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I NDI A SIZE ANDLOCTI ON
INTRODUCTION
India belong to one of the ancient civilization of the wo rld.
It has made multi faceted socio economic progress after obtaining independence in 1947
It has excelled many countries of the world in the filed of agriculture, industry, technology and
overall economic development.
It has contribute a lot the world history.
LOCATION
India is entirely in the Northern hemisphere.
It extends between 8
o
4 and 37
o
6N latitudes and between 68
o
7 and 97
o
25 E longitudes.
Andaman and Nicober Islands lie to the south east of the main and land in the Bay of Bengai.
The Lakshadweep Islands lie in the Arabian sea : (See figure 1.1 on the next page)
Extent of these Island Islands.
* Andaman and Nicober Islands
Latitudinal extent = 6
o
4 N N to 13
o
45

N
Longitudinal extent = 92
o
25 E to 94
o
E
* Lakshadweep Islands
Latitudinal extent = 10
o
N to 13
o
N
Longitudinal extent = 72
o
E to 75
o
E
The southernmost point of the Indian Union is Indian Point in Andaman and Nicobar
Islands.
FACTS
How were different names of the country derived ?
Bharat (Name of India) after Bharat, the Legendary King
- Bharat was the name of the soon of Dushyant
- He was Legendary King.
- After him, the land, India, came to be known as Bharat.
Bharat after the Bharata Tribe s
- Bhara. Ta tribe inhabited this land, predominantly
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- Bharat came to known after this tribe. It is the belief of numerous scholars.
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India
- Greeks and Romans called Sindhu river as Indus.
- India has been derived from the name of Indus (Sindhu) river, (at present Sindhu river is
known as Sind river), the land of Indus is termed as India.
Hindustan.
- The term Hind is derived from Sindhu because the Persians pronounce the Sindhu as
Hindu (H place of S).
- The land, east of Sindhu was called Hindustan.
EFFECTS OF LATITUDINAL AND LONGITUDINAL EXTANT OF INDIA
Effect of Latitudinal Extant of India :
The main land of India is located between 8
o
4 and 37
o
N latitudes. Thus, it extends between
almost 30 latitudes.
The Tropic Cancer passes through the middle of India. it divides the into two parts the
northern part and the southern part. The northern part falls in termperate zone while the southern
part in tropical zone. This has resulted in climatic contrasts. In the south of Tropic of Cancer the
sun shines perpendicular twice a year. On the other hand. in its north, the sun never shines straight
on any place. Hence, temperature are high in the southern part throughout the year while in the
northern part temperatures are less.
Effect of Longitudinal Extent of India :
Longitudinally India extends from 68
o
7 E to 97
o
25 E.
This has influenced time considerably, 2 hours difference is found between the time Western
most tip of Gujarat to Jaisalmer in Rajasthan and that of the Easternmost tip of Arunachal Pradesh.
In order to do away with the time variation within the country, time of 82
o
30 E longitude is take as
standard. This is called Indian Standard Time (IST).
All the clocks and watches throughout the country keep one and the same time.
Radios and television also follow this time.
The actual time of place in Indian is different from IST. local time is its name.
Indira point got submerged in India is sea water on Dec. 26. 2004 during Tsunami.
Indias land boundary is about 15,200 Km long.
Total length of coast line of the main land excluding Andaman and Nicobar and
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Lakshadweep is 7,516.6 Km.
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FACTS
East- west extent of India is lesser then the north south extent because of the following
reasons.
Distance between two latitudes is 110 Km. It remains the same equator to the poles.
Distance between longitudes is 110 Kms. On equator. Going from equator towards north or south the
distance between two longitudes goes on decreasing. Hence east west extent of India lesser than north
south
Countries Larger than India in Area :
Countries Area (In lakh Sq. Km)
1. Russia 170.7
2. China 95.9
3. Canada 92.1
4. USA 90.7
5. Brazil 85.1
6. Australia 76.1
7. India 32.8
The Latitudinal and Longitudinal Expanse is about 30 but the east west expanse seems to be
smaller then the north south extent.
The latitudinal expanse of India is from 6
o
45 to 37
o
6 N
Distance between two latitudes is of 110 Km. it is equal between latitudes upto poles
from equator.
The approximate length from south to north extreme latitudes is approximately 3214 km.
The longitudinal expanse of India is 68
o
7 E to 97
o
25 E
Distance between two longitudes on equator is 110 Kms. It goes on decreasing from
equator to poles between two longitudes.
Hence between the two extreme longitudes the total width of India is 2933 Kms
approximately .
Reasons for Selecting 82
o
30 E for Determining Indian Standard Time.
On International basis the globe has been divided into 24 time zones (each of 15 longitudes).
In every zone local time of the middle longitude (divided by 7
o
30) is takan as standard time of the entire
zone. Because 82
o
30 E is well divisible by 7
o
30. a standard adopted by almost all the countries of the world
while they selected a standard meridian for their respective countries.
India is situated from west to each about 30 longitudes. It takes 4 minutes to cross a longitude
(24 hours + 360 longitudes). India is situated between 67
o
E to 97
o
E (approximately). Hence there is a two
different in the timing of the westernmost extreme and the easternmost extreme. If there is no standard
meridian (longitude) in India, we have to advance our watch by 4 minutes on each longitude. If we travel
from west to east. In order to avoid the problem we have chosen 82
o
30 E as standard meridian and its local
time is taken a standard throughout the country .
BOUNDARIES
India is bounded by the young fold mountains in the north west, north and north east.
It is situated on the northern fringe of the Indian Ocean.
South of about 22
o
N latitude, it begins to taper, and extends towards the Indian Ocean, dividing it
into two seas
The Arabian Seas on the west.
The bay of Bengal on its east.
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Indias total area is about 2.4 percent of the total geographical area of world. Form fig. it is concluded
that Russia is the largest country of the world, then comes China, Canada, U.S.A Brazil and Australia in the
descending order of area.
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India is the seventh largest country of the world.
It is a matter of great interest that India is
Six times bigger than France.
nine times bigger than Germany.
twenty three times bigger than Bangladesh.
INDIA AND THE WORLD
INDIAS CENTRAL POSTION ON THE HENS OF INDIAN OCEAN
India is located midway between the East and the West Asia.
It is the southward extention of the Asian Continent.
The trans Indian Ocean routes connecting the countries of Europe in the West and the developing
countries of Asia in the East provide a strategic central position to India.
Deccan Peninsula protrudes into the Indian Ocean. It helps India to establish close contact with West
Asia. Africa and Europe from the West Coast and with Southeast and East Asia from the East Coast.
India has the longest coastline on the Indian Ocean. No other country has such a long coastline.
Indias eminent position in the Indian Ocean Justifies the naming of an Ocean after it.
INDIA AND THE LAND ROUTHS
India continued its relations with the world through the ages.
Its relationships through the land routes are much older than its relationship through sea routes.
Various passes across the mountains in the north provided land routes to the ancient travelers.
Fertile river valleys of India helpen in the spread of pastoral nomads.
India remained busy in the exchange of ideas and commodities since time immemorial.
Indias contact with West Asia, East Asia, Central and South Asia are notesworthy.
Buddism traveled from India to Tiber, China as far as Japan and Korean Peninsula.
Mongols, the Turks, the Arabs and the Iranians contributed richly to the countrys
architectural heritage.
The ideas of the Upanishads, the Indian numbers and the decimal system reached many part of
the world as a result of these contacts.
INDIAS NEIGHBOURS
India has n important strategic position in South Asia.
It has 28 States and 7 Union Territories. Lakshadweep and Andaman & Nicobar Islands are two
Union Territories. Situated in the Arabina Sea and the Bay of Bangal respectively
India has its common land boundaries with Pakistan and Afghanistan in the north west, chain
(Tibet), Nepal and Bhutan in the north and Myanmar and Bangladesh in the east.
Indias southern neigbhours across the sea are two island states. They are Sri Lanka and Maldives.
Sri Lanka is separated from India by a narrow channel of sea formed by the Palk Strait and the
Gulf of Manner.
Maldives Islands are situated to the south of the Lakhsdweep Island.
India has strong geographical and historical contracts links with neighbours.
India stands from the rest of Asia.
Mountains in the north and Indian Ocean on its three sides have given it a distinct geographical entity.
Pakistan, Nepal, Bhutan, Bangladesh and India form the most natural geographical unit. This units is
referred to as the Indian sub continent.
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Vast area of diverse landsmasses have helped India display a distance physical identity of its own.
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India Size and location
Offical Name : Republic of India/ Bharat
Nationality : Indian
Capital : New Delhi
Area : 32,87,263 sq km. (2.42 % of the earths land surface)
Location : (1) In the southern part of the Asian continent.
(2) In the head of the Indian ocean.
(3) At the head of the Indian ocean.
Extent : Latitude 8
o
4 N to 37
o
6 N
: Longitude 68
o
E to 97
o
25 E
Size : India is the seventh largest country in the world. Six other ountries
larger than India are
The north South extant of India is approximately 3,214 m.
In East West extant of India is 2.933
Indias Frontier :-
1. India has a land boundary of about 15,200 km.
2. The total coast line of our country is 7,517 km or 7,516.6 km
Imaginary Line :-
1. Tropic of Cancer (231/2N) passes almost of middle of the Indian subcontinent.
2. It passes from Rann of Kachchh in the west to Mizoram in the East.
3. Indian states from which Tropic of Cancer passes are Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh,
Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand West Bangal, Tripura, Mizorum.
4. Tropic of cancer divided Indian into two parts i.e. above Tropic of cancer there is subtropical
India, below Topic of Cancer there is Tropical India.
The Standard Meridian.
1. 82
o
30E is selected as Indian standard Meridan.
2. It is almost middle meridian of India
3. Its time is considered as the standard throughout India.
4. 82
o
30 E meridian passes through Mizapul in uttarpradesh
Indian Peninsula :- India is a peninsula because it is surrounded by water from there sides
i.e. Boy of Bengal in the east, Arabian sea in the west and Indian Ocean in the south.
Indian states and Union Territoris :- There are 28 states and 7 Union Terriories.
Neighbouring Conutries : India shares its land boundaries with China, Napal, Bhutan in the,
Pakistan & Afghanistan in the North = west, Myanmar and Bangladesh in the east, Srilanka and
Maldives in the south.
Groups of Islands :- 1. Andaman & Nicobar island (Bay of Bengal)
1. Russia 17.07 million sq. km.
2. Canada 9.97 m. sq. km.
3. USA 9.66 m. sq. km.
4. China 95.6 m. sq. km.
5. Brazil 8.51 m. sq. km.
6. Australia 7.68 m. sq. km.
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2. Lakshadweep Island (Arabian sea)
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Island States :- There are 19 states in Indian with no coast line.
The state with longest coaslime :- Gujarat
Latitudinal extent of Andaman & Nicobar Island : 6
o
4 N to 13
o
45 N longitudinal extant of Andaman &
nicobar Island :- 92
o
25 E to 94
o
E
Lakshadeep 10
o
N to 13
o
N/ 72
o
E to 75
o
E
Poorvanchal or the seven sisters :- Seven states in the eastern part of India are called poorvanchal. They
are :- Assam, Arunachal Pradesh, Nagaland, Manipur, Mizorum, Tripura Maghalaya.
Indias Population :- (2nd largest country in the world)
Censue Population Density (per sq. km.)
1991 846 million 267
2001 1027 million 324
Largest state (area)- Rajasthan (3,42 , 239 sq km.)
Smallest State (area) Goa (3, 702 sq. km.)
Most populated state Uttarpradesh.
The southernmost tip of mainland of India :- Kanyakumari (8
o
4 N) The southerm most point of the
Repulilc of India : Indira Point (8
o
4 N)
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EXERICES -1
1. What is the official name of India ?
(A) Hindustan (B) Bharat (C) Bharatvarsha (D) Aryava rta
2. What is the eastern most longitude India.
(A) 97
o
27 E (B) 72
o
10E (C) 6807 E (D) 97
o
25E
3. What is the latitudinal extent of India ?
(A) 6
o
4N to 30
o
6N (B) 7
o
4 to 37
o
6 N (C) 8
o
4 N to 37
o
6 N (D) 4
o
3 N to 3500N
4. What is length of the Indian Land boundary ?
(A) 7010 km. (B) 5310 km. (C) 7516.6 km. (D) 3200 km.
5. What is the length of the Indian Land boundary ?
(A) 12000Km. (B) 15000 Km. (C) 15,200 Km. (D) 10,100 Km.
6. Name of the parallel to latitude which divides India into almost two equal parts.
(A) Equator (B) Tropic of Capricorn
(C) Arctic circle (D) Tropic of cancer
b From which state the tropic of Cancer does not pass ?
(A) Gujarat (B) Bihar (C) West Bangal (D) Mizoram
8. Fro m which latitude the tropic of Cancer passes.
(A) 20
o
N (B) 231/2 S (C) 231/2N (D) 661/2 N
9. What is longitudinal extent of India ?
(A) 67
o
4E to 96
o
2 E (B) 62
o
3 E to 95
o
12 E
(C) 68
o
7 E to 97
o
25 E (D) 64
o
4 E to 96
o
25 E
10. Uttaranchal Uttar, Pradesh, Bihar West Bangal and Sikkem leave common frontiers with
(A) China (B) Bhutan (C) Nepal (D) Myanmar
11. If you intend to visit kavartti during your summer vacation, which one of the following,
Union Territories of India you will be going to
(A) Pondicharry (B) Daman and Diu
(C) Andaman and Nicobar (D) Lakshadweep
12. Which longitude represent the standard meridian of India ?
(A) 81
o
30 E (B) 82
o
32 E (C) 0
o
(D) 82
o
30 E
13. Which triangular shape country lies to the southof the Lakshadeep Island ?
(A) Maldives (B) Bangladesh (C) Srilanka (D) Napel
14. What is the southern most point to the Indian Union ?
(A) kanya kumari (B) Leh (C) Indira Point (D) Keralal
15. Which is the largest country in the world ?
(A) Russia (B) India (C) China (D) Canacla
16. Which canal shortened the distance between India and Europe ?
(A) Panama Canal (B) Suez Canal
(C) Indira Gandhi Canal (D) None of these
17. Name of group of island in Arabian sea.
(A) Goa (B) Lakshdweep
(C) Andaman & Nicobar (D) None of these
18. Name of southern neighbour of India other than srilanka ?
(A) Lakshadweep (B) Maldives (C) Bangladesh (D) Afghanistan
19. Name the Ocean which lies in south of India.
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(A) Indian Ocean (B) Pacific Ocean (C) Arctic Ocean (D) Atlanitc Ocean
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20. Which water body lies to the east of India ?
(A) Arabian Sea (B) Indian Ocean (C) Boy f Bangal (D) Arctic ocean
21. Which western most point of India lies at 68
o
7 E ?
(A) Rann of Kachchh (B) Rajasthan (C) Maharashtra (D) Mizoram
22. What name is taken by the earth to rotate through of 1
o
of longitude ?
(A) 4 minutes (B) 5 minutes (C) 6 minutes (D) none qfthese
23. Which is the largest of our country ?
(A) Raj asthan (B) Madhya Pradesh (C) Uttarpradesh (D) Kerala
24. Which one the following is the smallest state in India ? (area)
(A) Sikkim (B)Tripura (C) Goa (D) Kerala
25. What is the Indias share of the total area of the earth surface
(A) 4% (B) 2.24 % (C) 2.5 % (D) 4.4%
26. Name the island of India which is an active volcano ?
(A) Arabian Sea (B) Lakshadweep (C) Andaman (D) None of them
27. Name the waterbody which lies in western part of India ?
(A) Arabian Sea (B) Red Sea
(C) Andaman and Nicobar (D) Greenland
28. Which is the largest populated state in our country ?
(A) Madya Pradesh (B) Kerala (C) Uttar Pradesh (D) West Bangal
29. Which is the 7
th
largest country in the world (area wise)
(A) Canada (B) India (C) China (D) Brazil
30. Which is the largest country in the world in term of population ?
(A) Russia (B) China (C) India (D) Canada
31. What is place in India is situated on three sea ?
(A) Kanayakumari (B) Indira Point (C) Kolkata (D) Rameshwaram
32. What is the total area of India ?
(A) 32,65,105 sq. km. (B) 32,42,136 sq. km.
(C) 32,87,293 sq. km (D) 32,87,263. 3 sq. km.
33. What is the time difference between western most and eastern most tip of India ?
(A) 2 hours (B) 3 hours (C) 4 hours (D) 5 hours
34. Which country is our western neighbour ?
(A) China (B) Myanmar (C) Pakistan (D) Srilanka
ANSWER KEY
Que. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15
Ans. B D C C C A B C C C D D C C A
Qus. 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30
Ans. B B B A C A A A A B A A C B B
Que. 31 32 33 34
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Ans. A C A C
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EXERCISE - 2
1. The sun rises two hours earlier in eastern parts of Arunachal Pradesh as compared to
Jaislamer in the west but the watches show the same time Comment on this statement.
2. Wny is central location of India at the head of the Indian Ocean considered of great
significance ?
3. Give an accoune of countries which are larger and smaller than India (three each)
4. Describe the affects of Indias Latitudinal and Longitudinal expanse.
5. Give reasons :
(i) While the sun has already rise in Arunachal Pradesh. It is still dark in Gujrat, Rajasthan.
(ii) 82
o
30 E has been selected as the standared maridina of India.
(iii) Ahmadabad sees the sun over head twice a year.
(iv) Why has Maghalaya been named as such.
(v) India as often referred to as subcontinent
6. Identify the following with the help of map reading.
(i) The Island groups of India lying in the Arabian sea and the Bay of Bangal.
(ii) The countries constituting Indian subcontinent.
(iii) The states through which the Tropic of Caner passes
(iv) The southernmost tip of Indian Union and the mainland.
(v) The northernmost latitude in degrees.
(vi) The easternmost and the westernmost latitude in degrees.
(viii) The southernmost latitude of the Indian mainland in degrees.
(ix) The place situated on the three seas.
(x) The strait separating sri Lanka from India.
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