly by the motion of the air particles in a passing sound wave. Also called ionophone catholyte: See catolyt cation: Ion in an electrolyte which carries a positive charge and which migrates toward the cathode under the influence of a potential gradient in electrolysis. It is the deposition of the cation in a primary cell which determines the positive terminal. Compare anion catolyte: That portion of the electrolyte of an electrolytic cell which is in the immediate neighborhood of the cathode. Also called catholyte cation: Ion in an electrolyte which carries a positive charge and which migrates toward the cathode under the influence of a potential gradient in electrolysis. It is the deposition of the cation in a primary cell which determines the positive terminal. Compare anion

catolyte: That portion of the electrolyte of an electrolytic cell which is in the immediate neighborhood of the cathode. Also called catholyte catoptric element: A component of an optical system that uses reflection, not refraction, in the formation of an image cauchy's dispersion formula: μ= A + (B/λ2) + (C/λ21) + ... An empirical expression for the relation between the refractive index μ of a medium and the wavelength λ of light; A, B, and C are the constants for a given medium. catwalk: [1] A raised walkway running fore and aft from the midship. [2] An obsolete term for the section between the fender and the hood. On modern cars, this section does not exist at all. But on older cars (like the 1937 Cadillac), the fender was spaced a little way apart from the hood. The headlights were mounted toward the front of the catwalk or above it.

caulk: To fill seams in a wood deck with oakum or hammer the adjoining edges of metal together to stop leaks. Also spelled "calk" caulking: The process of closing the spaces between overlapping riveted plates or other joints by hammering the exposed edge of one plate into intimate contact with the other. A filler material is also used esp. for clsing (e.g., deck planking). Also called calking

caulking tool: A tool, similar in form to a cold chisel but having a blunt edge, for deforming the metal rather than cutting it. causality: [1] The principle that an event cannot precede its cause. [2] See determinism caustic curve: A curve to which rays of light are tangential after reflection or refraction at another curve caustic embrittlement: The intergranular corrosion of steel in hot alkaline solutions, e.g., in boilers caustic etching: The removal of metal by dipping aluminum parts in caustic soda caution: A period in racing in which track conditions are too hazardous for racing due to an accident or debris on the racing surface. The cars remain in their racing positions behind the pace car until it is determined that it is safe to resume the race. caved: Dented inward as in When the car hit me, it caved in the door. cavitation: A condition in which a partial vacuum forms around the blades or impeller wheels of a pump, reducing the pump's output because part of the pump blades lose contact with the liquid. It can be a problem in fuel and water pump, fluid couplings, torque converters. When severe, it can result in the erosion of the pump blades and other internal surfaces. cavity:

[1] An empty space in a body structure, either in a box section or a doubleskinned area. [2] A holder and contact for fuses cavity sealant: A product made of oil, wax, and rust inhibitors which is painted or sprayed into a cavity to prevent rust and corrosion. CB: [1] diesel engine oil introduced in 1949. [2] An acronym for Contact Breaker. [3] An acronym for Citizens' Band.
Also see CB radio

CB radio: A two-way radio which is limited to specific frequencies. Initially used by truck drivers and later by both mobile vehicles and stationary sites; but more recently it has declined in use with the advent of cell phones. CBR process: Acronym for Controlled Burn Rate process. It is a method of improving fuel economy by increasing or decreasing the rate which the fuel burns CBU: Acronym for "Completely Built-Up." CC: [1] Cruise control. [2] A type of diesel engine oil introduced in 1961. [3] (cc) Cubic centimeter. CCC: Acronym for computer command control CCCA:

Acronym for "Classic Car Club of America." CCEC: Acronym for "constant current electronic circuit" CCEGR: Acronym for coolant controlled exhaust gas recirculation CCFA: Acronym for "Comité Des Constructeurs Français d'Automobiles" C-clamp: A tool which is in the shape of the letter "C". A screw at one end of the clamp forces the end of the screw against the object to be secured.
Also see long-reach C-clamp

CCOT: Acronym for "cycling clutch orifice tube system" or "Cycling clutch orifice tube air conditioning system" CCP: Acronym for controlled canister purge CCS: Acronym for "controlled combustion system" of reducing unburned hydrocarbon emission from the engine exhaust. CCT: Acronym for computer controlled timing Cd:

Abbreviation for "Drag Coefficient," a measurement of air resistance (drag). The lower the number, the less drag that a vehicle or shape has. CD: [1] Diesel engine oil introduced in 1955. [2] See capacitive discharge. [3] (Cd) A measurement of drag coefficient. CD changer: A device which is connected to a stereo system and allows several music CDs to be played. CDI: Acronym for "Capacitor discharge ignition";
Also see CDI box

CDI box: Acronym for "capacitive discharge Ignition" device sometimes controlled by a computer. It is designed to help the spark plug fire at a rate consistent with the rpms of the engine. CD player: A device which plays music compact discs. Usually combined with a stereo radio receiver and sometimes with a CD changer. CDR: Acronym for crankcase depression regulator CDV: Acronym for "Car-Derived Van" (e.g., Renault Kangoo). Cd value: a number representing the coefficient of drag which is the amount of resistance that a moving vehicle makes in a wind tunnel

CEC: Acronym for "combination emission control" ceiling:
See absolute ceiling hold ceiling joiner work ceiling

Celebrity: A model of small car produced by Chevrolet

Click for books on Celebrity

Celica: A model of automobile manufactured by Toyota

Click for books on Celica

cell: [1] A compartment or chamber in a battery which contain positive and negative plates suspended in electrolyte. A six-volt battery has three cells, a twelve-volt battery six cells. [2] The combustion chamber in a rotary engine.
Also see battery cell galvanic cell primary cell storage cell dry cell local cell roller cell pump electrolytic cell microgalvanic cell seam sealing cell fuel cell passenger cell secondary cell

cell battery: See gel cell battery

cell connector: The lead bar or strap connecting battery cell groups. cell phone: See cellular phone cell pump: See roller cell pump cellular phone: A portable, wireless telephone which was first introduced in 1983 in the US. Currently it is used both as a car phone and a personal phone. Commonly called "cell phone." cellular telephone: A portable, wireless telephone which was first introduced in 1983 in the US. Currently it is used both as a car phone and a personal phone. Commonly called "cell phone." cellulose: A popular term for nitrocellulose -- a universal automotive finish, which is thin and therefore suitable for spraying, fast drying, and gives a hard and brilliant finish cellulose putty: A filler used to cover minor body imperfections. Celsius: Thermometer on which the boiling point of water is 100 deg and the freezing point is 0 deg. The term replaces the word "centigrade." To convert from Fahrenheit to Celsius, subtract 32 then multiply the result by 5 and divide by 9. To convert from Celsius to Fahrenheit, multiply by 9, then divide by 5. Now add 32 to the result. CEMA:

Acronym for "Consumer Electronics Manufacturers Association." cement: An adhesive rubber compound dissolved in solvent used to provide building tack and cured adhesion for tires. May be brushed or sprayed on the buffed surface. Also called contact cement cementite: FE3C Iron carbide. A hard substance found in cast iron. census value added: residual representing the difference between the value of goods and industrial services produced and the direct material costs associated with the production of goods. center: To place something in a central place in relation to other items.
Also see after bottom dead center after top dead center before bottom dead center before top dead center before upper dead center bottom dead center dead center diagnostic center Driver and Vehicle Licensing Center drop center rim taper drop center rim message center gravity, center outer dead high center rim center inner dead roll center center top dead center lower dead upper dead center center

center bore: See wheel center bore. center console: A section of the dash which is mounted between the driver and passenger sections. It often houses the shifter, cup holders, storage space, and possibly the stereo. center differential: A differential which is used in a four-wheel-drive vehicle to distribute the power to both the front and rear differentials.

Also see variable limited-slip axle/center differential

center drive: Most engines have the power take-off at the end of the crankshaft. A center drive has the power take-off between the cylinders. center drive plate: The disc between the driven plates in a twin plate clutch. centered: See high-centered center electrode: [1] Electrode which protrudes out of the insulator nose of a spark plug. [2] A center terminal.
Also see compound center electrode

center gear: The sun gear of a planetary gearset. center girder: A vertical plate on the ship's centerline between the flat keel and inner bottom extending the length of the ship. Also called center vertical keel. center-hung float: This type of carburetor float pivots on an axis that's parallel with the vehicle axles. It's a better float design than a side-hung float during high speed cornering because the float isn't affected by centrifugal force, so it won't pull the inlet valve open in the middle of a corner centering:
See self-centering steering wheel centering

center keelson: See center girder centerline: [1] An imaginary line which passes from the front to the rear of a vehicle, half way between the distance between the left and right side of the vehicle. [2] The middle line of the ship, extending from stem to stern at any level. center locking disc: A hub cap which is secured in place with a bolt or other locking device. center lock nut: A spinner which secures the wheel to the hub. center median: On a divided highway, the area between the two directions of traffic. The British call it the "central reserve." center of buoyancy: The position in a floating object where the upthrust appears to act. center of gravity: (CG) That point in an object, if through which an imaginary pivot line were drawn, would leave the object in balance. In the vehicle, the closer the weight to the ground, the lower the center of gravity. Cornering, acceleration, and other forces act upon the vehicle's center of gravity, thus affecting body roll and other handling characteristics. center of pressure: An aerodynamically determined point at which wind force on the side of a vehicle is assumed to be concentrated for analytical purposes. It is a function of the shape and aerodynamic drag (resistance) of an automobile's body shell, determines the effect of side winds on a vehicle's direction of travel, and is a concept similar to the center of gravity.

center pillar: The supporting post which is located in the middle of the car and holds up the roof. It is also called the "B-post" or "B-pillar" center point steering: A steering geometry where the steering axis cuts the wheel axis in the wheel center plane, with no offset at the road surface. center punch: A metal tool that is shaped like a pencil where you can hit the blunt end with a hammer so that the sharp point makes an indentation in some metal. In this way the drill-bit can fit into the indentation when you want to make a hole. center rim:
See drop center rim taper drop center rim high center rim semi-drop center rim

center rim taper:
See drop center rim taper semi-drop center rim taper

center section damage: A description of a vehicle after it is involved in an accident when it has been hit on the side somewhere between the front and rear wheels. The frame and body are bashed in at the center, but the front and rear of the vehicle may not have sustained any damage. centerstand: A stand that supports the motorcycle in an upright position centerstand tang:

A small lever attached to the centerstand center steering linkage: A steering system using two tie rods connected to the steering arms and to a central idler arm, the idler arm is operated by a drag link that connects the idler arm to the pitman arm. center terminal: A high tension distributor has a rotor which spins around a center post and transfers electrical energy from the center post or terminal to each of the surrounding terminals located in the distributor cap. In this way the energy from the coil is transferred to the high tension leads going to each spark plug. center the clutch: To align the center holes in the clutch plates so that they fit easily on the splines of the crankshaft. center tunnel: The hump which runs from front to rear between the left and right passenger (i.e., driver and passenger). It often accommodates the transmission and/or drive shaft. In front wheel drive vehicles it covers the wiring leading to the rear of the vehicle.
Also see transmission tunnel

center vertical keel: See center girder centigrade: Thermometer on which the boiling point of water is 100° and the freezing point is 0°. The term is no longer in use and is replaced by the word Celsius. centimeter:

See cubic centimeter central fuel injection: (CFI) a computer-controlled fuel metering system which sprays atomized fuel into a throttle body mounted on the intake manifold central chassis lubrication: A configuration of the engine and chassis where an oil change and the greasing of grease (zerk) fittings can be made from one spot -- generally underneath the vehicle. central gearchange: The usual arrangement with the gear lever in the center of the floor. centralized computerized controller: Energy control device, centrally located, which makes control decisions based on operating data, programmed information, and stored data. Can be used to optimize energy consumption of many devices throughout a building. central locking: The locking or unlocking of all the doors by locking from one location. This may be done by turning a key in a door lock or using an electronic device.
Also see central locking hub

central locking hub: A wheel with splines in the center which match up with the splines on the outside of the hub. This system is usually found on wheels that are attached to the hub with a center attaching nut on older cars -- especially sports cars -- rather than the type that is attached with several studs or bolts in a circular pattern. central reservation: A British term for the median which divides the north and southbound lanes (or east and westbound lanes) of a divided highway.

central reserve: A British term for the median which divides the north and southbound lanes (or east and westbound lanes) of a divided highway. central station: Central location of condensing unit with either wet or air-cooled condenser. Evaporator located as needed and connected to the central condensing unit. central warm air furnace: Self-contained appliance designed to supply heated air through ducts to spaces remote from or adjacent to the appliance location. centre: See center. centrifugal advance: A device found on the distributor which, through the action of centrifugal force on two weights, advances or retards the ignitionspark to correspond with changes in engine speed and load.

Also see vacuum advance

centrifugal clutch: A clutch that uses centrifugal force to expand a friction device on the driving shaft until it is locked to a drum on the driven shaft.

centrifugal compressor: Pump which compresses gaseous refrigerants by centrifugal force. centrifugal force: That force which tends to keep moving objects travelling in a straight line, when a moving vehicle is forced to make a turn, centrifugal force attempts to keep it moving in a straight line, if the vehicle is turning at too high a speed, centrifugal force will be greater than the frictional force between the tires and the road and the vehicle will slide off the road. centrifugal force air filter: A type of canister air filter used on the engines of semi-tractor-trailer units which removes the dust before it reaches the filter element. centrifugal governor: A device which controls the speed by using centrifugal force. As the speed of a shaft increases, weights are moved outward. When the weights reach a predetermined place, the shaft can no longer increase in speed. This governor may be found in automatic transmissions centrifugal oil filter: A filter in the lubrication system which pushes any impurities to the outside of the filter as it rapidly rotates. centrifugal pump: [1] A pump which forces liquid from one location to another by the rotation of an impeller. [2] A pump which produces fluid velocity and converts it to pressure head. centrifugal weight: The movable part in a centrifugal clutch or centrifugal advance. The weight (sometimes called a "finger") moves outward as a result of centrifugal force. Changing the mass of the weight will cause the weight to move outward sooner or later. The heavier the weight the later the movement.

centrifuge brake drums: To combine the strength of steel with the desirable friction characteristics of cast iron, a lining of cast iron is sprayed on the inside of a steel drum. Both metals are handled while hot to encourage the fusion of the two metals centripetal force: A force which acts towards a central point, such as Earth's gravity. In a sense it is the opposite of centrifugal force. century: A bicycle ride of 100 miles (160.9 km).
Also see metric century Buick Century

CEPA: Acronym for "Canadian Environmental Protection Act." ceramic: A non-organic and non-metallic product made from clay or glass. Currently some manufacturers are trying to develop ceramic cylinders because of its ability to retain its shape when heated in contrast with metal which expands when heated.
Also see ceramic filter

ceramic brake pad: A brake pad constructed with ceramics to reduce wear and heat. ceramic capacitor: Capacitor using a high-permittivity dielectric such as barium titanate to provide a high capacitance per unit volume. ceramic filter:

A filtering device using a porous ceramic as the filtering agent. ceramic fuel: Nuclear fuel with high resistance for temperature, e.g., uranium dioxide, uranium carbide. ceramic honeycomb: The interior of a monolithic converter which supports the catalyst. ceramic ignitor: Electric ignition system used in a water glycol solution, forced-air furnace. Electrically heated to create ignition of the gas-air mixture in the combustion chamber. ceramic insulator: An insulator made of ceramic material, e.g., porcelain; generally used for outdoor installations. ceramics: The art and science of non-organic non-metallic materials. See ceramic. ceramics processing: The methods of making ceramic products before final sintering. ceramic transducer: Transducer based on the electrical properties of ceramics such as piezoelectricity. Cerenkov counter: Radiation counter which operates through the detection of Cerenkov radiation. Cerenkov detector: Device which detects and measures the Cerenkov radiation produced as a result of the incidence of high-energy charged particles; from this the

speed and charge of the particles may be calculated. Cerenkov radiation: Radiation emitted when a charged particle travels through a medium at a speed greater than the speed of light in the medium. This occurs when the refractive index of the medium is high, i.e., much greater than unity, as for water. cermet: Ceramic articles bonded with metal. Composite materials combining the hardness and high temperature characteristics of ceramics with the mechanical properties of metal, e.g., cemented carbides and certain reactor fuels. CERN: Byname for Organisation européene pour la Recherche Nucléaire originally Conseil Europé pour la Recherche Nucléaire; the principal European center in theoretical and experimental research in particle physics, supported by most European countries; located in Geneva. Its facilities include high-energy and low-energy proton and antiproton accelerators, and an electron-positron collider. See Large Hadron Collider certificate:
See international load line certificate international tonnage certificate mot certificate seaworthiness certificate type approval certificate

certificate of registry: A document specifying the country the vessel is registered. Certification Label: See safety Compliance Certification Label cesium cell:

Celling having a cathode consisting of a thin layer of cesium deposited on minute globules of silver; particularly sensitive to infrared radiation, but generally approximating to that of the eye. British spelling caesium cell. cesium clock: Frequency-determining apparatus used on cesium-ion resonance of 9,192,631,770 Hz. cesium-oxygen cell: Cell in which the vacuum is replaced by an atmosphere of oxygen at very low pressure. It is more sensitive to red light than the cesium cell. cetane number: A method of rating diesel oil or fuel by measuring the time lapse between fuel injection and ignition to determine how easy it is to ignite and how fast it will burn. The lower the cetane number, the higher the temperature required to burn the oil. cetane rating: A method of rating diesel oil or fuel by measuring the time lapse between fuel injection and ignition to determine how easy it is to ignite and how fast it will burn. The lower the cetane number, the higher the temperature required to burn the oil. ceton filter: A sock-type filter in the fuel tank capable of wicking diesel fuel, but not water; keeps water from the rest of the fuel system until the sock is 90% submerged in water CFC: Acronym for chlorofluorocarbon. CFC gases: Chlorofluorocarbon gases. CFI:

Acronym for central fuel injection. A Ford fuel injection system that uses an injector mounted throttle body assembly CFM: Acronym for "Cubic Feet per Minute." This is the rating of the volume of air moved. CG: Acronym for center of gravity. chafer: The area between the bead and sidewall of a tire. chafer strip: The area between the bead and sidewall of a tire. chafing plate: A bent plate for minimizing chafing of ropes chain: Linked, flexible metal "rope" that connects two sprockets (e.g., the chainwheel to the back wheel cogs, sized differently for different types of bikes.) The teeth of the sprockets fit inside the spaces between the links. Also called a roller chain.
cam chain derailleur chain, narrow width derailleur chains double roller chain Also see drive chain duplex chain O-ring chains primary chain safety chains silent chain simplex chain single roller chain

snow chains timing chain tire chains triplex chain

chain breaker: A tool for removing the pins in a roller chain so that the links can be removed.

chaincase: An enclosed metal covering which encircles the drive and driven sprockets as well as the chain. chain case: See chaincase. chain drive: A system of transferring power from one shaft to another by means of sprockets and an endless chain. This is the system used on a bicycle; but it is also used on an engine to control the timing of valve opening (called "timing chain" or "cam chain"). chain filter wrench: A chain wrench which encircles the oil filter to assist in its removal. chain guard: A metal or plastic covering for the top run of a chain. It is most often found on bicycle chains where the guard keeps your clothing from being caught in the chain or even from getting greasy. chain hoist: A lifting device which uses a chain and block and tackle to lift large objects like engines. chain locker: A compartment for the stowage of anchor chain chain pipe:

A pipe for passage of chain from windlass to chain locker chain pipe wrench: A chain wrench which circles around a pipe and grips it so that the pipe can be tightened or removed.

chainring: One of the sprockets attached to the right crankarm of a bicycle to drive the chain. Also called "chainwheel."

chainring bolt: The 4 or 5 bolts that attach the chainrings to the crankarm of a bicycle chainring bolt circle diameter: The configuration of the bolt pattern on a chainring. Draw a circle through the center of all the bolt holes used to connect the chainring to the crankarm and measure the diameter of the circle (in millimeters). On a road crankset with two chainrings, they will both use the same bolt circle diameter. Typical bolt circle diameters are 130 or 135 mm on road bikes. chainring nut spanner:

A special bicycle tool used to loosen the slotted nuts that fasten a chainring to a crankarm. chainring teeth: The number and type of teeth (i.e., pointed projections which are forced between the rollers of a chain) in a chainring sprocket. A typical large road bike chainring has 53 teeth cut into its surface and it is referred to as a size 53. chain run: The distance between the front and rear sprockets. chains: See chain chain scrubber: A device attached to a chain which rubs away the grime while the chain is moving. chainstay: One of the two tubes of a bicycle frame that run horizontally from the bottom bracket shell back to the rear dropouts. chainstays: The two tubes of a bicycleframe that run from the bottom bracket back to the rear dropouts. chain stopper: A device used to secure the chain cable when riding at anchor, thereby relieving the strain on the windlass chain switch: See snow chain switch chain tensioner:

A device which takes up the slack in a chain. Some use an idler wheel which can be adjusted (manually or automatically), others use a flat slide which pushes against the chain to keep it from bouncing around. Most modern units are spring loaded so that the tensioner automatically takes up the slack. Some require that you need to undo a locking nut to allow the spring to push against the chain. Afterward the lock nut needs to be secured again. chainwheel: One of the sprockets attached to the right crankarm of a bicycle to drive the chain. Also called "chainring."

chain whip: A tool consisting of a metal bar and two sections of chain, used in changing cogs on a freewheel. Sometimes called "chain wrench." chain wrench: A locking pliers which employs a chain to wrap around an object such as a pipe to secure or remove it.

Also see

chain whip

chair: Motorcycle sidecar chalking: The appearance of a white powder on a paint surface as it weathers and ages. chamber: [1] A pressure chamber used to vulcanize pre-cured tread stock to the buffed casing. [2] A compartment which is basically empty or hollow.
Also see pre-chamber climatic chamber hemispherical pre-combustion combustion combustion chamber chamber chamber humidity chamber pre-compression exhaust chamber main combustion chamber fireball chamber pumping chamber combustion mixing chamber salt spray chamber chamber pent-roof combustion spherical float chamber chamber combustion gas chamber plenum chamber chamber

suction chamber swirl chamber twin swirl combustion chamber vacuum chamber wedge combustionchamber

chamber recess: See combustion chamber recess chamber volume: See combustion chamber volume chamfer: To bevel or taper the edge of an object especially the sides of a hole or a sharp corner chamfered: a chamfered object is one that has a symmetrically bevelled edge.

chamois: Pronounced SHAM-mee. A soft piece of animal skin (from a deer, sheep, goat, etc.) used to absorb water after washing the surface of a vehicle. Also called a chamois leather or shammy leather. chamois leather: See chamois. champ car: When Championship Auto Racing Teams (CART) was co-sponsored by FedEx, the series became known as the FedEx Championship Series for the PPG Cup. The cars in this series, previously known as Indy Cars, are called Champ Cars. change: To remove something and replace it with something else.
Also see climate change downward change floor change oil change range-change upward change

change down: A British expression meaning to shift to a lower gear. change gear: The action of selecting a different gear. This expression is used more in Britain than in North America where the expression is "shift gear." change into: A British term for the action of shifting into another gear, such as "change into second" (shift into second gear) or "change into top" (shift into high gear) change of state:

[1] Rearrangement of the molecular structure of matter as it changes between any two of the three physical states: solid, liquid, or gas [2] Condition in which a substance changes from a solid to a liquid or a liquid to a gas due to addition of heat. Or, the reverse, in which a substance changes from a gas to a liquid, or a liquid to a solid, due to removal of heat. changeover: [1] The refitting of equipment to either neutralize the effects of the just completed production or to prepare equipment for production of the next scheduled item, or both. [2] The removing of new original equipment tires in exchange for a different make, size, or type. changer:
See CD changer column changer column gear changer

change-speed gearbox: A transmission which houses a set of gears which move into various configurations of engagement in order to produce different output ratios. change the oil: The act of draining out the old or dirty oil from an engine and replacing it with fresh oil. change up: A British term meaning to shift up to another gear change valve: A British term for a valve in an automatic transmission which raises the oil pressure as the vehicle speed increases. In North America it is called the shift valve. changing:

See charge changing wheel changing

channel: [1] To lower the vehicle body around the frame. [2] A route or groove through which anything passes. [3] The hydraulic routing used by the anti-lock brake system to control the brake pressure at each wheel. A system may have one, three, or four channels
Also see chassis channel distribution channel glass channel grip channel runabout run channel run channel window channel

channelled: Vehicle body lowered down around the frame. channel section: A long metal U-shaped member used in the chassis. chap: See tank chap Chapman: Anthony Colin Bruce Chapman (1928-1982), the founder of Lotus. One of the most innovative engineer in automotive racing history.

Chapman strut: A type of rear suspension using a lower lateral link and a long spring-shock strut to determine wheel geometry. The basic principle is the same as that of the front MacPherson strut and it is so named because Colin Chapman first used it on the original Elite; it is also used on the Elan models, the new Elite, and the Datsun (Nissan) Z-car. characteristic map: A three-dimensional picture showing the relationship between various components of a vehicle. With the help of a computer, engineers can modify one component to see the effect it has on the whole operation of the vehicle. characteristics of materials: See performance characteristics of materials character line: The design line or bend in the side of the vehicle that separates the upper and lower sections of the fenders and doors charcoal: The amorphous form of carbon obtained by the destructive distillation of animal or vegetable matter in a limited supply of air. In automotive use, it is used to purify air or exhaust gases.
Also see activated carbon activated charcoal

charcoal canister: Another name for activated carbon canister

charcoal filter: A filtration system using activated carbon to remove impurities. charcoal trap: See activated charcoal trap charge: [1] The action of passing an electric current through a battery to restore it to the active (charged) state. Normally the vehicle's generator or alternator takes care of this. If the vehicle is not used much, an external charger is needed to charge the battery. [2] The definite quantity of electricity usually found in a storage battery. [3] Refers to the mass of air and fuel that enters a cylinder during the intake stroke. [4] A refund amount of money. See core charge. [5] Amount of refrigerant placed in a refrigerating unit. [6] A specific amount of refrigerant by volume or weight
Also see air charge temperature battery charge catalyst charge core charge cylinder charge electric charge fuel charge intake charge state of charge stratified charge trickle charge

charge air: The air/fuel mixture. charge air cooling: An intercooler charge-air recycling: A device on a turbocharger which maintains the speed of the compressor when there is no boost so that the boost is more instantly available on demand.

charge changing: In a two-stroke engine, the removal of exhaust gases through the exhaust port in order to introduce a new load of fuel-air into the transfer port. Also called "charge exchange process." chargecooler: A radiator that cools and therefore recondenses the intake air that has been compressed and heated by the turbocharger thus allowing a greater amount of air into the engine. With more air in the combustion chamber, the ECM can deliver more fuel and make more power. This radiator can be either cooled by air or by water. Also called intercooler charged: See dry charged battery charged battery: See dry charged battery charge engine: See stratified charge engine charge exchange process: Another name for charge changing charge indicator: See battery charge indicator charge losses: In a two-stroke engine, the exhaust gases are expelled out the exhaust port and the fresh charge is brought in through the transfer port. Sometimes some of the fresh charge is also forced out with the exhaust gases. There is therefore a loss of some of the fresh air-fuel charge.
Also see scavenging losses

charger: Common name for a battery charger.
Also see fast charger trickle charger turbo charger

charges: See on-the-road charges charge temperature: See air charge temperature charging:
See battery charging piston charging pump slow charging

charging board: Specially designed panel or cabinet fitted with gauges, valves, and refrigerant cylinders used for charging refrigerant and oil into refrigerating mechanisms. charging characteristic: When a battery is being charged, the charger will reveal how much voltage and/or amperage is being required to bring the battery up to full charge. charging circuit: See charging system. charging current: The amount of electric current being supplied to the battery from the alternator or from a battery charger. charging efficiency:

[1] In a vehicle's electrical charging system, its efficiency is the ratio of energy output to energy input, i.e., how well does the alternator work to supply voltage to the electrical components and still charge the battery. [2] In a two-stroke engine, it is the ratio of the amount of the fresh charge that remains in the cylinder after the two ports are closed and the actual volume. charging hose: A small diameter hose constructed to withstand high pressures. It is connected between the air conditioning system and the manifold set charging piston: In a two-stroke engine, this is a secondary piston which precompresses the fresh charge and sends it into the cylinders charging point: A place where a battery can be charged -- especially for battery-powered electrical vehicles. Also called battery charging station charging pressure: See boost pressure. charging pump: See piston charging pump charging rate: The amount of electrical current which is delivered by the charging system. It is usually measured in amperes. charging station: A usually portable unit equipped with a manifold gauge set, charging cylinder, vacuum pump, refrigerant supply, auxiliary gauges, various valves and the plumbing necessary to hook everything together. Used for servicing air conditioning systems.Also see battery charging station charging stroke:

See induction stroke. charging system: A system that, using a fan belt driven by the engine, enables the alternator (or generator) to generate electrical current, which is stored in the battery and delivered to the electrically operated pars of the vehicle chassis: The parts of the vehicle which are left when the body and fenders are removed. charles's law: Volume of a given mass of gas at a constant pressure varies according to its temperature. Charpy test: An impact resistance test in which the specimen is supported as a horizontal beam and broken by a single swing of a pendulum with the impact line midway between the supports and directly opposite the notch for notched specimens. chart: See color chart chase: To repair damaged threads on a bolt or nut with a tap or die chassis: Generally, chassis refers to the frame, engine, front and rear axles, springs, steering system, fuel tank. In short, everything but the body or cab and fenders. Because most modern automobiles (apart from trucks) do not have a separate chassis, the body is sometimes called the chassis.
Also see backbone chassis cab chassis cowl chassis ladder chassis mid-engine chassis configuration punt chassis separate chassis

chassis bracket set: when the sill panel does not have a jointing flange, a set of securing pieces are welded under the sill before straightening a bent or damaged sill. chassis cab: A truck with a cab but no bed. To this system various bodies (ambulance, moving van, flat beds, etc.) can be added by aftermarket suppliers. chassis channel: A channel section which makes up a member of the chassis. chassis configuration: See mid-engine chassis configuration chassis dynamometer: A test stand for a vehicle to determine its power output or emission levels, etc. when the vehicle is placed under a variety of driving conditions.
Also see dynamometer

chassis frame: A frame (found on large trucks) which is made up of two long side members which are joined by several crossmembers. The suspension and axles are attached to this frame. chassis leg: The short channel or box section which runs along the vehicle's main axle. It is an auxiliary member, not the main side member. chassis lubrication: See central chassis lubrication chassis number: The serial number of an older vehicle which was originally stamped on a chassis member. Later it became known as a vehicle identification number (VIN)

chassis section: One of the chassis channels or boxes, whether bolted or welded to the whole. chatter: [1] A noise which is caused by an irregular movement of rattling parts. [2] The jerky movement of two components which may have moved in a systematic way under low speed; but as the speed increases, the components make irregular contact.
Also see contact bounce contact chatter

check: [1] An inspection to determine if everything is functional. [2] A slight slash or marking which may appear in a tire or upholstery.
Also see checking compression check door check arm door check strap optical check

check arm: See door check arm check ball: A small ball (like a ball bearing) often made of metal or plastic, found in a check valve to halt the progress of fluid in a certain direction. check engine light: A light on the instrument panel that lets the driver know of any detectable engine management system malfunctions. Also used as an emission maintenance reminder light on some vehicles. Often when this light is on, a trouble code is stored in the computer check engine warning light:

An light on the dash which is illuminated when one of the engine sensors or components does not function properly. checkered flag: A flag with alternating black and white squares to signal the end of the race. checking: [1] Short, very fine crack lines that appear in the paint film. [2] Small cracks in the surface of rubber (e.g., tires) caused by aging and oxidation.
Also see ozone checking

check point: [1] A designated spot on a component where it is possible to determine if there is a malfunction. [2] A place on the road where vehicles are stopped during a rally. check routine: A series items in an inspection which traces a fault or problem or which determines if all the components of a new vehicle meets the required specifications. check stop: An action taken by the police to stop vehicles in order to determine if the drivers have been drinking, wearing seat belts, and conforming to the other requirements of operating a vehicle. check strap: See door check strap check the battery: Determine if the electrolyte is at the correct level and add distilled water to bring it up if necessary

check the oil: Using a dipstick, determine if there is sufficient oil in the crankcase checkup: The process of discovering the reliability of a vehicle or its components. "Give my engine a checkup." Sometimes it means "tune-up." check valve: A one-way, in-line valve that permits flow of liquids or gases in one direction only and closes to prevent passage in the opposite direction. Used to control flow of vacuum, refrigerant, coolant, etc.
Also see residual check valve

cheese head: A cylindrical head for a screw with a straight slot and straight sides. chemical brightening: The improvement of the smoothness of the surface of metal by immersing it into a solution designed to remove any roughness. Also called "chemical polishing." chemical cure: Vulcanization at room temperature or above, activated by chemical agents without the application of heat from an outside source. chemical curing: The setting or curing of an adhesive, coating or sealer, brought about by the addition of heat, a catalyst, or an accelerator chemical polishing: See chemical brightening. chemical refrigeration: System of cooling using a disposable refrigerant. Also called an expendable refrigerant system.

chemical staining: Spotty discoloration of the paint caused by air pollution in industrial areas chemical toilet: A portable toilet which is used in campers and motorhomes. They contain chemicals to deal with the feces and its smell until the contents are dumped. Chenard-Walcker: A vehicle brand of which the 1925-1948 models with required application are classic cars. cherry: A colloquial term for a vehicle that has been kept in, or restored to, perfect condition. Also called "mint" or "like new." cherry condition: A colloquial term for a vehicle that has been kept in, or restored to, perfect condition. Also called "mint condition." chest: See sea chest Chevelle: An intermediate model automobile produced by Chevrolet

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Chevrolet: A vehicle brand of which the 1955-57 Bel Air V-8 Hardtop and Convertible are milestone cars.

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Chevrolet Camaro: A vehicle brand of which the 1967-69 SS/RS V-8 and Z-28 models are milestone cars.

Click for books on Chevrolet Camaro

Chevrolet Celebrity: See Celebrity Chevrolet Chevelle: See Chevelle Chevrolet Corvair: A vehicle brand of which the 1960-64 Monza models are milestone cars. The 1962-64 Monza Spyder models are milestone cars. The 1965-69 Monza/Corsa models are milestone cars.
Click for books on Corvair

Chevrolet Corvette: A vehicle brand of which the 1953-70 models are milestone cars. See also a history of the Corvette

Click for books on Corvette

Chevrolet Monte Carlo: See Monte Carlo Chevrolet Nomad: A vehicle brand of which the 1955-57 models are milestone cars. Chevrolet Nova: See Nova Chevrolet type: A dual mounting wheel type consists of one cone locking nut on each stud that holds both wheels in place against the hub. chicken coop: Trucker slang for Truck weigh station as in "Are the chicken coops open this morning?" chicken lights: Trucker slang for Extra lights on a truck as in "Look at all those chicken lights on that northbound bulldog." child bike seat: An accessory which mounts behind the saddle of a bicycle and is designed to hold a small child.

childproof lock:

On the rear doors of a car, a specially designed locking device can be set to normal or to childproof. When set to childproof, the door cannot be opened from the inside. child restraint system: A term for a number of items which are designed to protect children from injury during an accident (such as child seats). child safety: See integrated child safety seat child safety seat: See integrated child safety seat child seat: A small safety seat which is mounted on a regular car seat and is held in place by the seat belt.
Also see integrated child seat

child step running board: An external step which allows a child to be able to enter or leave a vehicle with a high ground clearance (a van, SUV, truck, etc.)

chilled iron: cast iron possessing a hardened outer skin. chiller: Air conditioning system which circulates chilled water to various cooling coils in an installation. chill factor:

Calculated number based on temperature and wind velocity. chimney: Vertical shaft enclosing one or more flues for carrying flue gases to the outside atmosphere.
See coil tower coil chimney

chimney connector: Conduit (pipe) connecting the heating appliance (furnace) with the vertical flue. chimney effect: Tendency of air or gas to rise when heated. chimney flue: Flue gas passageway in a chimney. chip: [1] Small pits in the glass (windshield or headlight) or in the paint caused by small flying stones. [2] To cut with a chisel. [3] A collection of sample paint.
Also see paint chip book

chip book: See paint chip book chip damage: See stone chip damage

chip hammer: A hammer used to remove slag, etc. from metal because it has a chisel-like end on one side

chipping: The action of tearing away small bits or flakes of paint or of rubber from the tread of a tire. When larger pieces of rubber tear away, it is called chunking. chipping hammer: A hammer used to remove the slag from weld seams.

chisel: A thick pencil shaped tool with a sharp flat end like a blade screwdriver. When you hit the blunt end with a hammer, it forces the blade end into metal to mark it or even cut through it.

Also see splitting chisel

See calcium chloride polyvinyl chloride

chlorofluorocarbons: (CFCs) A gas compound which was used as a propellant in aerosol cans and in refrigerants. chmsl: (pronounced CHIM-sel) An acronym for "center high mounted stop light" an additional brake light as required by federal law whose mounting position is determined by the manufacturer using federal guidelines chock: [1] A wedge used to prevent a wheel from rolling -- especially when replacing a tire/wheel. Also called a "wheel chock." [2] A heavy smooth-surfaced fitting usually located near the edge of the weather deck through which wire ropes or fiber hawsers may be led, usually to piers.
Also see boat chock

choke: A butterfly valve or plate located near the top of the carburetor that limits or restricts the amount of air allowed to enter the carburetor, thus

enriching the fuel-air mixture and enabling the vehicle to start and run more easily when cold. Automatic chokes have a thermostatic coil or thermostatic spring that activates a butterfly valve at the top of the carburetor barrel. Older cars have manually operated chokes. Some vehicles use an enrichner instead of a choke.
Also see manual choke radio choke

choke stove: A flapper near the top of the carburetor which regulates the amount of air entering the carburetor.
Also see choke

choke control: A device or system for operating a non-automatic choke. It is usually a cable attached at one end to the choke butterfly and a knob on the dash at the other end. choke index: Automatic chokes have index marks. The factory setting closes the choke when the bimetal is about 70° F. If you want less or more choke at this temperature, move the choke index one mark in the direction indicated by the arrows designating a leaner or richer mixture. You will seldom need to move the choke more than one mark choke kick: A preset position for the choke valve set by manifold vacuum that is routed through a carburetor body passage to the choke diaphragm choke knob: A knob on the dash fascia which is part of the choke control system. choke stove: A heating compartment in or on the exhaust manifold from which hot air is drawn to the automatic choke device.

choke thermal vacuum switch: (CTVS) a switch used on some GM vehicle to deny vacuum to either the front or the auxiliary choke vacuum breaks. Its purpose is to slow the opening of the choke and to provide better driveability when the engine is cold choke tube: [1] The part of the carburetor air horn where the choke butterfly is positioned. Also called a carburetor venturi. [2] Throttling device used to maintain correct pressure difference between high-side and low-side in refrigerating mechanism. Capillary tubes are sometimes called choke tubes. choke valve: In a carburetor, it is the choke butterfly. chop: Lowering the height of some area of the vehicle roof, hood, top, etc. chopped wheel: Lightened flywheel. chopper: [1] Once used to describe a custom motorcycle that had all superfluous parts "chopped" off in order to make the bike faster. A chopper today is a type of custom bike that usually has an extended fork, no rear suspension, high handlebars and a lowered seat. Often the original fuel tank is changed to a smaller size. [2] To travel by motorcycle. chop shop: [1] A garage which specializes in turning a two-door car into a convertible by removing the steel top. [2] An illegal garage which processes stolen cars by removing valued parts and selling them privately or by changing the serial numbers for illegal resale.

Christmas tree: A device, using a series of lights, to start cars on the timed 1/4 mile drag run. chromate: [1] A salt or ester of chromic acid which is often used as a paint pigment. [2] The action of treating metal with a solution of chromium compound to produce a protective metal chromate coating. Also called "chromatize." chromate coating: A conversion coating produced by chromating. chromate treatment: A solution of chromium compound is applied to metal to produce a protective coating of metal chromate. chromatic aberration: [1] An enlargement of the focal spot caused in a cathode tube, by the differences in the electron velocity distribution through the beam. [2] An enlargement of the focal spot caused in an optical lens system using white light, by the refractive index of the glass varying with the wavelength of the light, resulting in colored fringes surrounding the image. chromatize: The action of treating metal with a solution of chromium compound to produce a protective metal chromate coating. Also called "chromate." chrome: [1] A short form for chromium. [2] The chromium plating of metal on a vehicle. [3] To plate with chromium.
Also see piston ring, chrome ring, chrome


Steel that has been made harder by adding chromium. chrome-plated: In order to prevent iron from rusting and showing bright and shiny, the iron is coated with a layer of chromium by process of electroplating (or electrodeposition). chrome ring: A piston ring with a chrome face.
Also see piston ring, chrome

chrome steel: in order to improve rust resistance and increase hardness, chrome is added to steel. Also called "chromium steel." chrome work: All the metal on a vehicle which has been plated with chrome. chromic acid: electrolyte which is used in anodizing processes for producing nontransparent, non-metallic oxide layers. chromium: A very hard grey metal used in electroplating and the production of very hard steel compounds that are also resistant to rust.
Also see hard chromium plating

chromium-plated: A coating of metal with chromium to protect the metal from rust. chromium plating: The process of coating metal with a layer of chromium to prevent rust.
Also see black chromium plating hard chromium plating

chromium steel: In order to improve rust resistance and increase hardness, chrome is added to steel. Also called "chrome steel." Chrysler: A vehicle brand of which the 1926-30 Imperial 80, 1931 Imperial 8 Series CG, 1932 CG and CH, 1933 CL, 1934-6 CW with required application are classic cars. The 1970 300 Hurst is a milestone car. The 1955-65 300 Letter Series are milestone cars. The 1946-50 Town and Country models are milestone cars. Click for books on

chubby screwdriver: A British term for a screwdriver with a short handle and blade for reaching into confined spaces. In North America it is called a "stubby screwdriver." chug: [1] The short explosive sound of an engine going steadily and rather slowly. [2] To make the sound of chug. [3] To drive slowly and steadily. chunking: The action which occurs when large pieces of rubber from the tread of tire breaks away. When small pieces break away, it is called chipping. CI: [1] Acronym for "compression ignition." [2] Acronym for "coil ignition."

Ciera: A model of automobile manufactured by General Motors' Oldsmobile division

Click for books on Ciera

CIH: Acronym for "camshaft in head" CIH engine: A type of overhead valve engine (OHV) where the camshaft is enclosed within the cylinder head not placed on top of it. It is not the same as an overhead camshaft (OHC). CID: Acronym for "cubic inch displacement." cigar lighter: A device which heats up an element when engaged. In turn, the lighter can ignite something flammable like a cigarette. The socket can also be used to power other electrical components requiring 12 volts. cigar lighter: A device which heats up an element when engaged. In turn, the lighter can ignite something flammable like a cigarette. The socket can also be used to power other electrical components requiring 12 volts. CIM: Acronym for "computer-integrated manufacturing." circle:
See base circle

bolt hole circle cam heel hole circle pitch circle diameter pitch circle traffic circle turning circle wheel bolt hole circle

circle diameter: See pitch circle diameter circlip: A flat retaining ring in the shape of an incomplete circle where the ends at the gap may have small holes for inserting special pliers to spread the circlip apart. Also called a snap ring.
Also see internal circlip pliers piston pin circlip wrist pin circlip

circlip pliers: See internal circlip pliers circuit: [1] A source of electricity (battery), a resistance unit (headlight, etc.) and wires that form a path for the flow of electricity from the source through the unit and back to the source. The path of electrical current through an electrical system. See starting system. [2] The path of the fuel in the carburetor. See carburetor circuits. [3] The course over which vehicles are raced particularly if it is somewhat circular. [4] Tubing, piping, or electrical wire installation which permits flow to and from the energy source
carburetor circuitcharging circuit cranking circuit high-tension circuit HT circuit idle circuit Also see idling circuit open circuit ignition circuits parallel circuit low-speed primary circuit circuit printed circuit low speed board circuit printed circuit low voltage secondary circuit series-parallel circuit series circuit series parallel circuit short circuit

circuit LT circuit

circuit board: See printed circuit board circuit breaker: A protective device that will make and break the flow of current when current draw becomes excessive or overloaded. Unlike the fuse, it does not blow out but vibrates on and off thus giving the driver some light to stop by.
Also see cutout

circuit diagram: A wiring diagram showing the path of the electrical connections and the various colors of the wires. circuiting: See short circuiting circuit, parallel: Arrangement of electrical devices in which the current divides and travels through two or more paths and then returns through a common path. circuit, pilot: Secondary circuit used to control a main circuit or a device in the main circuit. circuit protector: Electrical device which will open an electrical circuit if excessive electrical conditions occur. circuitry:
See phase-locked loop circuitry pll circuitry

circuit, series:

Electrical wiring; electrical path (circuit) in which electricity to operate second lamp or device must pass through first; current flow travels, in turn. through all devices connected together. circuit tester: A tool which looks like a screwdriver with a light at the end of the handle as well as a long wire with an allegator clip. The pointed end touches the hot wire while the allegator end touches or clips to the ground. If there is continuity and power, the light in the handle will glow. circular headlamp: The older type of headlight which may be the larger one (7 inch) with both high and low beam or the smaller one (5.75 inch) dedicated to either low or high beam. circular mil: Unit of area equal to the area of a circle one mil in diameter circulating pump: A centrifugal pump, like an automotive water pump, which moves the liquid in a closed system. circulation:
See forced circulation oil circulation

circumference: See rolling circumference circumferential break: An injury to the tread or sidewall of a tire which encircles the tire. circumferential crack: A crack in the grooves of the tread which may be evident around the whole tire.

CIS: Acronym for "continuous injection system." A Bosch fuel injection system which injects a steady stream of pressurized fuel into each intake port. CIS was once widely used throughout the industry CIS-E: A CIS system with electronic controls CIS-Lambda: A CIS system with an oxygen sensor CIS with Lambda: See K-Jetronic with Lambda Cisitalia: A vehicle brand of which the 1946-49 GT (Pininfarina) models are milestone cars. citizens band radio: A CB radio which is used to communicate over a specified frequency. It was particular the domain of truck drivers. Citroen: A vehicle brand of which the 1955-64 models D8 and ID 19 are milestone cars.

Click for books on Citroen

city car: A compact vehicle used for driving within a city rather than on the highway. It is usually only 10 to 12 feet (300 to 360 cm) long.

city cycle: An adult bicycle or tricycle used for riding within the city. Also called an urban cycle. city kitty: Trucker slang for Woman city police officer as in "You got a city kitty at the next corner up here." Civic: A model of automobile manufactured by Honda

Click for books on Honda Civic

CKD: Acronym for "Completely-Knocked Down." CL: Acronym for "Comfort Luxe" as a designation for a vehicle which is more luxurious than an "L" but not quite as luxurious as a "GL" cladding: [1] a process of covering one material with another and gluing them together under high pressure and temperature. [2] The outer body panels which are attached to the vehicle's frame. [3] Excessive decorative elements applied to a vehicle. Claire: See Wills Sainte Claire clamp:

A fastening device which secures something within its jaws without constant human pressure.
bar clamp battery clamp battery hold down clamp C-clamp cable clamp distributor clamp Also see distributor hold-down clamp G-clamp hold-down clamp hose clamp hose clamp installer hose clamp pliers hose clamps locking bar clamp locking clamp long-reach Cclamp piston ring clamp sheet metal clamp triple clamp v-band clamp welding clamp wheel clamp

clamping load: In a clutch, the amount of pressure on the plates. clamp installer: See hose clamp installer clamp pliers: See hose clamp pliers clamshell: A shape which has a bottom and top but is hinged at one end so that it can be opened to expose its interior. clapboard: A narrow board which is thicker at one edge than the other edge and used to protect from the weather. Clark: Clark, Jim -- Winner of 3 Formula One Championships, 25 Grand Prix races and of the 1965 Indianapolis 500 class A thread: A British term for external thread. class B thread:

A British term for internal thread. classic car: A vehicle that is generally considered to be one of the finest models ever built. Unlike antique cars, classic cars do not have to be extremely old. Mustangs and VW bugs built in the late 1960s are considered to be classics by many people; however, they are really milestone cars. Classic cars are defined by the Classic Car Club of America and are considered to be certain models during the years 1925-1948. They include the following built during those years:
• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

A.C. Adler* Alfa-Romeo Alvis Speed 20, 25, and 4.3 litre Amilcar* Armstrong-Siddeley* Aston-Martin* Auburn Austro-Daimler Ballot* Bentley Benz* Blackhawk BMW (327, 328, 327/328, 335) Brewster* Brough Superior* Bucciali* Bugatti Buick (1931-32 series 90)* Cadillac (1925-35, all 12-cyl and 16-cyl, 1938-41 60 Special, 193648 all series 67, 70, 72, 75, 80, 85, 90) Chenard-Walcker* Chrysler (1926-30 Imperial 80, 1931 Imperial 8 Series CG, 1932 CG and CH, 1933 CL, 1934-6 CW)* Cord Cunningham Dagmar (25-70 model only) Daimler* Darracq (8-cyl. cars and 4-litre, 6-cyl. cars only) Delage (Model D-8, not 4-cyl.)* Delahaye (Series 135, 145, 165 not 4-cyl.)*

• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

Delaunay Belleville (6-cyl. cars only) Doble Dorris Duesenberg DuPont Excelsior* Farman* Fiat* FN* Franklin (All models except 1933-34 Olympic Six) Frazer Nash* Graham-Paige (Custom body only)* Hispano Suiza Horch Hotchkiss* Hudson (1929 Series L) Humber* Invicta Isotta-Fraschini Itala Jaguar (1946-48 2.5 Litre, 3.5 Litre Mark IV, not 4-cyl.) Jensen* Jordan (Speedway Series 'Z' only) Julian* Kissel (1925-26 all models, 1927 8-75, 1928 8-90 and 8-90 White Eagle, 1929 8-125 and 8-90 White Eagle, 1930 8-125) Lagonda (all except Rapier) Lanchester* Lancia* LaSalle (1927-1933) Lincoln (All L, K, KA, and KB,1941 168H, 1942 268H) Lincoln Continental Locomobile (All models 48 and 90; 1927 8-80; 1928 8-80; 1929 880) Marmon (All 16-cyl.; 1925 74; 1926 74; 1927 75; 1928 E75; 1930 Big 8; 1931 88 and Big 8) Maserati* Maybach McFarlan Mercedes* Mercedes-Benz (All 230 and up, and K, S, SS, SSK, SSKL, Grosser and Mannheim)* Mercer

• • • • • •

• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

MG (1935-39 SA, 1938-39 WA)* Minerva (All except 4-cyl) Moon (Custom bodies only)* N.A.G.* Nash (1930 Twin Ignition 8, 1931 Series 900, 1932 Series 990, Advanced 8, Ambassador 8)* Packard (All sixes and eights 1925-34, all 12-cyl. models, 1935 Models 1200-1208, 1936 Models 1400-1408, 1937 Models 15001508, 1938 Models 1603-1608, 1939 Models 1703-1708, 1940 Models 1803-1808, 1941 Models 1903-1908, 1942 Models 20042008 plus 2023, 1946-47 Models 2106 and 2126, all Darrinbodied)* Peerless (1926-28 Series 69 1930-31 Custom 8 1932 Deluxe Custom 8) Peugeot* Pierce-Arrow Railton* Raymond-Mays* Renault (45 HP)* Reo (1931-33 Royale 8-31, Royale 8-35, Royale 8-52, and Royale Custom 8 and 1934 N1, N2, and 8-52) ReVere Riley* Roamer (1925 8-88, 6-54e, 4-75; 1926 4-75e and 8-88; 1927; 1928; 1929 8-88; 1929 8-125; 1930 8:125) Rochet-Schneider* Rohr Rolls-Royce Ruxton Squire SS and SS Jaguar (1932-1940 except 4-cyl.) Stearns-Knight Stevens Duryea Steyr* Studebaker (1929-33 President) Stutz Sunbeam (8-cyl. and 3-litre twin-cam only) Talbot (all 105C and 110C) Talbot Lago (all 150C) Tatra* Triumph (Dolomite 8 and Gloria 6 models only) Vauxhall (25/70 and 30/98 only)

• • •

Voisin Wills Sainte Claire Willys-Knight (Series 66)*.

The items marked with an asterisk (*) indicate that these models require application to be a classic car. Classic Car Club of America: P.O. Box 443, Madison, NJ 07940. Organization which defines which cars are true classics. Classification: See American Industrial Classification classification society: Independent and reputable organizations which verifies and inspects vessels for seaworthiness. As technical experts, they serve to provide the necessary basis for adjusting insurance rates for the vessel. Classification System: See North American Industrial Classification System claw hammer: a hammer with a forked end on the head which is used for removing nails.

Claxton horn:

A horn which makes a particular sound "Ah-oo-gah."
Also see horn

clay model: When the design department is creating a new model, it will be built in clay to full size to determine its looks etc. clean: See steam clean cleaner: A product to purify or remove unwanted substances.
Also see abrasive cleaner air cleaner horn air cleaner air filter bath air cleaner low-profile air cleaner oil bath air cleaner paper air cleaner piston ring groove cleaner thermostatic air cleaner

cleaner element: See air cleaner element cleaner horn: See air cleaner horn cleaning:
See blast cleaning self-cleaning

cleaning unit:

See spray gun nozzle cleaning unit clean oil: Fresh oil that has not been used in a vehicle before. clean oil lubrication: A lubrication system where fresh oil is supplied to the engine as needed -such as in a two-stroke engine. clean shot: Trucker slang for "No highway patrol around" as in "Large Car you got a clean shot all the way to the state line." clearance: A given amount of space between two parts such as between piston and cylinder, bearing and journal , etc.
Also see bearing clearance front wheel tire clearance ground clearance control ground clearance lateral clearance lateral tire clearance longitudinal tire clearance pedal clearance piston clearance piston ring side clearance radial clearance ring side clearance tire clearance valve clearance vertical tire clearance

clearance control: See ground clearance control clearance depression: See valve clearance depression

clearance fit: Parts that are assembled so that there is clearance between them so that one part can slide in or on the other. Also called "sliding fit" clearance height: [1] The distance between the ground and the lowest portion of the bottom of a vehicle (not counting the wheels). Also called ground clearance. [2] The distance between the top of a vehicle and the bottom of a bridge or tunnel which determines whether the vehicle can pass under it. clearance lamp: A light which is mounted on the extreme edges of the roof of a truck to show the maximum height and width of a vehicle. Also called "marker lamp." clearance pocket compressor: Small space in a cylinder from which compressed gas is not completely expelled. This space is called the compressor clearance space or pocket. For effective operation, compressors are designed to have as small a clearance space as possible. clearance sensor: See ground clearance sensor clearance volume: The space above a piston when it is at the top dead center. clear coat: A clear paint covering used on modern vehicle bodies. It is the top coat. clear system: See base and clear system clearwater stern:

A stern with a "shoeless" stern frame cleat: [1] An attaching bracket [2] Clips at intervals on the horizontal stiffeners of hatch coamings to secure the hatch covers CLEPA: Acronym for "Comité de Liaison de la Construction d'Equipements et de Pièces d'Automobiles" (i.e., European Association of Automotive Suppliers). clevis: A U-shaped metal piece with holes in each end through which a pin or bolt is run, used for attaching the brake pedal to the power brake booster pushrod, the clutch pedal to the clutch cable or master cylinder pushrod and for various other connections on an automobile.Clevises are sometimes used in other parts of the brake system, like attaching the parking brake cable to the parking brake lever at the rear brakes click: [1] The action of inserting a bicycle shoe's bracket into the receiving part of a click-in pedal (formerly known as a clipless pedal). [2] A colloquial term for a kilometer click-in pedals: A term for road bike pedals that use a releasable mechanism like that of a ski binding to lock onto cleated shoes and do not use toe clips or straps. Replaces the term clipless pedals Some brands are: SPD, Look, Time, and Speedplay. click-type torque wrench: A torque wrench which gives out an audible click when the preset torque is reached. climate change:

the international concern that increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases (GHGs) in the atmosphere are changing the climate in ways detrimental to our social and economic well-being. climate control: [1] A lever or button which you can move to change the temperature in the passenger compartment of a vehicle. It controls the heater, vent, and/or air conditioner. [2] A space in which an ideal climate is maintained by some devices. climatic chamber: A test area into which an automobile can be placed to see if it will meet the extremes of temperature and humidity. climbing ability: While some vehicles may have a high top end speed on a road with no incline, the real test of a vehicle in mountainous terrain is its ability to go up a hill at an adequate speed (i.e., its climbing ability). clincher: A tire whose edges hook under the curved-in hooked edge of a special rim, not commonly found anymore on bicycles and often confused with the common wired-on tire. clincher rims: Type of wheel rim used with early beaded-edge tires clincher tire: A tire whose edges hook under the curved-in hooked edge of a special rim, not commonly found anymore on bicycles and often confused with the common wired-on tire. clinometer: An instrument which measures the steepness of a hill. clip:

See alligator clip crocodile clip hose clip hose clip installer hose clip pliers jubilee clip rebound clip spring clip

clip installer: See hose clip installer clipless pedal: See clipless pedals. clipless pedals: An obsolete term for road bike pedals that use a releasable mechanism like that of a ski binding to lock onto cleated shoes and do not use toe clips or straps. Preferred term is clickin pedals Some brands are: SPD, Look, Time, and Speedplay. clip-on engine: An engine that is attached to a conventional bicycle frame clip-ons: [1] Low racing handlebars for a motorcycle that clamp directly onto the fork legs [2] Handlebars that attach directly to the fork tubes, rather than to the top yoke, that hold the fork tubes together clip-on weight: A wheel weight that is clipped on the rim between the rim and the tire. It is used to balance a wheel. clip pliers:

See hose clip pliers clock: [1] An instrument showing the time. [2] An odometer as in the statement I want to buy this car, but it has too many miles on the clock. [3] To record the speed or time that vehicle makes. [4]To turn the odometer back (an illegal practice) clocking: [1] The action of recording the speed of a vehicle. [2] In Britain, it is the action of turning the odometer back. C/locking: Abbreviation for "central locking." clockwise: Rotation to the right like the direction of clock hands. In most cases it is the direction to secure a nut to a bolt. It is the opposite to counterclockwise. clog: To obstruct a passageway or track so that the normal flow or operation of something is hindered. close call: In driving it is the near possibility of an accident. closed circuit: Electrical circuit in which electrons are flowing. close coils: The coils or loops of a spring which are tightly together. close coupled sedan:

See close-coupled sedan. close-coupled sedan: Similar to the sedan, this body style is shorter and thus usually accommodates only five passengers. The rear quarter windows were eliminated. closed container: Container sealed by means of a lid or other device so that neither liquid nor vapor will escape from it at ordinary temperatures. closed cooling system: See coolant recovery system. closed crankcase ventilation: A system in which crankcase vapors are discharged into the engine intake system (usually through the intake manifold) and pass through the engine cylinders rather than being discharged into the atmosphere. closed-end connector: Solderless connector shaped like a hat. Used to join two, three, or more wires together. Similar to wire connectors used in home wiring, but installed by crimping instead of twisting closed end lease: Most leases offered today are close-end leases, meaning that the residual value is fixed and stated in the lease contract. The lessee's financial obligations are unaffected by what the vehicle is actually worth when the lease ends. In other words, the lessee assumes no risk for the depreciation of the vehicle. closed loop: An operating condition or mode which enables modification of programmed instructions based on a feedback system closed loop system:

A self-adjusting system which keeps conditions stable and is controlled by negative feedback from a sensor. closed system: An anti-lock brake system with some means, generally a pump, to restore hydraulic pressure that's bled off during an ABS stop close-ratio gearbox: A transmission in which there is very little difference between one gear ratio and the next. This kind of transmission makes it easy for fast shifting. closes:
See exhaust valve closes intake valve closes

closing: See power closing closing cam: A cam or rocker which closes a valve in a mechanically operated valve system. Other types close the valve through the operation of the valve spring. Also called "closing rocker." closing force: The force needed for the spring to close a valve. closing panel: A panel which covers a hole in the body, interior panels, or frame. closing rocker: A cam or rocker which closes a valve in a mechanically operated valve system. Other types close the valve through the operation of the valve spring. Also called "closing cam." closing system:

See automatic closing system closure: See road closure cloth:
See emery cloth tack cloth

cloth upholstery: The fabric of the seats made of cloth rather than leather or vinyl. cloud point: The temperature at which diesel oil tends to thicken and cloud up (i.e., become cloudy). cloverleaf: A highway overpass system which has four basic loops for getting on the highway or leaving it. club:
See automobile club Royal Automobile Club

club Cab: A type of pickup truck (by Dodge) which has a second row of seating; but unlike a crew cab (which has four full size doors) it has a "half-door" that can be opened only after the main door is opened.

The seating is usually a little more cramped than in a crew cab. Also called Extended Cab, King Cab, XtraCab, Access Cab, SuperCab, or Cab Plus. club coupe: The club coupe designation seems to come from club car, describing the lounge (or parlor car) in a railroad train. The early postwar club coupe combined a shorter-than-sedan body structure with the convenience of a full back seat, unlike the single-seat business coupe. That name has been used less frequently in the 1976-86 period, as most notchback two-door models (with trunk rather than hatch) have been referred to as just "coupes." Moreover, the distinction between two-door coupes and two-door sedans has grown fuzzy.
Also see two-door club coupe

club hammer: A hammer with a short handle but a large, heavy head. It is used to hit the back end of a chisel or drift. clunker: A vehicle which might run but is rusty and in need of a lot of repair work. cluster:
See analog cluster analogue cluster electronic cluster footpedal cluster instrument cluster lamp cluster rear lamp cluster seat cluster

cluster gear: The cluster of gears that are all cut on one long gear blank. The cluster gears ride in the bottom of the transmission. The cluster provides a connection between the transmission input shaft and the output shaft. Also called "counter gear." cluster panel: The reverse side of the instrument panel or dash where all the wiring or circuit board is located. clutch: [1] An electrically operated coupling device that connects or disconnects the compressor pulley and compressor shaft [2] A device that disconnects the engine from the transmission, to allow the vehicle to change gears, and then allows the engine and transmission to resume contact and turn together at a new speed.
Also see center the clutch coil spring clutch hydraulically-assisted centrifugal clutch cone clutch clutch clutch diaphragm spring diaphragm spring hydrodynamic clutch clutch disc clutch light clutch clutch explosion diaphragm clutch lock-up clutch clutch housing disengage the clutch magnetic clutch clutch lever dog clutch multi-plate clutch clutch pedal free travel double clutch multiple-plate clutch clutch pedal double clutching multiple disc clutch clutch pilot bearing dry clutch oil-immersed clutch clutch pressure plate electromagnetic clutch one-way clutch clutch release bearing fan clutch one way clutch clutch semi-centrifugal fluid clutch overrunning clutch release fingers freewheeling starter drive clutch shaft friction clutch overrunning clutch clutch solenoid heavy clutch starter clutch throwout fork hydraulically-activated overrunning clutch

push-type clutch reactor one-way clutch reverse clutch riding the clutch roller clutch self-operating clutch single-plate clutch slip the clutch sprag clutch stator roller clutch sticky clutch torque converter lock-up clutch twin-plate clutch wet clutch


positive clutch pull-type clutch

clutch aligning set: A group of tools used to align the clutch plates with the flywheel. Usually there is a shaft, pilot bearing adapters, and tapered universal sleeves clutch aligning tool: A tool which looks like a bar or a disc which can be used to line up the clutch plates with the flywheel. clutch brake: A device for slowing down the clutch discs (and thus the gears themselves) so that shifting is smoother and quieter. clutch cable: A cable (usually a cluster of thin strands within a plastic sheath) which operates the movement of the clutch plates. At the other end is a pedal (in automobiles) or a handlebar lever (left side). clutch cover: A metal cover which encases the clutch plates. clutch cycling switch: A device that turns the compressor on and off in response to changes in pressure or evaporator temp clutch diaphragm spring: A round dish-shaped piece of flat spring steel. It is used to force the pressure plate against the clutch disc in some clutches. clutch disc: A spinning plate located at the end of the driveshaft facing the engine flywheel and covered with a friction material such as asbestos. When the clutch is engaged, the disc is squeezed between the flywheel and the clutch pressure plate, causing the engine and the transmission to turn at the same speed. British term is called "clutch plate."

clutch drag: When the clutch discs do not disengage completely after the clutch pedal is depressed or the clutch lever is pulled in, there is excessive friction so that it is difficult to shift gears because both the driven discs and the input shaft are both rotating. clutch explosion: clutches have literally flown apart (exploded) when subjected to high rpm, a scatter shield is used on competition cars to protect the driver and spectators from flying parts in the event the clutch explodes. clutch facing: The asbestos-type lining on a clutch plate. clutch field: A clutch part on an air condition compressor, consisting of hundreds of windings of wire, that creates a magnetic field when current is applied, pulling in the armature to engage the clutch clutch fork: When the clutch pedal (or lever) is depressed, it pulls on a cable which moves the clutch fork which in turn pushes on the release bearing and disengages the clutch discs. clutch housing: A cast iron or aluminumhousing that surrounds the flywheel and clutch mechanism. Also called "bell housing." clutching: See double clutching clutch interlock switch: A switch that prevents the vehicle from starting unless the clutch pedal/lever is pressed.

clutch judder: A British term for "clutch shudder." clutch lever: A hand-operated blade located on the left side of the handlebar of a motorcycle. When the clutch lever is pulled in, it disengages the clutch so the engine and the crankshaft can turn independently of the transmission and the rider can change gears.
Also see clutch release finger

clutch lining: The friction material on the face of the clutch discs. clutch, magnetic: Clutch built into automobile compressor flywheel. operated magnetically. which allows pulley to revolve without driving compressor when refrigerating effect is not required. clutch pedal: A foot-operated pedal located on the floor of the vehicle to the left of the brake pedal on cars with manual transmission. When the clutch pedal is depressed, it disengages the clutch so the engine and the crankshaft can turn independently of the transmission and the driver can change gears. clutch pedal free travel: The specified distance that the clutch pedal may be depressed before the throwout bearing actually contacts the clutch release fingers. clutch pilot bearing: A small bronzebushing, or in some cases a ball bearing, placed in the end of the crankshaft or in the center of the flywheel depending on the vehicle, that is used to support the outboard end of the transmissioninput shaft. clutch plate:

The clutch discs. clutch pressure plate: That part of a clutch assembly that through spring pressure, squeezes the clutch disc against the flywheel thereby transmitting a driving force through the assembly. To disengage the clutch, the pressure plate is drawn away from the flywheel via linkage. clutch pulley: The clutch part turned by the drivebelt. The pulley or rotor "free-wheels" until the clutch is engaged. On rotors which contain the field, the electrical connection is made through brushes similar to alternator and starter motor brushes clutch release bearing: See throwout bearing. clutch release finger: A flat piece of metal shaped like a curved finger. Through the movement of the throwout fork, the throwout bearing pushes against the clutch release fingers or levers to release pressure against the pressure plate. Also called "clutch release lever." clutch release lever: See clutch release finger. clutch rotor: The clutch part turned by the drivebelt. The pulley or rotor "free-wheels" until the clutch is engaged. On rotors which contain the field, the electrical connection is made through brushes similar to alternator and starter motor brushes clutch semi-centrifugal release finger:

See clutch semi-centrifugal release fingers. clutch semi-centrifugal release fingers: Clutch release fingers that have a weight attached to them so that at high rpm the release fingers place additional pressure on the clutch pressure plate. clutch shaft: The shaft that takes power from the clutch into the gearbox. Also called the "drive pinion." clutch shudder: When the clutch tries to engage (when the pedal or lever is released), but the discs do not mate securely, the discs engage intermittently and slip past each other making a noise like a shudder. In Britain, it is called "clutch judder." clutch slip: Clutch slip occurs when the clutch tries to engage (when the pedal or lever is released), but the discs do not mate securely. clutch solenoid: In some automotive air conditioners, a solenoid that operates a clutch on the compressor drive pulley. When the clutch is engaged, the compressor is driven and cooling takes place. clutch spring: The clutch cover will have several posts over which the clutch spring (shaped like a cylinder) fits and pushes the pressure discs against the driven clutch discs to transmit power. clutch starter:
See overrunning clutch starter overrunning clutch starter drive

clutch starter drive:

See overrunning clutch starter drive clutch starter interlock: A device which disengages the starter once the engine has started. clutch stop: A clutch brake clutch throwout bearing: The clutch release bearing. clutch throwout fork: The device or fork that straddles the throwout bearing and that is used to force the throwout bearing against the clutch release fingers. clutch thrust bearing: The clutch release bearing. cluttered engine compartment: An engine compartment or bay in which all the available space around the engine is occupied by other objects (alternator, pumps, air intake system, battery, wiper motor, heater motor, windshield washer motor, starter, radiator, air conditioner, hoses, pipes, wiring, electronic boxes, etc.) C-matic transmission: Citroen's name for a semi-automatic transmission C motorhome: See type C motorhome CNG: Acronym for "Compressed Natural Gas" CO:

Acronym for "carbon monoxide." A deadly, colorless, odorless, and tasteless gas found in the engine exhaust. Toxic even in relatively small concentrations. Formed by incomplete burning of hydrocarbons. Thus at its greatest with a rich mixture. CO2 indicator: Instrument used to indicate the percentage of carbon dioxide in stack gases. coach: [1] An enclosed two-door type body with permanent back panels and top, it is similar to the coupe, but the seating is different. A full width cross seat in the rear accommodates three passengers. Two separate seats in the front fold out of the way to admit rear passengers. There is no trunk, but trunk racks are frequently provided. [2] A luxurious bus, a tour bus. coach bolt: A bolt with a mushroom head, but just below the head there is a square neck and then the threads. The square neck fits into a matching square hole to keep the bolt from moving. coachbuilder: A person or company which manufactures special bodies for automobiles. coachbuilt body: A separate body which is not integral with the chassis. coachbuilt construction: The process of building an automobile so that the body is separate from the chassis. Often the bodies are built to customer specifications and may differ from one another even though they are built upon the same chassis design.
Also see skeleton construction unitary construction

coachlining: Pinstriping along the side of a vehicle or along the side of the fuel tank of a motorcycle. coach paint: A slow-drying, high-gloss paint used on cars in the early 1900s. It was painted on car bodies with a brush. coachwork: Although it is strictly the body of an automobile, it is particularly the comfort and luxury appointments as distinguished from the operational chassis thus it would include the interior, seats, upholstery, dashes, fenders, etc. -- everything but the mechanicals and the chassis. The French call it Carrosserie, the Germans call it Karosserie, and the Italians call it Carrozzeria. Also called "bodywork." coal bucket: Trucker slang for Dump Trailer as in "Goin' up Rte. 61 in PA, better watch for them coal buckets." coalescing action: The process of smaller water droplets merging together into larger droplets which takes place in a water separator coaming: See hatch coaming coarse: See national coarse thread coarse-cut file: A file with deep grooves for removing a lot of metal quickly. It leaves rough edges which will need to be cleaned up with a smooth-cut file coarse file:

A file with deep grooves for removing a lot of metal quickly. It leaves rough edges which will need to be cleaned up with a smooth-cut file coarsening: See grain coarsening coarse pitch: Gears or screw threads which have wide gaps between each tooth or thread. coarse thread: The threads of a screw are wider apart. Opposite to fine thread.
Also see national coarse thread

coast: [1] To proceed, usually downhill, on a bicycle without pedalling; or in a motor vehicle without the aid of the engine.
Also see freewheel.

[2] A designation on a cruise control switch which (when activated) will cause the vehicle to slow down to a lower cruise controlled speed. coastal: Domestic shipping routes along the coast. coaster: A vehicle, usually a bicycle, which has no means of propulsion (you can't pedal it and it is without any engine). coaster brake: A braking system on a bicycle in which the rider stops pedalling forward (thus coasting) and pedals backward to engage the brake within the hub of the rear wheel. coat:

[1] A covering of paint or similar substance.
Also see anodize cross coat intermediate coat tack coat base coat finish coat mist coat top coat clear coat fog coat prime coat undercoat color coat gel coat protective coat cross-hatch coat guide coat single coat

[2] To apply a covering of paint, etc. [3] Single coat means to apply one layer of material on a surface. Double coat -- to apply two coats of adhesive, coating, or sealer to a surface. In spaying, it means to spray first a single coat with vertical strokes and then a second coat across with horizontal strokes, or vice versa coat drier: See top coat drier coated abrasive: Sandpaper or grinding wheel where an abrasive material such as sand or diamond grit is glued to a backing material and used to reduce or smooth a surface. coated electrode: See covered electrode coating: A protective covering usually of paint.
Also see anodic coating anti-chip coating catalytic layer chromate coating coil-coating conversion coating electrostatic powder coating galvanized coating hard anodic coating manganese phosphate coating phosphate coating polymer coating protective coating pvc underseal coating roll coating spray coating underbody coating undercoating zinc phosphate coating

coat oven: See top coat oven cobble:

To put something together in a rough or clumsy manner. This is usually done as a temporary measure until more permanent repairs can be made. cobbled: The action of putting something together in a rough or clumsy manner. This is usually done as a temporary measure until more permanent repairs can be made. Cobra: See AC Shelby Cobra COC: Acronym for conventional oxidation catalyst cock: A tap or shut-off valve which controls the flow of liquid.
Also see fuel cock radiator drain cock

cockpit: The area, usually in racing cars, in which the driver sits and the instruments in front of him. code: A system of symbols (as letters, numbers, or words) used to represent meaning of information.
Also see highway Code Nordic Anti-Corrosion Code

coded: See color-coded code hopping: A technology which prevents thieves with scanners from either picking up your encoded remote-control signal or from randomly firing numerous

codes at your vehicle in order to stumble upon the one that will disarm your security system. code installation: Refrigeration or air conditioning installation which conforms to the local code and/or the national code for safe and efficient installations. coefficient:
See absorption coefficient block coefficient drag coefficient

coefficient of apparent expansion: The coefficient of expansion when the expansion of e.g., a dilatometer is neglected. See coefficient of expansion coefficient of conductivity: Measure of the relative rate at which different materials conduct heat. Copper is a good conductor of heat and, therefore, has a high coefficient of conductivity. coefficient of drag: See drag coefficient. coefficient of expansion: [1] Increase in unit length, area, or volume for one degree rise in temperature. [2] The fractional change in length, area or volume per unit change in tem of a solid, liquid, or gas at a given constant pressure. e.g., an aluminum bar stretches 12 millionths percent of its original length for each degree F rise in temperature. Also referred to as "expansivity" coefficient of friction: A measurement of the amount of friction developed between two objects or surfaces in physical contact when one of the objects is drawn across the other. If a book were placed on a table and a measuring scale used to pull the book, the amount of weight or pull registered on the scale would be the

coefficient of friction. This coefficient of friction is dependent upon both surfaces in contact. It is large if the surfaces are rough and small if they are smooth. coefficient of performance: (COP) Ratio of work performed or accomplished as compared to the energy used. cofferdam: Narrow void space between two bulkheads or floors cog: Any toothed gear. A sprocket attached directly to the rear wheel hub on a single-speed bike and mounted on a freewheel on a multi-speed bike. cog belt: A toothed belt normally of fibreglassreinforced rubber for driving the camshaft from the crankshaft. In cars, cog belts are primarily used with overhead camshafts but are sometimes used to drive pumps.

cogeneration: Primary source of energy that is also used to produce a secondary source of energy. Example: The use of waste heat from an electrical energy generation system to heat a building. cogged belt: See cog belt

coil: [1] Metal bands or strands of wire wrapped in a circular fashion. [2] A pulse-type transformer for increasing the voltage to fire the spark plugs.

booster coil close coils exciter coil field coil four-spark ignition coil glow coil

high energy coil hold-in coil holding coil ignition coil resistor ignition coil induction coil

Also see multi-spark coil multi-spark ignition coil multiple-spark coil multiple-spark ignition coil open coil glow plug pick-up coil

pickup coil pulser coil single-spark ignition coil thermostatic coil choke

coil binding: Compressing a valve spring to the point at which each coil touches the adjacent coil coil chimney: The top of the ignition coil where the high tension leads are attached. coil choke: See thermostatic coil choke coil glow plug: See open coil glow plug coil ignition: The standard ignition system which uses an ignition coil which stores the power from the battery and steps it up. Then the high voltage is sent to the spark plugs.
Also see transistorized coil ignition

coil ignition with Hall sensor:

See transistorized coil ignition with Hall sensor coil lead: A British term for the high tension wire going from the coil to the distributor. In America, it is called the "coil wire." coil resistor: See ignition coil resistor coils: See close coils coil spring: [1] A section of spring steel rod wound in a spiral pattern or shape. Widely used in both front and rear suspension systems. Like large metal bed springs, these coils cushion and absorb the shocks and bumps as the vehicle is driven. They are usually found near the front wheels, but some cars have them in the rear as well. Often the shock absorbers run up the center of the coil springs. [2] A coiled metal spring used in a suspension fork. Generally considered to be plusher, but heavier, than air springs. coil spring clutch: A clutch which has a ring of coil springs which hold the pressure plate in position. coil spring compressor:

See spring compressor coil tester: See spark gap coil tester coil tower: The top of the ignition coil where the high tension leads are attached. coil wire: The high tension wire going from the coil to the distributor or spark plug. coin holder: A device which retains coins for easy access. coked up: A British term for "carboned up" to indicate something covered in carbon. cold: [1] The relative absence of heat [2] A temperature considerably below normal. cold air: Air that is below the prevailing ambient temperature. cold air induction: The induction system forces cold air into the combustion chamber. Because cold air is more dense than warm air, it contains more oxygen molecules. With more oxygen, fuel will burn more effectively and thus increase horsepower. cold air intake: The induction system forces cold air into the combustion chamber. Because cold air is more dense than warm air, it contains more oxygen molecules. With more oxygen, fuel will burn more effectively and thus increase horsepower.

cold cap: A process in retreading a tire where the tire is placed in a pressure chamber in a temperature range of 195°-212° until bonding of the pre-cured tread rubber is achieved.
Also see hot cap

cold-condensate corrosion: The corrosion of the inside of an exhaust system by direct chemical attack resulting from an acidic, aqueous solution that condenses from the exhaust gas at relatively low temperatures and collects at the cooler rear portions of the exhaust system. cold cranking ability: A measurement in amps of a battery's ability to start a vehicle under cold temperatures. A higher number is better than a lower one. Basic automobile batteries begin around 400 cold-cranking amps (which is only marginally acceptable in most vehicles). The best batteries are around 1000 cold-cranking amps. cold cranking amps: See cold cranking ability cold-cranking rating: The minimum number of amperes a fully charged 12-volt battery can deliver for 30 seconds at 0° F without falling below 7.2 battery volts cold galvanizing: The application of zinc to prevent rusting. It can be applied by a paint with lots of zinc or by electroplating with zinc. cold junction: That part of a thermoelectric system which absorbs heat as the system operates.

cold lash: The valve lash clearance, measured between the rocker arm and valve tip, when the engine is cold. cold manifold: An intake manifold not heated by exhaust gas cold plug: A spark plug which has a short insulator nose which absorbs less heat and dissipates heat quickly. A colder plug is used in a hot engine while a hot plug is used in a cold engine. Thus if the plugs are fouling too much, try a hotter plug. If the plugs are coming out white, try a colder plug. The ideal color of the center insulator nose should be a light chocolate brown. cold solder joint: A poor soldering technique where the solder has not quite melted enough to produce a good electrical contact. cold spark plug: See cold plug cold spraying: A method of paint spraying where the paint is excessively diluted with solvent. This process makes spraying easy, but the coats are very light. cold start: Getting a vehicle started which has been sitting for some time and cooled down to ambient temperature. When temperatures reach -40°, a vehicle may require three or four times as much battery power as it would during the summer. As well, the carburetor or fuel injection system needs to be much richer (more gasoline than air). Because condensation has a tendency to build up in the gas tank during the winter, the liquid going to the carburetor or fuel injectors may be diluted with water -- thus making starting more difficult. The application of isopropyl alcohol (marketed as "gasline antifreeze") removes the water from the tank. cold starting:

See cold start cold start enrichment: A method of providing a higher ratio of fuel to air for starting a cold engine. In some cases, more fuel is fed into the engine with a cold start injector; in other cases, the amount of air is restricted through the use of a choke. cold start injector: A device in a fuel injection system which shoots an extra amount of fuel into the cylinder to increase the ratio of fuel to air. cold wall: Refrigerator construction which has the inner lining of refrigerator serving as the cooling surface. cold weather modulator: (CWM) a vacuum modulator located in the air cleaner on some models. The modulator prevents the air cleaner duct door from opening to nonheated intake air when outside air is below 55° F. Similar to a temperature vacuum switch collapse: See piston collapse collapsed piston: A piston whose skirt diameter has been reduced due to heat and the forces imposed upon it during service in the engine.
Also see piston collapse

collapsible spare tire: A space-saver spare wheel. collapsible steering column:

When a vehicle is involved in an accident, the driver's chest is forced into the steering wheel. In older cars, the immovable steering column meant that the driver could sustain chest damage. The collapsible steering column telescopes or folds (articulate) so that chest damage is reduced. collar: A sleeve that fits over a shaft.
Also see hexagonal collar split collar underhead collar valve spring collar

collector: Semiconductor section of transistor, connected to the same polarity as the base. See solar collector collector car: An older car which may not fit into the category of a classic car or a milestone car, but it has nostalgic appeal. collet: A removable ring or collar which fits into a groove to hold something in place. collier: Vessel used for transporting coal. collision: See head-on collision collision avoidance system: Electronic system used to prevent collisions in inland navigable waterways. collision bulkhead:

The foremost main transverse watertight bulkhead designed to keep water out of the forward hold in case of bow collision damage. Also called forepeak bulkhead collision insurance: Insurance coverage that pays to repair damages to your vehicle when it is involved in an accident. colloids: Miniature cells peculiar to meats, fish, and poultry which, If disrupted, cause food to become rancid. Low temperatures minimize this action. colonnade hardtop: In architecture, the term colonnade describes a series of columns, set at regular intervals, usually supporting an entablature, roof, or series of arches. To meet US federal rollover standards in 1974 (standards that never emerged), General Motors introduced twodoor and four-door pillared body types with arch-like quarter windows and sandwich type roof construction. They looked like a cross between true hardtops and miniature limousines. Both styles proved popular (especially the coupe with louvered coach windows and canopy top) and the term colonnade was applied. As their "true" hardtops disappeared, other manufacturers produced similar bodies with a variety of quarter-window shapes and sizes. These were known by such terms as hardtop coupe, pillared hardtop, or opera-window coupe. color:
See four color identification color integral color anodizing off color paint color matching

color anodizing: See integral color anodizing color chart:

A listing of paint samples of available exterior paint for a vehicle. color coat: A coat of paint with the final color. Sometimes a clear coat is applied over it. color-coded: [1] Something that is colored the same as the main part of the bodywork. Also called "color-keyed" or "color-matched." [2] A series of similar things in which each one is a different color to distinguish one from the other, such as the wiring (e.g., the red wire goes from the battery to the fuse box, the blue wire goes from ... to the ...). colored: See body-colored color-keyed: See color-coded. color-matched: See color-coded. color matching: See paint color matching color scheme: The combination of exterior colors which harmonize, e.g., A maroon body and a white roof. Columbus: Italian manufacturer of high quality bicycle frame tubes. column:
See absorbing steering column

adjustable steering column collapsible steering column energy absorbing steering column height adjustable steering column safety steering column steering column telescopic steering column tilt column

column changer: See column shifter column controls: See steering column controls column gearchange: See steering column gearchange column gear changer: See column shifter column shifter: A gear changer lever and mechanism which is located on the steering column below the steering wheel. In Britain it is called a "column changer" or "column gear changer." combi: Vessel designed for a combination of passengers, and different types of cargo. combination: A vehicle like a motorcycle and sidecar or a tractor and trailer. combination lamp: A light or group of lights which serves two or more purposes. For example, the rear combination lamp illumines the running lights (i.e., the ones that are turned on when the headlight is turned on) and brake light

and/or the signal light combination pliers: A British term for a Lineman's pliers or slip-joint pliers combination spanner: A British term for combination wrench combination valve: [1] A brake system hydraulic control device includes a pressure differential valve, metering valve, and proportioning valve [2] A hydraulic valve usually incorporating a pressure differential warning switch, a metering valve and a proportioning valve. Not all combination valves contain all of these control valves combination weight: See gross combination weight combination wrench: A flat wrench with a hex ring at one end and an open end at the other. combination valve: A pressure-regulating valve in braking systems incorporating a failure warning switch and comprising two or more of the following valves: pressure-differential valve, metering valve, and proportioning valve. combined weight rating: See gross Combined Weight Rating combiner: See holographic combiner combustible liquids: Liquid having a flash point at or above 1400F 1600C1; known as Class 3 liquids.

combustion: The intense burning of the fuel-air mixture in the combustion chamber. Some used to think that the fuel-air mixture exploded; but further investigation has shown that it rapidly burns.
Also see combustion chamber volume combustion chamber combustion space compression ignition controlled combustion system external combustion engine fireball combustion chamber hemispherical combustion chamber internal combustion engine main combustion chamber pent-roof combustion chamber pre-combustion chamber wedge combustion chamber

combustion chamber: The volume of the space in the cylinder above the piston with the piston at top dead center (TDC) in the compression stroke. The head of the piston, the cylinder walls, and the head form the chamber. Combustion of the fuel-

air mixture begins here when ignited by a spark plug. The design and shape of the combustion chamber can affect power, fuel efficiency, and emissions of an engine.
Also see fireball combustion chamber hemispherical combustion chamber main combustion chamber pent-roof combustion chamber spherical combustion chamber twin swirl combustion chamber wedge combustion chamber

combustion chamber recess: The area where combustion occurs in a rotary piston engine combustion chamber volume: volume of combustion chamber (space above piston with piston on TDC) measured in cc (cubic centimetres). combustion engine:
See external combustion engine internal combustion engine

combustion pressure: The pressure created during the combustion of the air/fuel mixture in the cylinder, measured in pounds per square inch.

combustion residue: Carbon and other deposits resulting from combustion. combustion space: See combustion chamber. combustion system: See controlled combustion system comeback: [1] A repair job which has been returned to the dealer because of a repeat problem. Usually the dealer is responsible to repair it properly at no charge to the customer. [2] Trucker slang for Return call or repeat as in "Can I get a come back on that smokey report." comedian: Trucker slang for Median strip as in "You got a smokey in the comedian taking pictures." CO meter: A device for checking exhaust gases for carbon monoxide, a high level indicates an over-rich mixture as well as causing pollution. Comet head: A cylinder head with a swirl chamber for indirect injection diesel engines. Comfort: A designation of some automobiles as a basic or standard line usually abbreviated as "C" comfort chart: Chart used in air conditioning to show the dry bulb temperature, humidity, and air movement for human comfort conditions.

comfort cooler: System used to reduce the temperature in the living space in homes. These systems are not complete air conditioners as they do not provide complete control of heating, humidifying, dehumidification, and air circulation. Comfort Luxe: An automobile designation (abbreviated as CL) which has more luxury appointments than a "Comfort" but less than a Grand Luxe (GL). comfort zone: Area on psychrometric chart which shows conditions of temperature, humidity, and sometimes air movement in which most people are comfortable. comic book: Trucker slang for Truck driver's log book as in "The chicken coops checking comic books this morning." coming on the cam: The term used when a four stroke reaches its powerband coming on the pipe: The term used when a two stroke reaches its powerband commercial tire: A tire which is designed for truck and industrial use. commercial vehicle: A vehicle (like a truck or bus) used for carrying goods or large numbers of passengers for money. commutator: [1] A series or ring of copper bars that are connected to the armature windings. The bars are insulated from each other and from the armature.

The brushes (as in the generator or starter) rub against the whirling commutator. [2] Part of rotor in electric motor which conveys electric current to rotor windings. compact:
See compact car sub-compact

compact car: A designation no longer used because even "full-size cars" are now about the size of what was the compact car. In 1970, for instance, a Chevrolet Impala was a full-size car, a Chevelle was an intermediate, a Nova was a compact. When cars smaller than the Nova came out (i.e., Chevette), they were called sub-compacts. companionway: An access way in a deck, with a ladder leading below, for the use of the crew company logo: An emblem which represents all or part of a company's trademark. comparison and identification: See program comparison and identification compartment:
See battery compartment cassette compartment cluttered engine compartment crowded engine compartment engine compartment glove compartment passenger compartment


The subdividing of the hull by transverse watertight bulkheads so that the ship may remain afloat under certain flooding conditions compass: An instrument with a magnetic needle which is mounted on the dash to give the driver an idea of where magnetic north might be. compass mirror: An inside rear view mirror which incorporates a compass in one corner

compensating bar: See compensator compensating jet: A fuel tube or pipe in the carburetor, into which air is admitted through one or more holes to compensat e for a tendency of the main nozzle to deliver too rich a mixture as the air velocity

through the carburetor increases. Also called "air bleed." compensating port: A small hole in a brake master cylinder to permit fluid to return to the reservoir. compensator: A horizontal bar which is pulled forward when the parkbrake is applied at its central point, which is pivoted, while it is connected at each end to the parkbrake cable, enabling equal force to be exerted on each rear brake.
Also see temperature compensator

compensator valve: A valve in automatic transmissions designed to increase the pressure on the brake band during heavy acceleration. competition: See interchannel competition competition car: A vehicle which is designed to compete in races, hill climbs, and rallies. compliance: A slight resiliency, or "give," designed into suspensionbushings to help absorb bumps. Good compliance allows the wheels to move toward the rear a little as they hit bumps but does not allow them to move laterally (sideways) during cornering. Compliance Certification Label: See safety Compliance Certification Label

component: [1] One of the parts that make up the whole system or device, as in The brake pad is a component of the brake system. [2] A raw material, ingredient, part or subassembly that goes into a higher level assembly, compound, or other item.
Also see body component primary structure component shared component

component anti-lock brake system: A type of anti-lock brake system in which the hydraulic control unit is not a part of the master cylinder/power booster assembly. component assembly: A combination of two or more parts or sub-components to form an assembly. component design: the activity for the design of specific components including responsibility for material, cost, weight, reliability, durability, function, appearance, and serviceability. components: The various parts that make up the whole system or device. component sharing: The use of the same basic parts used in different models -- even in models from different manufacturers. composite: Any material that consists of two or more substances where one or more of them are high strength fibers and another is an adhesive binder. The most common composite is fiberglass, which consists of thin glass fibers bonded together in a plastic matrix. The structural properties of composites can be altered by controlling the orientation and configuration of the highstrength components.

composite headlamps: Reflector and lens system designed for specific vehicle model composite headlight: A headlight system which is unlike the sealed beam headlight. When the bulb fails, you can replace just the bulb, not the whole unit. Because the lens is contoured to the shape of the vehicle, there are many different shapes. Thus each lens is low production and can be very costly to replace. composite propeller shaft: A single-piece propeller shaft made of fibre-reinforced epoxy in which the fibres are usually glass and/or carbon. compound: [1] Two or more ingredients mixed together. [2] An abrasive paste or liquid that smooths and polishes the painted surface.
Also see anti-drum compound anti-ozone compound cutting compound intermetallic compound ozone compound rubbing compound sealing compound sheet molding compound underbody sealing compound valve grinding compound valve lapping compound

compound carburetor: A carburetor with more than one choke. Usually there are two: one for the large throttle opening and one for the small throttle opening, but they fit to a single port compound center electrode: Also called compound electrode compound electrode:

A spark plug with a copper core and a jacket of a nickel-based alloy. compound gauge: [1] A gauge that can indicate both pressure and vacuum. [2] Another name for the low side gauge, because it can indicate both pressure and vacuum compound glass: See laminated glass compounding: See pre-compounding compound motor: A direct current electric motor with two separate field windings, one in parallel and the other in series with the armature circuit; used as a starter motor compound refrigerating systems: System which has several compressors or compressor cylinders in series. The system is used to pump low-pressure vapors to condensing pressures. comprehensive insurance: Insurance coverage that pays for damages to your car, its accessories, spare parts against loss or damage caused by an accidental collision, fire, theft, vandalism, typhoon, earthquake, and flooding. It will also pay expenses to have the disabled vehicle towed to the repair shop and expenses to return the vehicle back to you when the repairs are completed. It also covers for the death and bodily injury of the insured or driver; loss or damage to someone else's property as a result of the accident; legal liabilities to the death or bodily injury of the third party arising from the accident; legal liabilities to the damage to property of the third party arising from the accident; loss or damage to the property of the spouse(s) or the child(ren) of the insured or driver; and medical expenses of the insured or driver's injury caused by the accident. compress:

To place under pressure or to squeeze into a small space.
Also see pre-compress

compressed-air spray gun: A paint gun which makes a fine spray of paint for coating the surface. compressed natural gas: Abbreviated CNG. See natural gas compression: [1] Applying pressure to a spring, or any springy substance, thus causing it to reduce its length in the direction of the compressing force. [2] Applying pressure to a gas, thus causing a reduction in volume. [3] One of the essential factors in a internal combustion engine (fuel, air, proper proportion of mixture, compression, timing, spark). It is the squeezing of the fuel-air mixture in the cylinder of a spark-ignition engine or the squeezing of the air in a diesel engine. Compression makes the process of combustion more effective and increases engine efficiency. [4] Term used to denote increase of pressure on a fluid by using mechanical energy. [5] Reduction in volume and increase in pressure and temperature of a gas caused by squeezing it into a smaller space
Also see crankcase compression grooved compression ring high compression head piston ring, compression primary compression ratio primary compression ring, compression secondary compression

compression check: Testing the compression in all the cylinders at crankingspeed. All plugs are removed, the compression gauge placed in one plug hole, the throttlecracked wide open and the engine cranked until the gauge no longer climbs. The compression check is a good way in which to determine the condition of the valves, rings, and cylinders.

compression damping: The control of the movement as the shock compresses as it hits a bump. Rebound damping refers to controlling the movement as the shock extends back to its relaxed position. compression gage: See compression gauge. compression gauge: [1] A gauge used to test the compression in the cylinders. A poor compression reading can indicate that there is leakage through the valves or the piston rings. In two stroke engines, it could indicate that there is poor primary compression because of a leak in the crankshaft seals. [2] Instrument used to measure positive pressures (pressures above atmospheric pressures) only. Gauge dial usually runs from 0 to 300 lb. per sq. in. gauge, (psig) (101.3-2 170 kPa). compression head: See high compression head compression ignition: combustion of a fuel-air mixture without spark. In the diesel engine, air is drawn into the cylinder and compressed to a temperature sufficiently high that fuel oil injected at the end of the compression stroke burns in the cylinder without a spark to initiate combustion. A prank played on new employees is to send them on a search for the spark plugs for a diesel engine -- they don't exist. compression leakage: In an engine, when some gases escape past the piston because the rings or cylinder walls are worn, the compression is reduced so that there is less efficiency. compression molding: The shaping of molding material by softening it under pressure and the action of heat, and forcing it through a hole into a hollow space which it completely fills.

Also see molding

compression moulding: British term for compression molding compression ratio: [1] When the piston is at the bottom of its travel (BDC), the volume of cylinder is measured (suppose the volume is X). Then the piston is placed at the top of its travel (TDC) and the volume of the cylinder is measured (suppose this volume is Y). The compression ratio is a comparison of these two values expressed as X:Y. Then the values are mathematically changed so that the second number is always 1. Thus you hear of ratios like 10.5:1 or 9.5:1 or 8:1. The higher the compression ratio, the more mechanical energy an engine can squeeze from its air-fuel mixture. Higher compression ratios, however, also make detonation more likely. [2] Ratio of the volume of the clearance space to the total volume of the cylinder. In refrigeration it is also used as the ratio of the absolute low-side pressure to the absolute high-side pressure.
Also see primary compression ratio

compression ring: A ring which surrounds the piston and fits in a grove in the piston. It is designed to seal the burning fuel charge above the piston. Generally there are two compression rings per piston and they are located in the two top ring grooves. They also help to transfer heat from the piston into the cylinder walls and subsequently to the water jacket surrounding the cylinder.
Also see grooved compression ring stepped compression ring tapered compression ring

compression spring: An open-coil, helical spring that offers resistance to a compressive form.

compression stroke: The second stroke of the four-stroke cycle, in which the piston moves upward from bottom dead center to top dead center, compressing the fuelair mixture.

compression tester: A device which is screwed or pushed into the spark plug hole so that when the engine is turned over, it measures the amount of compression in that cylinder. compressor: [1] A mechanism in a refrigerator or air conditioner that pumpsvaporizedrefrigerant out of the evaporator, compresses it to a relatively high pressure and then delivers it to the condenser. [2] A tool for compressing a coil spring, such as a valve spring. [3] Pump of a refrigerating mechanism which draws a low pressure on cooling side of refrigerant cycle and squeezes or compresses the gas into the high-pressure or condensing side of the cycle. [4] An air conditioning component which pumps, circulates, and increases the pressure of refrigerant vapor

Also see air compressor coil spring compressor piston-type compressor piston compressor positive displacement compressor reciprocating compressor roots compressor spring compressor valve spring compressor

[3] A device which produces pressurized air for filling tires and running air-powered tools

compressor, centrifugal: Pump which compresses gaseous refrigerants by centrifugal force. compressor control: See motor control compressor cut-off switch: A device used by some manufacturers to prevent compressor operation. Such as the wide open throttle (WOT) cut-off switch, low pressure switch, and high pressure switch compressor discharge switch: A device that shuts off the compressor when refrigerant pressure is low. The switch is wired in series between the compressor clutch and the control panel switch compressor displacement: Volume, in cubic inches, represented by the area of the compressor piston head or heads multiplied by the length of the stroke.

compressor, external drive: See compressor, open type compressor, hermetic: Compressor in which the driving motor is sealed in the same dome or housing as the compressor. compressor impeller: An impeller of a turbocharger driven by the turbine at speeds up to 160,000 rpm, which accelerates by centrifugal force the charge air which enter axially and leaves radially at a very high velocity. compressor muffler: Sound absorber chamber in refrigeration system. Used to reduce sound of gas pulsations. compressor, multiple stage: Compressor having two or more compressive steps. Discharge from each step is the intake pressure of the next in series. compressor, open type: Compressor in which the crankshaft extends through the crankcase and is driven by an outside motor. Commonly called external drive compressor. compressor pressure ratio: In a turbocharger system, the ratio between the absolute pressure at the compressor outlet and the compressor inlet compressor ratio: In a turbocharger system, the ratio between the volume in the cylinder when the piston is at the bottom of its stroke and the volume in the cylinder when the piston is at the top of its stroke compressor, reciprocating:

Compressor which uses a piston and cylinder mechanism to provide pumping action. compressor, rotary: Compressor which uses vanes, eccentric mechanisms, or other rotating devices to provide pumping action. compressor seal: Leakproof seal between crankshaft and compressor body in open type compressors. compressor shaft seal: A seal in an air conditioner compressor, surrounding the compressor shaft, that permits the shaft to turn without the loss of refrigerant or oil compressor, single-stage: Compressor having only one compressive step between low-side pressure and high-side pressure. Comprex supercharger: A supercharger using the pressure waves created by the expanding exhaust gases to compress the inlet charge. Also called "pressure wave supercharger." computer: [1] A device which calculates information and sends the results to a specific destination. In automobiles, computers are used to regulate fuel flow, control the air conditioner, display speed, time, ETA, etc. [2] Series of electrical components which accept inputs from an operator and controls outputs.
Also see diagnostic computer fuel computer on-board computer spark control computer trip computer


Something which has been helped or designed by a computer. computer brake control: See anti-skid. computer command control: (CCC) an electronically-controlled fuel metering system used on GM vehicle. Uses an oxygen sensor, a throttle position sensor and other information sensors to provide a computer with the data it needs to alter the air/fuel ratio via mixture control solenoid in the carburetor computer command control system: (C-3) an earlier engine management system used on GM vehicles. (C-4) A later engine management system used on GM vehicles computer-controlled: Something which is monitored by a computer computer controlled coil ignition: (C3I) GM's computerized ignition coil system, used on many different engine applications computer controlled timing: (CCT) a system that feeds input from various engine sensors into a computer. The computer then matches spark timing exactly to engine requirements throughout its full range of operations computer languages: Specific wording or codes, such as BASIC, FORTRAN, and COBOL, which direct a computer to accept and store information and control outputs. con:
See forked con rod master con rod

concave weld face: A weld having the center of its face below the weld edges concealed headlamps: Headlamp doors close to resent a flush fitting sheet metal to reduce air resistance in headlamp area concealed headlights: Headlight which (when not lit) is hidden behind a panel. When the headlight switch is turned on vacuum is applied to a controller which opens the panel exposing the light. Also called "hide-away headlights" or "pop-up headlights." concentration: See stress concentration concentric: Two or more circles so placed as to share a common center but different diameters. concept car: A vehicle that is not currently in production, but is still in the design stage. Some are merely paper drawings, but others are clay mock-ups. The ideas in the concept cars sometimes appears in production models.
Also see prototype

concept vehicle: a current production vehicle modified for installation of new design concepts for evaluation of environmental functional feasibility. concho: A chrome trim disk for saddlebags and leathers.

concours: Also called "concours d'elegance." This is the term used to describe a show where cars in superb condition are judged against a standard of excellence established by the sponsors, with awards given to winners. Show cars compete in a concours. concours d'elegance: See concours. cond: Abbreviation for "condition," as in excellent cond. condensate: A fluid formed when a gas is cooled to its liquid state. See cold-condensate corrosion condensate corrosion: See cold-condensate corrosion condensate pump: Device to remove water condensate that collects beneath an evaporator. condensation: [1] Moisture, from the air, deposited on a cool surface. The reverse of evaporation. [2] Liquid or droplets which form when a gas or vapor is cooled below its dew point. [3] The act or process of reducing a gas or vapor to a liquid or solid form condense: Turning a vapor back into a liquid. condenser: [1] A small metal cylinder which is usually located in the distributor. It is installed between the breaker points and coil to prevent arcing at the breaker points by absorbing or storing the excess current. A

condenser (also called a "capacitor") has the ability to absorb and retain surges of electricity. It is constructed of two metal plates separated by an insulator. [2] The unit in an air conditioning system that cools the hot compressed refrigerant and turns it from a vapor into a liquid. It is the opposite of an evaporator. [3] The part of refrigeration mechanism which receives hot, high-pressure refrigerant gas from compressor and cools gaseous refrigerant until it returns to its liquid state.
Also see steam engine

condenser, air-cooled: Heat exchanger which transfers heat to surrounding air. condenser comb: Comb-like device, metal or plastic, used to straighten the metal fins on condensers or evaporators. condenser fan: Forced air device used to move air through air-cooled condenser. condenser, water-cooled: Heat exchanger designed to transfer heat from hot gaseous refrigerant to water. condensing furnace: High efficiency, gas forced-air furnace that extracts the latent heat lost in conventional gas forced-air furnaces. condensing pressure: Pressure inside a condenser at which refrigerant vapor gives up its latent heat of vaporization and becomes a liquid. This varies with the temperature. condensing temperature:

Temperature inside a condenser at which refrigerant vapor gives up its latent heat of vaporization and becomes a liquid. This varies with the pressure. condensing unit: Part of a refrigerating mechanism which pumps vaporized refrigerant from the evaporator, compresses it, liquefies it in the condenser, and returns it to the refrigerant control. condensing unit service valves: Shutoff valves mounted on condensing unit to enable service technicians to install and/or service unit. condition:
See air conditioner battery charge battery condition cherry condition conditioner mint condition original condition spark plug condition

conditioned: See air-conditioned conditioner: See air conditioner. conditioning: See air-conditioning condition-latched soft code: A type of trouble code that disengages the ABS and turns on the amber light only as long as the condition, or problem, exists

conditions: See driving conditions conductance: A measure of the ease with which a conductor allows electron flow. In DC circuits, conductance is the reciprocal of resistance conduction: [1] The transfer of heat from one object to another by having the objects in physical contact. [2] The flow of heat between substances by molecular vibration. [3] The transfer of heat between the closely packed molecules of a substance or between two substances that are touching, caused by a temperature differential between the 2 molecules or substances
Also see thermal conduction

conductive: The ability of something to conduct electricity. conductivity: The ability of something to conduct electricity. Opposite of resistivity.
Also see electrical conductivity heat conductivity

conductor: [1] A material forming a path for the flow of current, such as silver, copper, and carbon. [2] Substance or body capable of transmitting electricity or heat.
Also see semiconductor


[1] A bearing race that curves to the inside of a circle of ball bearings and works in conjunction with a cup. [2] In welding, it is the inner visible flame shape of a neutral or near neutral flame.
Also see bearing cone inner cone

cone clutch: A clutch using a cone-shaped member that is forced into a cone-shaped depression in the flywheel, or other driving unit, thus locking the two together, although no longer used on cars, the cone clutch finds some applications in small riding tractors, heavy power mowers, etc. configuration: The particular arrangement of the parts in relation to each other.
Also see chassis configuration delta configuration mid-engine chassis configuration Y-configuration

conformation: The ability of a precision insert bearing to match the shape and contour of a shaft surface even after it has been in use for some time. conical: something in the shape of a cone. It is usually tapered. conical seat: A circular, tapered place that something rests. For instance, a spark plug may fit into a tapered hole.

connecting rod: The connecting link or arm between the piston and the crankshaft. It converts the upand-down (reciprocating) motion of the piston into the circular (rotary) motion of the spinning crankshaft. Often called "con rod."

Also see big-end bearing boxed rod forked con rod master con rod slave con rod throwing a rod

connecting rod bearing: A precision insert bearing. Also called "big end bearing" connecting rod shank: A longitudinal part of the connecting rod connection: the joining of two or more parts which generally conduct electricity.
Also see axle connection earth connection ground connection rigid axle connection negative connections positive connections

See negative connections positive connections


A device which joins two items.
Also see adapter battery connector blade connector cell connector engine diagnostic connector eyelet connector helmet connector multicon connector system T-connector Y-connector

connector system: See multicon connector system con rod: See connecting rod. con rod bearing: See connecting rod bearing. conscious: See environment-conscious consistency: The stiffness, or fluid quality of an adhesive coating or sealer compound console: [1] A small storage space or fascia between the two front seats in a car with bucket seats. Often it houses the shifter, some instruments, coffee holders, coin holders, etc. [2] A total unit or system of controls located in one area and enclosed. A window air conditioner is a console air conditioner.
Also see brake console center console parking brake console seat rail console

constantan: An alloy made of nickel and copper which is used in resistance wire and in thermocouplers. constant depression: See air-valve carburetor. constant-depression: See air-valve carburetor. constant idle system: An electronically-controlled air bypass around the throttle. Also called idle speed actuator or idle-speed stabilizer constant mesh gearbox: A type of transmission in which all or most of the gears are always in mesh with one another, as opposed to a sliding-gear transmission, in which engagement is obtained by sliding some of the gears along a shaft into mesh. In a constant-mesh manual gearbox, gear ratios are selected by small clutches that connect the various gearsets to their shafts so that power is transmitted through them.
Also see sliding mesh gearbox

constant mesh gear: One of the gears that is always in mesh with another -- whether it is driving or not (i.e., just idling). constant mesh gears: Gears that are always in mesh with each other -- whether it is driving or not (i.e., just idling). constant-radius turn: A turn with a steady, non-changing arc. In a decreasing-radius corner, the arc gets sharper as you progress through the curve, while in an increasing radius corner, the arc becomes less sharp

constant vacuum: See air-valve carburetor. constant-vacuum: See air-valve carburetor. constant-velocity: A type of carburetor. constant velocity joint: (CV joint) A type of universal joint so designed as to create a smooth transfer of torque from the driven shaft to the driving shaft without any fluctuations in the speed of the driven shaft.

constant velocity universal joint: See constant velocity joint. constant voltage regulator: (CVR) a device used to maintain a constant voltage level in a circuit, despite fluctuations in system voltage. CVRs are wired into some gauge circuits so voltage fluctuations won't affect accuracy of the gauge readings constant volume sampling: See constant-volume sampling. constant-volume sampling: An exhaust-emissions measuring technique in which the exhaust gases produced by a vehicle's engine are collected as it is driven through a test sequence of accelerations, decelerations, and cruise modes on a chassis dynamometer. A quantity of air is added to the exhaust gases until a specific volume (the same for all cars) is obtained. Concentrations of

pollutants in the total sample are then analyzed for determination of their actual mass. constricted tube: Tubing reduced in diameter. constrictor: Tube or orifice used to restrict flow of a gas or a liquid. construction:
See body and frame construction body construction coachbuilt construction frameless construction integral body and frame construction monobloc construction palletized construction sandwich construction skeleton construction unibody construction unitary construction unitized construction

consumer factors: demographic characteristics of consumers including age, gender, income and geographic location, affordability. Consumer Products Safety Commission: (CPSC) the certification agency for bicycle helmets. consumption: The act of using up an amount of fuel. Actually the fuel is joined with air and merely changed into other substances (Carbon Dioxide, Carbon Monoxide, etc. and energy).
Also see fuel consumption indicator fuel consumption oil consumption

specific fuel consumption

consumption indicator: See fuel consumption indicator contact: [1] The touching of two or more parts. [2] The parts that actually touch each other when making electrical connection whether permanently or intermittently.
Also see fixed contact ground contact area moving contact sliding contacts

contact area: The part of the tire that actually touches the ground at any particular moment.
Also see ground contact area tire contact area

contact arm: The movable segment of the points which is moved by the lobe of the distributor. contact bounce: The rapid movement of the breaker arm as it opens and closes contact breaker: See breaker points. contact breaker gap: The distance between the contact points at their furthest opening. contact breaker plate: The plate on which the breaker points are mounted. When adjusting the points, the plate and the points are moved apart in relation to each other.

contact breaker point: The individual contact of the breaker points. contact cement: See cement. contact chatter: The rapid movement of the breaker arm as it opens and closes contact controlled electronic ignition: See electronic ignition system. contact gap: See point gap. contacting surfaces: Any two surfaces to be brought together and bonded contactless electronic ignition: See breakerless transistorized ignition contactless ignition: See breakerless. contact patch: The area of a tire's tread that touches the ground. contact pattern: The visible wear pattern created by two parts which touch each other contact point:

See contact points. contact points: Two movable points or areas that when pressed together, complete a circuit. These points are usually made of tungsten, platinum, or silver.
Also see breaker points

contact set: Replacement parts consisting of breaker points and possibly breaker plate and condenser. contact spring: A spring which pushes on a contact which holds something in place and maintains contact. contact zone: See tire contact zone container: A strong steel box of standard dimensions of 8 feet square and length of 20 feet or 40 feet, in which cargo is preloaded.
Also see catalyst container reefer container

containerization: A shipping system where cargo is loaded into a large container at the factory and shipped from truck to train to ship, etc. without rehandling of contents within the container. container ship: A ship designed to carry containers as cargo. contaminant: [1] Some impurity in gasoline or oil or anything else.

[2] Substance such as dirt, moisture, or other matter foreign to refrigerant or refrigerant oil in system. contamination: See catalyst contamination content: See blood alcohol content Continental: A vehicle brand of Ford cars of which the 1956-57 Mark II models are milestone cars.

Click for books on Continental Also see Lincoln Continental

continental tire: The bulge in the rear portion of the trunk which resembles a tire or a rear mounted tire Continental-type fuse: A ceramic fuse with conical end caps. They are color coded for different values. Continuous AC Ignition System: Abbreviated CACIS. An ignition system where a high-energy alternating current arc burns for the entire power stroke. In this system, the spark plugs don't erode as quickly and the air/fuel mixture is more completely burned. Thus there is no need for a catalytic converter. continuous cycle absorption system:

System which has a continuous flow of energy input. continuous injection system: (CIS) A mechanical fuel injection system designed and manufactured by Bosch, used on many German vehicles. In a CIS system, the fuel injectors are always open (i.e., they emit a continuous spray of fuel into the intake ports). The amount of fuel sprayed is determined by the fuel pressure in the system, which in turn is determined by the position of the throttle.
Also see K-jetronic

continuously variable transmission: Abbreviated CVT. See infinitely variable transmission. continuous weld: Completing a weld in one operation Conti tire system: Abbreviated CTS. A run flat tire and wheel combination which allows the tire to be run for up to 400 km (250 miles) at a speed of up to 80 kph (50 mph) contour:
See buff contour panel contour

contract carrier: A shipping company which is transporting goods because of a contract with another shipping company. contracting-band brake: A brake in which a band is tightened around a rotating drum contraction:

A thermal action where the size (mass or dimension) of an object is reduced when cooled; the opposite of expansion. contre: See outboard contre pente contre pente: Abbreviated CP. A French designed wheel where the raised portion of one of the rim bead seat is designed to hold the tire bead of a nearly flat tire without breaking the bead (i.e., becoming unseated).
Also see outboard contre pente

contre pente on both bead seats: Abbreviated CP2. A safety rim contour with a contre pente on both rim bead seats control: [1] A device or mechanism for adjusting a component. See cruise control. [2] The ability of the driver to make a vehicle perform as required. [3] To regulate. [4] Automatic or manual device used to stop, start, and/or regulate flow of gas, liquid, and/or electricity.
Also see air control electronic control heat control valve automatic module height hamper frequency control electronic control unit pitch control automatic level electronic engine hydraulic control control control block automatic speed electronic ride control ignition control control electronic spark control unit automatic electronic illumination temperature control tractioncontrol control automatic volume electronic transmission inflation control control control seam balance control emission control infrared remote choke control engine control system control clearance control evaporation control intermittent wiper climate control system control computer brake evaporative emission IR remote control control control system knock control manifold heat control valve mirrorcontrol mixture control knob mixture control screw mixture control unit multi-function control stalk oil control ring overrun control valve piston ring, oil control remote control running-on control valve speed control temperature control

corrosion control cruise control digital frequency control dimmer control dwell-angle control electric air control valve

exhaust emission control feedback control finance and control flow control ground clearance control headlight leveling control

level control limit cycle control low-speed traction control low speed traction control

vacuum control vacuum ignitiontiming control vacuum timing control

control arm: A metal strut on the suspension which is located at the top and bottom of the wheel spindle. The upper and lower control arms allow the front wheels to change direction. Also called a "wishbone" or "A-arm."
Also see suspension system track control arm

control arms: See control arm. control block: See hydraulic control block control box: A container which houses electrical components which regulate the action of something. control cable: A wire cable which runs from a knob or lever to a device which operates or regulates. Also called a "control wire."
Also see starter switch control cable

control, compressor: See motor control control computer:

See spark control computer control, defrosting: Device to automatically defrost evaporator. It may operate by means of a clock, door cycling mechanism, or during "off" portion of refrigerating cycle. contrôle: A checkpoint where randonneur bicycle riders must stop to have their route cards signed and stamped to prove they have kept to the course within the time limits. control element: See temperature control element control head: The dashboard mounted assembly which houses the mode selector, the blower switch and the temperature control lever of the heating, air conditioner, and ventilation system Control Information: See Vehicle Emission Control Information control knob: See mixture control knob controlled burn rate: See CBR process controlled canister purge: (CCP) ECM-controlled solenoid valve that permits manifold vacuum to purge the evaporative emissions from the charcoal canister controlled combustion system:

An emission control term used by General Motors to include the following:
• • • • • • •

modified combustion chamber design high-temperature coolant systems thermostatically controlled air cleaners very lean air/fuel mixtures high idle speeds severely retarded ignition timing TCS (transmission controlled spark) and TVS (thermal vacuum switch)

controlled electronic: See magnetically controlled electronic ignition controlled electronic ignition:
See contact controlled electronic ignition magnetically controlled electronic ignition capacitor controlled electronic ignition

controlled intersection: A road junction which is controlled by traffic lights (signal lights) controlled spark: See transmission controlled spark controlled vehicle: A vehicle with a reduced emission system consisting of a catalytic converter, EGR, air injection, fuel evaporative emission control, etc. Also called a "detoxed vehicle." controller: A group of controls and circuits used to accurately and automatically operate a device.

battery discharge controller solid state controller

controller, anti-lock brake: CAB Chrysler Corporation's term for the electronic control unit control link: See toe control link control, low-pressure: Cycling device connected to low-pressure side of system. control module: One of several names for a solid-state micro-computer which monitors engine conditions and controls certain engine functions, i.e., air/fuel ratio, injection and ignition timing, etc.
See electronic control module transmission control module

control, motor: Temperature or pressure-operated device used to control running of motor. control orifice valve: See oil control orifice valve control plunger: [1] A device in a fuel injection system which moves up and down to provide the correct amount of fuel to each cylinder. [2] One of several names for a solid state device which monitors engine conditions and controls certain engine functions, i.e., fuel injection, ignition timing, glow plug system in a diesels engine, etc control pressure: [1] The pressure in a fuel injection system. [2] the pressure coming from line pressure or throttle pressure in the automatic transmission which pushes on the command valves.

[3] In a Bosch CIS, the pressurized fuel used as a hydraulic control fluid to apply a counterforce to the control plunger in Bosch CIS. Control pressure alters the air-fuel ratio through the operation of the control-pressure regulator control, pressure motor: High- or low-pressure control connected into the electrical circuit and used to start and stop motor. It is activated by demand for refrigeration or for safety. control, refrigerant: Device used to regulate flow of liquid refrigerant into evaporator. Can be a capillary tube, expansion valves, or high-side and low-side float valves. control ring: See oil control ring. controls:
See dual controls emission controls exhaust emission controls instruments and controls steering column controls

control screw:
See mixture control screw volume control screw

control seam: See inflation control seam control stalk: A shaft which projects from the steering column just below the steering wheel. It may control lights, cruise control, wipers, windshield washer, signal lights, horn, etc.
Also see

multi-function control stalk

control switch: See vacuum control switch control system: All of the components required for the automatic control of a process variable.
See active noise control system anti-spin regulation traction control system engine control system evaporation control system evaporative emission control system exhaust emission control system traction control system transmission control system

control, temperature: Temperature-operated thermostatic device which automatically opens or closes a circuit. control unit:
See electronic control unit ignition control unit mixture control unit vacuum control unit warm-up control unit

control vacuum advance: See speed control vacuum advance control valve: [1] A valve which regulates or operates a system, especially a hydraulic or vacuum control system. [2] Valve which regulates the flow or pressure of a medium which affects a controlled process. Control valves are operated by remote signals from independent devices using any of a number of control media such as pneumatic, electric, or electrohydraulic.

Also see air control valve boost control valve electric air control valve heat control valve manifold heat control valve oil control orifice valve overrun control valve running-on control valve

control valve assembly: A casting located in the sump of the automatic transmission. It contains most of the valves for the hydraulic control system. control wire: A wire cable which runs from a knob or lever to a device which operates or regulates. Also called a "control cable." controlled combustion system: (CCS) A system of reducing unburned hydrocarbon emission from the engine exhaust. conv: Abbreviation for "convertible." convection: [1] The transfer of heat from one object to another when the hotter object heats the surrounding air and the air in turn heats the other object. [2] The transfer of heat by the circulation or movement of the heated, or cooled, parts of a vapor or liquid
Also see thermal convection

convection, forced: Transfer of heat resulting from forced movement of liquid or gas by means of a fan or pump. convection, natural:

Circulation of a gas or liquid due to difference in density resulting from temperature differences. conventional oxidation catalyst: (COC) a catalyst which acts on the two major pollutants: HC and CO convenience: See flags of convenience conventional cross ply: A tire having two or more carcass plies arranged in a criss-cross manner and diagonally to the beads and travels approximately 1/3 the distance around the circumference before attaching to the other bead. Each cord in the next ply is arranged in the same manner, but in the opposite direction. conventional ignition: The transfer of heat from one object to another when the hotter object heats the surrounding air and the air in turn heats the other object. conventional ignition system: An ignition system consisting of the battery, ignition switch, ballast resistor, ignition coil, distributor, contact breaker points, condenser, centrifugal or vacuum advance unit, spark plugs, and high tension wires. conventional spare tire: A spare tire & rim which is the same size as the other four wheels. Most cars do not have them because they take up too much space in the trunk. conventional theory: The direction of current flow was arbitrarily chosen to be from the positive terminal of the voltage source, through the external circuit, then back to the negative terminal of the source conventional tire:

A bias ply tire. conversion: [1] The change from one state to another, e.g., harmful gases into harmless gases. [2] altered state of a particular system, or set of parts needed to achieve it.
Also see manual choke conversion energy conversion tractive conversion

conversion coating: A coating of some metal which uses the same kind of metal in the coating compound and improves paint adhesion and corrosion resistance conversion factors: Force and power may be expressed in more than one way. A horsepower is equivalent to 33,000 ft. lb. of work per minute, 746 watts, or 2546 Btu per hour. These values can be used for changing horsepower into foot pounds, British thermal units, or watts. conversion rate: The rate at which a given catalytic converter purifies the exhaust gas stream, governed by various parameters such as operating conditions and converter design converter: [1] When used with LPG (propane), it is a device which turns LPG (propane) from liquid to vapor for use in the engine. [2] Referring to a transmission it is the device that transfers engine torque to the transmission.
Also see catalytic converter mini catalytic primary catalytic dual-bed catalytic converter converter converter monolithic rust converter hydrodynamic torque converter single-bed 3-way converter open-loop catalytic catalytic converter lock-up torque converter single-bed oxidizing converter oxidizing converter converter lockup torque pellet-type catalytic three-way catalytic three way catalytic converter torque converter two-way catalytic converter




converter case: An assembly in the automatic transmission encasing the impeller with the converter cover welded to it. It contains the converter fluid and vane wheels and connected to the crankshaft by means of the drive plate and revolving at engine speed. converter, catalytic:
See catalytic converter three-way catalytic converter

converter cover: A part in the automatic transmission that is welded to the pump and makes up the converter case converter drive plate: See torque converter drive plate converter housing: [1] A stationary outer part of the automatic transmission which encloses the converter case.
Also see torque converter housing

[2] The housing of a catalytic converter. Also called "converter shell." converter lock-up clutch: See torque converter lock-up clutch converter preheating: An emission control device which increases catalytic action in cold starts when HC and CO are their highest. Although not in use in current cars, it may become necessary in the future. Thus it may mean the following: Take longer to start a vehicle in the morning, require a larger battery, necessitate plugging a vehicle into household circuit, need for frequent replacement of the catalytic converter.

Also see preheating

converter shell: See the second definition of converter housing convertible: Generally this is a two-door automobile without a fixed roof. Instead, the roof folds up or is removed in some way so that the passenger compartment is exposed to the open air. Some roofs are made of flexible fabric or plastic which folds up behind the passenger compartment. Other roofs are not flexible and retract into the trunk. Some retract automatically while others must be manually removed and placed in the trunk. The term was introduced in the 1930s. In the 1950s, a hardtop convertible was introduced to look like a convertible with its top up; but its fixed roof did not fold or retract. It was also called a "drophead coupé" or "open car."
Also see hardtop convertible

convertible sedan: This is similar to the sedan body type, but with provisions of lowering both the all-weather side windows and the fabric top to create a four-door convertible. convertible top: The soft foldable canvas or vinyl top of a convertible. It usually has a clear plastic rear window. convex weld: A weld with the face above the old edges coolant: Liquid in the cooling system. Usually a mixture of water and antifreeze (ethylene glycol). This mixture lowers the freezing point of the water in the cooling system, prevents rust and corrosion, lubricates the water pump,

and picks up heat from the engine and transfers it to the air passing through the radiator.
Also see engine coolant

coolant controlled exhaust gas recirculation: (CCEGR) a system that prevents exhaust gas recirculation until engine coolant temperature reaches a specific value coolant level warning light: A small light on the dash which is illuminated when the radiator is low on coolant coolant pump: See water pump coolant recovery system: A small bottle that acts as a reservoir for liquid expelled from the cooling system through the overflow pipe and returns the liquid to the system when it cools down. A special radiatorpressure cap is also part of the kit. It is also called a "Closed Cooling System" when it is part of the original equipment. coolant temperature override switch: CTO A switch that prevents vacuum from reaching a component until coolant temperature reaches a certain value coolant temperature sensor: A sensor located at the bottom of the radiator which is connected to the temperature gauge. cooled:
See air-cooled air cooled liquid-cooled water-cooled

cooled engine: See air cooled engine cooled valve: See sodium cooled valve cooler: [1] A device for cooling hot liquid or air by passing air through the vanes of a heat sink. [2] Heat exchanger which removes heat from a substance.
Also see aftercooler oil cooler

cooler bypass: See oil cooler bypass valve cooler bypass valve: See oil cooler bypass valve cooling:
See charge air cooling fan cooling flushing the cooling system intercooling thermosyphon cooling

cooling fan: [1] A large fan designed to suck relatively cool air and force it onto a warm object like an engine. [2] A large fan designed to pull away the radiant warm air surrounding a hot object. cooling fins: The greater the surface area that needs to be cooled, the better you will be able to cool off a hot object, like an engine. By putting a number of fins on

a surface, you increase the overall area. On air cooled engines, for instance, you will see a series of closely formed ridges or fins in parallel. As the air passes by them, the engine heat is dissipated. cooling jacket: See water jacket cooling system: The system that removes heat from the engine. In a water-cooled engine it includes radiator, pressure cap, fan, water pump, thermostat, water jackets; in an air-cooled engine it consists of a fan, cooling fins, and ducting.
Also see closed cooling system flushing the cooling system water cooling system

cooling tower: Device which cools by water evaporation in air. Water is cooled to wet bulb temperature of air. Coolmax: A garment constructed of four channel polyester, naturally hydrophobic fabric. Coolmax is designed to regulate body temperature during physical exertion by increasing air flow and transporting moisture through the fibers to the outside of the fabric where moisture evaporates. copolymer: A polymer produced from two different monomers.
Also see graft copolymer

copper core: The center electrode of a spark plug or the center wires of a high tension wire which is made of copper. copper-faced hammer: A hammer with a round head made of copper or brass. It is used to hit objects without damaging them where hitting them with a steel hammer

might. copper plating: [1] The application of a thin layer of copper by a process of electrolysis. Primarily it is done to electrical contacts and terminals to give excellent conduction of electricity. [2] Abnormal condition developing in some units in which copper is electrolytically deposited on some compressor surfaces. copy: Trucker slang for "understand" as in "Do you copy?" Cord: [1] A vehicle brand of which the 1925-1948 model cars are classic cars. [2] A strand of fabric or steel cable used in the ply of a tire. [3] A rope.
Also see bungee cord

cordura: The brand name for a heavy-duty, synthetic material made by DuPont that feels like canvas. It is often used in the manufacture of lightweight clothing, backpacks, and camping gear. core: [1] When referring to casting -- a sand unit placed inside of a mold so that when the metal is poured, the core will leave a hollow shape. [2] The magnetic center of a coil usually made of iron. [3] The primary part (engine block, alternator, starter, radiator, etc.) which has malfunctioned, but is still suitable for rebuilding or remanufacturing. You can exchange it for a new or rebuilt part. Thus, instead of paying full price for a new alternator, you can submit your old alternator as a core and pay a lower amount for the new alternator. "CORE" is an acronym for "cash on return."
Also see bead core copper core laminated iron core timer core

valve core

core, air: Coil of wire not having a metal core. core charge: The word "core" is short for "cash on return." When you purchase a part which is rebuildable, you can return your old part and receive a core charge. Generally a core charge is collected for engines, crankshafts, alternators, radiators, brake shoes. If the part is beyond repair, there may be no core charge. core hole plug:
See core plug freeze plug

core hole plugs: See core plug. core/insulator: See projected core/insulator nose core/insulator nose: See projected core/insulator nose core leads: See carbon-core leads core, magnetic: Magnetic center of a magnetic field. core plug: A metal plug located in the sides of the engine block which can pop out because of excessive pressure or freezing and prevent the engine block from cracking. These plugs are located in the water jacket and can

sometimes leak and should then be replaced. Block heaters are installed by removing a core plug and inserting a heating element. Core plugs are also called "freeze plugs" or "expansion plugs." core plugs: See core plug. core support: The framework that supports the radiator and air conditioner condenser assembly and also serves as the attaching point for the front fenders, grille assembly, hood latch, etc. corncob: A bicycle term used to describe a cluster of cogs on a racing freewheel because of the small variation in number of teeth on adjacent cogs. corner:
See inside corner weld outside corner weld rear corner valance rear corner panel

cornering: The negotiation of a curve, bend, or corner of a road. Good cornering ability allows the vehicle to go around a curve at a reasonable speed without body roll and breakaway. cornering force: The forces exerted on a tire by the slip angle when moving around a curve.
Also see ultimate cornering force

cornering limit: The maximum speed that a vehicle can travel around a particular curve. cornering speed:

The speed that a vehicle makes when turning. It is relative to the sharpness of the curve and the ability of the vehicle to stay on the road under control. corner joint: A junction formed by edges of two pieces of metal touching each other at an angle of about 90° corner panel: A panel used to fill a gap between larger panels or frame members meeting at an angle and to serve as a stiffener, such as those at the intersection of sidemembers and crossmembers and the rear corner panels of rear fenders.
Also see rear corner panel windshield corner panel

corners: See across corners corner steady: A British term for a jack stand used to support and level the corner of a parked travel trailer. corner valance: See rear corner valance corner weld:
See inside corner weld outside corner weld

corn flakes: Trucker slang for A Consolidated Freightway truck as in "Can I get a smokey report there corn flakes."

Corolla: A model of automobile manufactured by Toyota

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Corona: A model of automobile manufactured by Toyota

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corporate Average Fuel Economy: (CAFE) Regulation enacted in 1975 which requires a motor vehicle manufacturer to classify its U.S. vehicle fleet sales as either domestic or import for the purpose of fuel economy averaging. corporation: Business association endowed by law with the rights and liabilities of an individual correction jet: See air correction jet corrector: See height corrector corrode: To eat away, gradually, the surface material from an object by chemical action, such as rust. corrosion: [1] The chemical process in which a metal is eaten away (i.e., rusting).

[2] Deterioration of materials from chemical action. [3] The eating or wearing away of a substance, such as metal, usually caused by chemical decomposition brought about by an acid.
Also see anti-corrosion atmospheric corrosion bimetallic corrosion cold-condensate corrosion electrochemical corrosion pitting corrosion electrolytic intercrystalline scab corrosion corrosion corrosion selective fretting corrosion intergranular corrosion corrosion galvanic corrosion localized corrosion underfilm general corrosion microbial corrosion corrosion graphitic corrosion oxygen corrosion uniform corrosion

corrosion control: The minimizing of corrosion by coating with a protective metal, an oxide, or similar substance, or with protective paint, or by making the metal passive. corrosion cracking: See stress corrosion cracking corrosion inhibitor: A substance which reduces or prevents corrosion in oils, anti-freeze, paints, etc. corrosion prevention: The minimizing of corrosion by coating with a protective metal, an oxide, or similar substance, or with protective paint, or by making the metal passive. corrosion product: A substance formed as a result of corrosion (i.e., the rust itself) corrosion protection: The minimizing of corrosion by coating with a protective metal, an oxide, or similar substance, or with protective paint, or by making the metal passive. corrosion resistance:

The ability of metal not to corrode. For example, nickel has a high corrosion resistance while iron does not. corrosion warranty: See anti-corrosion warranty corrosive: Causing corrosion, e.g., acid is corrosive because it eats away the substance on which it is applied. That's why acid rain is so harmful to the surface of automobiles.
Also see anti-corrosive

Ford Cortina: A model of automobile manufactured by Ford of England

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Corvair: A vehicle brand of which the 1960-64 Monza models are milestone cars. The 1962-64 Monza Spyder models are milestone cars. The 1965-69 Monza/Corsa models are milestone cars.
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Corvette: A vehicle brand of which the 1953-70 models are milestone cars. See also a history of the Corvette

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cost: The price that a shop charges for a vehicle or one of its components. To the shop, it is the price they pay for the component (i.e., the net price) to which they add an amount or percentage to arrive at the selling price.
Also see cap cost capitalized cost net cap cost net capitalized cost opportunity cost total Out-Of-Pocket Cost operating costs

cost-effective: worthwhile. Usually a determination of whether repairing a vehicle is worth the expense in comparison with junking or selling it in favor of purchasing a newer vehicle. If you spend a 1000 to repair a vehicle worth $20,000, that is cost effective. If you spend a $1000 to repair a vehicle worth $200, it probably is not. The exception would be a vehicle which has nostalgic or historic value. cost of production:

actual cost to the manufacturer of producing a vehicle (does not include mark-up). cost option: An optional item for a new vehicle for which extra money must be paid to obtain it. cost per kilometer: A ratio which is obtained by dividing the total cost of the tire by the distance the tire has gone. The total cost involves adding up the initial price of the tire, price of retreading, repairs, rotation of tires, balancing tires, and other services. From this total any credits such as warranty, rebates, and trade-in value is subtracted. It must be remembered that when calculating the cost per kilometer of summer tires if winter tires were installed for a few months that only the number of kilometers that the

summer tires were actually in use should be determined for this ratio. When purchasing tires, it may be helpful to divide the retail cost by the number of expected kilometers in order to compare one brand or one series against another. cost per mile: A ratio which is obtained by dividing the total cost of the tire by the distance the tire has gone. The total cost involves adding up the initial price of the tire, price of retreading, repairs, rotation of tires, balancing tires, and other services. From this total any credits such as warranty, rebates, and trade-in value is subtracted. It must be remembered that when calculating the cost per mile of summer tires if winter tires were installed for a few months that only the number of miles that the summer tires were actually in use should be determined for this ratio. When purchasing tires, it may be helpful to divide the retail cost by the number of expected miles in order to compare one brand or one series against another. cost reduction:
See cap cost reduction capitalized cost reduction

cost reduction effort: See supplier cost reduction effort Cotal gearbox: A semi-automatic electrically controlled transmission made in France just after WWII cotter: A tapered pin or wedge which is inserted into holes in two parts to secure them. Older bicycles used a cotter to secure the crank arm to the crank spindle.
Also see cottered crank

cotter pin: A fastener shaped like a pin, but split up the center. After it is inserted, the legs are bent around the item containing the hole. A length of wire which

is folded almost in half and the bend forms an eye. Also called a "split pin." cottered crank: A bicyclecrankset in which the crankarms are fastened to the axle by means of threaded cotter pins and nuts. cotterless crank: A bicyclecrankset in which the crankarms are fastened to the axle by means of nuts or bolts instead of cotter pins. cotterless crankset: A bicyclecrankset in which the crankarms are fastened to the axle by means of nuts or bolts instead of cotter pins. coulomb: Abbreviated: C. A unit of electric charge. It is the amount of electricity conveyed in one second by a current of one ampere. Council for Automotive Research: See United States Council for Automotive Research counter:
See rev counter revolution counter trip mileage counter

counter balance: A weight attached to some moving part so that the part will be in balance.
Also see crankshaft counter-balance

counterbalancer: A weight inside an engine that cancels out some of the engine's vibration

counterbore: Enlarging a hole to a certain depth. counterclockwise: Rotation to the left as if the hands of a clock were going backwards. In most cases it is the direction to remove a nut from a bolt. It is the opposite to clockwise. counter emf: Tendency for reverse electrical flow as magnetic field changes in an induction coil. counterflow: Flow in opposite direction. counterforce: In Bosch CIS, the force of the fuel-pressure applied to the top of the control plunger to balance the force of the airflow pushing against the sensor plate counter gear: See cluster gear. countershaft: The shaft in a manual gearbox that carries power by means of gears from the clutch shaft to the driveshaft, turning opposite to them. The British term is "layshaft" countersink: To make a counterbore so that the head of a screw may set flush, or below the surface. countersteering: The way you use the handlebar to lean the bike into a turn. If you want to turn right, you push the handlebar to the left, and vice versa

countersunk bolt: A bolt with a special head. The underside of the head is tapered to fit into a hole that has tapered sides (countersunk hole) so that when the bolt is screwed in all the way, the top of the bolt is flush with the surface countersunk hole: A hole with sloping sides where the top of the hole is larger than the bottom of the hole as in the shape of the letter "V" countersunk screw: A screw with a special head. The underside of the head is tapered to fit into a hole that has tapered sides (countersunk hole) so that when the screw is screwed in all the way, the top of the screw is flush with the surface counterweight: [1] Weight added to a rotating shaft or wheel to balance normal loads on the part and offset vibration. Counterweights are used on the crankshaft and are often found on the flywheel and driveshaft.

[2] A balance weight county mounty: Trucker slang for Highway patrol as in "You got a county mounty advertising at the 34." coupe: An enclosed single-compartment body with two doors and varying passenger capacity depending on seat arrangements. The SAE standard J1100 defines it as having less than 33 cubic feet (934 liters) of interior volume. Larger coupes have rear quarter windows. Coupes have fixed

permanent back panels and top, as well as a luggage compartment in the rear deck. Originally it meant a vehicle which was "cut" (thus the French "coupé") by a glass partition behind the front seats so that the driver was exposed to the air while those in the back were enclosed.
Also see club coupe drophead coupé hatchback coupe sport coupe three-door hatchback coupe two-door club coupe two-door coupe two-door hatchback coupe

coupé: See coupe coupled sedan: See close coupled sedan coupler: A device which links two other components. coupling: A connecting device used between two objects so motion of one will be imparted to the other; it may be mechanical, hydraulic, or electrical.
Also see doughnut coupling föttinger coupling flexible coupling fluid coupling foettinger coupling guibo coupling layrub coupling rotoflex coupling rubber coupling rubber doughnut coupling shaft-to-cage coupling shaft-to-shaft coupling viscous coupling

coupling differential: See viscous coupling differential coupling point: This refers to the point at which both the pump and the turbine in a torque converter are travelling at the same speed, the drive is almost direct at this point. couplings: Mechanical device joining refrigerant lines. coupling sleeve: A collar or sleeve which is moved along the main shaft of a transmission by a selector fork engaging in a groove on its center and having dog clutches at either end. courier bag: A flat rectangular-shaped bag with a long strap. They are slung over the head and one shoulder. Called a courier bag because they were originally made for motorcycle and bicycle couriers. course: See road course courtesy light: A light in the cab of a vehicle which is illuminated when the door is opened. cover: [1] A protective panel designed to protect or hide components.
Also see arm cover end cover plate battery cover engine cover car cover headlight cover clutch cover nut cover converter cover rocker arm cover dust cover rocker cover gasket sill cover tonneau cover transfer port cover transmission cover valve cover wheel cover

end cover

rocker cover

[2] The tire itself as opposed to the inner tube. coverage: The surface area that a given quantity of paint will cover adequately coverage: The area over which a quantity of adhesive, coating, or sealer can be applied at a specific thickness, usually expressed in terms of square feet per gallon covered electrode: A metal rod used in arc welding which has a covering of materials to aid in the arc welding process covered wagon: Trucker slang for Gravel trailer covered with a tarp as in "There's a line of sand truck in this destruction up ahead." cover gasket:
See rocker cover gasket valve cover gasket

cover plate: See end cover plate cowboy: Trucker slang for Truck driver who constantly changes lanes at high speeds as in "We got a bunch of real cowboys out on the road tonight." cowl: [1] The part of the vehicle body between the engine firewall and the front of the dashpanel. It usually houses the instruments and the plenumchamber for the heater-ventilation system. The British term is "scuttle."

[2] The part of the bodywork which protects and/or provides streamlining for a usually projecting component. cowl chassis: A truck chassis with front fenders and hood as well as the instrument panel. It is used for companies want their own custom body and cab. cowling: [1] The part of the bodywork which protects and/or provides streamlining for a usually projecting component. [2] A piece of bodywork that covers the engine area cowl panel: A British term for cowl cowl section: A subassembly of the body shell that includes the bulkhead, cowl, and windscreen pillars; it is preassembled in the factory and spot-welded with the other subassemblies to form the body shell cowl shake: This is a vibration or shake of a vehicle, usually a convertible type, in the cowl area due to lack of torsional rigidity of the frame and body. A certain amount is almost unavoidable in convertibles unless frame-strengthening weight penalties are of no concern. cowl side panel: A vertical panel at either end of the cowl CP: Acronym for contre pente CP2: Acronym for contre pente on both bead seats

cpe: Abbreviation for "coupe." CPI: Central Point Injection. A GM fuel injection system that uses a centralized fuel injector delivering fuel through lines to injector nozzles located at each cylinder C pillar: See C-post. C-pillar: The body post that supports the rear of the roof and to which the left and right sides of the back glass are attached. Also called "C-post." C post: See C-post. C-post: The body post that supports the rear of the roof and to which the left and right sides of the back glass are attached. Also called "C-pillar." CPSC: Acronym for "Consumer Products Safety Commission," the certification agency for bicycle helmets. CPSOV: Acronym for canister purge shut-off valve CR: Acronym for "compression ratio." crab: The action of a vehicle where the rear wheels are offset from the track of the front wheels.

crab-tracked: A situation where the front wheels are wider apart than the rear. crack: [1] To open something just a little. [2] A fracture in something which does not split it open. A hairline crack is a very narrow fracture which is often barely visible with the naked eye.
Also see circumferential crack groove cracks incipient crack

crackage: Joint in a structure which permits movement of a gas or vapor through it, even under a small pressure difference. cracker: A non-American colloquial term for something that is very enjoyable, e.g., "My car's a cracker."
Also see nut cracker

cracking: [1] The action of opening a valve slightly and then closing the valve immediately. [2] forming of cracks for instance in the sidewalls of a tire because of the hardening of the rubber or in paintwork because of weathering.
Also see heat cracking radial cracking stress corrosion cracking stress cracking weather cracking

cracking a valve: Opening a valve a small amount. cracking groove:

A split in the grooves of the tread caused by excessive strain. cracking tread: A split in the grooves of the tread caused by excessive strain. cradle frame: A motorcycle frame with two tubes passing under the engine.
Also see open cradle frame

crank: [1] An arm set at right angles to a shaft or axle, used for converting reciprocal (to-and-fro) motion into circular motion.
Also see cottered crank cotterless crank flat crank hand crank

[2] The action of trying to start a vehicle engine or an electrical motor by means of a crank handle or by an electrical starter. crankarm: [1] A part on a bicycle, where one end is attached to the bottom bracket axle and the other holds a pedal, whose forward rotation provides the leverage needed to power the bicycle. [2] An arm set at right angles to a shaft or axle, used for converting reciprocal (to-and-fro) motion into circular motion. crankarm fixing bolt: The bolt that holds a crankarm on the end of the axle in a cotterless crankset of a bicycle. crank bolt: A bolt that run through the end of the crankarm and into the bottom bracket spindle. crankcase:

The lower part of the engine that surrounds the crankshaft. It contains the crankshaft, pistoncylinders, connecting rods and other moving parts of the engine. As well, in non-air-cooled engines, it has a number of internal passages for the coolant and oil transfer. In air-cooled engines, it has internal passages for oil transfer; but usually it has fins on the exterior to dissipate the heat. The crankcase is not to be confused with the pan which is a thin steel cover that is bolted to the bottom of the crankcase.
Also see positive crankcase ventilation system positive crankcase ventilation

crankcase breather: A vent which allows fumes and blow-by gases to escape. It reduces condensation. This breather is usually connected to the air intake of the carburetor so that the fumes can be burned in the combustion chamber crankcase compression: The primary compression in a two-stroke engine located below the pistons and enables a more fresh charge to be fed into the cylinder. Also called "crankcase pre-compression." crankcase depression regulator: (CDR) a device which aids in the control of crankcase gases by maintaining a specific amount of vacuum in the crankcase crankcase dilution: An accumulation of unburned gasoline in the crankcase, an excessively rich fuel mixture or poor combustion will allow a certain amount of gasoline to pass down between the pistons and cylinder walls and dilute the engine oil. crankcase emissions: Pollutants allowed to escape into the atmosphere from the crankcase crankcase half: One side of a crankcase usually split down the middle. Usually found in motorcycle engine.

crankcase pre-compression: See crankcase compression crankcase scavenging: A system in a two-stroke engine where the fresh charge is induced into the cylinder by way of the crankcase and the transfer ports crankcase ventilation: circulation of air through the crankcase of a running engine to remove water, blow-by, and other gases in order to prevent oil dilution and contamination, sludge formation, and pressure build-up.
Also see closed crankcase ventilation positive crankcase ventilation positive crankcase ventilation system

crankcase ventilation system: See positive crankcase ventilation system cranked: something which has an elbow or right-angle shape. cranking: The act of engaging the starter by turning the key in the ignition switch which makes the engine turn over. In the old days, a hand crank was used to do this, thus the term "cranking."
Also see cold cranking ability

cranking ability: See cold cranking ability cranking amps: See cold cranking amps

cranking circuit: See starting system. cranking motor: See starter. cranking on the throttle: The action of moving a twist grip so that more fuel enters the engine and thus increases the speed of the vehicle. cranking speed: The speed at which the starter turns the engine. crank kit: A reground or reconditioned crankshaft and new main and connecting rod bearings crankpin: The bearing surface on a crank of the crankshaft to which the connecting rod is attached. Also called the "journal" or "crank throw."
Also see splayed crankpins

crankset: A group of components on a bicycle that includes the bottom bracket removable parts, two crankarms, and one or more chainrings.
Also see cotterless crankset

crankshaft: A main rotating shaft running the length of the engine. The crankshaft is supported by main bearings. Portions of the

shaft are offset to form throws to which the connecting rods are attached. As the pistons move up and down, the connecting rods move the crankshaft around. The turning motion of the crankshaft is transmitted to the transmission and eventually to the driving wheels.
Also see assembled crankshaft balanced crankshaft built-up crankshaft offset crankshaft stroked crankshaft

crankshaft counter-balance: A series of weights attached to or forged integrally with the crankshaft so placed as to offset the reciprocating weight of each piston and rod assembly crankshaft counterbalance: Series of weights attached to or forged integrally with crankshaft & placed to offset reciprocating weight of each piston and rod assembly crankshaft gear:

A gear mounted on the front of the crankshaft. It is used to drive the camshaft gear. crankshaft journal: [1] The journals running in the main bearings as opposed to those for the big-end bearings. [2] Part of shaft which contacts the bearing on the large end of the piston rod. crankshaft position sensor: A sensor which sends information concerning the precise position of the crankshaft so that accurate ignition timing can be achieved. crankshaft pulley: A wheel attached to the front end of the crankshaft which is connected by fan belts to the fan, the alternator, and other devices so that the rotating crankshaft can drive these other parts as well. The crankshaft pulley usually has timing marks located on it, and these are necessary for checking and adjusting timing with a timing light. Also called a "harmonic balance wheel." crankshaft runout: A term used to describe how much a crankshaft is bent crankshaft seal: Leakproof joint between crankshaft and compressor body. crankshaft sprocket: A chain-sprocket mounted on the nose of the crankshaft which drives the camshaft by means of a timing chain crank throw: [1] The part of the crankshaft that the connecting rod fastens to. See crankpin. [2] The distance between the crankpin and the axis of rotation or centerline of the crankshaft, which is equal to half the stroke

crank web: One of the pair of arms which carry the big-end journal crash: A vehicle collision with another vehicle or a stationary object.
Also see car crash frontal crash head-on crash oblique crash test

crash barrier: A longitudinal railing usually found on the edge of the road especially around a curve to help prevent vehicles from leaving the road. crash box: An informal term for a non-synchromesh transmission. Short term for "crash gearbox." crash gearbox: An informal term for a non-synchromesh transmission. crash recorder: An electronic device which measures and records a number of characteristics of a vehicle for 60 seconds before a crash: the speed, direction, braking, etc. so that the cause of a crash can be determined. crash sensor: A sensor which deploys an air bag when a crash is determined -- usually because of excessive deceleration crash test: A controlled test of a vehicle in which it is propelled into a wall or another vehicle at a given speed in order to determine the effect on its structure and the effectiveness of its safety devices.

Also see oblique crash test

crash test dummy: A specially designed manikin which records the effects in the event of a crash crate: [1] A framework of wooden boards for protecting something during transport. [2] A vehicle which appears to be unreliable and ready to fall apart. crater: A depression in the face of a weld, usually at the termination of an arc weld cratering: The formation of holes in the paint coat due to surface contaminants. crawler: A British term for a slow-moving vehicle crawler gear: A British term for a very low gear used especially in off-road application crawler lane: A British term for a truck lane for slow moving trucks, especially going up a hill. crazing: Many fine cracks in the paint surface, resembling crow's feet. It is similar to checking, but more sever, where fine lines or cracks appear in the paint cream: [1] To hit another vehicle. [2] A soft paste.

Also see barrier cream

crease: A wrinkle or ridge in metal as a result of design or accident damage. creep: [1] The tendency of a vehicle with automatic transmission to edge forward when idling when the transmission is in Drive and the brake is not engaged. Also called "idling drag." [2] When a crankshaft has slightly excessive runout (is slightly bent), it can sometimes be corrected by laying the crank in its saddles, installing the center main bearing cap (with its bearing insert) and leaving it for a day or two. Sometimes the crank will creep or bend enough to put it within the specified runout range [3] The change of an adhesive or sealer under constant pressure or load, following its first slip from its original position (elastic deformation). Creep at room temperature is sometimes called cold flow creepage: The slow spreading of rust under the paint which usually first appears as a blister and then flaking creeper: A platform on four small caster wheels that allows you to move around easily while lying on your back under your vehicle.

Also see mechanic's creeper

crescent: The part between the inner and outer gears of an internal gear pump crescent wrench: An adjustable wrench with smooth jaws.

Cressida: A model of automobile manufactured by Toyota

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crest: The highest point of a screw thread. The opposite is called a "root."
Also see thread crest

Crew Cab: A pickup truck with a large passenger compartment with four full-size doors which lead to two full rows of seating. The doors are mounted so that they swing open the same way as most four-door car doors do. Toyota calls it a Double Cab, Dodge calls it a Quad Cab, Ford calls it a SuperCrew crimper tool: See wire stripper/crimper tool crimping: The creation of corrugations in two thin metal parts as they are pressed tightly together in order to join them. This is often the method used to attach fittings to the end of an electrical wire -- thus avoiding the necessity of soldering crimping pliers: A tool which looks like pliers with serrated jaws which are used to attach fittings to the end of an electrical wire. crimping tool:

A tool which looks like pliers with serrated jaws which are used to attach fittings to the end of an electrical wire. crisper: Drawer or compartment in refrigerator designed to provide high humidity along with low temperature to keep vegetables-especially leafy vegetablescold and crisp. critical pressure: Compressed condition of refrigerant which gives liquid and gas the same properties. critical speed: The top speed of an engine or shaft at which unwanted vibration begins. critical temperature: Temperature at which vapor and liquid have same properties. critical vibration: Vibration which is noticeable and harmful to structure. crocodile clip: British term for alligator clip Crosley: A vehicle brand of which the 1950-52 Hotshot/SS models are milestone cars. crossbar: [1] any transverse bar, especially a tie rod across the chassis. [2] The top tube of a bicycle or motorcycle frame. [3] A short bar used to assist a combination wrench in providing extra torque. The British term is "Tommy bar" cross-bolt:

A system of securing the main bearing caps with four bolts per cap by which two bolts support the bearing cap from below, in the conventional manner, and two other bolts enter the bearing from the side, passing through the sides of the engine block. The cross-bolts are visible from the outside of the engine. This system of securing the main bearing caps ensures good side-to-side, as well as up-and-down rigidity cross border shopping: See Canadian cross border shopping cross bracing: strengthening ribs or other members which connect two sides of a frame cross charged: Sealed container of two fluids which together create a desired pressuretemperature curve. cross coat: Paint spraying technique in which consecutive coats are sprayed at right angles to one another cross-country vehicle: An off road vehicle cross-draught carburetor: A sidedraft carburetor crossflow cylinder head: A cylinder head design (especially in an OHC engine) with the inlet manifold on one side and the exhaust manifold on the other side of the head, so that inlet and exhaust valves are arranged on opposite sides of the combustion chamber, giving a wider engine but better gas flow. crossflow head: A cylinder head with the intake valves) on one side of the combustion chamber and the exhaust valve(s) on the other. Also called T-head

crossflow radiator: A radiator in which the water flows sideways instead of vertically, and which is therefore wider than it is high, permitting a lower hood line cross hatch: See cross-hatch. cross-hatch: The desired checkerboard design of the inner surface of cylinder after it is honed. cross-hatch coat: Checkerboard application of paint to be sure of a continuous paint film. One medium coat is usually followed by a second medium coat in a perpendicular direction. cross-head screw: A screw with a slot which looks like an X or + into which the tip of the blade of a Phillips or Reed and Prince screwdriver can be inserted cross-head screwdriver: A Phillips or Reed and Prince screwdriver where the tip forms an X or + cross-jetting: Rejetting the carburetor jets from left-to-right to compensate for a left-to right variation in performance. These tests are usually conducted using an engine dynamometer cross member: A brace or strut which provides structural stability for the sides of a frame -- often in the shape of an "X".
Also see axle crossmember rear axle crossmember rubber-isolated crossmember

crossover: See heat crossover. crossover gearing: A bicyclegearing system whose shift sequence involves moving from the lowest to the midrange of gears on the smaller chainring, then crossing over to the larger chainring for the remainder of the gears. cross ply: See conventional cross ply cross-ply tire: See bias ply tire cross-point screwdriver: A Phillips or Reed and Prince screwdriver where the tip forms an X or + cross scavenging: Scavenging in a two-stroke engine with flow across the cylinder assisted by a wedge-shaped piston crown cross section: A view of an object when cut transversely at right angles across its center.
Also see section width

cross-shaft: [1] Any transverse shaft. [2] The outgoing shaft of the steering gearbox, to which the pitman arm is connected. The British term is "rocker shaft" cross-shaft lug wrench: See lug wrench. cross-shaft lug wrench:

See lug wrench. cross shaft: The shaft in the steering gearbox that engages the steering shaft worm, the cross shaft is splined to the pitman arm. cross-spoke wheel: Modern design of alloy wheel which imitates the appearance of the classical wire wheel cross-threaded: The characteristic of a bolt or nut in which the bolt is inserted at an angle so that the original threads are damaged cross three: A spoking pattern in which a spoke passes over two and under a third spoke before being attached to the rim. crosswind: Wind blowing at the side of a vehicle crotch rocket: A term some people use to refer to sportbike. crowbar: A iron bar tool with a crook at one end with a forking device for removing nails, etc. The other end has a wedge shape. crowded engine compartment: An engine compartment or bay in which all the available space around the engine is occupied by other objects (alternator, pumps, air intake system, battery, wiper motor, heater motor, windshield washer motor, starter, radiator, air conditioner, hoses, pipes, wiring, electronic boxes, etc.)

crown: [1] The tread area of a tire. [2] The top part of the head of a piston. [3] The outward curvature of an apparently flat sheet metal panel. [4] The curve or convex surface of a properly finished weld. [5] A model of automobile manufactured by Toyota
Also see fork crown high crown spoon low crown panel pent crown piston piston crown valve crown

Click for books on Toyota Crown

crown panel:
See high crown panel low crown panel

crown piston: See pent crown piston crown radius: The measurement of the curvature of a tire tread between the shoulders of the tire. Expressed as a percentage, it indicates the relative flatness of the tire tread area. crown spoon: See high crown spoon Crown Victoria: A model of automobile manufactured by Ford

Click for books on Ford Crown Victoria

crown wheel: The larger of two gears in a bevel gear drive with teeth around its periphery facing sideways crown wheel and pinion: A pair of gears in the final drive of a vehicle, always found in the back axle of a rear-wheel drive layout where the pinion is on the end of the propeller shaft driving the crown wheel mounted on the differential at right angles to it, and also in front-wheel drives where the engine is not transversely mounted crown width: The distance of a tire tread shoulder to shoulder measured along the buffed contour. CRT: Acronym for cathode ray tube cruciform frame: A frame with an X-shaped bracing either as a chassis frame, or in a monocoque as strengthening for the floor crude oil: Unrefined petroleum as it comes out of the ground. It forms the basis of gasoline, engine oil, diesel oil, kerosene, etc. cruise: To drive at a constant speed, often at highway speed. cruise control: A feature that keeps your vehicle moving at a set speed. Old cruise controls were mere throttle control units which kept the engine speed the same. When the vehicle approached a hill, the vehicle slowed down noticeable going up and speeded up going down. Later models used

vacuum controls to push or pull on the accelerator rod. Newer models use electronic controls to accomplish this task. It can be turned off by hitting the off button or touching the brake pedal. The resume switch allows you to return to the pre-set speed after brake disengagement. The coast switch slows the speed down and the accelerate switch increases it. cruiser: [1] Any motorcycle designed to be ridden long distances. [2] Motorcycle riders who ride long distances. cruiser bag: A leather bag which is mounted on the top surface of the fuel tank or possibly other parts of a motorcycle. Although it can be filled with anything for a trip, usually it contains items that you want to access quickly (e.g., camera, road map). cruiser stern: A spoon-shaped stern used on most merchant ships designed to give maximum immersed length cruising circuit: The main carburetor metering system cruising speed: constant speed at which a vehicle can be driven on the highway crumple zone: An area of a vehicle that is designed to compress during an accident to absorb the energy from the impact. crush: A slight distortion of the bearing shell that holds it in place as the engine operates crusher:

A machine which crushes scrapped cars into small blocks. crush height: The precision insert bearing must fit the bottom end of the connecting rod in order to transfer friction heat to the connecting rod. The insert will protrude a small amount above the rod bore parting surface. This distance is called the crush height. When the rod halves are drawn together, the inserts touch before the halves, thus forcing the inserts tightly into place. crush washer: A disc with a hole in the center. It is placed around the threads of a bolt and secured with a nut or screwed into a hole. When the head of the bolt is forced against it, the washer is squashed. Crush washers are used on some spark plugs to provide a better seal when installed. CRX: A model of automobile manufactured by Honda

Click for books on Honda CRX

cryogenic fluid: Substance which exists as a liquid or gas at ultra-low temperatures (-250°F or lower). cryogenics: [1] The study of physical phenomena at a temperature below -50°F (46°C) [2] Refrigeration which deals with producing temperatures of 250°F below zero and lower. c spanner: See C-spanner. c-spanner:

A wrench whose end is shaped like a C, used to loosen the lockring on a bottom bracket of a bicycle. CSSA: Acronym for "Chambre Syndicale Suisse de L'Automobile et Branches Annexes" (Switzerland). CTC: Acronym for "Chrysler Technology Centre." CTO: Acronym for coolant temperature override switch CTS: Acronym for Conti Tire System CTVS: Acronym for choke thermal vacuum switch cubby hole: A glove compartment on older cars, often without a lid. cubes: A colloquial term for cubic inches, or cubic inch displacement of an engine. cube van: A truck with a large compartment behind the driver's cab and used for moving various products. cubic capacity: See displacement. cubic centimeter:

(cc) Metric measurement of engine displacement. 1000 cc = 1 liter (litre) which is about 61 cubic inches (61.02374409). Thus a 428 cubic inch engine is 7 liters (428/61) and a 2 liter engine is 122 cubic inches (2 x 61). cubic inch: a measurement of volume equal to 16.387 cc cubic inch displacement: See displacement. cubic inch engine: An engine which is measured in cubic inches rather than cubic centimeters. cub scouts: Trucker slang for Sheriff's deputies as in "Cub Scouts at the 97 so you better watch out." cu. ft.: Abbreviation for "cubic feet." cu. in.: Abbreviation for "cubic inch" (also C.I.). cult car: A car which has many enthusiastic owners, but may not necessarily be a classic or milestone car. Cunningham: A vehicle brand of which the 1925-1948 models are classic cars. The 1951-55 models are milestone cars. cuno filter: A filter made up of a series of fine discs or plates pressed together in a manner that leaves a very minute space between the discs. Liquid is forced

through these openings to produce a straining action. cup: A type of lip seal used on hydraulic pistons.
Also see adjustable cup agitation cup bearing cup bearing shell cup washer fixed cup vacuum suction cup viscosity cup

cup dent puller: See suction cup dent puller cup holder: A device to hold a coffee cup or pop bottle. Also called beverage holder cup seal: Synthetic rubber seal with a single lip used for sealing hydraulic and pneumatic pistons cup-shaped wire brush: circular wire brush on an arbor for use with an electric drill cup washer: A washer that is dished. curb: A stone or cement ridge between the road and the sidewalk. In Britain it is called "kerb" curber: [1] A person who buys cars needing a lot of work and fixes them, then sells them privately from his own residence.

[2] A person who steals a car, falsifies the registration information, and sells it from a place not near his own home. You need to contact him on his cell phone where he informs you that you need to meet him at some parking lot or on the curb of a residential area. curb idle: Normal idle rpm. Computer controlled on many modern vehicle curb-idle port: See idle discharge hole curb-idle stop screw: A screw which provides an adjustable stop for the throttle lever curb weight: The weight of a vehicle without passengers or payload, but including all fluids (oil, gas, coolant, etc.) and other equipment specified as standard. cure: [1] A process of vulcanizing raw rubber through the application of heat, pressure, and time to permanently shape and set the rubber at the degree of hardness desired to protect it from the effects of normal operating temperatures and wear. [2] To change the properties of an adhesive by chemical action. Usually accomplished by the action of heat, pressure, and catalysts, alone or in combination
Also see chemical cure

cure time: The time required at a reference temperature for a compound to reach optimum physical properties. curing: [1] Process of heating or otherwise treating a rubber or plastic compound to convert it from a thermoplastic or fluid material into the solid, relatively

heat-sensitive state desired in the commercial product. When heating is employed, the process is called vulcanization. [2] The final drying stage where the paint reaches maximum strength. curing gum: A soft, tacky rubber compound used in retreading and repair to facilitate bonding between different rubber compounds and between plies, etc.
Also see cushion gum

curing rim: When retreading a tire, a special rim that supports the inflated tire during the curing process. curing time: The length of time required for paint or plastic to harden. curing tube: In retreading a tire, a heavy tube within the tire that provides pressure to force the casing against the matrix during the curing process. current: [1] The movement of free electrons through a conductor.
Also see alternating current charging current direct current discharging current electric current spark current

[2] The most recent model vehicle (i.e., made in the same year as the present calendar). current for low temperatures: See test current for low temperatures current regulator:

A device for controlling the current output of a generator (which increases with engine speed) by opening a switch when the current exceeds a certain value, thus protecting the generator from damage due to excess current. current relay: Device which opens or closes a circuit. It is made to act by a change of current flow in that circuit. curtain: See side curtain curve: [1] A gradual bend in the road. A sharp bend is a corner.
Also see advance curve and torque curve

cush drive: A motorcycle transmission shock absorber, usually a rubber cushion in the rear hub cushion:
See air bag air cushion impact cushion seat cushion

cushion gum: A soft, tacky rubber compound used in retreading and repair to facilitate bonding between different rubber compounds and between plies, etc. custom: [1] A restyled or modified vehicle. [2] A new body mounted on an existing chassis.

customer: A person who is at least potentially able to purchase something. Good customer service involves providing the customer with the best answers to his questions and the best choices to meet his needs or wants. customize: [1] To restyle or modify a vehicle. [2] To mount a new body on an existing chassis. customs duties: Customs duties levied on imported goods under the Customs Tariff. custom wheel: A special wheel with attractive styling, usually alloy, available as an aftermarket accessory, designed to make a car look more sporty cut: See T-cut cut-and-shut: A British term for a process of shortening a vehicle by cutting out a section of the chassis and/or bodywork. cutaway: A drawing which shows some of the exterior part and at the cutaway the interior parts and their workings are shown. cut gears: See straight cut gears cut-in: The temperature value or the pressure value at which the control circuit closes. cut in front:

The action of an overtaking (passing) vehicle which pulls back into the lane of the overtaken (passed) vehicle. Usually it is a derogatory expression of a vehicle's action which does not allow for much distance between the two vehicles. Also called, "cut off" as in "He cut me off so I had to jam on the brakes to avoid hitting him." Proper driving etiquette states that you should not pull in until you see the front of the overtaken vehicle in your rear-view mirror. cut-in speed: The speed at which the generator has to rotate to produce a voltage which is greater than that across the battery terminals cut off:
See cut in front deceleration fuel cut-off fuel cut-off switch inertia fuel cut-off switch power cut-off switch power cut-off

cut-off/shut-off: See overrun cut-off/shut-off cut-off switch:
See fuel cut-off switch power cut-off switch inertia fuel cut-off switch power cut-off switch fuel cut-off switch inertia fuel cut-off switch

cutout: [1] A form of bypass valve, located in the exhaust line, that can be used to divert the flow of exhaust from one pipe to another. Often used to bypass the muffler into a straight pipe. See exhaust cutout. [2] A device to connect or disconnect the generator from the battery circuit. When the generator is charging, cutout makes circuit, when generator stops, cutout breaks circuit. Also referred to as "cutout relay," and "circuit breaker."

[3] A portion of a panel which has been removed so that a cover can be inserted. [4] A circuit-breaker, especially one in the charging circuit of a generator output is less than the battery voltage, so that the battery does not drain into the generator. Also called a "cutout relay." [5] Temperature value or pressure value at which the control circuit opens.
Also see exhaust cutout low-pressure cut-out valve cut-out wheel cutout

cutout relay: A device to connect or disconnect the generator from the battery circuit. When the generator is charging, cutout makes circuit, when generator stops, cutout breaks circuit. Also referred to as "circuit breaker."
Also see cutout

cutter: A small pincer with sharp jaws for cuning and stripping wires, etc. The British term is "end cutters" or "end cutting pliers."
Also see end cutters manual panel cutter metal cutter milling cutter mini tube cutter monodex-type cutter panel cutter sheet metal cutter side cutters taper cutter tube cutter valve seat cutter variable hole cutter

See end cutters side cutters

cut thread:

A thread produced by removing material from the surface with a form cutting tool. This method keeps the unthreaded portion of the shank equal to the major diameter of the thread. cutting:
See acetylene cutting arc cutting end cutting pliers flame cutting heavy-duty diagonal cutting pliers heavy-duty end cutting pliers high leverage diagonal cutting pliers high leverage end cutting pliers hole cutting snips oxygen acetylene cutting

cutting compound: An abrasive paste which is used to remove oxidation in the surface of paint in order to bring back the shine. cutting disc: An abrasive wheel of an angle grinder cutting flame: A process in welding where cutting takes place by a rapid oxidation at a high temperature produced by a gas flame accompanied by a jet action which blows the oxides away from the cut. cutting line: A line established by the factory along which welded-up assemblies must be cut when replacing a sheet metal part, in order to maintain structural strength in the finished repair cutting pliers:
See end cutting pliers heavy-duty diagonal cutting pliers heavy-duty end cutting pliers

high leverage diagonal cutting pliers high leverage end cutting pliers

cutting snips: See hole cutting snips cutting torch: An oxyacetylene torch for cutting through metal, used by welders. CV: Abbreviation for constant-velocity. CV joint: Abbreviation for "constant velocity joint." CV joint boot: A rubber cover over the CV joint. It usually has accordion folds. CVK: Acronym for center vertical keel.
Also see center girder

CVMA: Acronym for "Canadian Vehicle Manufacturer's Association" CVR: Acronym for constant voltage regulator CVT: Acronym for "Continuously Variable Transmission." See infinitely variable transmission. CWM:

Acronym for cold weather modulator cwt: Abbreviation for "hundredweight." cycle: [1] A vehicle with one or more wheels (usually spoked) where the rider/driver straddles the vehicle as a bicycle, motorcycle, tricycle, etc. It also includes other vehicles adapted from a traditional cycle where the rider/driver no longer straddles the vehicle (recumbent cycle, four-wheel side-by-side pedal powered vehicle). Obviously the distinction blurs with automobiles -- are they a cycle? [2] A sequence of changes of state after which the system is in its original state again. [3] Series of events or operations which have tendency to repeat in the same order. [4] A type of pressure modulation during an ABS stop. Cycles include pressure hold, pressure release (decay) and pressure build
Also see city cycle four stroke power cycle diesel cycle four stroke cycle engine ece test cycle ftp test cycle four-stroke cycle engine limit cycle control four-stroke power cycle miller cycle four cycle engine otto cycle refrigeration cycle two-stroke cycle two stroke cycle urban test cycle working cycle

cycle car: A term used to describe the very light production automobile made prior to 1922. It was usually made from motorcycle parts and generally powered by single-cylinder or twin-cylinder engine. They disappeared when genuine light cars appeared. cycle control: See limit cycle control cycle engine:
See four-stroke cycle engine four cycle engine

four stroke cycle engine two-stroke cycle engine two stroke cycle engine

cycling clutch orifice tube system: (CCOT) the GM system that utilizes an accumulator (instead of a receiverdrier). The system uses a fixed orifice tube located at the evaporator outlet, instead of an expansion valve. A thermostatic switch or a pressure sensing switch cycles compressor operation off and on in accordance with system status. cycling clutch system: Any system that controls compressor clutch operation as a means of temperature control cyl: Abbreviation for "cylinder," as in 12-cyl. engine. cylinder: [1] The round chamber or hole in the cylinder block that houses the pistons and where combustion takes place. Also called "bore" or "barrel." [2] Any tube-like device. [3] A device which converts fluid power into linear mechanical force and motion. This usually consists of movable elements such as a piston and piston rod, plunger or ram, operating within a cylindrical

bore. [4] A closed container for fluids.
Also see acetylene cylinder cylinder sleeve brake cylinder dual-piston master cylinder brake master cylinder inner cylinder cylinder bore lock cylinder cylinder head master brake cylinder cylinder sequence master cylinder

oxygen cylinder slave cylinder split-system master cylinder tandem master cylinder wheel cylinder working cylinder

cylinder bank: One half of a V-6, V-8, V-12, and V-16 engines along one side. cylinder barrel: An external casing of a cylinder forming a separate unit, especially of an air-cooled engine cylinder block: The basic framework of the engine to which other engine parts are attached. It is usually a casting and includes the engine cylinders and the upper part of the crankcase.

Also see engine block

cylinder block heater: An electric heater element in the water jacket connected at the other end to house current. The element warms the coolant so that in very cold weather the block will not crack and the car will start easier. Often just called

"block heater." cylinder bore: The cylinder holes. cylinder charge: A quantity of fresh mixture fed into the combustion chamber prior to combustion cylinder head: The detachable metal (aluminum or iron) plate or cap that is bolted to the top of the cylinder block. It is used to cover the tops of the cylinders, in many cases the cylinder head contains the valves, it also forms part of the combustion chamber. It has water and oil passages for cooling and lubrication. It also holds the spark plugs. On most engines a valve cover or rocker arm cover is located on top of the cylinder head. Some engines have just one cylinder head covering several cylinders, while others have separate heads for each

cylinder. In some motorcycle engines and small engines, the cylinder head is not detachable -- it is cast with the cylinder which forms a blind hole.
Also see crossflow cylinder head x-flow cylinder head

cylinder head bolt: One of several bolts which hold the cylinder head in place cylinder head gasket: See head gasket cylinder head nut: One of several nuts which hold the cylinder head in place. cylinder head tester: A device used to detect cylinder head leakages which cause combustion gases to appear in the cooling system cylinder hone: A tool that uses an abrasive to smooth out (hone) and bring to exact measurements such things as engine cylinders, wheel cylinders, bushings, etc. cylinder liner: [1] A cylinder sleeve. [2] A hard metal block forming the cylinder wall and in which the piston runs cylinder, refrigerant:

Cylinder in which refrigerant is stored and dispensed. Color code painted on cylinder indicates kind of refrigerant. cylinder sequence: The order in which the cylinders are located on a vehicle. It is important to locate the number one cylinder to check and adjust timing. In some cars it may be at the front of an engine on U.S. built cars and at the rear of some foreign cars.
Also see firing order

cylinder sleeve: A replaceable cylinder liner or tube, it is made of a pipe-like section that is either pressed or pushed into the block. If the cylinder cannot be re-bored to an oversize or if the liner has been damaged beyond repair, the cylinder may be re-sleeved. cylinder surfacing hone: Puts a cross-hatch pattern on the cylinder walls, after they have been bored, to help seat the new rings properly cylinder wall: The inner surface of a cylinder. cylindrical commutator: Commutator with contact surfaces parallel to the rotor shaft.

D: [1] Abbreviation for "diesel." [2] Abbreviation for "drive." [3] A mark on the output (live) terminal on a generator (contrasts with "F") dab: A bicycle maneuver in which the rider puts a foot down in order to catch his balance on a difficult section of trail as in, "You will be disqualified if you dab on this course." DAB: Acronym for "Digital Audio Broadcast."

dagmar: [1] Large bullet-shaped protrusion on bumpers of cars in the 1950s. It was named after the nickname of a buxom television star, Virginia Ruth Egnor (1921-2001). [2] Dagmar is an automobile of which only the 25-70 models of 1925-1948 are classic cars.

Daimler: Also called Austro-Daimler. A vehicle brand of which the 1925-1948 models with required application are classic cars. The 1949-53 DE-36 Custom Built models are milestone cars. The 1949-53 2.5 Special Sport Convertible models are milestone cars. dalton's law: Vapor pressure created in a container by a mixture of gases is equal to sum of individual vapor pressures of the gases contained in mixture. dam:
See air dam heat dam

See accident damage impact damage center section damage indirect damage direct damage internal damage ecological damage secondary damage engine damage stone chip damage frame damage

damp: [1] To reduce the oscillations of spring, carburetor piston, etc. [2] To reduce the vibration in a crankshaft damper: [1] A friction device sometimes called a "shock absorber." Used for controlling and damping spring oscillations. The springs actually absorb road shocks; the dampers convert the energy imparted to the springs into thermal energy (by friction), which is dissipated to the atmosphere or the vehicle's chassis. Dampers are distinguishable by the type of friction involved, mechanical or hydraulic but most modern cars used tubularshaped hydraulic shock absorbers. Because they affect up and down wheel motions, dampers are an important link in tuning a vehicle's ride and handling. [2] A movable plate which permits or restricts the flow of liquids or gasses.
Also see friction damper gas damper harmonic balancer mass damper monotube damper piston damper pulsation damper steering damper steering wheel damper torsional vibration damper torsion damper twin-tube damper vibration damper

damper piston: A piston in a cylinder whose movement is restricted by a liquid or gas, which thus also restricts the movement of another member to which it is connected.

damper settings: See spring and damper settings damper springs: Springs in a clutch plate providing a cushion against sudden loads due to abrupt engagement damper strut: A suspension strut whose hub carrier is attached to the spring element rather than to the damper tube. Compare Macpherson strut damping: [1] Cushioning of force. [2] The action of suspension to control the speed of movement through its travel, usually by a piston running through oil and thus gives a smoother ride. It vastly improves that smoothness of ride offered. Also see compression damping damping force: The amount of cushioning applied by a shock absorber damping rate: The amount of cushioning applied by a shock absorber dark 30: Trucker slang for nighttime as in "I am shutting this rig down right at darktime." darktime: Trucker slang for nighttime as in "I am shutting this rig down right at darktime." Darracq:

A vehicle manufacturer in which only the 8-cyl. cars and 4-litre, 6-cyl. cars of 1925-1948 are classic cars. dash: See dashboard. dash board: See dashboard dashboard: That part of the body containing the driving instruments, switches, etc. Also called the "instrument panel" or "dash panel" or just "dash." dashboard gearchange: British term for dash shifter dashboard plaque: [1] A metal or plastic plate which is mounted to the dash to indicate the brand, model, or series of vehicle. [2] A metal plate which is mounted to the dash to indicate an award for attending or winning a rally or other automotive event. dash design: See wrapround dash design dash panel: [1] A structural panel with bracing across the width of the car on the inside of the bulkhead below the windshield that provides the mounting locations of the dashboard. [2] The bulkhead dash plaque: [1] A metal or plastic plate which is mounted to the dash to indicate the brand, model, or series of vehicle. [2] A metal plate which is mounted to the dash to indicate an award for attending or winning a rally or other automotive event.

dashpot: A unit using a cylinder and piston or a cylinder and diaphragm with a small vent hole, to retard or slow down the movement of some part. dash-pot: (DP) a diaphragm that controls the rate at which the throttle closes dash shifter: A shift lever and indicator which is located on the instrument panel either as a short lever or push buttons Data: See radio Data System Data System: See radio Data System

Datsun: A model of automobile manufactured by Nissan
Click for books on Datsun

Datsun Truck: A model of truck manufactured by Nissan
Click for books on Datsun Trucks

Datsun Z: A model of automobile manufactured by Nissan

Click for books on Datsun Z

davit: A crane arm for handling lifeboats, stores, etc. day-night mirror: A mirror which adjusts to prevent the glare from the headlights of following cars. The British term is "dipping mirror." days' supply: number of days needed to sell all vehicles in inventory, based on the previous month's sales rate. daytime running lights: A safety-oriented lighting system in which the headlights or other front lights are constantly on even during the day. They help to prevent possible accidents because oncoming traffic can be seen. dazzle: The glare from the headlights of oncoming traffic which can momentarily blind a driver. dazzle mirror: See dimming mirror dBA: A unit of measure for decibels, the measure of sound intensity or pressure named after Alexander Graham Bell. It is a logarithmic measurement; every 3dB increase represents a doubling of the sound pressure. The "A" in dBA indicates that the measurement was taken with an A-weighted

scale; sound pressure varies across the audible spectrum, and the Aweighted scale approximates the human ear's sensitivity to various frequencies. DBI: Acronym for "De Danske Bilimport rer" (Denmark) dbl: Abbreviation for "double," as in dbl.-wide rear wheels. DC: [1] As an electrical term, it is an acronym for "direct current." [2] As a piston position, DC is an acronym for "dead center" where the piston at the extreme top or bottom of its stroke. DC generator: See generator DC rim: Abbreviation for Drop-Center rim dead:
See inner dead center lower dead center outer dead center

dead axle: An axle that does not rotate nor is driven but merely forms a base upon which to attach the wheels. Also see beam axle. It contrasts with a live axle.

dead battery: A battery that registers almost no electrical charge. Sometimes it can be brought back to life with a charger. The British call it a "flat battery" dead center: The point at which the piston reaches its uppermost or lowermost position in the cylinder the rod crankjournal would be at 11 o'clock UDC or 6 o'clock LDC.
Also see after bottom dead center after top dead center before bottom dead center before top dead center before upper dead center bottom dead center inner dead center lower dead center outer dead center top dead center upper dead center

dead end: A road which has no outlet dead freight factor: The amount of a ship's carrying capacity that is not utilized. dead-head pressure: A fuel pressure reading taken directly at the fuel pump outlet. Many systems use a fuel pressure regulator; dead-head pressure is an unregulated measurement dead pedal: A footrest located to the far left of the driver so that he can brace his left leg during hard cornering or to balance the position of the right foot on the throttle pedal during normal driving. dead rear axle: A rear axle that does not turn. E.g., rear axle of front wheel drive car dead rise: Athwartship vertical rise between the keel and the bilge dead space: The space below the piston availaable for pre-compression of the incoming fresh charge of the two-stroke engine. deadweight: The total weight in tons (2240 lb.) that a ship carries on a specified draft including fuel, water in tanks, cargo, stores, passengers, baggage, crew and their effects, but excluding the water in the boilers. It is the difference in weight between a vessel when it is fully loaded and when it is empty measured by the water it displaces.
Also see tonnage deadweight

dealer: [1] a firm that buys and sells, adding some value for the consumer in the process. Dealer often means a firm which operates closer in the distribution channel to the consumer than a distributor or wholesaler and may add more value for consumers than either of the above-mentioned terms. Also called "dealership." [2] A person whose business is buying and selling cars and trucks or motorcycles.
Also see authorized dealer auto dealer car dealer franchised dealer new car dealer scrap dealer used car dealer

dealer invoice: The price the dealer pays for a vehicle. dealer participation: The amount contributed by the dealer to reduce the final purchase price in the lease contract. Dealer participation can take the form of a rebate or simply a discount. The dealer participation is reflected in the lease contract as a capitalized cost reduction. dealer principal: The individual or corporation that owns and controls one or a number of auto dealerships. dealership: A firm that buys and sells, adding some value for the consumer in the process. A dealership often means a firm which operates closer in the distribution channel to the consumer than a distributor or wholesaler and may add more value for consumers than either of the above-mentioned terms. deaeration:

Act of separating air from substances. death rattle: An informal term for a noise from an engine which indicates that it is likely to break down at any moment debugging: The process of locating and correcting faults in a system deburr: To remove burrs from a metal surface deburring: Removing burrs from a metal surface or bearing decal: A sticker or transfer which is applied to a smooth surface to identify a particular product. Pronounced dee-KALL in the United States, but DECK-ull in Canada. decarbon: The action of removing carbon buildup from the surface of the cylinder head and the dome of the piston. The accumulation of carbon indicates poor combustion and will result in loss of performance. decarbonize: See decarbon decay: A term for hydraulic pressure reduction that occurs during an ABS stop decelerate: The action of slowing down. The opposite of accelerate

deceleration: Negative acceleration; the rate of change in velocity as a vehicle slows down during braking. deceleration fuel cut-off: A device which stops the flow of fuel to the carburetor or injectors when the vehicle rapidly decelerates in the event of a crash thus preventing the possibility of a fire or explosion. deceleration switch: A device that signals the rate of vehicle deceleration to the ECU, allowing it to adjust ABS operation accordingly decelerometer: An instrument for measuring deceleration. decibel: (dB) Unit used for measuring relative loudness of sounds. One decibel is equal to approximate difference of loudness ordinarily detectable by human ear, the range of which is about 130 decibels on scale beginning with one for faintest audible sound. deck: [1] The bed of a half-ton truck. [2] The floor of a commercial vehicle like a bus. [3] The trunk lid of a car. Also called "rear deck." [4] In an engine, top face of the cylinder block on which the cylinder head mounts. [5] A platform in a ship corresponding to a floor in a building.
Also see bulkhead deck freeboard deck main deck radio/cassette deck rear deck rear deck panel shelter deck strength deck tween deck

weather deck

[6] Insulated horizontal partition between refrigerated space and evaporator space. Also called coil deck deck beam: An athwartship horizontal structural member supporting a flat or deck decker: See double-decker deck house: Small superstructure on the top deck which contains the steering wheel and other navigational instruments. decking: See shaving deck lid: The panel which covers the engine in a vehicle with the engine in the rear of the car.
Also see hood

deck panel: The sheet metal panel extending from the bottom of the rear window to the rear panel and enclosing the cutout for the trunk lid, extending sideways to the top of both rear fenders. In some cases, this panel covers only the area between the bottom of the rear window and the front edge of the trunk lid.
Also see rear deck panel

deck ship: See flush deck ship deck stringer: The strake of deck plating that runs along the outboard edge of a deck

declutch: The action of disengaging the clutch (i.e. releasing the clutch pedal or lever).
Also see double-declutch

decoke: To decarbon decompressor: A valve which is manually operated to release compression in a cylinder by allowing air to escape in order to facilitate manual starting of an old engine or a diesel engine. Some motorcycles also used a decompressor to assist in kick-starting. decreasing-radius corner: A turn where the arc gets sharper as you progress through the curve dedicated: Something that is designed for a specific use or for a specific vehicle. de Dion axle: A rear axle setup developed by Count de Dion in the 19th century in which the driving wheels are attached to curved dead axle that is attached to the frame by a central pivot, the differential unit is bolted to the frame and is connected to the driving wheels by drive axles using universal joints. The De Dion system keeps the wheels upright (the same as a live axle does), but unsprung weight is reduced because the differential is out of the axle. De Dion suspension also leaves room around the differential for inboard brakes, which can further reduce unsprung weight. deep cycling:

The process of discharging a battery almost completely before recharging deep tank: Tanks extending from the bottom or inner bottom up to or higher than the lowest deck of a ship deer alert: A device which is mounted on the outside of a vehicle and which makes a high-pitched sound to warn deer and other animals away. Whether it really works or not is debatable. defect: A fault in a system or a flaw in materials or a finish defective: A description of a component which is faulty or flawed. defensive driving: A driving technique in which the driver prepares for and watches for the mistakes of other drivers around him so that he can avoid an accident. deflated: An air chamber (like a tire or lumbar support chamber) which has lost all its air. deflation: The loss of air from a tire or other air chamber deflation warning system: (DWS) developed by Dunlop for on-line detection of tire pressure loss. When tire pressure is reduced, the tire circumference is also reduced resulting in increased wheel rpm. The system uses the wheel speed sensors of an existing ABS system to continuously monitor wheel speed and tire condition, and triggers a warning signal upon detecting a problem.

deflection: The movement of a suspension piece when subjected to a load.
Also see effective deflection

deflection rate: The distance that a spring squeezes together (deflects) in relation to the pressure applied. E.g., 5 inches per 1000 lb load. deflection under load: See temperature of deflection under load deflector: [1] A device which causes bugs, tar, and grime from hitting other components. [2] A special piston profile used to achieve cross scavenging in earlier twostroke engines.
Also see air deflector air shield bug deflector stone deflector wind deflector

deflector piston: A piston design which had a crown designed to direct the incoming fresh mixture upwards to expel the burnt exhaust gas from the cylinder. This design is no longer used today. deflector shield: See sunroof deflector shield defog: The action of removing mist or condensation from the inside of a window or the outside of a mirror by means of blowing air or heated wires imbedded in the glass. The British term is "demist." See defogger. defogger:

An electric or hot air device to remove the fog or ice from both the inside and outside of the windshield, backlight (i.e., rear window) or even mirrors. Some are designed to remove fog from the side windows. defogging system: See backlight defogging system deformation: An alteration of shape or dimension which is caused by stress, expansion, or contraction because of temperature, humidity, or metallurgical changes.
Also see plastic deformation

deformation zone: A crumple zone defrost: The action of removing frost from the inside of a window or the outside of a mirror by means of blowing air or heated wires imbedded in the glass. defrost cycle: Refrigerating cycle in which evaporator frost and ice accumulation is melted. defroster: The apparatus (either a fan connected to the heating system or electrical wires imbedded in the glass) which removes frost or fog from a window. Also called a "demister." defrosting: Process of removing frost accumulation from evaporators. defrosting control: Device to automatically defrost evaporator. It may operate by means of a clock, door cycling mechanism, or during "off" portion of refrigerating cycle.

defrosting type evaporator: Evaporator operating at such temperatures that ice and frost on surface melts during off part of operating cycle. defrost timer: Device, connected into electrical circuit, which shuts unit off long enough to permit ice and frost accumulation on evaporator to melt. deglaze: The action of removing the smooth finish on cylinder walls so that a new set of rings will seat. deglazer: An abrasive tool used to remove the glaze from cylinder walls so that a new set of rings will seat.
Also see glaze breaker

degradable: See bio-degradable degradation: The deterioration in the condition of something.
Also see catalyst degradation

degrease: [1] To remove oil and grease from the surface of a parat. [2] Wiping the surface to be painted with a clean cloth saturated in a solvent. This is essential to good paint adhesion. degreaser: A substance which removes dirt and grease from a mechanic's hands. Also called "hand cleaner."

degreasing: [1] The removing of grease or oil from a surface. [2] Solution or solvent used to remove oil or grease from refrigerator parts.
Also see alkaline degreasing and vapor degreasing

degreasing agent: A solvent or alkaline solution which is used for removing oil and grease degree: 1/360 part of a circle. degree-day: Unit that represents one degree of difference from inside temperature and the average outdoor temperature for one day; often used in estimating fuel requirements for a building. degree wheel: A wheel-like disc divided into 360 equal parts that is attached to the engine crankshaft it is used to time the valves to a high degree of accuracy. dehumidifier: A device which absorbs moisture from the atmosphere. It can be a unit dedicated for this purpose, or even an air conditioner. dehumidify: To remove water vapor from the air dehydrated oil: Lubricant which has had most of its water content removed (dry oil). dehydrator-receiver: Small tank which serves as liquid refrigerant reservoir and which also contains a desiccant to remove moisture. Used on most automobile air conditioning installations.

dehydrator: See drier de-ice: To remove the ice from the outside of the windshield. deice control: Device for operating a refrigerating system in such a way as to provide melting of the accumulated ice and frost. de-icer: A liquid or spray which is applied to the windshield to assist in removing ice.
Also see door lock de-icer lock de-icer

de-ionized water: Water from which impurities have been removed by a special process and used for topping up batteries. Delage: An old brand of automobile of which the 1925-1948 Model D-8 (but not the 4-cyl.) with required application is a classic car. The 1946-49 D-6 Sedans are milestone cars. Delahaye: An old brand of automobile of which the 1925-1948 Series 135, 145, 165 (but not the 4-cyl.) with required application are classic car. The Type 135, 175, 180 (1946-51) are milestone cars. de-laminate: To split a layered or laminated material into its separate layers. Sometimes used to describe failure of an adhesive in bond strength testing Delaunay:

An old brand of automobile of which the 1925-1948 6-cyl Belleville are classic cars. delay:
See headlight on/off delay system ignition delay

delay relay: See time delay relay delay system: See headlight on/off delay system delay vacuum bypass system: (DVB) an optional system used by Ford that bypasses the spark delay valve during cold operation to improve driveability delay valve: A valve used in a vacuum or hydraulic system in which the valve's opening or closing is delayed. Also called vacuum delay valve delay wiper: A windshield scraper which can be set to activate at various times and pauses between each swipe. It is useful when there is a mist or light rain. Also called "intermittent wiper." d'elegance: See concours. d'elegance: See concours d'elegance

delineator post: A barracade marking device placed on a road to prevent travel in a particular direction

deliver: [1] To pump or discharge a liquid. [2] To drive a new car from the factory to the distributor or dealer. Or to drive it to the customer. delivery: [1] The discharging of a liquid from a pump. [2] Driving a new car from the factory to the distributor or dealer delivery lines: Fuel lines used to carry fuel from the fuel injection pump to the injector nozzles delivery mileage only: The odometer reading reflects only the distance from the factory to the selling dealer. delivery valve: [1] The valve on the outlet side of a pump. [2] A fuel injection pump valve that rapidly decreases injection line pressure to achieve an abrupt fuel cutoff at the injector

Delorean: A model of automobile manufactured by John Z. DeLorean
Click for books on Delorean

Del Sol: A model of automobile manufactured by Honda
Click for books on Honda Del Sol

delta configuration: A triangular connection of the three stator windings of an alternator.
Also see Y-configuration

delta transformer: Three-phase electrical transformer which has ends of each of three windings electrically connected to form a triangle. deluxe: Abbreviated (DL). A term used to indicate a series of vehicle which is just above the basic version. delugger: A machine used to cut the lugs from tires prior to buffing. demagnetize: Removing residual magnetism from an object which had been previously magnetized demand meter:

Instrument which measures the kilowatt-hour usage of a circuit or group of circuits. demist: A British term to clear fog or frost from the windshield or rear window. In the US and Canada, the term is defog. demister: A British term for a defogger or defroster demonstrator: A vehicle used by a dealer for test drives and sold later at a reduced price.
Also see ex-demonstrator

demountable flange: A side ring or side and lock ring combination that retains the tire on the rim. It is removable to permit tire mounting or removal. demountable rim: A two piece rim found on trucks. The main part of the rim remains on the axle while a side piece and a locking ring is removable. In this way the whole rim is not removed from the vehicle like a passenger car's rim and wheel. Also called a "detachable rim" denatured alcohol: Ethyl alcohol to which a denaturant has been added Denovo tire: A special tire (fitted to a special rim) which used to be made by Dunlop, and which can be run flat for up to 160 km (100 miles) at up to 80 kph (50 mph) density: [1] Compactness; relative mass of matter in a given volume.

[2] Closeness of texture or consistency of particles within a given substance. The weight per unit volume. [3] The weight or mass per unit volume of a gas, liquid, or solid dent: [1] A hollow or dip in a body panel caused by a sharp blow or impact. [2] To cause a dent in a body panel dent puller: A tool with a strong suction cup to pull out dents in body panels.
Also see panel puller suction cup dent puller

Denver boot: A locking device which wraps around the wheel of a vehicle to immobilize its movement deodorizer: Device which absorbs or adsorbs various odors, usually by principle of absorption. Activated charcoal is commonly used. départ: The starting line of a randonnée or brevet departure angle: The most sharply angled incline the vehicle can leave without its rear hitting the ground. As with approach angles, it's formed on one side by the horizontal axis, and on the other by a straight line connecting the rear edge of the rear tire and the most prominent point at the rear of the vehicle, usually the bumper or exhaust pipe. depolarize: Removal of residual magnetism thereby destroying or removing the magnetic. To remove polarity deposit:

A coating of unwanted mineral or layer of sediment at the bottom of a tank. [2] To apply a coating of something (often metal by electrolysis).
Also see gum deposit lead deposit refundable deposit

See electrolytic deposition vapor deposition zinc vapor deposition

depreciation: The loss of value of a vehicle because of age or deterioration depression: [1] An indentation or dent in the surface of a sheet of metal whether through deliberate design or accident. [2] A restriction of airflow which causes low pressure and a partial vacuum.
Also see constant-depression constant depression engine depression valve clearance depression

depressor: See valve spring depressor depress the accelerator: The action of pressing down on the gas pedal (accelerator) to cause more fuel to enter the engine thus making the vehicle go faster. Opposite to "ease up on the accelerator." depress the gas pedal: The action of pressing down on the gas pedal (accelerator) to cause more fuel to enter the engine thus making the vehicle go faster. Opposite to "ease up on the gas pedal."

depress the throttle pedal: The action of pressing down on the throttle pedal (accelerator) to cause more fuel to enter the engine thus making the vehicle go faster. Opposite to "ease up on the throttle pedal." depth:
See molded depth profile depth skid depth throat depth tread depth well depth

depth gauge: A measuring tool for determining the depth of something.
Also see tread depth gauge

depth micrometer: A measuring device (micrometer) used for precise measurement of a hole depth, recesses, keyways, etc. depth of thread: The distance from the thread crest to root measured perpendicular to the axis of the thread derailleur: A lever-activated mechanism that pushes the chain off one sprocket of a bicycle and onto another, thus changing the gear ratio. See front derailleur and rear derailleur. derailleur cable: A wound steel cable running from the shift lever to the derailleur on a bicycle. derailleur cable housing:

The outer casing into which the inner wire is inserted. The inner wire of a brake cable and matching housing is thicker than those of a derailleur and thus are not compatible. derailleur chain, narrow width: A bicycle chain made especially for use on an "ultra" or narrow freewheel often recognized by bulging inner link plates and flushchain pins. derailleur chain, standard width: A bicycle chain designed to fit a freewheel of standard width, usually characterized by straight-edged plates and chain pins that protrude slightly beyond the outer link plates. derailleur hanger: the part of a rear dropout to which the rear derailleur attaches derailleur pulleys: One of two guide wheels of the rear derailleur which directs the path of the chain. derrick: A device for hoisting and lowering heavy weights, cargo, stores, etc derust: To remove rust from a metal part derv: Diesel oil when used as a fuel for road vehicles. Acronym for "dieselengined road vehicle" descaling: The removal of scale or metallic oxide from metallic surfaces by pickling desiccant:

[1] A drying agent (silica gel or a similar substance) used in refrigeration or air conditioning systems to remove excess moisture from refrigerant vapour [2] Substance used to collect and hold moisture in refrigerating system. A drying agent. Common desiccants are activated alumina and silica gel. design: [1] The arrangement of parts or the form of construction. [2] To arrange parts or construction of a vehicle or major component.
Also see cab-forward design cabin-forward design cam design cam profile component design open-deck design product design wrapround dash design

See model designation one-piece rim designation rim designation type designation

design pressure: Highest or most severe pressure expected during operation. Sometimes used as the calculated operating pressure plus an allowance for safety. desmodromic: something (like valves) which is opened and closed by a mechanical device. In most 4-stroke engines the valves are opened by the cam, but closed by the action of the valve springs. In a desmodromic system, the valves are opened by a cam and closed by a cam or a cable. A desmodromic system is more costly and more difficult to manufacture, but the advantage is more precise control of the valves and less valve bounce which is seen in a normal engine at high speed. desorption:

The removal of material which has been adsorbed. It is the opposite of adsorption.

DeSoto: A vehicle brand of which the 1956-58 Adventurer models are milestone cars.
Click for books on DeSoto

destruction: Trucker slang for Road construction as in "Seem's like all the roads in pennsylvania are always under destruction." detachable rim: A wheel rim which is bolted to the wheel center or spider and can be disassembled for replacing the rubber tire. It is found on trucks and some quads. It is also called a demountable rim detachment: See flow detachment detail: The action of correcting all appearance flaws in a vehicle. detailitis: A term coined by Art Treta to indicate a compulsive disorder which compels a vehicle owner to correct its every flaw to the extent that he searches for even the most hidden flaw.
Also see restorationitis

See glass tampering detector

radar detector

detector, leak: Device used to detect and locate refrigerant leaks. detent ball and spring: A spring loaded ball that snaps into a groove or notch to hold some sliding object in position. detergent: A soap-like chemical added to the engine oil (particularly MS oil) or gasoline to improve its characteristics and keep the engine clean by controlling the formation of sludge and gum as well as controlling foaming. detergent oil: An MS oil which keeps the engine clean by preventing the formation of sludge and gum. deterioration:
See catalyst deterioration thermal deterioration

DeTomasoPantera: A model of automobile manufactured in Italy

Click for books on Pantera

detonation: The action of the fuel charge firing or burning too violently, almost exploding. It sometimes results in a noise called "pinging." Detonation is caused by autoignition of the "end gas" i.e., that part of the charge not yet consumed in the normal flame-front reaction. Detonation occurs because piston motion and compression of the end gas raise its temperature and pressure to the point where the end gas autoignites. The pinging or knocking noise is the result of intense pressure waves in the charge which cause the cylinder walls to vibrate. Also called "fuel knock."

detonation-activated ignition retard: A system which retards the ignition timing when the detonation sensor picks up vibration at frequencies typical of denotation detonation sensor: A sensor, , usually piezoelectric, mounted near the cylinders which can detect engine knocking or frequencies of detonation so that it will send a message to retard the ignition timing to prevent damage to the engine. detour: An alternative route which traffic has to follow due to closure of a stretch of road for repairs, etc. A diversion. detoxed vehicle: A vehicle with a reduced emission system consisting of a catalytic converter, EGR, air injection, fuel evaporative emission control, etc. Also called a "controlled vehicle" detuned: The intentional adjustment of an engine to reduce its power in an attempt to reduce emissions, reduce top-end speed, increase fuel economy, or meet specific governmental standards. deuce: Hot rod built around a 1932 Ford coupe body. deutsche Industrie Normen: See DIN. development: See research & development deviation angle: See tire deviation angle

device: A piece of equipment or a mechanism designed for a specific purpose or function.
See anti-roll device antiroll device economy device electronic sensing device enrichment device sensing device triggering device

DeVille: A model of automobile manufactured by General Motors' Cadillac division
Click for books on DeVille

Devon: A vehicle brand of which the 1958-62 S/S models are milestone cars. dew: Condensed atmospheric moisture deposited in small drops on cool surfaces. dewax: To remove a coating of wax from the body of a vehicle usually in preparation for painting. dew point: Temperature at which vapor (at 100 percent humidity) begins to condense and deposit as liquid. DFC:

Acronym for digital frequency control dhc: Acronym for drophead coupe DG: Acronym for "Diesel General" oil for use under ordinary conditions in diesel engines. diac: A two-lead alternating current semiconductor that allows current to flow in both directions at a preset voltage. diagnosis: Refers to use of instruments to determine cause of improper function of parts or system of a vehicle
See fault diagnosis self-diagnosis

See engine diagnostic connector on-board diagnostic system

diagnostic center: A garage or part of a garage where problems with a vehicle or part of a vehicle are determined. diagnostic code: [1] Code displayed on instrument panel which can be used to determine area in system where malfunction may be located. [2] Code numbers obtained by accessing the diagnostic mode of the engine management computer. This code can be used to determine the area in the system where a malfunction may be located diagnostic computer:

A computer terminal or engine analyzer which is hooked up to the car's electronic box and reveals the condition of the engine and various sensors. diagnostic connector: See engine diagnostic connector diagnostic link: The electric cord which connects the computer terminal to the socket on the vehicle. diagnostics: The process of identifying the cause or nature of a condition, situation, or problem to determine the appropriate corrective action to take in the repair of an automotive system. See on board diagnostics diagnostic socket: A socket on the vehicle (usually found in the engine compartment) which is part of the onboard electronic sensor system. diagnostic system: The various sensors and electronic devices which record the operation of a number of functions within the vehicle.
Also see on-board diagnostic system

diagnostic testing: The analysis of the various functions of the components of a vehicle to determine if they are operating properly or have recorded faults which need to be corrected. diagonal:
See heavy-duty diagonal cutting pliers high leverage diagonal cutting pliers

diagonal belt:

Another term for shoulder belt diagonal cutting:
See heavy-duty diagonal cutting pliers high leverage diagonal cutting pliers

diagonal cutting pliers:
See high leverage diagonal cutting pliers heavy-duty diagonal cutting pliers high leverage diagonal cutting pliers heavy-duty diagonal cutting pliers

diagonal split braking system: A dual-circuit braking system in which each circuit brakes one front wheel and the diagonally opposite rear wheel, so that in the case of failure of one circuit reasonably balanced braking can be achieved. See dual brakes -especially the picture. diagonally split system: A dual-circuit braking system in which each circuit brakes one front wheel and the diagonally opposite rear wheel, so that in the case of failure of one circuit reasonably balanced braking can be achieved. See dual brakes -especially the picture. diagram:
See circuit diagram indicator diagram timing diagram wiring diagram

dial: The face (usually circular) of an instrument like a speedometer, tachometer, vacuum gauge, etc.

dial caliper: A slide-type caliper which registers on a dial the distance between two points dialed in: [1] The action of fine tuning an engine or component to its peak capacity. [2] The ideal set up of a bicycle when everything works just right dial gage: See dial gauge. dial gauge: A precision micrometer type instrument that indicates the reading via a needle moving across a dial face. dial indicator: A precision measuring instrument that indicates movement to a thousandth of an inch with a needle sweeping around a dial face. See dial gauge. dial torque wrench: A wrench usually with a socket end and which measures the torque of a nut-bolt fastener. It registers the value on a dial.

diameter: The distance between one edge of a circular object to the other edge and passing through the center.
Also see bead seat diameter bore diameter circle diameter

external diameter inside diameter internal diameter major diameter minor diameter nominal diameter nominal rim diameter nominal thread diameter outer diameter outside diameter overall rim diameter pitch circle diameter pitch diameter rim diameter thread diameter valve diameter

diamond frame: [1] The traditional men's bicycleframe the principal parts of which form a diamond shape. [2] Tubular-frame design for motorcycles common until WW II and derived from the bicycle layout. The engine cases often form part of the structure. In profile it resembles a diamond shape diamond star: The name of Chrysler Corporation which comes from the pattern of its emblem. diaphragm: [1] A flexible cloth-rubber sheet that is stretched across an area thereby separating two different compartments. A diaphragm is used in pumps to create a pressure differential that causes a fluid to be pushed or pulled from one point to another. Some carburetors have no float bowl (i.e., Tillotsen), but use a series of diaphragms to pump gasoline into the engine. [2] A flexible partition used to separate two chambers or elements. [3] In air-conditioning system, a rubber-like piston or bellows assembly which divides the inner and outer chambers of backpressure regulated air conditioning devices. [4] In fuel system, a thin dividing sheet or partition which separates a housing into two chambers, one of which is usually vented to vacuum while the other is not; used in vacuum-controlled secondaries, anti-stall dashpots, and other carburetor control devices. Also see piston diaphragm

[5] A rubber-like piston or bellows assembly which divides the inner and outer chambers of back-pressure regulated air conditioning devices

diaphram clutch: Another term for a diaphragm spring clutch diaphram link: The arm which transmits the movement of the diaphram and the distributor baseplate in a vacuum advance mechanism. diaphragm pump: A device which has a flexible diaphragm which moves forward and backward by a solenoid or other mechanical device to transfer fluid.
Also see twin diaphragm pump

diaphragm spring: A type of spring shaped like a disc with tapering fingers pointed inward or like a wavy disc, used in some clutches. In an automotive clutch the diaphragm spring is part of the clutch pressure plate. When the clutch is engaged, this spring forces the pressure plate against the clutch disc; driver effort through the clutch linkage overcomes the spring pressure to disengage it. A type of spring, shaped like a disc with tapering fingers pointed inward or like a wavy disc, used in some clutches. In auto application, the diaphragm spring is part of the clutch pressure plate. When the clutch is engaged

this spring forces the pressure plate against the clutch disc.
Also see clutch diaphragm spring

diaphragm spring clutch: A common clutch used in most vehicles with manual transmission where a diaphragm spring keeps the pressure plate in contact with the friction plate dichlorodifluoromethane: The chemical substance (CCl2F2) used in automotive air conditioning systems to absorb, carry, and release heat. A member of the fluorocarbon family. Usually referred to as refrigerant or R-12 dickey: British term for rumble seat. die: [1] One of a matched pair of hardened steel blocks that are used to form (by stamping, pressing, extruding, drawing or threading) metal into a desired shape.
Also see bending die lower bending die

[2] A tool for cutting threads. See tap and die set. die back: See die-back. die-back: In a lacquerfinish the loss of gloss after compounding, caused by continued evaporation of thinner. die cast: Manufactured by forcing molten metal into a die. Especially used of aluminum or an alloy.

die casting: [1] Formation of an accurate and smooth object by forcing molten metal, plastic, etc., into a die under pressure. See cast. [2] Process of molding low-melting-temperature metals in accurately shaped metal molds. dielectric: A material which is an electrical insulator or in which an electric field can be sustained with a minimum loss of power. dielectric fluid: Fluid with high electrical resistance. dielectric grease: A special grease which is applied to the ends of electric terminals to inhibit corrosion between the terminals or to be sure that there is good electrical contact between the terminals. diesel: A type of engine or fuel or oil used for that engine.
Also see diesel engine dieselFuel diesel oil turbo-diesel

diesel cycle: A four-stroke cycle where the air is sucked into the cylinder and compressed at a ratio of up to 24:1. At the end of the compression stroke the fuel is injected. Because of the high compression and resulting increase in temperature, the fuel is ignited leading to the power stroke and followed by the exhaust stroke where the combustion products are removed. diesel engine: An internal combustion engine that uses diesel oil for fuel. The true diesel does not use a carburetor or an ignition system (i.e., spark plugs) but injects diesel oil into the cylinders when the piston has compressed the air so tightly that it is hot enough to ignite the diesel fuel without a spark. Because a cold engine cannot ignite the diesel fuel, glow plugs are used to

heat the mixture, but they do not provide a spark. Named after Rudolf Diesel (1858-1913), the inventor.
Also see compression ignition

diesel fuel: A light oil fuel which has a relatively low ignition temperature dieseling: A form of autoignition in which a gasoline engine continues to fire after the ignition has been shut off. In late-model emission-controlled engines, dieseling or run-on is caused by heat and the unusually high manifold pressure that result from retarding the spark at idle. diesel knock: The noise caused by the rapid rise in pressure in a diesel engine especially when the engine is cold or running at a low speed. Also called "diesel rattle." dieselling: See dieseling diesel oil: Fuel for cars with diesel engines. This is not a form of lubricating oil. See cetane rating. diesel particulate filter: A filter which removes small particles from a diesel exhaust. It looks like a honeycomb catalytic converter but acts as a mechanical separator. diesel rattle: Another term for diesel knock die set: See tap and die set

die stock: A tool used to hold and operate dies when cutting outside threads. die size: Retread rubber is designated by its crescent shaped dimensions in inches and eighths, and its thickness in 32nds of an inch; (e.g., 66-72-16; the crown would measure 6 and 6 eighths, the base 7 and 2 eighths wide; and the thickness 16/32 of an inch, or gauge of the stock rubber.) diff: A colloquial term for a differential differential: [1] The tempe rature or pressu re differ ence betwe en cut-in and cutout tempe rature or pressu re of a contro l. [2] A unit that takes the

power of the rotati ng drives haft at right angles to the rear axle and passes it to the axle. It will not only drive both rear axles at the same time, but will also allow them to turn at differ ent speed s when negoti ating turns. In this

way the tires do not scuff or skid.
Also see automatic slip-control differential axle differential bevel differential center differential front differential helical differential inter-axle differential limited-slip differential limited slip differential lockable differential locking differential lockup differential multiple-disc limited-slip differential no-spin differential open differential planetary gear differential pressure differential switch rear axle differential rear differential spur differential torque sensitive limited slip differential torsen differential traction differential variable limited-slip axle/center differential visco-differential

differential cage: The rotating metal fram which encloses the differential side gears and pinion gears inside the axle casing. Also called the "differential carrier" differential carrier: See differential cage differential case:

The steel unit to which the ring gear is attached. The case drives the spider gears and forms an inner bearing surface for the axle and gears. differential casing: The differential housing differential gear: See differential gears. differential gears: The gears that transmit engine power to the driving axles and are arranged so as to permit the rear wheels to turn at different speeds as required when the vehicle is negotiating a turn. differential grease: See gear grease. differential housing: The enclosure which contains the differential gears. differential lock: A mechanism which eliminates the action of the differential so that both wheels can be driven for better adhesion on slippery surfaces. differentially: See galvanize differentially differential pinion: The bevel pinion in the differential. differential pressure: The pressure difference between two regions, such as between the intake manifold and the atmospheric pressures. In Bosch KE-Jetronic systems, the difference between actuator fuel pressure in the lower chambers of the

differential-pressure valves and the system pressure entering the pressure actuator.
Also see pressure drop

differential-pressure regulator: A pressure actuator differential-pressure valve: Inside the Bosch CIS fuel distributor, these valves (there is one for each cylinder) maintain a constant pressure drop at each of the control-plunger slits, regardless of changes in the quantity of fuel flow differential side gear: The bevel gear on either side of the differential into the center of which the axle shaft fits differential switch: See pressure differential switch diffusing lens: The lens in the headlight glass which helps to focus the beam diffusion: [1] The way in which innovations spread through market or non-market channels. [2] Mixing the molecules of two gases by thermal agitation digifant: VW collaborated with Bosch to develop this electronic injection system. Digifant is similar to a Motronic system, except that its timing control map is less complicated than the Motronic map. And it does not have a knock sensor digifant II:

A refined version of VW 's digifant. This system has some control improvements and uses a knock sensor for improved timing control digital caliper: A slide-type caliper which gives a digital readout. digital frequency control: (DFC) A system which automatically stabilizes or tunes the frequency of a selected radio station. digital fuel injection: (DFI) a GM system, similar to earlier electronic fuel injection system, but with digital microprocessors. Analog inputs from various engine sensors are converted to digital signals before processing. The system is selfmonitoring and self-diagnosing. It also has the capabilities of compensating for failed components and remembering intermittent failures digital ratio adapter controller module: (DRAC) a device used on GM vehicles to convert the analog signal from the speed sensor into a digital signal that the EBCm can use digital speedometer: A speedometer which shows the speed in digital numbers rather than a needle on a dial gauge (which is called an analog speedometer). digital volt-ohm multimeter: (DVOM) a digital electronic meter that displays voltage and resistance dig out: To accelerate at top power. diluent: A fluid which thins or weakens another fluid. dilution:

See crankcase dilution. dimmer: A switch used to lower or dip the headlights from high beam to low beam and back again.
Also see headlight dimmer switch

dimmer control: A rotary control switch which will increase or decrease the intensity of the instrument lights. Also called interior dimmer light switch. dimmer switch: A device used to lower or increase the brightness and focus of the headlights (i.e., from high-beam to low-beam). The British term is "dipswitch." Also called headlight dimmer switch DIN: Acronym for "Deutsche Industrie Normen" (German industrial standards). DIN horsepower is similar to the SAE net horsepower. It is measured at the output shaft of an engine fully equipped with normal accessories. dinging: The action of straightening a damaged panel by using a hammer and dolly to bring it back into shape. DIN mounting: The standard hole in the dash through which a DIN radio can be installed

Dino: A model of automobile manufactured by Ferrari
Click for books on Ferrari Dino

DIN radio:

An aftermarket radio which fits into a thinner hole than most American radios. When installing a repacement radio, special faceplates are necessary diode: [1] Two-element electron tube which will allow more electron flow in one direction in a circuit than in the other direction; tube which serves as a rectifier. [2] An electrical component having the ability to pass electric current readily in one direction but resisting current flow in the other. When four diodes are connected in a certain way (i.e., "bridged") they will convert AC to DC, thus becoming a rectifier.
Also see rectifier diode zener diode

Dion axle: See de Dion axle dioxide: See carbon dioxide dip: [1] A British term for dimming the headlights. [2] A low horizontal indentation of the pavement which may cause a speeding vehicle to lose control. [3] To immerse.
See full dip treatment hot dip

dipped beam: A British term for low beam dipper: A British term for the dimmer switch dipper switch:

A British term for the dimmer switch dipping mirror: A British term for day-night mirror dipstick: The metal rod that passes into the oil sump it is used to determine the quantity of oil in the engine. The oil level is marked on the rod and matches level indicators on the rod. Dipsticks are used to check engine oil and transmission fluid. In most instances, the dipstick is inserted as far as it will go and then removed to check the level. In motorcycle engines, the dipstick is placed on the top of the threads (i.e., not screwed down) to check the level. oil dipstick dipswitch: A British term for the dimmer switch dip treatment: See full dip treatment direct-acting shock absorber: A telescopic shock absorber. direct current: (DC) An electric current that flows steadily in one direction only. This is the type of current found in a battery and throughout the lighting and accessory system of a vehicle. Contrasts with alternating current (AC). direct damage: A vehicle damage caused directly by an impact with an object. In contrast with an indirect damage. direct digital control: (DDC) Use of digital computer to perform required automatic control operations in a total energy management system.

direct drive: When the gearing is such that the crankshaft and driveshaft revolve at the same speed, the vehicle is in direct drive. Usually this occurs in high gear (except for those with overdrive). It is represented as 1.00:1 ratio. direct drive powertrain: A system of propulsion where the speed of the engine, transmission, and propeller shaft rotate the same. direct expansion evaporator: Evaporator using either an automatic expansion valve (AEV) or a thermostatic expansion valve (TEV) refrigerant control. direct ignition system: (DIS) An ignition system which does not used a distributor but carries high voltage from the ignition coils directly to the spark plugs.
Also see integrated Direct Ignition System

direct injection: A fuel injection system which is generally used in diesel engines and forces fuel directly into the combustion chamber. It requires very high injection system pressure to overcome the pressure within the combustion chamber.
Also see high speed direct injection

directional baffle plate: Installed in a Quadrajet carburetor's secondary bores to help direct the airflow for improved distribution in the intake manifold directional stability: Ability of a vehicle to move forward in a straight line with a minimum of driver control. A vehicle with good directional stability will not be unduly affected by side wind, road irregularities, etc.

directional tire: Directional designs are recognized by the grooves in the tread that swipe away in a backward angle from the center of the tread face and rotate in only one direction. A direction of rotation arrow is located on both sidewalls of the tire. Directional tires enhance straight-line acceleration, provide maximum dry traction, better wet performance which helps to reduce rolling resistance as well as providing shorter stopping distances.
See asymmetrical tread directional tread Symmetrical

directional tread: An arrangement of bars, grooves, and ribs on a tire's tread in any manner that gives most effective traction when the tire revolves in only one direction.
Also see directional tire

direction indicator: The signal lights which blink on either side of the front of the vehicle and either side of the rear of the vehicle. Some early cars (like the Austin and Flying Standard) had small illuminated arms that flipped out from the Bpost instead. The purpose of signal lights is to warn other drivers of a change in direction when turning a corner or changing lanes. direction indicator warning light: A light on the instrument panel which flashes when the signal lights are operating. Usually this light is in the shape of a green arrow. On some cars, like Cadillac, a secondary light is mounted in a pod on the upper edge of each front fender and in a pod inside the cab above the backlight (i.e., back window) direction of rotation: The direction in which a wheel or shaft turns or is supposed to turn. direction of travel: The direction in which an object (e.g., a vehicle) is moving.

direct polarity: Direct current flowing from anode (base metal) to cathode (electrode). The electrode is negative and the base metal is positive. dirtbike: Bikes intended for off-road use that are not legal to ride on public roads. Sometimes the term pure-dirt is used to distinguish a dirtbike from a dualsport motorcycle dirty town: Trucker slang for New York City as in "I got a load of garbage going to dirty town." DIS: An acronym for direct ignition system or a distributorless ignition system similar to the C3I system, using two coils on four-cylinder engines disabled: [1] the condition of a vehicle which is not able to be driven because of a failure of some component (e.g., bad battery, flat tire, engine seized) or because of an accident. [2] A driver who lacks the use of a limb. disabler: See ignition disabler disassemble: To take a vehicle or major component (e.g., the engine) apart in order to repair or restore the vehicle or component or to sell or recycle them. Also called "dismantle." disc: May be spelled "disk." A flat dish-shaped item which may or may not have a center hole.
Also see abrasive disc balance disc

brake disc brake disc type caliper disc center locking disc clutch disc cutting disc disc brake fixed-caliper disc brake floating caliper disc brake four wheel disc brakes friction disc grinding disc hardy disc hinged-caliper disc brake multi-disc multiple disc clutch multiple disc padding disc parking disc pin slider caliper disc brake plain disc wheel rotary disc valve tax disc ventilated discs wheel disc

discard diameter: The diameter at which a worn brake drum should be replaced discard thickness: The thickness at which a brake disc should be replaced disc brake: A type of brake that has two basic components: a flat rotor (disc) that turns with the wheel and a caliper that is stationary. When the brake pedal is depressed, linkage (mechanical or hydraulic) causes the caliper to force its heat-resistant brake pads against both sides of the rotating disc thus slowing or stopping the wheel. Almost all new cars have disc brakes on the front wheels with drum brakes on the rear. More expensive cars have four wheel disc brakes. Because of the need for greater pressure to activate disc brakes, most cars so equipped also have a power booster. Wear takes place in the pads and the rotors. The pads are usually replaced while the rotors can sometimes be reground else they too must be replaced. If the rotors are

not tightened correctly when installed, they can warp and cause a jerking motion when stopping.
Also see brake, disc type caliper disc brake fixed-caliper disc brake floating caliper disc brake four wheel disc brakes hinged-caliper disc brake pin slider caliper disc brake sliding-caliper disc brake

disc brake gauge: A tool for measuring the thickness, wear, and score depth on brake discs disc brake rotor: See brake rotor disc brakes: See disc brake. disc clutch: See multiple disc clutch discharge: [1] The action of drawing electric current from the battery. The opposite action to charging. [2] to pour out liquid from a pump. [3] the product (e.g., the liquid) that is poured out of a pump. [4] To bleed some or all of the refrigerant from a system by opening a valve or connection to permit refrigerant to escape slowly
Also see battery discharge controller capacitive discharge gas discharge headlight gas discharge lamp gas discharge light gaseous discharge headlight gaseous discharge lamp main mixture discharge nozzle

discharge air: Air conditioning air forced through the vents (ducts) into the passenger compartment discharge check ball: In a carburetor, a small check ball that lifts off its seat when the pump well is pressurized by the accelerator pump, which allows fuel to be discharged into the venturi through the shooter nozzle discharge controller: See battery discharge controller discharged battery: A battery that cannot produce sufficient power. discharge headlight:
See gas discharge headlight gaseous discharge headlight

discharge ignition: See capacitor discharge ignition system discharge indicator: See battery discharge indicator discharge lamp:
See gas discharge lamp gaseous discharge lamp

discharge light: See gas discharge light discharge line:

[1] In an air conditioning system, the line which connects the compressor outlet to the condenser inlet [2] The line which connects the compressor outlet to the condenser inlet discharge nozzle: In a carburetor, the end of the main delivery tube that discharges fuel into the venturi area. See main mixture discharge nozzle discharge pipe: The outlet pipe from a pump discharge plug: See surface discharge plug discharge pressure: [1] The pressure exerted in a liquid pumped, expressed in psi. [2] The (high side) pressure of the refrigerant being discharged from the air conditioner compressor discharge rate: Amount of current discharged from a battery, expressed in amps discharge side: [1] Outlet side. [2] The part of the air conditioner system under high pressure, extending from the compressor outlet to the thermostatic expansion valve/tube inlet discharge valve: [1] Valve on the outlet side of a reciprocating pump. The opposite is suction valve. [2] In an air conditioner system, a device used to check high side pressures, usually referred to as the high side service valve [3] A device used to check high side pressures. Usually referred to as the high side service valve discharge voltage:

See spark discharge voltage discharging current: Current supplied by a storage cell or battery, whose direction is opposite to that of the charging current discolor: To alter the color of (a finish, metal, etc.) to a color which is not wanted. This fading may be caused by sitting in the sun, drops of contaminants (tree sap, bird dropping, spilled gasoline), poor paintwork, etc. disconnect: To remove the terminal from a mechanical or electrical device or from the other side of the terminal. While some may be simply pulled apart, others have catches which must first be released. disconnect terminal: Solderless connectors in male and female forms, intended to be easily disconnected and connected. Typically, a blade or pin (male connector) fits into a matching receptacle or socket (female connector). Many components have built-in (blade) terminals that require a specialized female connector disconnect the battery: The action of removing the high tension electrical cables from the battery terminals. Also called "isolate the battery" discount:
See residual discount manufacturer discounts

disc sander: A round, rubber disc powered by an electric drill and covered with abrasive paper for rough sanding work.
also see orbital sander

disc type: See brake disc type disc valve: A type of rotary valve that allows the passage of fluid through an arcshaped slot.
Also see rotary disc valve

disc wheel: [1] A wheel constructed of stamped steel. [2] A rim and metal disc that have been welded together. The disc is usually offset from the centerline of the rim to allow for dual tire mounting and to provide sufficient clearance between the duals. Disc wheels are attached to the hub with either single nuts or double cap nuts.
Also see plain disc wheel solid disc wheel

disc wheel type: A type of dual mounting wheels where the discs are offset from the centerline of the rim to provide clearance between the tires. They are held in place by double cap nuts, inner cap nuts, and outer cap nuts. disengage: To move (a gear, dog clutch, etc.) so that it no longer meshes with another matching part disengage the clutch: During normal driving, the power of the engine is being transferred to the gears of a manual transmission because the clutch plates are pressed together. When you press down on the clutch pedal (or pull in the clutch lever on a motorcycle), you are releasing that contact (i.e., disengaging the clutch) so that there is no connection between the engine and the transmission. You engage the clutch when you release the pedal or lever. dish: [1] A depression in the top of a piston.

[2] Offsetting of the hub on a rear wheel on a derailleur bike to make room for the freewheel and still allow the wheel to be centered within the frame.
Also see negative wheel dish offset dish

dished: A plate, washer, or disc is dished when the center is recessed from the rim like a shallow bowl. dished brake disc: A disc that has worn thinner at the inner part of its friction surface. This is an abnormal form of wear dishing: See negative wheel dishing dish washer: A washer is a flat disc with a hole in the center. The disc in a dish washer is dished or bent in a concave fashion. disk: More commonly spelled "disc." dismantle: To take a vehicle or major component (e.g., the engine) apart in order to repair or restore the vehicle or component or to sell or recycle them. Also called "disassemble." dispersant: Dispersing or scattering in various directions; a state of matter in which finely divided particles of one substance (disperse phase) are suspended in another (dispersion medium) substance displacement:

The total volume of air displaced by all the pistons in travelling from BDC to TDC, i.e., the total volume of air and fuel the cylinder can hold before compression occurs. Also called "piston displacement."
Also see cubic inch displacement engine displacement light displacement loaded displacement piston displacement positive displacement compressor

displacement compressor: See positive displacement compressor displacement, piston: Volume obtained by multiplying area of cylinder bore by length of piston stroke. displacement taxes: A vehicle taxation system which determines the amount of taxes based on the engine displacement of the vehicle. displacement volume: That part of the cylinder capacity that is swept by the pistons on their up and down strokes (i.e., the volume through which a piston moves in one stroke) formed by the bore diameter and the piston stroke. Also called "swept volume." display: Any device that conveys information. In a vehicle, displays are either lights, gauges, or buzzers. Gauges may be analog or digita
also l. See compass display graphic display unit heads up display

display unit: See graphic display unit

disposition fee: A fee you pay at the end of the lease, to the lessor, that covers the lessor's cost of getting the vehicle ready for sale after you have returned the vehicle. It is often applied against any deposit you made at lease inception. dissipate: Scattered in various directions dissolve: Transition from one scene to another in which the whole image of the first gradually disappears as it is replaced by the second distance:
See braking distance reaction distance stopping distance trail distance

distance piece: A collar or spacer which is placed between two parts to keep them the correct distance apart. distance to the sun: See mean distance to the sun distilling apparatus: Fluid-reclaiming device used to reclaim used refrigerants. Reclaiming is usually done by vaporizing and then recondensing refrigerant. distillation: Heating a liquid and then catching and condensing the vapors given off by the heating process. distilled water: Pure water that through distillation has had all other chemicals (salts, suspended solids, and organisms) removed. It is recommended for topping

up batteries and radiators. distortion: A warpage, bendng, twisting, or change in form from the original shape. distribution:
See asymmetic power distribution asymmetrical power distribution constant power distribution equal power distribution load-controlled power distribution load distribution calculation load distribution power distribution static high-voltage distribution

distribution calculation: See load distribution calculation distribution channel: The path goods take as their title transfers from producer to consumer. The title transfer for consumer goods is usually accompanied by transfer of the physical goods, as well. distribution controls: Systems which help evenly and efficiently transfer the heating or cooling medium to the area where it is needed. distribution tube: See distribution tubes. distribution tubes: Tubes used in the engine cooling area to guide and direct the flow of coolant to vital areas.

distributor: [1] A unit in the ignition system designed to make and break the ignition primary circuit and to distribute the resultant high voltage to the proper cylinder at the correct time. The high voltage comes from the coil to the center terminal of the distributor cap and passes down the rotor. As the rotor turns, contact is made with each successive terminal on the circumference of the distributor cap. From there, the voltage goes into the spark plug wires and to the spark plug. Generally when your vehicle has its timing adjusted, it is the distributor that is adjusted.

Also called "ignition distributor." [2] A distributor performs many of the same functions as wholesalers such as selling, physical distribution, credit, etc.; but is between the dealer and the wholesaler. Some industries use the term distributor instead of wholesaler.
Also see breakerless distributor fuel distributor high-tension distributor HT distributor ignition distributor shaft distributor short-type distributor

distributor baseplate: The fixed plate in the body of the distributor on which the contact breaker or triggering device is mounted, and through the centre of which the distributor shaft passes distributor body: The bowl-like part containing the distributor shaft with the rotor arm at its top end, and, in the conventional version, the centrifugal advance mechanism and the contact breaker distributor cam:

The cam at the top of the distributor shaft with as many lobes as there are cylinders, acting on the heel of the contact breaker arm distributor cap: An insulated cover containing a central terminal or tower with a series (one per cylinder) of terminals or towers that are evenly spaced in a circular pattern around the central terminal or tower, the secondary voltage travels to the central terminal or tower where it is then channelled to one of the outer terminals or towers by the rotor. The cap also keeps dirt and moisture out of the distributor. distributor clamp: See distributor hold-down clamp distributor hold-down clamp: A metal bracket at the base of the distributor that has a nut or bolt which can be loosened to allow the distributor to be moved on its shaft to readjust ignition timing or to open the points for gapping. distributor injection pump: A fuel injection pump using pistons which pressurizes fuel for injection in the proper cylinder based on the relative port position of the rotating shaft in the hydraulic head distributorless ignition system: (DIS or DLS) An electronic ignition system that does not have a conventional rotating distributor. Instead, it uses multi-spark ignition coils or one ignition coil for each spark plug. distributor pipe: A pipe or tube through which the fuel travels from the fuel distributor to the injection nozzle distributor rotor: A rotating part of the distributor which transfers high voltage to each spark plug. In a distributors with points, it is oblong-shaped; but in a distributors without points, it is usually a disc. Also called a "rotor" or "rotor arm."

distributor shaft: The metal shaft inside the distributor that has a cam wheel which revolves with the shaft and forces the points to open. A spring causes the points to close. The distributor rotor is mounted on the top of this shaft.

distributor tower: The terminals at the top of the distributor cap into which the spark plug wires fit. Also called "terminal tower" distributor weight: One of two flat pieces of metal found inside the distributor's centrifugal advance mechanism on the baseplate. They swing out as speed increases and consequently advances the timing of the spark. distributor wrench: A special tool used to tighten or loosen the distributor hold down clamp when installing or removing a distributor district heating and cooling: Use of a central utility system designed to provide heating and cooling to large residential and industrial areas. dive: The action of the front of the vehicle to point downward (or dip) during braking. The opposite is squat.

Also see anti-dive system anti-lift anti-squat system anti-dive brake dive nose dive

diversification: In today's market, especially in smaller centers, a dealership cannot make a profit on just one brand of vehicle -- especially foreign imports. Thus the dealership will diversify by having several brands (e.g., Mercedes-Benz, BMW, and Mazda). A car manufacturer diversifies by making several different kinds of vehicles (trucks, vans, luxury cars, family-size cars, commuter cars, compacts, convertibles, sports cars, etc.) in an attempt to reach every segment of the population. Some dealers or manufacturers may diversify by offering lawnmowers, boat motors, and motorcycles as well as automobiles (e.g., Honda) or even musical instruments (e.g., Yamaha). diversion: An alternative route which traffic has to follow due to closure of a stretch of road for repairs, etc. A detour. divert: To cause (air, a liquid, traffic, etc.) to follow a different course. For example, air is diverted to the air cleaner; traffic has been diverted around the accident site. diverter valve: [1] A valve which adds an amount of air to the rich air-fuel mixture entering the intake manifold during deceleration. [2] Used in air injection system to channel airflow to either the exhaust manifold or oxidation catalyst under different operating conditions.
See air gulp valve air bypass valve

divided propeller shaft:

A propeller shaft, usually in long chassis rear-wheel drive vehicles, which is divided into two sections with a bearing and CV joint mounted on a chassis crossmember at the central point. Also called "divided propshaft" divided propshaft: A propeller shaft, usually in long chassis rear-wheel drive vehicles, which is divided into two sections with a bearing and CV joint mounted on a chassis crossmember at the central point. Also called "divided propeller shaft" divider: A measuring tool with two straight pointed arms used to mark off and transfer measurements, e.g., on sheet metal or other metal components.
Also see spring divider

divorced choke: Vacuum diaphragm is mounted on the carburetor, but the bimetal spring is mounted either on a pad on the intake manifold or in a heat well in the exhaust man. Choke lever is operated by a mechanical linkage rod from the bimetal spring. Also called a remote choke DIY: An acronym for "Do-it-yourself."
Also see do-it-yourself market

DIY mechanic: A person, whether qualified or not, who does his own repairs on his own vehicle. D-Jetronic: Term used by Bosch to describe a fuel injection system controlled by manifold pressure. The D is short for "druck," the German word for "pressure." Manifold pressure is measured to indicate engine load (how much air the engine is using.) This pressure is an input signal to the control unit (ECU) for calculation of the correct amount of fuel delivery

DKW: In 1904 Jörgen Skafte Rasmussen set up on his own as a manufacturer of boiler fittings. In 1906 he purchased a textile mill in Zschopau, Saxony. Production started there in 1907. During the First World War Rasmussen worked on a steam-driven vehicle (Dampfkraftwagen), from which the three letters DKW were derived. In 1922 the company Zschopauer Motorenwerke started manufacturing its own motorcycles. The sporting successes of the lightweight motorcycles with 2.25 hp two-stroke engine were remarkable. Victories in the Berlin Avus race in 1922 and the triple victory by the DKW team in the ADAC Reichsfahrt the same year made people sit up and take notice. The first DKW motorcycle was consequently called the Reichsfahrt. Over the next six years Zschopauer Motorenwerke/DKW established itself as the world's biggest motorcycle manufacturer. Rasmussen finally had access to a powerful engine for the DKW car (600 cc, 15 hp) in the form of the two-cylinder motorcycle unit (1927). The vehicle, which had a load-bearing body covered in imitation leather, had rear-wheel drive. It was produced in the Spandau district of Berlin from 1928. DL: An abbreviation for deluxe which is usually applied to a series of vehicles which is one step up from "custom" DLI: Acronym for "distributorless ignition" dlr: Abbreviation for "dealer" dnf: A racing term for "Did not finish" Doble: A vehicle brand of which the 1925-1948 models are classic cars. DOC:

Acronym for "double overhead camshafts" dock: See dry dock document:
See registration document vehicle registration document

Dodge: A vehicle brand of which the 1967-70 Coronet R/T models are milestone
Click for books on Dodge

dog: [1] Man's best friend. [2] A vehicle in very bad shape, which may not be man's best friend. [3] A lug or protrusion on an object. dog clutch: [1] A simple coupling with two halves called "dogs," with square projections in one that engage in square slots in the other to transmit drive, but can also be disengaged to break the drive. [2] Mating collars, flanges, or lugs which can be moved as desired to engage or disengage similar collars, flanges, or lugs in order to transmit rotary motion dog guard: A grid made of tubular bars or wire mesh to keep a dog in the back part of a vehicle dogleg pillar:

The C-post or C-pillar. dogleg section: An irregular shaped part of the leading edge of the rear quarter panel of a four-door sedan along the wheel cutout and up to the waistline DOHC: Acronym for "doubleoverhead camshaft." Refers to an engine with two overhead camshafts.

Also see double overhead cam engine type

do it to it: Trucker slang for Speed up as in "Now that we're on the boulevard lets do it to it."

do-it-yourself market: (DIY) The vehicle maintenance and repairs conducted by the vehicle owner or friend/relative who purchase auto parts from a retail outlet. do-it-yourself mechanic: A person, whether qualified or not, who does his own repairs on his own vehicle. dolly: [1] A metalworking tool, available in a variety of shapes and sizes, comprising a curved polished block of cast iron or forged steel, used to assist in forming three-dimensional shapes and in straightening dented panels, usually by holding the dolly behind the metal to be shaped and hammering the metal. See heel dolly. [2] A small two-wheeled trolley for moving heavy objects. [3] A trolley that supports the front wheels or back wheels of a disabled vehicle for towing it.
Also see grid dolly heel dolly kidney dolly mushroom-shaped dolly shrinking dolly toe dolly wheel dolly

domains: Groups of atoms that have same magnetic polarity dome:
See pop-up piston dome

dome-hat: Sealed metal container for the motor compressor of a refrigerating unit. dome lamp:

A dome-shaped interior light. Also called a "dome light." dome light: A dome-shaped interior light. Also called a "dome light." domestic: A vehicle produced in Canada, United States, or Mexico. The opposite is "foreign." donor car: A car from which parts are used to repair another one of the same type or to build a special or kit car do not enter: A sign indicating that travel is not permitted down a certain road or in that direction

door: The hinged side panels of a vehicle which permit the occupants to enter or leave the passenger compartment. In most cases the doors open so that the hinge is toward the front of the vehicle. When the hinge is toward the back of the vehicle, they are called "suicide doors."
Also see filler door five-door four-door gull-wing door pull-out door handle rear-hinged door sagging door suicide door three-door two-door

door alignment: Accuracy or fitting of the door in the door aperture door aperture: opening into which the door fits door beam: A longitudinal reinforcing bar which fits between the inner and outer shell of the door. It is designed to withstand side impacts. Also called a side impact bar. door bottom: The lower door area, both of the door skin and of the door frame, also the narrow horizontal lower panel of the door frame that has the drain holes door capping: the molding between the door trim panel and the window glass door check arm: A metal part near the hinge which has several notches which allows the door to remain partially or fully open door check strap: A leather strap near the hinge which prevents the door from opening too far. door face: The edges of a door which are not visible from the outside or inside when the door is shut. Also called "door shut." door frame: [1] the bare skeleton of the door to which the door skin and door trim are added.

[2] the door aperture. door gap: The distance around the door between the edge of the door and the aperture door glass: The glass pane filling the top half of a door, which can usually be lowered or raised door handle: The interior or exterior handle for opening a door.
Also see pull-out door handle

door hinge: The pivoting part which is attached to the door fram and the door pillar. It allows the door to swing open or shut. door hold-open spring: A spring attached to the door hinge to provide a spring load to keep the door in an open position door latch: That part of the door lock which contacts the striker plate as the door is closed, and springs back when the door is fully shut to hold it in the closed position door lock: A mechanism for allowing a door to be opened either by the operation of a key on the outside of the door or by releasing a mechanical switch on the inside of the door. door lock de-icer: A fluid which is inserted into the key-hole to melt the ice which has bound the tumblers in a door lock.

door mirror: An exterior, door mounted, rear-view mirror. On trucks and older vehicles the mirror is manually adjusted; but on many cars they are adjuste either by a cable inside the cab or by an electric motor with the switch inside the cab. The control device is located on the door, on the dash, or on the console between the driver and passenger. door pad: The door inner trim panel door panel: A panel covered in vinyl or other material and mounted to the inside of the door door pillar: One of the vertical members of the body shell ahead of and behind the doors, which also support the roof structure and reinforce the body as a whole door pillar switch: A small switch, typically in the lower portion of the A-pillar, whose main function is to turn on the courtesy lights when the door is opened and to indicate that the door is open especially if the key is left in the door. door pocket: A container or pouch located on the lower inside portion of the door. It can be used to store maps and other small items door post: One of the vertical members of the body shell ahead of and behind the doors, which also support the roof structure and reinforce the body as a whole door protector:

A strip of rubber, plastic, or chrome which fits over the edge of the door to protect it from damage when opened carelessly door pull: A handle on the inside of a vehicle door which allows the driver/passenger to pull his door shut door rates: The hourly rates charged by dealers on standardized units of service work. Hourly rates may or may not correspond to an actual hour of work. door seal: A weatherstrip surrounding the door to form a seal when the door is closed door shut: The edges of a door which are not visible from the outside or inside when the door is shut. Also called "door face." door sill: The bottom part of the door frame (i.e., the pat under the door when it is closed). door skin: The large sheet metal panel of the door visible from the outside. Available to body shops as a replacement panel for most cars door speaker: Radio/stereo speakers mounted in the door panel door stay: A device incorporated in door hinges that keeps the door in an open position and prevents it from closing under its own weight door step:

Top part of the outer sill, visible when the door is opened door surround: The faces of the door step, door pillars, and roof section which makes up the door aperture door trim: A panel covered in vinyl or other material and mounted to the inside of the door door well: A cavity enclosed by the door frame, door skin, and trim panel containing the window winding mechanism and into which the window glass is lowered doosy: See Duesy. dope: Highly combustible alcohol/methanol-based fuel mixture Dorris: A vehicle brand of which the 1925-1948 models are classic cars. dos-a-dos: Back to back seating on older cars where the driver and front passenger faced forward; but the two rear passengers faced rearward. DOT: Acronym for "Department of Transportation" -- an American federal agency or "Department of Transport" -- a British agency DOT 3: This brake fluid has a glycol base. It is clear or light amber in color. Its dry boiling point is 401° minimum and wet boiling point of 284° minimum. It

will absorb 1 to 2 percent of water per year depending on climate and operating conditions. It is used in most domestic cars and light trucks in normal driving. It does not require cleaning the system and it can be mixed with DOT 4 and DOT 5.1 without damage to the system. The problem with it is that it absorbs moisture out of the air and thereby reduces its boiling point. It can also damage the paint on a vehicle. DOT 4: This brake fluid has a borate ester base. It is clear or light amber in color. Its dry boiling point is 446° minimum and wet boiling point of 311° minimum. It is used in many European cars; also for vehicles in highaltitude, towing, or high-speed braking situations, or ABS systems. It does not require cleaning the system and it can be mixed with DOT 3 without damage to the system. The problem with it is that it absorbs moisture out of the air and thereby reduces its boiling point. It can also damage the paint on a vehicle. DOT 5: This brake fluid generally has a silicone base. It is violet in color. Its dry boiling point is 500° minimum and has no wet boiling point in federal DOT 5 specifications. It is used in heavy brake applications, and good for weekend, antique, or collector cars that sit for long periods and are never driven far. It does not mix with DOT 3, DOT 4, or DOT 5.1. It will not absorb water and will not damage the paint on a vehicle. It is also compatible with most rubber formulations. The problem with it is that it may easily get air bubbles into the system which are nearly impossible to remove, giving poor pedal feel. It is unsuitable for racing due to compressibility under high temperatures. If as little as one drop of water enters the fluid, severe localized corrosion, freezing, or gassing may occur. This can happen because water is heavier and not mixable with silicone fluids. It is unsuitable for ABS. DOT 5.1: This brake fluid has a borate ester base. It is clear or light amber in color. Its dry boiling point is 500° minimum and wet boiling point of 356° minimum. It is used in severe-duty vehicles such as fleets and delivery trucks; towing vehicles, and race cars. It can be mixed with DOT 3 or DOT 4 without damage to the system. It maintains higher boiling point than DOT 3 or DOT 4 fluids due to its higher borate ester content. It is excellent for severe duty applications. The problem with it is that it costs

more than other fluids and there is limited availability. It also absorbs moisture out of the air and thereby reduces its boiling point. It can also damage the paint on a vehicle. DOT number: The symbol DOT on a tire means it meets or exceeds Department of Transportation safety standards. Following DOT are a maximum of eleven numbers. E.g., "DOT FT TW A2NX 092." ("DOT" = meets or exceeds federal standards; "FT" = identifies manufacturing plant; "TW" = the code for tire size; "A2N" or "A2NX-3" or optional 4 digits = manufacturer's code to identify the characteristics of the tire; "092" = Week of mfg., in this case, 9th week of 1972. Prior to May 22, 1971 the manufacturer's plant was identified by only three numbers (Example DOT 129). Retreaded tires must also have a new serial number and can be determined by the letter "R" following DOT letters. double-acting: (of a shock absorber or pump) having a piston with fluid on both sides so that in a pump one piston end performs the suction stroke while the other discharges the liquid, and in a shock absorber both upward and downward movements are damped double anchor drum brake: See leading/trailing drum brake double-barrel carburetor: Two throttle openings or barrels from the carburetor to the intake manifold. Also called "twin-choke carburetor."
Also see four-barrel carburetor single-barrel carburetor

double bottom: Compartments at the bottom of a ship between inner bottom and the shell plating, used for fresh water, ballast water, fuel oil, etc double cap nut:

(Budd mounting) A type of securing device which consists of an inner cap nut (sleeve nut) and an outer cap nut. It is the most common method for mounting disc wheels in dual. double century: A bicycle ride of 200 miles. double clutch: See double clutching. double clutching: Vehicles with manual transmission and no synchromesh have difficulty shifting from one gear to another. With synchromesh, shifting is accomplished by depressing the clutch pedal and moving the gearshift selector from one gear to the next. Without synchromesh, shifting is not smooth unless you double clutch. Here you depress the clutch pedal shift to neutral lift up on the clutch pedal blip the throttle (accelerator), then depress the clutch pedal again and shift to the next gear. While this action seems complicated, you can get used to doing it to avoid the grinding noise heard in non-synchromesh transmissions. double coat: Two single coats of primer or paint applied with little or no flash time between them.
Also see single coat

double-cradle frame: A bike frame with two steel tubes circling the engine from the front and "cradling" it double-decker: A passenger bus with a set of seats on a floor above a lower set. double-decker bus:

A passenger bus with a set of seats on a floor above a lower set. double-declutch: A British term for double clutch double duty case: Commercial refrigerator in which a part of space is for refrigerated storage and part is equipped with glass windows for display purposes. double-ended spanner: British term for double-ended wrench double-ended wrench: A tool which has a hexagon ring at each end. double filament bulb: A light bulb with two filaments. For example a headlamp bulb with one for the high beam and another for the low beam; or a bulb with one filament for the stop light and another for the taillight. double flare: The end of the tubing, especially brake tubing, has a flare made so that the flare area uses two wall thicknesses. This makes a much stronger and safer joint in bicycle tubing. double harley: Trucker slang for Putting the CB on channel 11 as in "Anyone looking to buy a good C.B. take it to the double harley." double helical gear: A gear with two rows of inclined teeth, each forming an open "V" or chevron. Also called "herringbone gear" double hexagon socket:

A socket with 12 points rather than the normal 6 points. double leading brake shoe: A system of braking where two hydraulic plungers and separate pivots create better braking when the vehicle is going forward; however it is not very effective when the vehicle goes in reverse.
Also see single leading brake shoe

double nickel: Trucker slang for Traveling at 55 MPH as in "I sure got tired of running the double nickle." double overhead cam: (DOHC) An engine with two camshafts located above the cylinders. One drives the intake valves and the other operates the exhaust valve. In a single overhead cam engine (SOHC), one cam has enough lobes to drive both the intake and exhaust valves. The DOHC engine is considered to be a very sophisticated and more efficient

engine; but is sometimes more difficult to adjust the valves. Also called "twin overhead camshaft." See engine type. double overhead camshaft: See double overhead cam double-pivot steering: Steering in which the steered wheels are pivoted on kingpins, which is the usual arrangement on motor vehicles.
Also see ackermann steering single-pivot steering

double reduction axle: A drive axle construction in which two sets of reduction gears are used for extreme reduction of gear ratio double reduction gearing: Gearing in which the ratio is reduced in two stages, used especially in heavy trucks double roller chain: See duplex chain double thickness flare: Copper, aluminum, or steel tubing end which has been formed into twowall thickness, 37 to 45 deg. bell mouth or flare. double-throw switch single-pole:

(SPDT) Electric switch with one blade and two contact points. double-tube shock absorber: An older design of hydraulic shock absorber using two concentric tubes, one serving as the working cylinder, the other as the reservoir.
Also see single-tube shock absorber

double wishbone: A form of independent suspension used on the front of a vehicle where both the upper and lower wishbones are of equal length. double wishbone suspension: See double wishbone doughnut: See rubber doughnut coupling doughnut coupling: A flexible joint made of rubber and shaped like a ring doughnut. It is used, for example, between the front of the propeller shaft and the gearbox. Also called "doughnut joint."
Also see rubber doughnut coupling

doughnut joint: A flexible coupling made of rubber and shaped like a ring doughnut. It is used, for example, between the front of the propeller shaft and the gearbox. Also called "doughnut coupling." dowel: A pin projecting from one of two mating surfaces which fits into a correspondng hole in the other thus lining up the two pieces accurately during assembly.
Also see locating dowel

dowel pin: [1] A pin (steel or wood), passed through or partly through, two parts to provide proper alignment and to prevent movement between them. Sometimes called "locating pin." [2] Accurately dimensioned pin pressed into one assembly part and slipped into another assembly part to insure accurate alignment. downdraft carburetor: A carburetor in which the air passes downward through the carburetor into the intake manifold. Contrasts with sidedraft carburetor. downdraught carburetor: British spelling for downdraft carburetor downflow radiator: A traditional type of vertical radiator, with header tank and bottom tank and a system of small tubes and cooling fins in-between, the hot water entering at the top and exiting at the bottom. This type of radiator has been replaced by a crossflow radiator. downforce: A vertical force directed downward, produced by airflow around an object such as the body of a vehicle. downgearing: See downshifting. downhand welding: See flat position welding downpipe: The pipe that joins the entire exhaust system to the exhaust manifold. downshift: The act of selecting a lower gear. In Britain it is called "downward change."

Also see forced downshift

downshifting: Manually shifting to a lower gear in order to use the engine compression to assist in reducing the vehicle's speed. Also called "downgearing." downstroke: [1] The downward movement of the piston, either the intake stroke or the power stroke in a four-cycle engine. [2] Trucker slang for A hill going down as in "You can put her in georgia overdrive on the downstroke." downtime: Downtime occurs when a vehicle is being repaired (esp. a commercial vehicle), it cannot fulfil its function. There is a loss in both potential proceeds from its use as well as the salary of its operators. down tube: The bicycle frame tube running from the headset to the bottom bracket one part of the main triangle on a bicycleframe. down tube shifter: One of the gear shift levers that are mounted to the down tube of a bicycle frame.

downward change: A British expression of shifting the transmission to a lower gear. The North American term is downshift.

dozer: A portable frame straightening machine DP: Acronym for "dash-pot" D-pillar: The fourth vertical post in a van or station wagon. Also called D-post D-post: The fourth vertical pillar in a van or station wagon. Also called D-pillar dr: Abbreviation for "door," as in 2-dr. Sedan." draft: [1] An unpleasant current of air intruding into the interior of a car. [2] The depth of the ship below the waterline measured vertically to the lowest part of the hull. [3] To follow behind a faster vehicle to take advantage of its air currents.
Also see horizontal draft carburetor

draft gauge: Instrument used to measure air movement by measuring air pressure differences. draft indicator: Instrument used to indicate or measure chimney draft or combustion gas movement. Draft is measured in units of .1 in. of water column. drafting: The action of following closely behind a faster vehicle so as to take advantage of the aerodynamic effect which causes both the vehicles behind and the one in front to move faster. See slip stream.

draft marks: The numbers which are placed on each side of a ship at the bow and stern from the lower edge of the number to the bottom of the keel draft regulator: Device which maintains a desired draft in a combustion-heated appliance by automatically controlling the chimney draft to the desired value. drag: [1] To accelerate a vehicle from a standing start, over a course one-fourth mile in length. Also called "drag racing." [2] Used by some drivers when referring to challenging another driver to an acceleration race. [3] Air resistance. See aerodynamic drag. [4] The condition of a clutch when it fails to fully disengage. The plates still rub against each other and causes intermittent contact between the engine output and the transmission gears. Called "clutch drag." [5] The condition of brakes when the pads or shoes still rub the disc or drum. Called "brake drag."
Also see aerodynamic drag clutch drag coefficient of drag idling drag wind drag

drag coefficient: (Cd) A number used in calculating the aerodynamic drag acting on a vehicle. The drag coefficient is a function of factors like the shape of the vehicle, airflow through the vehicle for ventilation and cooling. The number is determined in a wind-tunnel or by coasting tests performed on the vehicle. The lower the drag coefficient the less drag on the vehicle and the more aerodynamic is the vehicle. A sleek vehicle has a drag coefficient, or "Cd," of about 0.30; a square, flat plate's is 1.98. Also signified by Cx. drag link: A steel rod connecting the pitman arm to one of the steering knuckles. On some installations the drag link connects the pitman arm to a center idler

arm. dragon fly: Trucker slang for A truck with no power as in "Drag 'er up one side of the hill, let 'er fly down the other" dragon wagon: Trucker slang for Tow truck as in "Looks like that bulldog is gonna need a dragon wagon." drag race: A competitive match between two vehicles in which they race over a 1/4 mile course. dragster: A specially constructed car for drag racing, typically with a huge supercharged V-8 engine mounted well back in the chassis and extremely wide rear tires dragstrip: A quarter-mile stretch of track for drag racing drag wheel: Special steering wheel used on some dragsters. Often consists of a crossbar spoke and a portion of rim on each end. drain: [1] To empty a container usually from the bottom. [2] A tube or channel which allows water to run to another place.
Also see magnetic drain plug oil drain plug oil drain valve radiator drain cock radiator drain plug


A petcock or drain tap.
Also see radiator drain cock

drain hole: A hole drilled in the bottom of a box section or a door, to allow water that has accumulated to escape so as to prevent or delay rusting draining tray: A container used to catch oil when draining the sump, transmission, etc. drain plug: Usually a threaded plug at the lowest point of the sump, gearbox, cooling system, etc., which is removed in order to drain the oil or coolant, and typically has a recessed hexagon head.
Also see magnetic drain plug oil drain plug oil pan drain plug radiator drain plug sump drain plug

drain plug key: A tool for removing and tightening drain plugs, e.g., on transmissions and engine sumps, either as a multi-purpose tool with a number of different drives in the form of hexagonal or square projections at either end for different drain plugs, or as a special tool for one specific size of drain plug. Also called a "drain plug wrench." drain plug spanner: A British term for a drain plug wrench drain tap: A device which controls the flow of fluid (oil or coolant) out of the bottom of the cylinder block or the bottom of the radiator. drain plug wrench:

A tool for removing and tightening drain plugs, e.g., on transmissions and engine sumps, either as a multi-purpose tool with a number of different drives in the form of hexagonal or square projections at either end for different drain plugs, or as a special tool for one specific size of drain plug. Also called a "drain plug key." drain valve: See oil drain valve draught: British spelling for "draft" draught excluder: A British term for "weatherstrip" draw: [1] To form wires by pulling the wire stock through a series of hardened dies. [2] The process of removing the hardness from a piece of metal. [3] The amount of electrical load or electrical requirement. drawback: See duty drawback drawbar: Two converging bars forming a V-frame or an A-frame at the front of a trailer or motorhome, which carry the coupling for attaching to the towing vehicle draw filing: A file is drawn across work at right angles. See draw-filing. draw-filing: Filing by passing the file, at right angles, up and down the length of the work.

draw-through: A tubocharger system in which the turbocharger sucks the air/fuel mixture through the carburetor or fuel in, i.e., the air and fuel mixing occurs upstream from the turbocharger dream car: A one-of-a-kind futuristic, experimental automobile usually appearing at auto shows to stimulate interest in the manufacturer's products. Much design benefit spurs from dream cars and many reach the production stage. dress: [1] to give (a rough surface, flanges, etc.) the right shape by grinding or a similar process. [2] To prepare ore for smelting by removing impurities. dresser: A motorcycle set up for long-distance touring dressing: See tire dressing dribble: Insufficiently atomized fuel issuing from the fuel injection nozzle at or immediately following the end of the main injection phase drier: [1] A dehumidifier. [2] A drying oven. [3] Substance or device used to remove moisture from a refrigeration system. [4] A device located in the liquid line, contains desiccant to absorb moisture from the system. Usually combined with the receiver
Also see A-drier accumulator-drier accumulator drier

gelling drier infrared radiant drier receiver-drier top coat drier tunnel drier

drift: [1] A short bar or punch used with a hammer to drive a component in or out of place for removal or installation. [2] To deviate from the normal direction.
See four-wheel Drift tire deviation angle

drift punch: A tapered tool which is hit with a hammer and used to remove or install pins, shafts, rivets, etc. or to align holes when inserting screws and bolts. drill: [1] A tool used to bore holes. [2] The action of using a drill to make a hole.
Also see hammer drill hand drill letter drills number drills press, drill spot-weld drill twist drill

drill bit: A piece of rod with spiral recesses cut in it and a hardened steel tip, made in different sizes for drilling different sized holes, and inserted in the chuck of a drill drilled: An expression used to describe a hole which has been cut into a crankshaft to allow oil to be fed to the main bearings on the connecting rod throws.

drill press: A nonportable machine used for drilling.

d ring: See D-ring. d-ring: A D-shaped ring found on many models of bicycle shift levers, used to adjust the level of tension on the inner parts of the lever. drip molding: The curved metal molding around the edge of the roof that directs water away from the side windows. Also called "drip rail" drip moulding: British term for "drip rail" drip pan: Pan-shaped panel or trough used to collect condensate from evaporator. drip rail: A gutter running along either side of the roof to take water to the front or rear of the car, and prevent it from dripping into the car when the door is opened. The British term is "drip moulding" drivable:

The condition of a vehicle which may have many mechanical and appearance problems, but it has an engine which runs and wheels that turn, etc. so that it can be operated and driven. drivability: The general qualitative evaluation of a powertrain's operating qualities, including idle smoothness, cold and hot starting, throttle response, power delivery, and tolerance for altitude changes. drive: [1] to travel in a car as in the expression, "We drove to Chicago." [2] to operate a vehicle as in the expression, "Martha drove to New York by herself." [3] to cause a wheel, shaft, etc. to turn or rotate. [4] to propel a vehicle. [5] a journey in a car as in "The drive to Chicago was uneventful." [6] to go for a drive as in, "We went for a drive last Sunday." [7] A stretch of private road leading to a house (i.e., driveway). [8] A means of transmitting power or motion as in "The drive is controlled by a servo switch." [9] A tool which has a square end (1/4 inch, 3/8 inch, or 1/2 inch) which fits into a recess in a corresponding socket for the installation or removal of nuts and bolts. [10] a die position. [11] One of the forward gears marked on the gear selector of an automatic transmission.
Also see all-wheel drive all wheel drive automatic four-wheel drive axle drive belt drive bendix drive bendix type starter drive bevel gear drive camshaft drive sprocket camshaft drive center drive chain drive clutch starter drive direct drive powertrain direct drive dual drive

eccentric drive Ferguson four-wheel drive final drive gear final drive ratio final drive fixed drive flexible drive handle flexible drive four-wheel drive friction drive front-wheel drive front wheel drive full-time four-wheel drive hotchkiss drive hydrostatic drive inertia drive intermediate drive plate left-hand drive meshing drive metallic drive screw overrunning clutch starter drive part-time four-wheel drive permanent four-wheel drive real-time four-wheel drive rear-wheel drive rear-wheel drive transaxle right-hand drive shaft drive starter drive strap drive tandem drive test-drive test drive torque tube drive torsen four-wheel drive tri-drive two-wheel drive v-belt drive

drive belt: A flat belt which connects two or more pulleys so as to transmit motion from one pulley to the other.
Also see camshaft drive belt

drive cable:

See speedometer drive cable drive chain: An endless chain which encircles two or more sprockets so as to transmit motion from one sprocket to the other drive end: The end of an alternator, generator, etc., where the drive pulley or gear is located. drive end bracket: The cover which houses the drive end of an alternator or generator drive fit: A condition of fit (contact) between two parts that requires pressure to force the parts together. Usually the shaft is slightly larger than the hole so that they must be pounded or forced or driven together. Also called "force fit," "press fit," or "interference fit." drive gear: The gear which transmits the power to a driven gear.
Also see final drive gear

drive handle: A tool, typically in the form of a bar, for turning sockets to loosen and tighten nuts and bolts, with a male square drive to be inserted into the female square drive of sockets for the turning operation. They include ratchets, jointed handles, speed brace, T-handles, torque wrenches, speeeder handle, and breaker bar.
Also see flexible drive handle

drive layout: The arrangement of the order of the engine, transmission, and driven axles, e.g., Front-wheel drive, rear-wheel drive, mid-engine drive, four-wheel drive, two-wheel drive

drive line: See driveline driveline: All the individual components beyond the engine up to the wheels (e.g., clutch, drive shaft, differential, driven axles); but not the engine or transmission. Also called "drivetrain" or "powertrain" drive module: interchangeable unit providing motive power, either in the form of an electric motor and ancillaries, or an internal combustion engine with all necessary components, for alternative use in the same vehicle according to needs and conditions drive motor: electric motor providing motive power in an electric vehicle driven: Something made to rotate by the engine or some other source of motive power.
Also see two-wheel driven

driven axle: The axle to which power is transmitted to drive the vehicle driven gear: An engine needs to transmit power to the wheels by the use of sprockets and chain (as in a motorcycle) or by a drive gear which meshes with a driven gear to propel the vehicle. driven plate: The central clutch plate carrying clutch linings and held under pressure between the flywheel and the pressure plate when the clutch pedal is released, and transmitting power to the gearbox input shaft via splines

driven pulley: A pulley which is surrounded by a belt to receive power from the drive pulley driven sprocket: On a vehicle which uses a chain (like a bicycle and some motorcycles), there are two important sprockets: the drive sprocket is connected to the power source (the engine or your pedals) and the driven sprocket is usually connected to your rear wheel. driven wheel: The wheel (or wheels) to which power is transmitted to drive the vehicle drive pinion: The shaft that takes power from the clutch into the gearbox.

Also see clutch shaft hypoid gear

drive plate: A light plate bolted to the crankshaft to which the torque converter is attached in a vehicle with automatic transmission.
Also see center drive plate intermediate drive plate torque converter drive plate

drive powertrain: See direct drive powertrain

drive pulley: [1] A pulley which is surrounded by a belt to transmit power to the driven pulley [2] The pulley attached to the nose of the engine crankshaft. It drives the compressor clutch pulley, usually with a V-type drivebelt driver: [1] A collectible vehicle which is too good to treat as a beater and not quite good enough to show. It is a presentable old car or truck that is used for everyday purposes. It is maintained as though it were a late-model vehicle. With care, it could be easily restored to show car condition. [2] A person who operates the controls of a vehicle to regulate its speed and direction. [3] A tool used to insert something like a fastening device (e.g., screwdriver). [4]
Also see drivers impact driver nut driver rim drivers socket driver tubular nut driver valve guide driver

driver air bag: original type of air bag, designed to protect the driver from being hurled into the steering wheel and instrument panel Driver and Vehicle Licensing Agency: (DVLA) A section of the British Department of Transport which is responsible for keeping records of all registered vehicles and issuing registrations and licences for vehicles as well as licences for drivers. The center is located in Swansea. Driver and Vehicle Licensing Center: The location for the British Driver and Vehicle Licensing Agency located in Swansea. drive ratio:

See final drive ratio driver error: A mistake made by the operator of a vehicle particularly when there is an accident. An accident may be caused by a vehicle failure (e.g., a tire blowout), unsafe road conditions (e.g., snow, ice, fallen rock or tree), the inattention of a pedestrian, or the fault of a driver (e.g., drunkenness, inattention, intentional damage, disobedience to rules of the road). driver evaluation: A test of a driver's ability to handle a vehicle. May be used to grant a driver's licence for a particular type of vehicle (i.e., motorcycle, passenger car, truck, bus, taxi) drivers: Colloquial term for "drive axle tires."
Also see rim drivers

drive screw: See metallic drive screw driveshaft: The shaft connecting the transmission output shaft to the differentialp inion shaft. It transmits power from the transmission to the differential. It is found primarily on

rear-drive vehicles. There is usually a universal joint on either end. Also called "propeller shaft."
Also see auxilliar drive shaft bevel drive shaft

drive shaft: See driveshaft driveshaft safety strap: A metal strap or straps, surrounding the driveshaft to prevent the shaft from falling to the ground in the event of a universal joint or shaft failure. drive sprocket: On a vehicle which uses a chain (like a bicycle and some motorcycles), there are two important sprockets: the drive sprocket is connected to the power source (the engine or your pedals) and the driven sprocket is usually connected to your rear wheel.
Also see camshaft drive sprocket

drive tool: Any accessory for use with a socket wrench, including the drive handle drive train: [1] This term refers to the entire moving part of the car: Engine, clutch, transmission, driveshaft, differential, axles, and sometimes the wheels.
Also see strain in the drive train

[2] The derailleurs, chain, freewheel, and crankset of a bicycle.

drivetrain: [1] This term refers to the entire moving part of the car: Engine, clutch, transmission, driveshaft, differential, axles, and sometimes the wheels. [2] The derailleurs, chain, freewheel, and crankset of a bicycle. drive transaxle: See rear-wheel drive transaxle driveway: A short drive, often leading to a garage driving: [1] providing motive power, making a gear, shaft, etc. rotate. [2] Controlling the movement and direction of a vehicle.
Also see al fresco driving defensive driving metro driving urban driving

driving axle: The axle which is driven by the engine through the drivetrain. Used to hold, align, and drive rear wheels and support weight of vehicle on rear wheel drive cars, or half shafts on front wheel drive cars that provide torque force to front wheels. Also called the "drive axle" or "driven axle" driving conditions: The situation created by the amount of traffic, the weather, and state of the roads driving gear: The gear which is driven by the engine. Also called the "driven gear" driving habits: The personal behaviour of the driver when controlling the vehicle, including the speeds he travels, how and when he shifts gears, how he uses the brakes, when and if he uses his signal lights, how he changes lanes, how he turns corners, etc.

driving lamp: A British term for "driving light" or "spot light."
Also see auxilliar driving lamp

driving licence: A British term for "driver's licence" or "operator's licence." A document which allows the holder to drive a certain type or types of vehicle, and is the only document required to be carried by the driver in Britain driving light: An auxiliary light used at night to illuminate the side of the road and increase the viewing distance.
Also see auxiliary driving light

driving mirror: A British term for either the interior rear-view mirror or the mirrors mounted on the outside of the front doors or the front fenders driving position: The position in which the driver grasps the steering wheel and adjusts the location of the seat in relation to the pedals. driving style: The manner in which the driver handles a vehicle. See sporty driving style driving wheel: The wheel(s) which is driven by the engine through the drivetrain. Also called the "driven wheel" drop: [1] A sudden reduction of pressure or voltage, etc. See voltage drop. [2] The vertical distance from the horizontal line connecting the two wheel axles and the bottom bracket, one way of determining the location of the bottom bracket in relation to the rest of the bicycleframe.

Also see drops

drop arm: A British term for the pitman arm drop-center axle: A beam axle in which the main central portion of the beam is lower than the wheel centers, which was the usual layout for front axles until independent front suspension became almost universal drop-center rim: See drop center rim drop center rim: A one-piece rim with a deep center section which is lower than the two outer edges, this allows the bead of the tire to be pushed into the low area on one side while the other side is pulled over and off the flange. The British term is "well-base rim" drop center rim taper: A passenger rim where both bead seats are tapered 5° or a tubeless truck rim where both bead seats are tapered 15°. drop-centre rim: See drop center rim drop centre rim: See drop center rim drop forged: A part that has been formed by heating the steel blank red hot and pounding it into shape with a powerful drop hammer. drop forging:

A piece of steel shaped between dies while hot drophead: [1] A British term for a convertible. The word "head" refers to the roof. [2] Having a folding top which can be raised or lowered over the passenger compartment.
See drophead coupé Jaguar Drophead Lagonda Drophead

drophead coupe: (DHC) This is a two-door automobile which has the appearance of a convertible, but the roof is fixed in place. Abbreviated: dhc. In Europe, it is called a "cabriolet." drophead coupé: This is a two-door automobile which has the appearance of a convertible, but the roof is fixed in place. Abbreviated: dhc. In Europe, it is called a "cabriolet." dropout: One of two slots in the frame into which the rear wheel axle fits.
Also see fork tips

dropout hanger: A threaded metal piece that extends below the right rear dropout of a bicycle used as a mount for the rear derailleur. dropped axle: A front axle that has been altered so as to lower the frame of the vehicle, consists of bending the axle downward at the outer ends. dropped valve: A situation where the rising piston hits a valve which has become dislodged or open at the wrong time.

drops: The lower, straight portion of a turned-down-type handlebar set. droptop: A colloquial term for "convertible." Druid forks: Side-sprung girder forks on a motorcycle. Druid was the original maker drum: [1] A cylindrical container. [2] A housing for transmission gears where the bands are located. [3] To make a "whump, whump" sound.
Also see brake drum brake drum lathe drum brake

drum brake: A type of brake using a shallow drum-shaped metal cylinder that attaches to the inner surface of the wheel and rotates with it. When you press down on the brake pedal, curved brake shoes with friction linings press against the inner circumference of the drum to slow or stop the vehicle.
Also see brake drum

drum brakes: See drum brake. drum compound: See anti-drum compound drum lathe: See brake drum lathe

dry: [1] For paint, to lose its wetness often to the place where the surface is not even tacky. [2] For bearings, to lack grease or other lubricant.
Also see air-dry air dry hard-dry surface dry touch-dry

dry ballast: A form of ballasting where a fine powder of barium sulphate is inserted inside the tire. It is sometimes referred to incorrectly as "Lead" ballast because of one brand name, "Ledballast." dry battery: See dry cell. dry boiling point: The temperature at which fresh brake fluid from a new container will boil. See wet boiling point, and DOT 3. dry box: Trucker slang for Freight trailer as in "I pulled both skateboards and dry boxes." dry bulb: An instrument with a sensitive element to measure ambient air temperature. dry bulb temperature: Air temperature as indicated by an ordinary thermometer. dry capacitor condenser: Electrical device made of dry metal and dry insulation; used to store electrons.

dry cargo ship: Vessel which carries all dry cargo dry cell: A battery (like a flashlight battery) that uses no liquid electrolyte. dry cell battery: Electrical device used to provide dc electricity, having no liquid in the cells. dry charged battery: A battery with the plates charged but lacking electrolyte when ready to be placed in service, the electrolyte is added. dry clutch: A clutch with only one plate. dry dock: An enclosed basin used to place a ship on dry land so that all the submerged parts and fittings can be repaired. dryer: See a-dryer dry friction: Dry friction exists when the rubbing parts have no other substance between them and are clean of other materials (i.e., no grease or oil). Opposite to wet friction. dry galvanizing: A hot-dip galvanizing method in which the metal components are first immersed in a solution of flux and then dried, so that they become precoated with a thin film of flux, which melts in the zinc bath, to which certain metals, such as tin and aluminum, may be added to give fluidity,

and in the case of tin, brightness. The opposite is wet galvanizing dry ice: Refrigerating substance made of solid carbon dioxide which changes directly from a solid to a gas (sublimates). Its subliming temperature is 109 0F I - 79 0C1. drying agent: See desiccant drying oil: Any oil that hardens in the presence of air and sunlight drying oven: An enclosure where painted vehicle bodies are subjected to heat in order to dry and/or bake on the paint drying time: The time required for a solvent to evaporate after an adhesive film has been spread over the two surfaces to be bonded dry joint: A faulty electrical joint which does not give proper contact dry liner: When a cylinder sleeve is pressed into a bore and the cooling fluid does not contact the outside of the sleeve, the engine has a dry liner.
Also see liner

dry manifold: An intake manifold with no integral coolant passages cast into it dry setting: The adjustment of the float with a graduated rule or drill bit while the carburetor is disassembled on the bench. Usually consists of setting a

prescribed clearance between the top of the float and the air horn dry sleeve: A cylinder sleeve application in which the sleeve is supported in the block metal over its entire length, the coolant does not touch the sleeve itself.
Also see wet sleeve

dry spray: See dry-spray. dry-spray: A paint fault where the paint pigment is not being held properly by the binder, or where the binder evaporates before the paint reaches the surface. Atomized paint that does not dissolve into the material being sprayed. It is caused by holding the gun too far from the work, too much air pressure or a solvent that evaporates too fast. dry sump: A lubrication system in which the engine's supply of oil is not contained in the crankcase (sump) but is pumped to the engine from an external container. This system allows the crankcase to be reduced in size and the engine to be installed lower in the chassis, and eliminates the oil starvation most conventional oiling systems suffer when subjected to the accelerative, braking, and cornering forces generated by a racing car. dry sump lubrication: See dry sump dry system: Refrigeration system which has the evaporator liquid refrigerant mainly in the atomized or droplet condition. dry type evaporator: Evaporator in which the refrigerant is in the liquid droplet form.

dry weight: The weight of a vehicle without any fuel, oil, or coolant.
Also see curb weight gross vehicle weight

DS: Acronym for "Diesel Severe" oil for use in under adverse conditions in diesel engines. dual: [1] a combination of two nearly identical parts (e.g., a truck with dual tires has two tires at each end of the axle). [2] In Britain, dual is a verb meaning to twin a highway or railroad. dual-acting: See double-acting dual axles: See tandem axles. dual bead tire: Heavy service and large truck tires using two or more sets of bead wires in each bead rather than one. dual-bed catalytic converter: A catalytic converter which combines two converters (with different catalysts) in a single housing dual brake: See dual brakes.

dual brakes: A brake system that uses a tandem or dual master cylinder to provide separate brake system for both front and rear of vehicle. In the event of a loss of hydraulic fluid, one system may still work because it is independent of the other system. Often the front left brake is linked with the right rear brake. Likewise the right front brake is linked with the left rear brake. Some cars like the Rolls-Royce, link the two front brakes with the right rear brake, and the two front brakes with the left rear brake. Also called "dualcircuit braking system." dual braking system: See dual brakes. dual breaker points: A distributor, using two sets of breaker points, to increase the cam angle so that at high engine speeds, sufficient spark will be produced to fire the plugs. dual carbs: Two carburetors on the same engine. dual carburetors: Two carburetors on the same engine. dual carriageway: A British term for a divided highway (i.e., a road that has four lanes -- two in one direction and two in the other -- separated by a median). dual-circuit braking system: A brake hydraulic system composed of two separate hydraulic circuits. See dual brakes dual controls:

A second set of controls for use by a driving instructor when teaching someone to drive dual drive: [1] Tandem axles, both powered directly by the engine. [2] Colloquial term for twin screw. dual exhaust system: See twin exhausts dual fuel engine: An engine equipped to operate on two different fuels such as gasoline and LP-Gas Dual Ghia: A vehicle brand of which the 1956-58 models are milestone cars. dual ignition system: See twin ignition system dual-line braking system: A braking system in which a towing vehicle and trailer are connected by two or more brake lines dual mounting: Two tires mounted together on each side of an axle of several types: cast spoke type, disc wheel type (held on by double cap nuts or inner cap nuts and outer cap nuts), Chevrolet type, and motor wheel type dual overhead cam engine: See double overhead cam engine. dual-piston engine:

See twin-piston engine dual-piston master cylinder: See tandem master cylinder dual-purpose motorcycle: Street-legal motorcycles with varying degrees of off-road capabilities. Also called dual-sport dual purpose ship: Specially designed ship for carrying different types of cargoes such as ore and/or oil. dual-range gearbox: See dual-range transmission dual-range transmission: A transmission in a four-wheel drive vehicle and some motorcycles with two sets of ratios, usually a higher set for road use and a lower set for offroad use. dual reduction axle: A drive axle construction with two sets of pinions and gears, either of which can be used duals: [1] Two sets of exhaust pipes and mufflers -- one for each bank of cylinders. [2] Two tires on each end of an axle.
Also see between duals kissing between duals

dual spacing: A measurement in inches (or millimeters) from the center of the tread of one tire, to the center tread of the other tire in dual, which provides clearance between duals for air circulation.

dual sport: Street-legal motorcycles with varying degrees of off-road capabilities. Also called dual-purpose motorcycles dual-tone horn: See two-tone horn Dubonnet suspension: An independent front suspension and steering arrangement used in the 1930s and '40s, in which the axle beam is rigidly attached to the vehicle frame, and the kingpins carry sprung steering and suspension arms, from which the wheels are mounted on stub axles duct: A tube or channel through which air, gas, or liquid is conducted, conveyed, or moved.
Also see air duct NACA duct oil duct

ductile: Metal which can be bent, hammered, or drawn out into wire or sheet without fracturing ductility: The ability of a material to undergo stretching or bending without fracturing

Duesenberg: A vehicle brand of which the 1925-1948 models are classic cars. Click for books on


Expression to indicate quality, as "It's a duesy." The word is derived from the high quality Duesenberg automobiles. dull: [1] A finish that is not shiny. [2] A blade, saw, or drill bit that is not sharp.
Also see go dull

dumbirons: The front extensions of the side members of a chassis frarne in older designs, to which were fitted the front ends of the leaf springs carrying the front axle. dummy: A stuffed figure made to look like a human being, used, for instance, when crash testing cars. Also called a crash test dummy.
Also see crash test dummy side impact dummy

dummy lights: [1] Exterior lights which do not work, but may enhance the appearance of a vehicle. [2] The idiot lights that indicate a condition, but does not give details as a gauge would do, e.g., an oil light that indicates low pressure. By the time it comes on, you may have damaged your engine. dump: See end dump dump body: A large truck's metal body which is generally hinged at rear and dumped by hydraulic means. The size is generally given in cubic yard water level capacity. dumps:

See bottom dumps dump truck: [1] A large truck with a bed designed to be tilted at its front to unload its contents usually through a gate in the rear. [2] In Britain it is a small truck with a tipping container in front of the driver, used in construction, like a front-end loader dump valve: A valve for relieving pressure, such as that between the turbocharger and the carburetor in some systems dunnage: Cushioning material placed among cargo to prevent their motion duo-servo brake: A servo brake with one double-end wheel cylinder and two linked selfenergizing brake shoes duo-servo drum brake: A type of self-energizing drum brake that has servo action in both forward and reverse duplex: Double, having two parts. Applies to motorcycle frames with two downtubes, and chains with double rows of rollers duplex chain: A chain with two rows of rollers, used especially for timing chains.
Also see simplex chain triplex chain

DuPont: A vehicle brand of which the 1925-1948 models are classic cars.

durability: [1] The ability of a component or entire vehicle to last a long time. [2] The expected lifespan of a paint film durable: The ability of something to be serviceable for a long time before being replaced Duraspark system: Ford electronic ignitions system duration: The length of time that an action is allowed to operate or that something is supposed to last.
Also see spark duration valve duration

durometer: A device to indicate the hardness of rubber. Duryea: See Stevens Duryea dust boot: [1] A covering (often shaped like an accordian) usually made of rubber or plastic to cover over a shaft, CV joint, etc. [2] A rubber diaphragm-like seal that fits over the end of a hydraulic component and around a pushrod or end of a piston, not used for sealing fluid in but keeping dust out dust cap: [1] A metal or plastic covering that fits into a hub shell to keep contaminants out of hub bearings. [2] A metal or plastic end cover for a spindle in a pedal or a cotterless crankset.

dust cover: A soft, flexible valve cap to protect the valve assembly from dust while in shipment and storage. It is not capable of sealing the air pressure and should not be used in service. dust-free paint: A condition of paint which has hardened beyond being tacky so that any air-borne dust particles will not be imbedded in the paint. dust sheet: A sheet for covering a car when in a garage and not in use.
Also see car cover

dust shield: Sheet metal disc or plate placed on the brake assembly to keep debris from brake assembly. Also called "splash shield." duties: See customs duties duty:
See heavy-duty light-duty

duty cycle: Many solenoid-operated metering devices cycle on and off. The duty cycle is a measurement of the amount of time a device is energized, or turned on, expressed as a percentage of the complete on-off cycle of that device, in other words, the duty cycle is the ratio of the pulse width to the complete cycle width duty-cycle solenoid: The duty-cycle solenoid is a computer-controlled device in a feedback carburetor that alters the mixture adjustment. Also called a mixture control solenoid

duty drawback: Import duties or taxes repaid by a government in whole or in part, when the imported goods are re-exported or used in the manufacture of exported goods. duty paid value: In respect to imported goods, is the aggregate value for duty on imported goods. duty waiver: forgiveness, in whole or in part, of import duties when certain conditions are met. DVB: Acronym for delay vacuum bypass system DVLA: Acronym for Driver and Vehicle Licensing Agency DVLC: Acronym for Driver and Vehicle Licensing Center DVOM: Acronym for digital volt-ohm multimeter dwell: [1] In a contact breaker ignition system, the number of degrees the breaker cam rotates from the time the breaker points close until they open again. Also called the "dwell angle" or "dwell period." [2] In a breakerless ignition system, the time during which the electronic control unit allows current to flow through the primary winding of the coil, which in ignition systems with a Hall generator is determined by the width of the vanes.
Also see variable dwell

dwell angle: See dwell. dwell-angle control: A system which makes sure that the dwell is sufficient for all engine conditions dwell-angle map: The pattern described by the electronic dwell-angle control, dependent on engine speed and battery voltage dwell meter: An instrument which determines the number of degrees the breaker cam rotates while the breaker points are closed. Changing the point gap affects the dwell angle. When the breaker points are correctly gapped, the distributor can give the proper amount and duration of spark to the spark plugs. dwell period: The time during which the primary circuit is closed and primary current flows through the ignition coil, given in crankshaft or distributor shaft degrees and therefore also called dwell angle. See dwell. DWS: Acronym for deflation warning system dwt: Deadweight ton(s) Dykem-type metal bluing: A special blue dye used to check a valve job. When applied to the valve set to show up as a dark ring contrasted against the brightly finished top & bottom cuts, making the seat easier to see and measure

dykes ring: A compressionpiston ring which is L-shaped when viewed from the end. When installed in the piston the horizontal part fits more deeply in the piston groove while the vertical side rubs against the cylinder wall. This style of ring gives good sealing and prevents piston-ring flutter during acceleration and deceleration of the piston. dynamic balance: When the center line of the weight mass of a revolving object is in the same plane as the center line of the object, that object would be in dynamic balance. For example, the weight mass of the tire must be in the same plane as the center line of the wheel. Static balance is made off the vehicle and determined with the tire stationary. Dynamic balance is made with the tire in rotation. dynamic ignition timing: Before the introduction of a strobe light, ignition timing was done statically in that the distributor was moved a certain measured amount. With modern engines, a timing light or strobe light is used. It is connected, generally, with the spark plug of the number one cylinder. As power is provided to that cylinder from the coil, the timing light flashes. When the light is projected to the flywheel, the timing marks are illuminated. Moving the distributor will make the timing mark move closer to a fixed mark (retarded) or further away (advanced). Also called stroboscopic ignition timing. The opposite is static ignition timing dynamic imbalance: Lack of balance in a rotating part such as a wheel, which can cause vibration and shudder dynamic seal: oil seal between a moving and a stationary part. Opposite to static seal dynamic supercharging: The pressurizing of the air/fuel mixture using the natural dynamic behaviour of the aspirated air, and not some mechanical device to compress it

dynamic timing meter: A GM diesel tool used for measuring timing while the engine is running by using a quartz sensor in the combustion chamber that measures the point of combustion and converts this to timing in degrees of crankshaft flotation through the use of a magnetic crankshaft pickup and microprocessor dynamo: A British term for a generator producing direct current.
Also see alternator

dynamometer: [1] An electric or hydraulic machine used to measure the actual engine horsepower output and torque. An engine dynamometer measures horsepower at the crankshaft and a chassis dynamometer measures horsepower output at the wheels. [2] Device for measuring power output or power input of a mechanism.
Also see roller dynamometer

dynastart: A combined generator and starter used on some cars in the 1920s and '30s, and more recently on two-stroke motorcycles dynastarter: A combined generator and starter used on some cars in the 1920s and '30s, and more recently on two-stroke motorcycles

E: Abbreviation for Economy Gear EACV: Acronym for "electronic air control valve." A valve used in fuel-injection system, usually computer controlled, that controls the amount of air bypassing the throttle during idle. The more air that bypasses the throttle, the higher the idle speed EAC Valve: electric air control valve. This is the GM version of a diverter air gulp valve, providing three functions in a single valve: 1. the normal diverter valve function, i.e., it diverts air on rapid increase in manifold vacuum; 2. it relieves pressure by diverting air to the air cleaner when the air injection system pressure exceeds a certain set level; 3. being solenoid-controlled, it allows air to be diverted under any desired operating mode
Also see EAS valve

EAMA: Acronym for "Egyptian Automobile Manufacturers Association." ear: A projection in the shape of an ear, usually as a lug or support for other components such as the brackets which are part of the fork cover and to which the headlight is mounted on a motorcycle. It is also a spoiler behind the rear windows to improve stability in side winds.

Also see fork ear

Earles forks: Long leading-link motorcycle forks, i.e., front suspension has a pivoting fork controlled by twin shock absorbers. Designed by Ernie Earles, they were used by many manufactures of motorcycles in the 1950s early fuel evaporation system: (EFE) A system that heats the inlet manifold to provide a warm air/fuel mixture, reducing condensation and improving fuel evaporation, thus improving cold engine operation and reducing exhaust emissions. An EFE system operated by engine exhaust gas responds quicker to engine heat-up than systems heated by engine coolant; some EFE systems use an electric heater in the intake duct early termination: A vehicle's depreciation is highest in the first few months after it leaves the dealer's lot. Since a lessee pays for depreciation in equal monthly payments, lessees who end a lease early have almost always used up more of a car's value than they've paid for. Therefore, lease contracts generally include penalties for early termination. Be aware of these penalties before you sign the lease contract and consider your ability to fulfill the contract. earnings: See average weekly earnings ears on: Trucker slang for CB is turned on as in "Any smokeys out there with their ears on." earth: British term for ground earth connection:

British term for ground connection earth electrode: British term for ground electrode earthmover: See A-2 tire. earth return: British term for ground return earth strap: British term for ground strap earth wire: British term for ground wire. ease up on the accelerator: The action of releasing the accelerator partially or completely in order to reduce the amount of fuel entering the engine and thus slow down the speed of the vehicle. Opposite of depress the accelerator or step on the accelerator. ease up on the gas pedal: The action of releasing the gas pedal partially or completely in order to reduce the amount of fuel entering the engine and thus slow down the speed of the vehicle. Opposite of depress the gas pedal or step on the gas pedal.. ease up on the throttle: The action of releasing the twist-grip or throttle lever partially or completely in order to reduce the amount of fuel entering the engine and thus slow down the speed of the vehicle. Opposite of engaging the throttle or cranking on the throttle..

ease up on the throttle pedal: The action of releasing the throttle pedal partially or completely in order to reduce the amount of fuel entering the engine and thus slow down the speed of the vehicle. Opposite of depress the throttle pedal or step on the throttle pedal.. easing fluid: Penetrating oil Easton: American developer of high quality aluminum and carbon fiber bicycle products. east-west layout: transverse positioning of the engine across the car from left to right, found in many front-wheel drive designs. Also called transverse engine. The opposite is north-south layout EAS Valve: The valve in an emission control system governing the airflow from the air pump in connection with the EAC valve. When its solenoid is energized, air is directed into the exhaust ports to increase oxidation and accelerate catalytic converter heat-up to operating temperature, and when its solenoid is de-energized, it switches airflow between the converter beds to help the oxidizing catalyst to decrease the CO and HC levels

easy access cab: A regular cab pickup with an extra fold-out section behind the door to allow you to have access to the things behind the seat. Unlike an extended cab, there is no seating behind the seat.

easy out: A brand name for a screw extractor. easy-out: A brand name for a screw extractor. eat: to corrode and remove the metal from the front fender has been eaten away by rust eat away: to corrode and remove the metal from the front fender has been eaten away by rust eat-em-up: Trucker slang for Truck stop Cafe as in "It's been so long since I stopped at the eat em up that my stomach thinks my throats been slashed." eater: See rust eater

ebonite: hard black rubber compound especially one containing no filler e box: Any electronic box including capacitive discharge ignition and computer controlled devices. e-box: Any electronic box including capacitive discharge ignition and computer controlled devices. E-brake : See emergency brake ECA: Acronym for electronic control assembly ECC: Acronym for electronic climate control eccentric: [1] Two circles, one within the other, neither sharing the same center, i.e., they are off-center. [2] A protrusion on a shaft that rubs against or is connected to another part, such as a cam on a camshaft. [3] A part transmitting an eccentric drive, such as a disc with a provision for a drive from its outer part, or an eccentric shaft eccentric bolt: A bolt with centers of head and body on different axis so that one is offcenter in relation to the other. eccentric drive: A drive from a point not on the axis of the driving shaft, e.g., from the outer part of a disc, so that a reciprocating or up and down motion is transmitted; used in pumps or for a camshaft drive

eccentric journals: These are used to attach the connecting rods to the crankshaft (also called metal shafts) eccentric rotor pump: rotor-type pump eccentric shaft: A shaft transmitting eccentric motion ECE test cycle: A 13 minute, three-part test of automotive emissions for compliance with emission standards, adopted by most European countries, simulating urban driving conditions, i.e., involving relatively long idling periods and speeds below 35 mph, emission characteristics at cruising speeds not being considered echelon parking: A British term for angle parking ECI: Acronym for electronically controlled injection Eclat: A 2+2 Coupe produced by Lotus from 1975 to 1982. This vehicle was the basis for the current Lotus Excel. ECM: Acronym for "electronic Control Module" which is the master computer responsible for interpreting electrical signals sent by engine sensors and for activating automated engine components and processes accordingly in order to produce optimum performance. ecological damage:

damage to the environment, usually in the form of pollution, such as that caused by vehicle emissions ecologically harmful: damaging to the environment automotive exhaust gases are ecologically harmful ecology: Science of life balance on earth. economical: The determination of how much money or fuel is required to cover a particular distance. Good economy involves driving at a steady rate, avoiding rapid starts and stops, driving in the highest possible gear, avoiding using power- robbing components (e.g., air conditioning), proper tire inflation, etc. Economic Cooperation: See Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation economizer: A device for making a vehicle use less fuel, either by regulating the flow of fuel, or by admitting extra air to the air/fuel mixture -- especially when cruising economizer valve: A fuel flow control device within the carburetor. economy: The ratio between a product or service and its value.
Also see corporate Average Fuel Economy epa fuel economy fuel economy tuned for economy

economy device:

See economizer economy gear: High gear designed for economical cruising often better than 1:1 ratio like an overdrive. economy jet: An additional jet in a carburettor admitting extra air to the air/fuel mixture -- especially when cruising economy ratio: An overdrive gear ratio better then 1:1 for economical cruising ECS: [1] Acronym for electronically controlled suspension. [2] Acronym for evaporation control system ECT: Acronym for "engine coolant temperature sensor" ECU: Acronym for "electronic Control Unit" eddy currents: Induced currents flowing in a core. edge:
See *absorption edge abutting edge beaded edge feather-edge feather edge leading edge trailing edge wiring an edge

edge binding: tape for securing the edges of carpets edge guard: rubber or plastic, U-section strip fitted to panel edges to protect them against chipping, etc. edge joint: A joint formed when two pieces of metal are lapped with at least one edge of each at an edge of the other. edge protection: protection of edges against corrosion, e.g.. by weatherstrips edge-ride: The tendency of crankshaft main bearings to ride up the radius (rather than seat on the journal) when the radius is too large edge tire: See beaded edge tire edge trim: rubber or plastic, U-section strip fitted to panel edges to protect them against chipping, etc. Edison base: A light bulb base that is threaded. Edison screw: A light bulb base that is threaded

Edsel: A model of automobile manufactured by Ford
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Edwardian car: A car built in Great Britain between 1905 and 1918 EEC: [1] Acronym for electronic engine control system. [2] Acronym for evaporative emission control system EECS: Acronym for "evaporative emissions control system" EER: Acronym for energy efficiency ratio EESS: Acronym for evaporative emission shed system EEVIR: Acronym for evaporator equalized valve in receiver EFE: Acronym for early fuel evaporation system EFE system: Acronym for Early Fuel Evaporation System effect:
See alteration effect

barrier effect braking effect engine braking effect ground effect hall effect kadenacy effect liftoff effect load alteration effect roll steer effect self-centering effect synergetic effect synergistic effect

effective: [1] actual rather than theoretical or potential. [2] producing an effect.
Also see cost-effective indicated mean effective pressure mean effective pressure

effective area: Actual flow area of an air inlet or outlet. Gross area minus area of vanes or grille bars. effective deflection: deflection of a suspension system under a particular load effective pressure:
See brake mean effective pressure indicated mean effective pressure mean effective pressure

effective stroke: working or power stroke in a two-stroke engine effective temperature: Overall effect on a human of air temperature, humidity, and air movement.

efficiency: [1] The accomplishment of something with the least amount of effort, energy, or fuel. [2] Output of a device, system, or activity, divided by the input necessary to create the output. In a compressor the efficiency would be the work output, as measured by pressure change, divided by the energy input (usually electrical).
See braking efficiency catalyst efficiency catalytic efficiency charging efficiency fuel efficiency mechanical efficiency thermal efficiency trapping efficiency volumetric efficiency

effort: The force which is doing work on an object.
Also see braking effort

EFI: (EFi) Acronym for electronic Fuel Injection EGC: Acronym for exhaust gas check valve egg-crate grille: A radiator grille with crisscrossing bars forming gaps which are more or less square. One of the distinctive characteristics of Cadillac cars EGI: Acronym for electronic gasoline injection EGO: Acronym for exhaust gas oxygen sensor

EGR: Acronym for "Exhaust-gas recirculation."
Also see negative transducer EGR valve vacuum modulated EGR

EGRC: Acronym for EGR control solenoid EGR control solenoid: (EGRC) energizes to allow manifold vacuum to the EGR gas temperature EGRV: Acronym for EGR vent solenoid EGR vacuum: A vacuum source above the closed throttle plate; used for control of ported EGR valves. Vacuum is zero at closed throttle EGR valve: [1] A part of an EGR system mounted on or near the inlet manifold and controlled by inlet manifold vacuum, which is usually closed at idle and low speeds, but opens during acceleration, admitting exhaust gas to the inlet manifold. Most EGR valves are of the single diaphragm type, some are dual diaphragm valves connected to two separate vacuum sources to more closely match EGR function to engine loads; for the same purpose, EGR valves are frequently governed by additional regulating devices. [2] A valve used to introduce exhaust gases into the intake air stream. There are several types.
Also see integral backpressure transducer EGR valve ported EGR valve electronic EGR valve valve and Transducer assembly negative transducer EGR valve

EGR valve position sensor: (EVP) A potentiometric sensor used in electronically controlled EGR system. Sensor wiper position is proportional to EGR valve pintle position,

which allows electronic control assembly to determine actual EGR flow at any point in time EGR vent solenoid: (EGRV) electrical solenoid that normally vents EGRC vacuum line. When EGRV is energized, EGRC can open the EGR valve EGR venturi vacuum amplifier: A device that uses a relatively weak venturi vacuum to control a manifold vacuum signal to operate the EGR valve. Contains a check valve and relief valve that open whenever the venturi vacuum signal is equal to or greater than manifold vacuum EIA: Acronym for "Electronics Industries Association." eight: eight-cylinder engine, or a vehicle fitted with one; the cylinders may be inline (a straight eight) or in a V-layout (a V-8).
Also see flat eight straight eight V-eight

8 trk: Abbreviation for "eight-track" tape player found in many '60s and some '70s cars. 8-trk: Abbreviation for "eight-track" tape player found in many '60s and some '70s cars. eighteen wheeler: Trucker slang for A truck with 18 wheels as in "If you got it an 18-wheeler brought it." eight track:

See eight-track. eight-track: An 8-track tape player found in many '60s and some '70s cars. EIN: Engine Identification Number eject: To push or throw out eject button: button on a cassette player or CD player for taking out the cassette or CD ejector: Device which uses high fluid velocity, such as a venturi, to create low pressure or vacuum at its throat to draw in fluid from another source. Elan: A two-seater roadster produced by Lotus from 1964 to 1974. elapsed time: (ET) The length of time it takes a dragster to complete the one-fourth mile run. elasticity: [1] The ability to recover the original size and shape after being deformed, especially stretched, forces are released. [2] The property of an adhesive or sealer which enables it to recover its original shape and size when deforming forces are removed. It is the ability to change size or shape repeatedly without breaking the molecular bonds that cause an object to hold its shape. elastomer:

[1] A term which includes natural rubber and the many synthetic materials that possess rubber-like properties. [2] An elastic macromolecular material that at room temperature returns rapidly to approximately its initial dimensions and shape after substantial deformation by a weak stress and release of the stress. [3] A classification of rubber-like substances used in the formulation of adhesives, coatings, and sealers without reference to their composition. Also classed as an elastic material that can be stretched repeatedly to at least twice its original length and, upon sudden release of stress, to return with equal force to its approximate original length thermoplastic elastomers [4] An elastic polymer, a springy plastic used commonly as a spring or shock absorber, particularly in suspension forks and similar mechanisms. elbow: A pipe or rod with a bend, usually at right angles.
Also see mechanic's elbow

ELC: Electronic level control

Eldorado: A Cadillac vehicle brand of which the 1953-58, 6770 Eldorado models are milestone cars. Also see the history of Cadillac Eldorado.
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Eldorado Brougham: See Cadillac Eldorado Brougham

Electra: A model of automobile manufactured by Buick

Click for books on Buick Electra

electric: operated by or derived from electricity electric air control valve: The EAC valve electric air switching valve: EAS valve electrical: relating to electricity electrical arcing: Band of sparks formed when an electrical discharge from a conductor jumps to another conductor electrical balance: An atom or an object in which positive and negative charges are equal electrical conductivity: The ability of a material to conduct electricity. The opposite is resistivity or resistance. electrical potential: Electrical force which moves, or attempts to move, electrons along a conductor or resistance. electrical resistance: The difficulty electrons have moving through a conductor or substance. electrical screwdriver: A British term for an electric screwdriver electrical spanner:

A British term for an ignition wrench electrical system: The system that generates, stores, and distributes electrical current to crank the engine for starting and to keep it running by providing high voltage to the spark plugs; and to give power to the lights, the heater motor, radio, and other accessories. It is made up of the ignition system starter motor, battery alternator voltage regulator lights, electrical accessories and all the wiring, switches, and relays. electric car: A car whose only power source is an electric motor and a number of batteries. electric charge: A definite quantity of electricity, which-may be positive, as with protons, or negative, as with electrons.
Also see coulomb

electric current: The flow of electricity passing through a conductor electric defrosting: Use of electric resistance heating coils to melt ice and frost off evaporators during defrosting. electric fuel pump: electrically powered gasoline or diesel pump which draws fuel from the tank and delivers it to the carburetor or fuel injection system electric grid: The electrical system electric heating:

System in which heat from electrical resistance units is used to heat the building. electrician: See automotive electrician electric insulation: Substance which has almost no free electrons. electricity: See static electricity electric mirror: An external door mirror which is controlled by an electric motor and operated by a switch inside the car electric motor: A device which changes electrical energy into rotational motion. In addition to the starter and windshield wiper motors, which were the first electric motors to be added to the automotive electrical system, modern cars include a large number of small motors for driving such items as the electric windows, aerials, sunroofs, mirrors and seat adjustment, central locking and power hoods; electric-powered cars use large motors for their drive. electric rectifier: Electrical device for converting ac to dc. electric screwdriver: A tool which resembles a pistol which can accept screwdriver bits. It is similar to an electric drill. electric top: A power convertible roof. The British term is "power hood"

electric vehicle: Cars, buses, vans or trucks which use dedicated or hybrid electric systems as their power source. electric water valve: Solenoid type (electrically operated) valve used to turn water flow on and off. electric welding: Welding by using an electric current to melt both metal (work) and welding rod, or electrode electric windows: Side windows which are raised and lowered by an electric motor which is operated by a switch. electrochemical: Chemical (battery) production of electricity. electrochemical corrosion: corrosion involving at least one electrode reaction electrocoating: electrophoretic painting

electrode: [1] In a spark plug one electrode (the center electrode) is the center rod passing through the insulator. The side electrode is a rod welded to the shell of the spark plug. The distance between them is the spark gap. [2] In welding it is the metal rod that is used in arc welding. A substance which brings electricity up to the point where the arc is to be formed; in other words it is the material immediately adjacent to the arc proper and the one which carries the current to this point. In electric arc welding the electrode is usually melted and becomes a part of the weld.
Also see center electrode coated electrode compound center electrode compound electrode covered electrode earth electrode ground electrode negative electrode outer electrode platinum electrode positive electrode side electrode spark plug electrode top electrode triangular ground electrode

electrode adjusting tool: A British term for a spark plug gap gauge electrode gap: Spark plug gap electrodeposition: A generic term for electrolytic processes in which a metal is deposited at the cathode from a solution of its ions, such as electroplating, or in which paint is deposited in an immersion process by means of electric current electrodeposition process:

Process in which metallic particles are applied to another metal surface through the use of an electric current. electrode spark plug: See split electrode spark plug electrogalvanizing: An electroplating coating of zinc on metal that will rust (i.e., iron or steel). electro-hydraulic pressure actuator: See pressure actuator electro-hydraulic pump: An electrically powered hydraulic pump used to create pressure in certain portions of the brake system. Typically found in GM Powermaster brake boosters and in ABS hydraulic control units electrolysis: [1] A method by which chemical reactions are carried out by passage of electric current through a solution of an electrolyte or through a molten salt. [2] Movement of electricity through a substance which causes a chemical change in the substance or its container. electrolyte: In automotive batteries, it is a sulphuric acid and water solution. It can be any solution (usually an acid) that will conduct electric current. The acid reacts with the battery plates (usually made of lead) to produce direct current (DC) electricity. electrolytic: relating to electrolysis or an electrolyte electrolytic cell: A cell consisting of electrodes immersed in an electrolyte solution for carrying out electrolysis

electrolytic condenser-capacitor: Plate or surface capable of storing small electrical charges. electrolytic corrosion: electrochemical corrosion causing the electrolytic removal of metal electrolytic deposition: electroplating electrolytic galvanizing: electrogalvanizing electrolytic protection: cathodic protection electromagnet: A magnet produced by placing a coil of wire around a steel or iron bar. When current flows through the coil the bar becomes magnetized and will remain so as long as the current continues to flow. electromagnetic: Magnetic (generator) production of electricity. electromagnetic clutch: any clutch in which a magnetic force is used to hold the drive in engagement, such as that in the compressor drive of an air-conditioning system electromagnetic energy: Energy which has both electrical and magnetic characteristics. Solar energy is electromagnetic. electromagnetic induction:

Voltage is induced in a coil of wire by moving coil through a magnetic field or by keeping coil stationary and moving magnetic field. $electrometer: See *absolute electrometer electromotive force: (EMF) A source of electrical energy required to produce an electric current, produced by devices such as batteries or generators and measured in volts. See voltage. electromotive force voltage: (emf) Electrical force which causes current (free electrons) to flow or move in an electrical circuit. Unit of measurement is the volt. electron: A negatively charged particle that makes up part of the atom.
Also see bound electrons free electrons

electron flow: A current produced by the motion of free electrons towards a positive terminal, whose direction is the opposite to that of the current electronic: Featuring semiconductors (usually transistors) as an operating medium.
Also see fully electronic ignition high energy ignition system with electronic spark timing magnetically controlled electronic ignition

electronic air control valve: (EACV) A valve used in fuel-injection system, usually computer controlled, that controls the amount of air bypassing the throttle during idle. The more air that bypasses the throttle, the higher the idle speed electronically controlled: Most items can be controlled by a mechanical means (squeeze a lever to move something) or by hydraulics (a lever pushes fluid which applies movement to something) or electronically (move a switch and a servo

motor moves something) electronically controlled transmission: A transmission that relies on sensors, an electronic control unit (ECU), and solenoids to control torque convertor lockup and shift points electronically-controlled wastegate: A turbo-charger wastegate that is activated by an electric signal from a computer electronic brake control module: (EBCM) GM's term for the electronic control unit electronic climate control: (ECC) An air conditioning system control which determines and maintains the preset temperature in the passenger compartment. electronic cluster: A display showing various functions, including speedometer, tachometer, gauges, etc., using LEDs or LCD technology displaying symbols and bar graphs instead of numbers. The opposite is an analog cluster Electronic control Assembly: ECA: A Ford vehicle computer consisting of a calibration assembly containing the computer memory, its control program, and processor assembly (the computer hardware) electronic control diagnostics: Trouble codes which may be referenced on an automatic climate control system to diagnose problems. electronic control module: (ECM) [1] The master computer responsible for interpreting electrical signals sent by engine sensors and for activating automated engine components and processes accordingly in order to produce optimum performance.

[2] A GM term and also a generic term referring to the computer. The ECM is the brain of the engine control system receiving information from various sensors in the engine compartment. The ECM calculates what is required for proper engine operation and controls the different actuators to achieve it Also called "electronic control unit" electronic control unit: (ECU) [1] A microprocessor and memory with electronic maps, forming the central part of an engine management system or of subsystems such as a fuel injection or ignition system. [2] The "brain" of an ABS system. The ECU reads impulses from the wheel speed sensors to determine if anti-lock braking needs to take place. If so, the ECU controls the cycling of the solenoid valves in the hydraulic control unit. Also called "Electronic Control Module" electronic EGR valve: The EGR valve used in engine management system in which the EGR flow is controlled by the computer (usually by means of an EGR valve position sensor attached to the EGR valve). Operating vacuum is supplied by EGR solenoid valve(s) electronic engine control: (EEC) [1] The engine management system which controls the ignition system and various other systems, including the exhaust gas recirculation and airinjection systems. [2] Ford's computerized engine control system. There are four versions: EEC-I controls engine timing. EEC-II controls engine timing and fuel (on engines with an FBC system). EEC-III-FBC is a refined version of EECII. EEC-III-CFI controls engine timing and fuel (on engine with an EFI system). EEC-IV is a refined version of the EEC-III system electronic fuel injection: (EFI or EFi) A system that injects fuel into the engine and includes an electronic control unit to time and meter the flow. Fuel is delivered in intermittent pulses by the opening and closing of solenoid-controlled injectors. Also called pulsed injection

electronic gasoline injection: (EGI) Mazda's fuel injection system for the RX-7, RX-7 Turbo, 323, and 626 electronic ignition:
See electronic ignition system all electronic ignition capacitor controlled electronic ignition contact controlled electronic ignition contactless electronic ignition fully electronic ignition magnetically controlled electronic ignition

electronic ignition system: An ignition system using electronic switching devices to assist or eliminate the mechanical breaker points. There are three basic electronic ignitions: contact controlled (the breaker points are retained but merely serve to trigger a transistor which switches the heavy primary current), magnetically controlled (transistors are used as the switching device for the primary current and the points are eliminated -- also called "contactless" or "all-electronic"), and capacitor controlled (also called "capacitive-discharge system" and can be either all-electronic or breakerpoint controlled). electronic leak detector: Electronic instrument which measures electronic flow across gas gap. Electronic flow changes indicate presence of refrigerant gas molecules. electronic navigator: A trip computer which gives estimated time of arrival (ETA), amount of fuel left, average fuel consumption, etc. electronic relay: Electronic switch, such as a triac, which controls a power consuming device. electronic ride control:

A suspension control system made up of a microprocessor-controlled, electronically adjustable air shock absorbers for automatic selection of the optimum damping characteristics depending on road surface and load conditions electronics: Field of science dealing with electron devices and their uses. Also see automotive electronics electronic sensing device: An electronic device for vehicles with fuel injection. It detects changes in speed and driving conditions and determines the amount of fuel to be injected into the combustion chamber thus eliminating the need for carburetors. electronic sight glass: Device that sends an audible signal when system is low in refrigerant. electronic spark: See high energy ignition system with electronic spark timing electronic spark advance: (ESA) the part of an ECU that controls ignition timing and dwell angle electronic spark control: (ESC) The timing of the ignition by means of an ignition map, either integrated into the mapped ignition systems or available as a separate module to enhance transistorized ignition systems. Also called "electronic spark timing." electronic spark timing: (EST) The timing of the ignition by means of an ignition map, either integrated into the mapped ignition systems or available as a separate module to enhance transistorized ignition systems. Also called "electronic spark control."
Also see

high energy ignition system with electronic spark timing

electronic spark timing system: (EST) An ECM-controlled timing of ignition spark. This replaces the vacuum or centrifugal mechanism in the distributor and uses the computer to advance or retard the spark timing electronic thermistor: Electrical device that senses temperature change to control an output source; see thermistor electronic thermostat: Thermostat that uses electronic components to accomplish various sensing, switching, timing, staging, and display functions. electronic traction control: (ETC) A system for reducing wheelspin, incorporating wheel sensors.
Also see antispin regulation

electronic transmission: A system of controlling the shifting of gears in the transmission by means of electrical pulses sent to solenoids and relays. In mechanical transmissions, the operator moves levers which makes the transmission shift gears. electronic transmission control: A system or module for controlling an automatic transmission electro vacuum relay: (EVR) a combination solenoid vacuum valve and electrical relay which locks out blower operation and closes the fresh air door in cold weather, and switches the system to the recirculating air mode during maximum system use electronic voltage regulator:

(EVR) a type of regulator that uses all solid state devices to perform the regulatory functions electrons: See bound electrons free electrons electropainting: Electrophoretic painting.
Also see cathodic electropainting

electropaint tank: A tank in which items are immersed for electrophoretic paint application electrophoretic painting: A process used to apply the first coat of paint (primer) to car bodies. The process involves using negatively charged paint particles (anodic electropainting) or positively charged paint particles (cathodic electropainting). The cleaned metal parts to be coated are immersed in a tank of electrodeposition paint, and the current is turned on, so that the paint particles are attracted by the positively charged paint particles electrophoretic primer: Paint used to prime car bodies by the electrophoretic process electro picker: A device which is electrically operated and is used to open locked car doors. It is available only to automotive locksmiths and the police. It consists basically of a vibrator with an attached steel blade. When the vibrating blade is inserted into a lock, it finds its way past the locating pins which would normally block anything but the original key electroplate: The process of depositing gold, silver, chrome, nickel, etc., upon an object by placing the object in a special solution and then passing an electric current through the solution. The object forms one terminal, a special electrode the other. Direct current is used.

electroplating: The process of electrodeposition of metal or alloys from suitable electrolyte solutions. The articles to be plated are connected to the cathode in an electrolyte solution, and direct current is introduced through the anode of the metal to be deposited.
Also see zinc electroplating

electrostatic filter: For cleaning air, a type of filter which gives dust particles an electric charge. This causes particles to be attracted to a plate so they can be removed from air. electrostatic painting: A painting method using the particle-attracting property of electrostatic charges, in which a direct current of approximately 100,000 volts is applied to a grid of wires through which the paint is sprayed to charge each particle, and the metal objects to be sprayed are connected to the opposite terminal of the high-voltage circuit, so as to attract the paint particles. Also called "Electrostatic Spraying" electrostatic powder coating: (EPC) A painting process in which the outer parts of the body shell are coated with a powder dispersion by means of cathodic immersion, and in which the cavities are coated with cathodic electropaint electrostatic spraying: A painting method using the particle-attracting property of electrostatic charges, in which a direct current of approximately 100,000 volts is applied to a grid of wires through which the paint is sprayed to charge each particle, and the metal objects to be sprayed are connected to the opposite terminal of the high-voltage circuit, so as to attract the paint particles. Also called "Electrostatic Painting" electro vacuum relay: (EVR)A combination solenoid vacuum valve and electrical relay which locks out blower operation and closes the fresh air door in cold weather,

and switches the system to the recirculating air mode during maximum system use electrovalve: A solenoid valve element: A group of plates in a battery. Three elements for a six volt and six elements for the twelve volt battery. The elements are connected in series.
Also see air cleaner element air filter element filter element hall element hot-wire element open element glow plug temperature control element

element glow: See open element glow plug element glow plug: See open element glow plug Elliot: See Elliot axle reversed Elliot axle Elliot axle: A solid bar front axle on which the ends span or straddle the steering knuckle.
Also see reversed Elliot axle

Elliott steering knuckle: Type of axle in which ends of axle beam straddle spindle Elliot type axle: See elliot axle

ellipsoidal headlight: A headlight with a reflector which is wider than it is high, and not circular; has replaced the parabolic reflector elongation: The percentage increase in the length of a specimen when stressed to its yield strength. ELV: Acronym for "End-of-Life Vehicles." emblem: See wheel trim emblem embrittlement: A reduced toughness in plastic or metal caused by age, heat or rough use.
Also see hydrogen embrittlement

emergency: A sudden, unexpected occurrence, such as a breakdown or the failure of some part, which may be dangerous and demands immediate action. emergency brake: A braking system which is independent of the main hydraulic system. It can be used to slow or stop the vehicle if the primary brakes fail, or to hold the vehicle stationary though the brake pedal is not depressed. It usually consists of a foot pedal or hand lever that actuates either front or rear brakes mechanically through a series of cables and linkages. It is also called the "parking brake" or E-brake. emergency inflator: An aerosol can which inflates a punctured tire and injects sealing compound to provide at least a temporary repair emergency transmitter:

A transmitter no larger than a car radio, fitted inside the vehicle which enables a driver to radio for help from the security of his own car emergency windshield: A sheet of clear plastic fitted in place of a broken windshield emery cloth: A cloth coated in emery crystals like fine sandpaper for use as an abrasive on metals EMF: Acronym for "electromotive force" See voltage. Emily: An affectionate name for the RollsRoyce radiator mascot, the "Spirit of Ecstasy" emission: The passing of gases and other toxic substances into the atmospher e.

Also see automotive emissions crankcase emissions evaporative emission control system evaporative emissions exhaust emission controls

exhaust emissions low-emission low Emission Vehicle Standards particulate emission limit particulate emission

emission control: A system for restricting the amount of noxious emissions. There are two standards for emission controls: level E for Europe and the more stringent level U for the United States. See exhaust emission control evaporative emission control system Emission Control Information: See Vehicle Emission Control Information emission controls: See exhaust emission control. emission control system:
See evaporative emission control system exhaust emission control system

emission levels: amounts of toxic substances passed into the atmosphere by motor vehicles emission limit: See particulate emission limit emissions: Gases and other pollutants coming from a vehicle with an internal combustion engine. See emission emission standards: specified maximum emission levels permitted from different classes of motor vehicle in different countries

Emission Vehicle: See Low Emission Vehicle Standards Emission Vehicle Standards:
See Low Emission Vehicle Standards ultra Low Emission Vehicle Standards

emitter: The lead of a transistor shown using an arrow with a head on it. employment: total employment in each manufacturing facility, including total manufacturing employees, total support staff, and total engineering/R&D staff. Average number of workers employed by an establishment during the year. Production workers relate to the average number actually engaged in the manufacturing process. Administrative and nonmanufacturing includes employees at head offices and sales offices. employee benefits: the provision of direct (salary, bonuses, etc.) indirect (vacation leave, medical and dental plans, etc.) and deferred employee compensation (pensions, etc.). EMS: Acronym for Engine Management System emulsification: The process of making an emulsion emulsion: A mixture of two liquids which do not fully mix, such as oil and water, or specifically of gasoline and air in a carburetor before it is discharged and fully atomized emulsion tube:

part of a fixed jet carburetor, in which air is introduced into the mixture through holes to help atomize it and correct excessive richness at higher engine speeds. A perforated tube which extends from an air bleed in the top of the air horn down into the main well. Admits air from the air bleed into the main well to emulsify the fuel in the main well. Improves idle response and stability when the engine is hot and prevents fuel percolation and general hot-starting problems. Also improves response in the main metering circuit during part throttle conditions. Also called main-well tube enable: A microcomputer decision that results in an engine management system being activated and permitted to operate enamel: Type of paint that dries to a smooth, glossy finish. It is easier to apply than cellulose. If cellulose is applied over it, the cellulose will lift (i.e., peel off).
Also see finishing enamel porcelain enamel vitreous enamel

enamelling: See vitreous enamelling EN block: See EN-block. EN-block: One piece -- such as an engine cylinder block cast in one piece. enclosure: See speaker enclosure end:
See belt end big end firing end front end male end nut end ring end gap small end

bitter end bottom end drive end drive end bracket female end

front end alignment gudgeon pin end heavy-duty end cutting pliers high leverage end cutting pliers little end

open end lease piston pin end piston ring end gap rear end rear end lift

stud end tie rod end top end wedge end

end alignment: See front end alignment end bearing: See small end bearing end bell: End structure of plate of electric motor which usually holds motor bearings. end bracket: The cover containing a bearing at each end of a generator or alternator. Also called "end cover" or "end cover plate."
Also see drive end bracket slip-ring end bracket

end cap: The cap covering the end of a piece of trim or of a barrel fuse end cover: The cover containing a bearing at each end of a generator or alternator. Also called "end bracket" or "end cover plate" end cover plate: The cover containing a bearing at each end of a generator or alternator. Also called "end cover" or "end bracket" end cutters: British term for a "side cutter"

end cutting:
See heavy-duty end cutting pliers high leverage end cutting pliers

end cutting pliers: British term for "side cutter"
Also see heavy-duty end cutting pliers high leverage end cutting pliers

end dump: A term used to describe various dump trucks or trailers that tilt to unload at the rear. end float: End play end form: Any type of connector at the end of a hose or pipe. end gap:
See piston ring end gap ring end gap

end gas: The last part of the fuel-air mixture that has been introduced into the cylinder but has not yet been consumed in the normal flame-front reaction. end gear: See axle end gears. end gears: See axle end gears. end hexagon screwdriver:

See ball end hexagon screwdriver end lease:
See closed end lease open end lease

end lift: See rear end lift endo: (Short form for "end-over-end"). The maneuver of flying unexpectedly over the handlebars, thus being forcibly ejected from the bike as in "If you hit that log you'll go endo." end-of-lease purchase price: If there is a purchase option in the lease contract or agreement, this will be the agreed upon price for the purchase of the vehicle at the end of the lease-the stated residual value. This price may also include additional fees. end-of term interest rate: See buy at end-of term interest rate endoscope: An instrument used to see into the interior of hollow cavities such as box sections endothermal: Chemical reaction in which heat is absorbed. end piece: See sill end piece end play: [1] The looseness in bearing clearance in an axial direction. [2] Slight movement of shaft along its center line.

Also see camshaft end play

end speed: See top end speed endurance test: A test of a material or system over a long period to determine when it will fail enduro: Off-road competition against the clock and usually over long distances energize: To activate (a solenoid, relay, etc.) by providing sufficient energy energizing: See self-energizing energy: Capacity (actual or potential) for doing work. It is measured in joules or kilowatt-hours.
See high energy battery high energy coil high energy ignition system with electronic spark timing high energy ignition system kinetic energy potential energy

energy-absorbing: The ability to absorb impact forces energy absorbing bumper: See bumper system. energy-absorbing bumper:

See bumper system. energy absorbing steering column: A steering column which collapses when the vehicle is involved in an accident. energy audit: Process of accurately determining the current energy consumption for a given area. energy battery: See high energy battery energy coil: See high energy coil energy conservation: Process, upon reviewing the calculations for determining head loads, of instituting changes that will result in energy savings. energy conversion: The changing of one form of energy into another or into work, such as that in the combustion process, the heat of which is used to turn the engine and thus create motion energy efficiency ratio: (EER) The ratio of the rated cooling capacity in Btu per hour divided by the amount of electrical power used in watts. energy ignition:
See high energy ignition system with electronic spark timing high energy ignition system

energy ignition system:

See high energy ignition system high energy ignition system with electronic spark timing

energy ignition system with electronic spark timing: See high energy ignition system with electronic spark timing energy management control system: Controllers used in a system which optimizes total energy usage in a building or residence. Energy Protection Agency: See EPA estimates. energy retarder: See engine brake. energy utilization index: (EUI) A number which is used to compare energy usages for different areas. It is calculated by dividing the energy consumption (in BTUs) by the square footage of the conditioned area. engage: [1] to come into contact and be locked together (with another part). [2] to bring (a part) into contact with another so that it is locked to it engagement: The result of bringing into locking contact (e.g. of the clutch), or selection of a gear engaging the throttle: The action of causing the throttle linkage to move so that more fuel enters the engine to increase the speed of the vehicle. engine:

A device for changing fuel energy to mechanical energy. The term applies to the primary source of power generation. In Britain there is a desire to make a clear distinction between "engine" and "motor" so that "motor" refers only to electric power units (i.e., starter motor) and "engine" for gasoline or diesel powered units. However, in the U.S.A. the term "motor" can apply to both types. Yet, even in Britain, combustion driven vehicles are called "motor cars" and "motorcycles."
adiabatic engine air cooled engine all-alloy engine alloy engine aspirated engine balanced engine big-block engine boxer engine cam engine carburetor engine cih engine combustion engine cubic inch engine diesel engine dual-piston engine dual overhead cam engine electronic engine control engine types exchange engine external combustion engine F-head engine federal engine F head engine fire engine flat engine flooded engine four-cycle engine four-cylinder engine four-stroke cycle engine four cycle engine four stroke cycle engine front engine fuel-injected engine fuel injection engine Also see high-camshaft engine quad-cam engine horizontally opposed radial engine engine rear engine hydrocarbon engine rebuilt engine I-head engine reciprocating IC engine engine I head engine reconditioned in-line engine engine inclined engine rotary engine indirect injection short block engine engine short engine injected engine short stroke engine inlet over exhaust side-valve engine engine SI engine inline engine single-cylinder intake over exhaust engine engine six-cylinder engine internal combustion sixteen valve engine engine ioe engine slant engine L-head engine small-block engine lean-burn engine spark ignition L head engine engine long block engine square-four engine longitudinal engine square engine long stroke engine steam engine mid-engine stirling engine naturally aspirated straight engine engine stratified charge nominal engine speed engine normally aspirated supercharged engine Engine OHV engine SV engine opposed engine T-head engine over square engine T head engine pancake engine three-port engine piston-valve engine three-valve engine piston engine traction engine plastic engine transverse engine twelve-cylinder engine twelve-valve engine twin-piston engine twin cam engine twin camshaft engine two-cycle engine two-stroke cycle engine two-valve engine two stroke cycle engine U-cylinder engine under-square engine undersquare engine under square engine unit engine V-eight engine V-engine V-four engine V-six engine V-sixteen engine V-ten engine V-twelve engine V-type engine V-X engine valve-in-head engine vee engine V engine VR engine V type engine W-engine wankel engine winding the engine X-engine X-type engine x. Liter Engine

HC engine

pre-combustion engine pushrod engine push rod engine

turbine engine turbocharged engine

X engine

engine adapter: A unit that allows a different engine to be installed in a vehicle and still bolt up to the original transmission. engine analyzer: An electronic engine testing device which (because of its size) used to be placed in a cabinet or a movable stand. The modern units are often handheld and are connected to the vehicle's diagnostic socket (as in the case of the diagnostic read-out box), which provides data on all aspects of the engine's state of tune engine bay: The engine compartment. engine block: The cylinder block. engine block heater: See block heater engine brake: (Energy Retarder or jake brake) A system that allows for slowing of a vehicle that is independent of the conventional braking systems. A driver would normally down-shift to slow his descent of a hill, using engine compression. The engine brake increases the effectiveness of this regarding force. engine braking effect: A retarding effect of an engine when the vehicle is in gear with the throttle closed. Also called a "jake brake" engine calibration unit:

An electronic component which can be specifically programmed to the design of each car model to control the M/C solenoid. Plugs into the Electronic Control Module (ECM). Also called a programmable read only memory (PROM) engine capacity: The swept volume of an engine engine compartment: The space where the engine is mounted. Also called the "engine bay."
Also see cluttered engine compartment crowded engine compartment

engine control: See electronic engine control engine control module engine control module: (ECM) An advanced electronic computer which monitors engine conditions and then controls engine settings to optimize the combustion of the air/fuel mixture. engine control system: See engine-control system. engine-control system: A computer that regulates the operation of the engine by monitoring certain engine characteristics (rpm, coolant temperature, intake airflow, etc.) through a network of sensors and then controlling key variables (fuel metering, spark timing EGR, etc.) according to pre-programmed schedules. engine coolant: Antifreeze liquid used in the engine's cooling system engine coolant temperature sensor:

(ECT) the thermistor sensor that provides coolant temperature information to the computer. Used to alter spark advance and EGR flow during warmup or an overheating condition engine cover: The panel which conceals the engine in a mid-engine car. Also called "access panel." Also see hood (British "bonnet") which covers the engine only in a front-mounted engine. engine damage: Breakage, deformation, or scoring of the internal parts of an engine due to running at very high rpms for an extended period of time or with insufficient lubrication. A rod could break off and drive a hole into the cases; a valve could break off or imbed itself into the top of a piston; the piston could heat and expand and thus seize against the cylinder walls; or other types of damage could occur. engine depression: Low pressure on the engine side of the throttle caused by piston suction in the inlet manifold engine diagnostic connector: The electrical connector for plugging in the engine analyzer, forming an interface between the engine electronic controls and diagnostic unit, and used to read the engine data as well as any fault codes stored in the memory of the engine controller engine displacement: To determine, multiply the volume of the space through which the head of the piston moves in the full length of its stroke by the number of cylinders in the engine. The result is given in cubic inches. engineering:
See automotive engineering badge engineering production engineering

engine flywheel: A spinning plate located at the end of the crankshaft. See flywheel. engine hoist: small crane for lifting an engine out of a motor vehicle, formerly incorporating a block and tackle, but now usually hydraulically operated.
Also see gantry

engine identification number: (EIN) A number stamped on the engine which may or may not match the number on the vehicle identification plate. Also called "engine number" engine knock: When the engine is operating, an audible noise may be heard when the fuel in the cylinders is ignited too early and/or spontaneously, resulting in colliding flame fronts and shock waves which cause high thermal and mechanical stress, and can severely damage the engine. engine layout: [1] The type of engine, with reference to the arrangement of its cylinders and their number (as in a flat four, V-twin, or straight eight). [2] The location of the engine in the vehicle (as in a front mount, midmount, or rear engine. [3] The placement of the engine in the engine compartment: e.g., a transverse or in-line engine engine management system: (EMS) An electronic engine control system which covers at least the functioning of the fuel injection and ignition, but may also include emission controls and self-diagnostics engine map: See characteristic map. As an engine speeds up, the timing needs to be advanced. On older vehicles, this is accomplished mechanically with a counterweight advance in the distributor. In modern vehicles, the timing can be advanced progressively by means of a computer chip which is programmed to provide the ideal timing. It also provides other factors in

some engines such as the opening and closing of valves, etc. engine misfire: See misfire engine modifications: Alterations to the specification of the engine to increase power output, improve economy, reduce emissions, etc. engine mounting: A flexible support for the engine in which an elastic medium, usually rubber, is interposed between the lugs on the engine and the frame of the vehicle engine noise: The amount of noise produced by the engine when it is running. Engine noise is more noticeable with a diesel at lower speeds engine number: (EIN) A number stamped on the engine which may or may not match the number on the vehicle identification plate. Also called "engine identification number" engine oil: Oil within the engine used to lubricate the moving components. At one time the oil was a single grade, but modern engines use a multigrade oil.
Also see straight weight engine oil synthetic engine oil

engine oil pan: See oil pan. engine oil level warning light: A light on the instrument panel which comes on when the oil in the sump falls below a certain level

engine overhaul: When an old engine burns too much oil and loses power, it is dismantled and restored to the manufacturer's original tolerances by replacement of worn parts, reboring the cylinders, regrinding the crankshaft, etc. engine parameters: A term used in the context of emission controls for those engine characteristics sensitive to engine