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- Design and Control of Equalization Tanks
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You are on page 1of 13

Length b 7 m 23.0 ft

Breadth c 7 m 23.0 ft

Depth a 5.5 m 18.0 ft

Volume 269.5 m3 9517.2 ft3

d 18.0 in

Weight of water 1000 kg/m3 62.4 lb/ft3

Weigth of moist soil 15.71 kN/m3 100.0 lb/ft3

fc 4000.0 psi

60000.0 psi

Wall thickness 18.0 in

Water pressure 624.3 lb/ft

Ratio

b/a 1.27 1.25

c/a 1.27 1.25

Design for shear forces

For b/a

Bottom edge - midpoint 0.36

Side Edge - maximum 0.25

Side edge - midpoint 0.25

For b/a = 1.25

Bottom edge - midpoint 0.36

Side Edge - maximum 0.25

Side edge - midpoint 0.25

Check shear at the bottom of the wall

Maximum shear coeffiecents, Cs 0.36 long wall

Maximum shear coeffiecents, Cs 0.36 short wall

1. Check shear at bottom of the wall

Shear force, V

V 4055.3 lbs

Vu 6894.1 lbs

d 15.7 in

Vc 23830.9 lbs

fVc 20256.3 lbs

If fVc > Vu OK

2. Check shear at side edge of long wall

V 2816.2 lbs

Vu 4787.6 lbs

Shear in short side wall:

V 2816.2 lbs

Nu -4787.6 lbs

Ag 216.0 in1

Vc 22774.5 lbs

fVc 19358.3 lbs

If fVc > Vu OK

Design for vertical bending moments(determine vertical steel

DESIGN OF EQUALIZATION BASIN

Exposure Conditions

BS 8110 Severe exposure

BS 8007 Design crack width 0.2 mm

Material

Concrete grade 35 A Concrete strength: 35.00 N/mm

2

Steel grade 460

Table 2.3 Characteristic yield proof stress, fy 460 N/mm

2

pg 18 Partial factor of safety

Materials

Concrete 1.5

Steel 1.15

Loads

Water 1.4

Soil 1.4

Calculations Reference Output

Calculations Reference Output

LIMIT STATE DESIGN

Cantilever Wall

Consider 1m length of wall

Design a cantilever wall to withstand water pressure

Height H 5.5 m

Normal Height of water 5 m

Water Wg 10 kN/m3

Partical safety factors:-

Table 21 Service limit state, g

f

1.4

Ultimate limit state, g

f

1

Service moment at roote of cantilever 208.3 kNm/m

Ultimate moment, M 388.2 kNm/m

From design charts the estimated root thickess

h 700 mm

Table 3.1 T 20 100 bar spacing (mm) 1625.00

Table A.2.12 Limiting moment Ms 396.1 kNm

Service steel stress fs 222 N/mm2

Ultimate shear capcity 363 kN/m

For Ms 388.2083 ,fs 217.6 N/m2

Ok

Using the values obtained from the design tables a check on the

accuracy of the orignal assumption must be now made.

cover 40

T

T 16

distribution steel

Calculations Reference Output

Cover, c 40 mm

R1 16 mm

R2 20 mm

Effective depth,d 650 mm

Table 2 M/bd2 0.92

BS 8110 -3 100As/bd 0.25

As 1625.00 mm2

Ultimate limit state

For ulitmate limit state, recall M 388.21 kNm/m

The Ultimate moment of resistance based on the steel is given by

Maximum, Mu 2321.638 kNm/m Satisfactory

If the Design Ultimate moment < Maximum Ultimate Moment

then it is satisfactory

The ultimate moment of resistance based on the steel is given by:

Depth of neutral axis,x

pg 43

Eq 7

x= = 0.06705 d 43.6 mm

Where the lever arm , 0.97 d

But maximum value is 0.95d 630 mm

z

max

617.5 mm Use

Mu (ultimate moment of resistance) 401.6 kNm/m Satisfactory

This section is therefore satisfactory as the applied ulitmate momment

is less than the moment of resistance of the section

Ultimate shear force at root of wall, V

V 211.75 kN/m

BS8110

3.4.5.2 Therefore design shear stress,v = V/b

v

d 0.33

= 0.157

= 0.87

z

= 1 1 0.7

/0.9

= 0.45

= 0.95

Calculations Reference Output

0.25

Table 3.8 Design concrete shear stress,Vc (see Table 3.8) by interpolation

Effective

depth

0.25 0.40

0.25 vc

0.50 0.50

Gradient 0.4

vc 0.4 Statisfactory

This is satisfactory and no shear stee is necessary.

Note: As shear stress is satisfactory at the root of wall, it is not

necessary to consider the critical secion of a height 2d above root.

Limit State of Cracking

Service moment, M

s

208.3 kNm

Section Depth of neutral axis (elastic no-tension theory)

3.4

Table 3.4 Modular ratio, a

e

= E

s

/E

c

15

pg 40 Where Es - modulus of elasticity of concrete, Es modulus of elasticity of steel

0.0025

Therefore 0.0375

Depth of neutral axis is given by x/d 0.238917

And x = 155.30 mm

Lever arm z = d-x/3 598.2 mm

Moment of resistance of section

Therefore fs 214.3 N/mm2

100

1 +

2

Calculations Reference Output

BS 8007 Check steel and concrete service stress

App B fs 214.3057 N/mm2

B2 0.8fy 368 N/mm2

Fcb 2Ms/zbx 4.484945 N/mm2 fcb<0.45fu Ok Ok

0.4fcu 15.75 N/mm2 fs<0.8fy Ok Ok

Elastic strain at surface

Es 200 kN/mm

2

e

1

0.00118

e

2

0.000615

Average surface strain e

m

=e

1

-e

2

0.000565

Crack width w

Recall bar spacing,s 100 mm

c 56 mm

bar size,f 20 mm

Ca = cmin+f/2 66 mm

a

cr

72.80097 mm

Threrfore surface crack width,w 0.116165 mm 0.116165

Allowable w 0.2 mm Satisfactory

0.4

0.55 Cantilever wall

0.6

0.7

0.85

A 1 2.5

3.5

1

=

2

=

( )( )

3

( )

=

3

1 +2(

)

Calculations Reference Output

Wall Footing

Water pressure 10.00 h

Soil pressure 0.50 h

Surage

Roof load 0

Dead Load only

24 kN/m3

Case 1

Tank full

Taking moments about A

Restoring forces/ Moments about A

water 99 311.85

wall 92.4 117.81

Base 71.4 124.95

0.36 0.216

Soil 12.6 6.3

275.76 kN/m 561.126 kNm/m

Overturning Moment, 561.126 kNm/m

277.2917 kNm/m

283.8343

Factor safety against over turning 2.023595 Safe

Case2

Tank empty

Factor safety against over turning 2.251023 Safe

Footing reinforcment

Soil pressure under base

Calculate moment about centre line of base

Case1

Mc -198.746

Soil pressure 78.78857 +/- -81.1207

Soil pressure 159.9093 kN/m2

2.332109 kN/m2

Footing Reinforcement 55

Moment at root of toe -65.315 kN/m/m 17

114.8872

=

1

6

3

Calculations Reference Output

Moment root of heel 63.95095 kN/m/m 83.37178

By inspection not critical

Heel reinforcement

M 63.95095 kN/m/m

Mu 1.4xM 89.53133 kN/m/m

h 800

d 736

x1 0.026542

z = 1-0.45x 0.988056

But maxiumum value z is 0.95

Ast 228.5433 mm2

Calculations Reference Output

Tank Floor Slab

Assuming uniform ground conditions, the floor slab is uniformly loaded and has

no tranverse bending stresses.

To proivide a reasonable thickness of concrete, and allowing for possible

construction tolerances (crack tolerances)

Use 200 mm thick

Critical steel ratio r

crit

= f

ct

/f

y

Where:

f

ct

=Tensile stress in concrete

To proivde a resaonable thickness of concret and allowing for possible construction tolerance use slab 200 mm thick

rcrit = fct/fy 1.6/460 0.003478

Provie top reinforcment only based on a surface zone 100 mm

that is (one half of slab depth)

As = 0.35% x 100 x1000 347.8261 mm2/m

Use a welded mesh fabric with 10 mm wires in each direction at 200 mm

spacings (393)

Bottom zone does not require reinforcment

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