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India officially the Republic of India (Bharat Ganrajya), is a country in South Asia.

It is
the seventh-largest country by area, the second-most populous country with over 1.2
billion people, and the most populous democracy in the world.



























CAPTICAL : NEW DELHI
LARGEST CITY : MUMBAI
OFFICIAL LANGUAGES : HINDI & ENGLISH
LEGISLATURE : PARLIAMENT OF INDIA
INDEPENDENCE DAY : 15 AUGUST 1947


GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION

The country of India is geographically located towards the north equatorial region in
between the north latitude of 8 4' and 37 6' and east longitude of 68 7' and 97 25'.
The country lies towards the south of the continent of Asia.

THE BORDERING COUNTRIES

Being a peninsular country, India is bordered mostly by water bodies of Arabian Sea
towards its southwest, Bay of Bengal towards its southeast and Indian Ocean towards
its south. However, the countries bordering the nation towards its north are Bhutan,
China and Nepal, towards its east are Burma and Bangladesh, and towards west is
Pakistan.


GEOGRAPHY OF INDIA

The peninsular country of India is rich in its varied geographical features. Indian
geography has been made beautiful by its running rivers, serene lakes, beautiful
waterfalls, strong mountains, vast coastal plains, sprinkled islands and surrounding
oceans. The country is famously known as land of rivers for possessing numerous
rivers. Apart from these rivers flowing through the different parts of the nation, India has
got mountain ranges towards its north to the central plateau region. The western and
eastern coastal regions of the nation are surrounded by plain lands.

THE HIGHEST POINT

KANCHENJUNGA, situated at an altitude of 8, 598 m above the sea level is the highest
point of India.

THE LOWEST POINT

KUTTANAD, in the state of Kerala, which is located at 2.2 m below the sea level, is the
lowest point of the nation.

THE RIVER SYSTEM

India, the land of rivers comprises of a network of some main rivers and their
innumerable tributaries and distributaries. The main rivers of the country are as follows:
GANGA
BRAHMAPUTRA
CHENAB
BEAS
RAVI
JHELUM
SUTLEJ OR SATLUJ
NARMADA
TAPI OR TAPTI
KRISHNA
GODAVARI
KAVERI
MAHANADI
Division of River Systems

These rivers can be divided into two major river systems in India, which are mentioned
below:

The Himalayan River System
The Peninsular River System
The river system of Himalaya can be further sub-divided into the following three river
systems found mainly towards north India:

Ganga River System: This river system consists of river Ganga and its
branches.
Indus River System: The river system of Indus comprises of the network of the
north Indian rivers of Beas, Chenab, Ravi, Jhelum and Satluj or Sutlej.
Brahmaputra River System: The river system of Brahmaputra includes mainly
the river Brahmaputra along with its tributaries.
The Peninsular River System of India has got rivers like Godavari, Kaveri, Krishna,
Mahanadi, Narmada, Tapti or Tapi, which originates and flows along with their branches
across the peninsular part of the country.

All these rivers originate from the following three main sources:

The Himalayan ranges or the Karakoram ranges of north India
Sahyadri ranges or the Western Ghats of west India
Chotanagpur plateau, Satpura ranges and Vindhya ranges of central India
Originating from the three watersheds mentioned earlier and running across the country
of India, these rivers along with their tributaries and distributaries flows to either the Bay
of Bengal or the Arabian Sea. Some of the rivers even flow towards the inner part of the
country. Let us have a look at the division of some of the main rivers of India according
to their flowing basins:

Rivers, which have their flowing basin in Bay of Bengal: Some of the longest rivers of
India flowing towards the Bay of Bengal are:
BRAHMAPUTRA
GANGA
GODAVARI
KAVERI
KRISHNA
MAHANADI
MEGHNA
Rivers, whose flowing basin is Arabian Sea: To name a few of the Indian rivers, which
find their destination into the Arabian Sea are:

NARMADA
INDUS
TAPTI
Rivers of India flowing within the country's inner part: Some of the rivers of India that
flows towards the central part of the country are as follows:

MUSI
GHAGGAR
SAMIR
Besides these rivers of India, there are many other important rivers, which contribute to
the beauty of this land of rivers. The names of a few of those beautiful Indian rivers are
mentioned below:

BHADRA
GANDAK
MAHANANDA
JALDHAKA
RAMGANGA
RUPNARAYAN
YAMUNA
WAINGANGA

THE LONGEST RIVER

Brahmaputra River, flowing over an area of 2, 900 km is the country's longest river.


RAINFALL IN INDIA
The distinct season of monsoon sets in the country of India mainly during the month of
June and continues till September. Depending upon the weather condition of a
particular year, the monsoon might vary slightly. June's rainfall brings a great relief from
the hot summer. 80 % of the yearly rainfall gets caused by the south east trade winds
originating from the Indian Ocean. Rainfall caused by the south west monsoon gets
divided into 2 branches, which are the Bay of Bengal branch and the Arabian Sea
branch. However, monsoon caused from the north eastern part of the country sets in
during the month of September. This kind of monsoon is mostly experienced in winter.

The maximum annual precipitation of more than 2, 000 mm is received by the north
eastern part of the country, which includes the Himalayan range as well as the Western
Ghats. Eastern India receives medium annual rainfall that varies in between 1, 000 mm
to 2, 000 mm. The region covered by the Punjab plains and the western Deccan plateau
experiences a lesser rainfall in a year. There the annual rainfall ranges from 100 mm to
500 mm. Areas of Rajasthan, Kachchh and Ladakh don't receive a lot of rainfall during
the year.

FLOODS IN INDIA
The peninsular nature of India as well as the possession of innumerable rivers makes
the country quite prone to floods. Moreover, the huge rainfall at different parts of the
nation contributes to the massive floods. As per G. S. I. (Geological Survey of India),
12.5 % of the country's area is prone to flood.

THE MAJOR FLOOD AREAS OF INDIA

The plain regions towards the northern part of the country are more prone to flood.
However, depending upon the different river systems of India, the flood prone areas of
the country can be categorized into the following three heads:

Ganga Basin
Barak Basin and Brahmaputra Basin
River Basins located in the Deccan region and central India


Following are the states that can be regarded as the major flood prone areas of
India:

West Bengal
Andhra Pradesh
Orissa
Kerala
Assam
Gujrat
Bihar
Uttar Pradesh
Punjab
Haryana
Apart from these, other regions of the country, which are prone to flood, are the deltas
and banks of the rivers like Brahmaputra, Damodar, Gandak, Ganga, Ghaggar,
Godavari, Mahanadi, Mahananda, Mayurakshi, Kosi, Ravi, Sabarmati, Sutlej, Teesta,
Yamuna Sahibi.

AREA COVERED BY INDIA

The country of India spreads over an area of 3, 287, 263 sq. km. In spite of being
seventh largest in regards to the total covering area, the country occupies just 2.4 % of
the total surface of the earth. The land area of India amounts to around 6, 207 km.,
which is 90.44 % of the total area. This total land area can be further measured on the
basis of the following 2 aspects:

Stretch in between north and south: 3, 214 km
Stretch in between east and west: 2, 993 km
Among this, the forest areas of India sprawl over an area of 64, 113 sq. km. constituting
19.27 % of the country's total area. 69 % of the total land area of India is covered by dry
lands. The other part of 9.56 % is water. Indian rivers are accountable for a total area of
about 14, 500 km.

Apart from these, the political boundaries of the nation stretch over 15, 106.70 km area.
More details about area covered by the different parts of the national border of India can
be gathered from the information provided below:

Border with Bangladesh: 4, 096.70 km
Border with Bhutan: 6, 99 km
Border with China (PRC): 3, 488 km
Border with Myanmar: 1, 643 km
Border with Nepal: 1, 751 km
Border with Pakistan: 3, 323 km
INDIA IN TERMS OF GREENERY
The country of India, being an agricultural land is blessed with lots of greenery. Besides
this, the country has got vast forest areas. Rich in varied species of flora and fauna,
these lush green dense forests help the country balance the natural ecosystem. Along
with supporting bio-diversity, some of these forests accommodate a number of
dangerous species that are on the way of extinction.

Following are the different ranges of dense forests that contribute to the natural
beauty of India:

Himalayan range's dry alpine scrub forest
Rain forests located towards the north east Indian states, western coastal plains
and the islands of Andaman and Nicobar.
The country even houses some charming deciduous forests, semi-evergreen rain
forests, thorn forests, pine forests of the sub-tropical regions and many more.
INDIA CLIMATE

India is a big tropical country and is famous for its diverse climatic features. India
climate can be categorized into six principal subcategories and this has been
determined by the Koppen climate classification.


Seasons in India
The seasons in India can be broadly categorized into the following:

WINTER The months of January and February
SUMMER The months of March to May
MONSOON (RAINY) SEASON The months of June to September
A POST-MONSOON PERIOD The months of October to December








Features of the seasons in India


Given below are the prominent features of the seasons in India in a tabular format:

Name of the season Features
WINTER
The winter in India spans the months of December till the
beginning of April. The coldest months of the year are January
and December. During this period, the average temperature is
approximately 50-59 F (10-15 C) in the northwestern parts of
the country. The mercury soars as you move in the direction of
the equator, and the maximum temperature in this area is
close to 68-77 F or 20-25 C in the southeastern parts of the
Indian territory.
SUMMER. The
summer is also
known as the pre-
monsoon season.
The summer months are the months of April to June.
However, the summer refers to the months of April to July in
the northwestern parts of the country. In the southern and
western parts of the country, the month with the maximum
recorded temperature is April. In case of the northern parts of
the country, the month with the maximum recorded
temperature is May. The average temperature registered
during these months is close to 90-104 F (32-40 C) in
majority of the inland areas of the country.
MONSOON OR
RAINY SEASON
The monsoon, also known as the rainy season, spans the
months of June to September. This season is primarily
influenced with the moist southwestern summer torrential
rainfall that gradually moves throughout the nation. It starts in
the end of May or the beginning of June. The precipitation
starts to ebb from Northern India in the early October. Usually,
the southern parts of the country get higher volume of
precipitation than the northern parts of the country.
POST-MONSOON
SEASON
The post-monsoon season spans the months of October to
December. In the northwest parts of the country, the months of
November and October normally have a bright weather. The
Indian state of Tamil Nadu gets the maximum volume of yearly
rainfall in the northeastern rainy season.





Climatic regions in India
The various climatic regions of India are given below:

Name of climatic region States or territories
Tropical Rainforest Assam and parts of the Sahyadri Mountain Range
Tropical Savannah Sahyadri Mountain Range and parts of Maharashtra
Tropical and subtropical
steppe
Parts of Punjab and Gujarat
Tropical Desert Most parts of Rajasthan
Moist subtropical with
winter
Parts of Punjab, Assam, and Rajasthan
Mountain climate
Parts of Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, and
Uttaranchal
Drought Rajasthan, Gujarat, and Haryana
Tropical semi-arid steppe
Tamil Nadu, Maharashtra, and other parts of South
India