TERRORISM, VIOLENCE, LAW AND SOCIETY

1.0 INTRODUCTION
Terrorism is a cancer, which has its widespread impact on law and society. Historically, the term ‘terrorism’ was defined as “State violence against citizens” during the French Revolution. However, at present, ‘terrorism’ may be defined as an illegal method of adopting violence to propagate certain ideology affecting innocent persons. Religion, Regionalism, Oppression by tyrants are some of the causes, what the terrorists claim for the spread of their ideology. Terrorism spread like cancer with the rise of technology such as internet, press, news channels etc. Terrorism has spread throughout the world and now the terrorists are just trying to achieve their own motto through pressure and violence. The rise of terrorism has increased through ages. The first rise of terrorism was at the time of French revolution, in which the laborers took the path of extremism. But at present mostly terrorists are spreading terrorism in the name of religion. International terrorist groups like Al-Qaeda, Hamas, Hizb - ul – Mujahideen and Indian terrorist groups like, JKLF, Laskhar- e – taeba and Indian Mujahidddin etc., propagate that they are spreading terrorism for Jihads. Terrorism is now a global cause and every nation is having a very strict and a stern steps to curtail terrorism. Terrorism is creating a dividing line between the various nations. Even if the political parties that were not involved earlier, are presently blamed to have links with terrorism. Impact of the terrorism is always very bad and this has just increased throughout ages. The most dangerous attack has been the 9/11 attacks which killed people of more than 50 nationalities. The attack on the Indian Parliament, Mumbai local train blast etc are some of deadliest attacks by these religious extremists. There have been serious interventions by the terrorist groups. Every country in the world now is forced to take strong steps to curtail terrorism. However, there are many ill effects of this too. Likewise, in America after the 9/11 attacks every bearded man was caught suspiciously. The nations are still incompetent to fight terrorism. USA claims to be the strongest nation in the world and but look at their condition. The

deadliest attacks on the World Trade Centre and the Pentagon have shown that even the superpower is also incompetent before the terrorism. The CIA had warned the USA government but the USA Government did not care and the attacks took place. The main reasons of terrorism are unemployment, illiteracy, poverty, inflation and the oppressive government. The policies that are framed by the government are not for the people but they are for the personal benefits of the politicians. This shows the inadequacy of the government. It is because of this, terrorists who claim they to be the representative of religion take advantage of the situation and in the name of religion spread violence. This is what makes terrorist heads like Osama-Bin-Laden and Bilal Masud. The actions of these terrorist group have been varying and for the different purposes. In every nation, whether it is India or elsewhere these groups want to spread their influence under the guise protection of religion or regionalism. Nevertheless, the motto if these terrorist groups are the same that is to capture power through violence. In addition, this is the entire analysis of my paper.

2.0 RISE AND CAUSES OF TERRORISM
The terrorism has been on a rising trend in the last two decades in India. India has experienced both Hindu extremism as well as Muslim extremism. The terrorism in India can be broadly termed as religious and regional extremism. The rise of terrorism started from the day when Pundit Jawaharlal Nehru divided India and Pakistan. This created a dividing line between two nations in the name of religion. Moreover, that was the time when the issue of Kashmir was left undone. For Pakistan it would be a nice extension of territory as majority of Kashmiries were Muslims. Pakistan used the tool of terrorism to serve its aforementioned purpose. Therefore, India faced the worst part. Many people, many damages have been caused due to terrorist activities. Many terrorist attacks took place like two Bombay blasts, blast at Malegaon, Parliament attack bomb blasts at Delhi, Varanasi, Bangalore, Akhaydham temple etc all have resulted in a threatened mass and society. Attacks on Jammu & Kashmir are always in the headlines. Even in polling booth where people go to cast, their

votes are all put under security. This shows the impact of terrorism. The tourists are afraid to visit Kashmir. Hindu pundits of Kashmir are forced to live in refugee camps for last two decades in their own country. This shows the disparity that terrorist have created by spread of their violence. Recently in Kandhmal, the Hindu extremists are torturing the Christians. This cannot be termed as rise of religion and this may be defined as an internal terrorism. The rise of terrorism has all been perpetuated by the religious fanatics and to some extent sponsored by political leaders. They make false promises to the religious minorities and fail to implement on that. This gives the religious fanatics a reason, who wants to rebel against the government. These fanatics influence and brainwash the oppressed and poor people to serve the purpose of fighting against the Government. Further rampant corruption in government and other lifestyles, which is always in a rising trend, increases unemployment and poverty. These are the crucial factors for rise of terrorism. A suicide bomber is always a poor man lured by terrorists. The disparity between the poor and the rich are increasing every day. More poverty and the country would generate more and more terrorists.

3.0 EDUCATED YOUTH IN TERRORISM
A nonprofessional cannot run a terrorist organization. A terrorist organization needs a mastermind to create a nexus between violence and threat. An illiterate person cannot plan a bombing in the Mumbai local train. The person should have a brain of a rabbit to execute their operation. If we put a close look at the terrorist camp masterminds, they are super genius men. Likewise, Laden is a civil engineer and according to the US, he was a super mind. An educated youth is the most frustrated person on the earth when he is unemployment. Moreover, the phrase ‘empty mind devil’s workshop’ is clear. This is the time when these masterminds take advantage of these educated youths. In addition, these people are already in conflict with the government. This is the reason we see that the

most of the terrorist camps are organized in the underdeveloped countries. These are the countries where the mass do not have proper food, shelter, clothing etc. A terrorist never fights for the benefits of people but it is for his own cause that he has foregone in his life. It is said that education provides a better society crime and criminal free. Nevertheless, there are pros and cons of every activity. The people who die as suicide bombers are always the illiterate people. An educated youth convinces an illiterate person because he has the advantage of education. Moreover, he knows what are the tools to make a poor person make worthy of even sacrificing his life. Many a times we even see that, the political people for their own benefits are using the terrorists. To achieve political mileage many such poor people work with a politician. Looking at the mentality of a terrorist, we can watch that they have a rebel mentality against the government. This shows that the terrorist are in strong contradiction with the functioning of the government. Behind every bomb, blast there is meticulous planning. Time, money and place are needed for such activities. Look at the level of intelligence these terrorists possesses that even the intelligence bureau people are puppet before them. We do not come to know about the bombings beforehand. This shows the level of thinking of terrorist that they are able to hide all their intentions and achieve their task quite easily. Education can put a nation to superpower status and even it can put the nation to wires too. Therefore, education is the instrument that the terrorists use to achieve success from the grassroots to the top-level activity.

4.0 RELIGION AND TERRORISM
Terrorism has been better branded as religious extremism in the modern era. A terrorist is never born terrorist. He is being brainwashed by the religious extremists. Religion plays an important part in the brainwash. That is why a simple person is ready to sacrifice his life in name of religion. The people create religion so that there should be any discrimination between the masses, to avoid violence and conflicts too. Nevertheless,

the phenomena of the present day are something different. Nevertheless, just for the sake of own motto the name of religion should not be polluted. People like Osama-Bin-Laden can be termed as Islamic fundamentalist, are some of the people who started terrorist groups. Jihad is the term these fundamentalists use for the spread of their terrorist activities. Nevertheless, the essence is very different. Prophet Mohammed did not created Islam for spread of violence. Islam means submission to God. However, the meaning of this holy word is being polluted. Instead of spreading peace, these people in the name of religion are destroying their own world. Countries like India and others are definitely facing the consequences but the Muslim countries are also not being benefited either. Bomb blasts in Pakistan are more than that in India. The country, which claims to be a home of terrorism, is facing the consequences. Terrorism has taken various forms. Even the sacred or the holy people are being prosecuted because of these few religious extremists. Even in India, not only the Muslim extremists but also the Hindu extremists are also spreading terrorism in name of religion. Recent developments in the Malegaon blast have shown that many Hindu extremists were involved in the blast. This shows even the Hindu extremists are spreading terrorism. Recently in Kandhmal, the Christians are being killed and tortured by the Hindu extremists. This is also an example of Hindu terrorism.

5.0 REGIONALISM AND TERRORISM
Regionalism also creates terrorists. As for example ULFA in Assam, Mizo National Liberation Front in Mizoram Naga extremist organizations in Nagaland. These organizations persuade extremist activists like bomb blasts killing innocent people. They spread hatred among persons of different regions to serve their own purpose of capturing power. Further, the issue of Biharis being tortured in Mumbai is also a terrorist activity. As it is generally interpreted, when the terrorist from Pakistan attack the people it is called a terrorist activity, but when Raj Thakeray does the same it is not terrorist activity.

One man was killed in a train because he was a non-Marathi. We are fighting with the terrorists at the border but terrorist are born in our own home.

6.0 INADEQUACY OF LAW BEFORE TERRORISM
A close picture of the terrorism would show us that laws are just falling in front of the terrorist activities. The Bombay blast, which had taken place in 1993, had not had its final verdict until date. In a country like India, the few people who have lots of power both economically as well as politically survive ultimately by manipulating law. As for example, Sanjay Dutt is a celebrity and due to that, he had an advantage. A Weapon like AK-147 is being found in his residence and still he is not been prosecuted in a proper manner. Under section 4(b) of the Production of terrorist activity it is stated that Weapons such as bombs, dynamite, hazardous explosive substances or ... substances of warfare are illegal if any keeps those. In the statement, Sanjay says that he had kept AK147 for his own safety. This shows the incompetence of law whereby Article 14 is being violated. Equality before law is absent and position is occupying the place before law. Dutt was prosecuted and he was sent to jail but what happened that a bail plea was initiated before the court and he got bail within 30 days. People like Abu Salem are being prosecuted and in spite of the charges being proved still he is not been prosecuted. Likewise, in Gujarat until October 2002, Innocent people are being prosecuted and hardcore terrorists are being saved due to the corrupt politicians. These are live examples whereby people are not sure which Muslim person would be branded as a terrorist. After the Godhra case, also, so many innocent people were branded terrorists and fact is that real terrorists are left undone. Terrorists like Bilal Masud are not prosecuted and they are treated like guests in the prisons. This is what picture of Indian law before terrorism.

7.0 CONCLUSION
Terrorism is eating up the peace and security of the people. We roam in a crowded place and we are always in a dilemma whether there will be bombings or not. This shows the level of insecurity that we are facing in the present day. In our own home, we are not safe. We look at the administration of the government and we criticize them but actually, we are creating terrorists with our own hands. We the people go on complaining each other for our dissatisfactions. Nevertheless, the point is that every person who comes to power forgets his ethics. Moreover, we people blame the Government. Further present legal system, both national and international has failed miserably to control the menace of terrorism. In India, we have the TADA and the POTA acts, which are applied for any terrorist acts and disruptive activities. We have framed the laws but still law is just a puppet before terrorism. Corruption, nepotism and unethical political purpose are the main causes that make the implementation of law impossible. Look at USA federation. One attack and strict steps were taken by forming suitable laws and implementation of the same against curtailing terrorism without any prejudice, manipulation, and look at that country today. No more attacks after the 9/11. Nevertheless, in India we live up to the situation and now in daily basis there are bombings and mass killings. The problem in India is that if a politician gets a chance he would sell his own nation. Development in the living conditions of poor people is practically nil since independence and all the promises made before the elections are fake. We spend one-fourth of our budget in defense and still have a look at the mechanism. Every day a new terrorist is born and he is creating a clamor. A country progresses when its citizens progress. Nevertheless, here the case is that terrorist is spoiling the nation. I want to conclude by saying that ‘to build a nation you need 100 million people but to ruin it you just require a terrorist’.

RECOMMENDATION
As a single unit of my nations, I have some recommendation for the curtailment of terrorism. • Education should be spread amongst the grassroots level so that no terrorist is born.

There should be strict rules and regulation against terrorist activities and every person whether it be a celebrity or a politician if found guilty under these laws should be held responsible.

Every society must run an anti-terrorism campaign, which would spy whether there are chances of any terrorist activity, or not.

The economy of a country should be more stable so that problems like unemployment, inflation etc reduces.

• •

Religious and regional extremism should be strictly punishable under law. Try hard to eradicate corruption, nepotism and other illegal activities to serve small political purposes.

REFERENCES
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http://www.patricklagadec.net/fr/pdf/sos/SOS_Terrorism.pdf http://www.newamerica.net/files/AQ30Sageman.pdf http://www.bprd.gov.in/writereaddata/linkimages/Anti%20terrorist %20laws%20vis-%C3%A0-vis%20Human%20Rights807474316.pdf

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