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# CCNA Practice Questions

CCNA Practice Multiple Choice questions for Recent Graduates and Professionals to
help them in their interview preparations.:
Q1. Which of the followin is Class C !P address"
A. 10.10.14.118
B. 135.23.112.57
C. 191.200.199.199
D. 204.67.118.54
Explanation:
! a""resses are written #sin\$ "eci%al n#%&ers separate" &' "eci%al points. ()is is calle"
"otte" "eci%al notation o* expressin\$ ! a""resses.
Q#. \$ou have an !P of 1%&.#''.(#.%& with a su)net mas* of + )its. ,ow man- hosts and
su)nets are possi)le"
A. 126 )osts an" 510 s#&nets
B. 128 s#&nets an" 512 )osts
C. 510 )osts an" 126 s#&nets
D. 512 s#&nets an" 128 )osts
/0planation.
Class B networ+ )as t)e *or% ,.,.-.-. t)e "e*a#lt s#&net %as+ is 16 &its lon\$.
()ere is a""itional 7 &its to t)e "e*a#lt s#&net %as+. ()e total n#%&er o* &its in s#&net are
16/7 0 23.
()is lea1es #s wit) 32223 09 &its *or assi\$nin\$ to )osts.
7 &its o* s#&net %as+ correspon"s to 3247225012822 0 126 s#&nets.
9 &its &elon\$in\$ to )ost a""resses correspon" to 3249225051222 0 510 )osts.
Q'. 1wo su) la-ers of 23! 4ata 5in* la-er are which of the followin" 63elect #7.
A. 6o\$ical 6in+ Control
B. Data 6in+ Control
C. 7e"ia Access Control
D. !)'sical 6a'er Control
Q(. Match the followin.
A. 8epeaters 1. Data 6in+ 6a'er
B. Bri"\$es 2. ,etwor+ 6a'er
C. 8o#ters 3. !)'sical 6a'er
9elect t)e &est co%&ination:
A. A :;2. B:;3. C:;1
B. A:;3. B:2;1. C:2;2
C. A:;3.B:<;2. C:2;1
D. A:2;1. B:2;2. C:2;3
Q%. Which of the followin are session la-er standards" 63elect #7.
A. ,=9
B. 9>6
C. ?!@
D. 7D
Q&. Match the correspondin la-ers of !32 and 4o4 models"
DoD 7o"el A:::; 9B B9 7o"el
A. !rocessCApplication 1. Application
B. -ost2to2-ost 2. !resentation
C. nternet 3. 9ession
D. ,etwor+ Access 4. (ransport
5. ,etwor+
6. Data 6in+
7. !)'sical
Choose best choice:
A. A2;1/2D B2;3/4D C2;5D D2;6/7
B. A2;1/2/3D B2;4D C2;5D D2;6/7
C. A2;1/2/3D B2;4D C2;5/6D D2;7
D. A2;1/2/3D B2;4/5D C2;6D D2;7
Q+. What is the command used to add a )anner to a Cisco router confiuration"
A. a"" &anner
B. &anner %ot" E
C. %ot" &anner E
D. a"" &anner E
Q8. What is the default administrative distance for R!P"
A. 100
B. 120
C. 0
D. 200
Q9. 1he Cisco Catal-st 19:: switches support which three 5AN switch t-pes" 63elect '7.
A. 9tore2an"2=orwar"
B. =ra\$%ent=ree
C. nsta9witc)
D. =ast=orwar"
Q1:. Which is true reardin ;5ANs"
A. F6A, tec)nolo\$' #ses F6A, switc)es 3la'er 25 w)ic) is a s#&stit#te *or ro#tin\$
tec)nolo\$' w)ic) #ses ro#ters.
B. A F6A, )as sa%e collision "o%ain
C. A F6A, )as sa%e &roa"cast "o%ain
D. F6A,s are less sec#re wit) respect to si%ple switc) or -#& networ+s.
Q11. \$our internet wor* consists entirel- of Cisco devices. \$ou have iven a command
<show cdp neih)ors=. !n the response> -ou et <3= under the head <Capa)ilit-=. What
does the letter <3= mean"
A. t %eans G9o#rce 8o#te Bri"\$eH
B. t %eans G-ostH
C. t %eans G9witc)H
D. t %eans G9taticH
Q1#. \$ou want to verif- the encapsulation t-pe )ein used at 4ata 5in* la-er for
interface s:. Which command can -ou use"
A. 9) ip protocol
B. s) int s0
C. s) ip inter*ace
D. s) processes
Q1'. \$ou want to run 8:#.# frame t-pe on -our /thernet interface. Which encapsulation
t-pe has to )e chosen"
A. Et)ernetI
B. 802.2
C. 9A!
D. 9,A!
Q1(. What does ?1 sinif- in an e0tended !P@ access list"
A. per%it t)is )ost
B. "en' t)is )ost
C. per%it onl' t)is s#&net
D. an' )ost or an' networ+
Q1%. Which command sequence will allow onl- traffic from networ* 18%.&(.:.: to enter
interface s:"
A. access2list 25 per%it 185.64.0.0 255.255.0.0
int s0 D ip access2list 25 o#t
B. access2list 25 per%it 185.64.0.0 255.255.0.0
int s0 D ip access2\$ro#p 25 o#t
C. access2list 25 per%it 185.64.0.0 0.0.255.255
int s0 D ip access2list 25 in
D. access2list 25 per%it 185.64.0.0 0.0.255.255
int s0 D ip access2\$ro#p 25 in
Q1&. Which of the followin are reference points relevant to !34N" 63elect #7.
A. (
B. J
C. F
D. K
Q1+. Which is true a)out ;5AN 1run* Protocol" 63elect #7.
A. F(! is staticall' con*i\$#re" an" no &#ilt in intelli\$ence is a1aila&le.
B. F(! pro1i"es intelli\$ence *or con*i\$#rin\$ switc)es across t)e networ+.
C. F(! is not "esi\$ne" to "istri&#te in*or%ation across t)e switc) *a&ric.
D. F(! is "esi\$ne" to "istri&#te in*or%ation across t)e switc) *a&ric.
Q18. Which of the followin is a term associated with WAN terminolo- A is a WAN
device" 63elect all that appl-7.
A. De%arc
B. D9JCC9J
C. 7o"e%
D. C!E
Correct answer: A, B, C, D
Q19. Which of the followin can )e used to view the previous command -ou entered into
a Cisco router" 63elect #7.
A. C(86/=1
B. ()e Down Arrow
C. ()e Jp Arrow
D. C(86 / !
Q#:. What is true a)out static ;5ANs" 6Choose the )est answer7.
A. ()e F6A, is con*i\$#re" &' a (=(! ser1er.
B. t a#to%aticall' noti*' a new networ+ #ser.
C. ()e a"%inistrator assi\$ns F6A, &' port.
D. 9tatic F6A, are %ore appropriate w)en t)e switc) *a&ric &eco%es %ore co%plex.
Q. What steps do -ou ta*e when trou)leshootin a networ*in issue"
A. As a s#pport tec)nician. 'o#r Lo& is to sol1e pro&le%s. ()is M#estion pro1i"es t)e inter1iewer wit) insi\$)t
into 'o#r tro#&les)ootin\$ s+ills. B* co#rse. t)e %ost i%portant part o* tro#&les)ootin\$ an' pro&le% is to "i1i"e
t)e tas+s o* pro&le% resol#tion into a s'ste%atic process o* eli%ination. li+e t)is:
1. De*ine t)e pro&le%.
2. @at)er "etaile" in*or%ation.
3. Consi"er pro&a&le ca#se *or t)e *ail#re.
4. De1ise a plan to sol1e t)e pro&le%.
5. %ple%ent t)e plan.
6. B&ser1e t)e res#lts o* t)e i%ple%entation.
7. 8epeat t)e process i* t)e plan "oes not resol1e t)e pro&le%.
8. Doc#%ent t)e c)an\$es %a"e to sol1e t)e pro&le%.
1. As system administrator, you type debug ipx sap and receive the following
lines as part of the IO response! type "#\$, %&''O(), 1**."""(."""+.""",
-\$.1/, ( hops type "#\$, %&''O1), 1**."""(."""+."""0 -\$.1/, ( hops 1hat
does "#\$) signify2
3 4hat is a 5et 6earest erver response.
3 4hat it is a 5eneral 7uery.
3 4hat it is a 5eneral response.
3 4hat it is a 5et 6earest erver re7uest.
(. 4o monitor I9 igrp traffic, you can use debug I9 igrp transaction or debug I9
igrp events. %ow do you display information about I9: routing update pac;ets2
3 debug routing
3 debug ipx transaction
3 debug ipx routing activity
3 debug ipx events
+. 4o monitor ipx traffic on a networ;, what command would you use2
3 debug ipx transaction
3 show ipx traffic
3 show ipx events
3 display ipx traffic
\$. 1hat command would you use to find out the names of 6ovell servers on a
networ;2
3 show ipx servers
3 show ipx hosts
3 show ipx sap
3 show ipx nodes.
.. 4he ipx delay number command will allow an administrator to change the
default settings. 1hat are the default settings2
3 <or 'A6 interfaces, one tic;= for 1A6 interfaces, six tic;s
3 <or 'A6 interfaces, six tic;s= for 1A6 interfaces, one tic;
3 <or 'A6 interfaces, >ero tic;s= for 1A6 interfaces, five tic;s
3 <or 'A6 interfaces, five tic;s= for 1A6 interfaces, >ero 4ic;s
4he default is?for 'A6 interfaces, one tic;= for 1A6 interfaces, six tic;s
,. As a system administrator, you need to set up one &thernet interface on the
8isco router to allow for both sap and 6ovell@ether encapsulations. 1hich set of
commands will accomplish this2
3 interface ethernet ".1 ipx encapsulation 6ovell@ether ipx networ; *e interface
ethernet ".( ipx networ; ,c
3 interface ethernet " ipx encapsulation 6ovell@ether ipx networ; *e interface
ethernet " ipx encapsulation sap ipx networ; ,c
3 interface ethernet ".1 ipx encapsulation 6ovell@ether interface ethernet ".( ipx
encapsulation sap
3 interface ethernet ".1ipx encapsulation 6ovell@ether ipx networ; *e interface
ethernet ".( ipx encapsulation sap ipx networ; ,c
4he following commands setup the subinterfaces to allow for two types of
encapsulation! interface ethernet ".1 ipx encapsulation 6ovell@ether ipx networ;
*e interface ethernet ".( ipx encapsulation sap ipx networ; ,c
A. 1hat does the I9: maximum@paths () command accomplish2
3 It enables load sharing on ( paths if the paths are e7ual metric paths.
3 It sets up routing to go to networ; (.
3 It is the default for 8isco I9: load sharing.
3 It enables load sharing on ( paths if the paths are une7ual metric paths.
It enables load sharing on ( paths if the paths are e7ual metric paths. 4he
default is 1 path and the maximum is .1( paths.
0. Bou want to enable both arpa and snap encapsulation on one router interface.
%ow do you do this2
3 4he interface can handle multiple encapsulation types with no extra
configuration.
3 Assign two networ; numbers, one for each encapsulation type.
3 &nable 6ovell@ether to run multiple encapsulation types.
3 Coth arpa and snap are enabled by default so you donDt have to configure
anything.
4o assign multiple networ; numbers, you usually use subinterfaces. A sample
configuration follows! ipx ethernet ".1 ipx encapsulation novell@ether ipx networ;
*e interface ethernet ".( ipx encapsulation sap ipx networ; ,c
Cy default, 8isco routers forward 56 A9s to remote networ;s.
3 <alse
3 4rue
56 is 6ovellDs protocol to 5et 6earest erver. If there is a server on the local
networ;, that server will respond. If there isnDt, the 8isco router has to be
configured to forward the 56 A9.
routers do not forward them. %ow are services advertised to other networ;s2
3 &ach router builds its own A9 table and forwards that every ," seconds.
3 &ach router assigns a service number and broadcasts that.
3 A9s arenDt necessary with 8isco routers.
3 8isco routers filter out all A9s.
8isco routers build A9 tables and forward the table every ," seconds. All
A9s canDt be filtered even with \$.x since 6E and time synchroni>ation uses
A9s.
1". 6ovellDs implementation of FI9 updates routing tables every GGGG seconds.
3 ,"
3 *"
3 1"
3 +"
6ovellDs FI9 updates routing tables every ," seconds, AppleDs F4H9 is every
1" seconds, routers AF9 every ," seconds, I5F9 signal every *" seconds, and
Canyan II6& signals every *" seconds.
11. In 6ovellDs use of FI9, there are two metrics used to ma;e routing decisions.
elect the two metrics.
3 4ic;s.
3 %ops
3 'oops
3 8ounts
It first uses tic;s -which is about 1J10 sec./= if there is a tie, it uses hops= if hops
are e7ual, then it uses an administratively assigned tiebrea;er.
1(. 1hat is the 8isco name for the encapsulation type used on a serial interface2
3 %E'8
3 E'8
3 A9
3 6A9
1+. arpa is used by the 8isco IO for which encapsulation types2
3 &thernetGII
3 &thernetG0"(.+
3 &thernetG0"(.(
3 &thernetG6A9
1\$. 6ovellDs I9: and 8iscoDs IO name their protocols differently. 8isco uses sap
for &thernetG0"(.(, 4o;en@Fing, and 6ovellDs <EEIG0"(.(. 8isco uses snap for
&thernetG6A9, 4o;en@FingG6A9, and <EEIG6A9. 8isco uses arpa for
&thernetGII and, finally the default is 6ovell@ether for 6ovellDs &thernetG0"(.+.
snap is used by the 8isco IO for which encapsulation types2
3 &thernetG6A9
3 4o;en@FingG6A9
3 <EEIG6A9
3 6ovell@6A9
3 6ovell@<EEI.
1.. 6ovellDs I9: and 8iscoDs IO name their protocols differently. 8isco uses sap
for &thernetG0"(.(, 4o;en@Fing, and 6ovellDs <EEIG0"(.(. 8isco uses snap for
&thernetG6A9, 4o;en@FingG6A9, and <EEIG6A9. 8isco uses arpa for
&thernetGII and, finally the default is 6ovell@ether for 6ovellDs &thernetG0"(.+.1.
sap is used by the 8isco IO for which encapsulation types2
3 &thernetG0"(.(
3 4o;en@Fing
3 <EEIG6A9
3 &thernetG0"(.+
3 <EEIG0"(.(
1,. 6ovellDs I9: and 8iscoDs IO name their protocols differently. 8isco uses sap
for &thernetG0"(.(, 4o;en@Fing, and 6ovellDs <EEIG0"(.(. 8isco uses snap for
&thernetG6A9, 4o;en@FingG6A9, and <EEIG6A9. 8isco uses arpa for
&thernetGII and, finally the default is 6ovell@ether for 6ovellDs &thernetG0"(.+.
1hich type of &thernet framing is used for 489JI9 and Apple4al;2
3 &thernet 0"(.+
3 &thernet 0"(.(
3 &thernet II
3 &thernet 6A9
&thernet 0"(.+ is used with 6et1are versions ( through +.11, &thernet 0"(.( is
used with 6et1are +.1( and later plus OI routing, &thernet II is used with
489JI9 and E&8net, and &thernet 6A9 is used with 489JI9 and Apple4al;.
1A. 1hich type of &thernet framing is used for 489JI9 and E&8net2
3 &thernet 0"(.+
3 &thernet 0"(.(
3 &thernet II
3 &thernet 6A9
&thernet 0"(.+ is used with 6et1are versions ( through +.11, &thernet 0"(.( is
used with 6et1are +.1( and later plus OI routing, &thernet II is used with
489JI9 and E&8net, and &thernet 6A9 is used with 489JI9 and Apple4al;.
10. Bou are a system administrator on a 6et1are networ;, you are running
6et1are \$.11 and you cannot communicate with your router. 1hat is the li;ely
problem2
3 6et1are \$.11 defaults to 0"(.( encapsulation.
3 6et1are \$.11 defaults to 0"(.+ encapsulation
3 8isco routers only wor; with 6et1are +.11.
3 6et1are +.11 defaults to 0"(.( encapsulation.
4he default encapsulation on 8isco routers is 6ovell &thernetG0"(.+ and
6et1are +.1( and later defaults to 0"(.( encapsulation, +.11 and earlier
defaults to 0"(.+.
1*. 6et1are I9: addressing uses a networ; number and a node number. 1hich
statements are true2
3 4he networ; address is administratively assigned and can be up to 1,
3 If the HA8 address is used as the node address, then I9: eliminates the use
of AF9.
4he networ; address can be up to 1, hexadecimal digits in length. 4he node
number is 1( hexadecimal digits. 4he node address is usually the HA8
\$a1d. 4he node part is """"."c.,.de++. 4he networ; number is assigned by
the system administrator of the 6ovell networ;.
(". 1hich 6et1are protocol wor;s on layer +?networ; layerKLMNOMPof the OI
model2
3 I9:
3 689
3 9:
3 6etCIO
I9: -Internetwor; 9ac;et &xchange/ is a 6et1are networ; layer + protocol
used for transferring information on 'A6s.
(1. 1hich 6et1are protocol provides lin;@state routing2
3 6'9
3 FI9
3 A9
3 689
6et1are 'in; ervices 9rotocol -6'9/ provides lin;@state routing. A9
8ore 9rotocol/ provides client@to@server connections and applications. FI9 is a
distance vector routing protocol.
((. As a system administrator, you want to debug igrp but are worried that the
debug I9 igrp transaction command will flood the console. 1hat is the
command that you should use2
3 debug I9 igrp event
3 debug I9 igrp@events
3 debug I9 igrp summary
3 debug I9 igrp events
4he debug I9 igrp events is used to only display a summary of I5F9 routing
information. Bou can append an I9 address onto either command to see only
the I5F9 updates from a neighbor.
(+. 1hat does the following series of commands accomplish2 router igrp A1
networ; 1"."."." router igrp 1"* networ; 1A(.,0.A."
3 It isolates networ;s 1"."."." and 1A(.,0.A.".
3 It loads igrp for networ;s 1"* and A1.
3 It disables FI9.
3 It disables all routing protocols.
It isolates networ; 1"."."." and 1A(.,0.A." and associates autonomous
systems 1"* and A1 with I5F9. I5F9 does not disable FI9, both can be used at
the same time.
(\$. In the command router igrp 1"*) what does 1"* signify2
3 an autonomous system
3 any networ; number which the router is attached to
3 the allowable length of the routing table
3 the networ; soc;et number
4he 8isco IO global configuration command router igrp xxx is used to
configure the Interior 5ateway Fouting 9rotocol. In this case, the 1"* is called
the process@id , which can also be used for an autonomous system number.
(.. I5F9 supports a feature that allows traffic to be distributed among up to , -\$
default/ paths to provide greater overall throughput and reliability. 1hat is this
called2
An une7ual@cost load balancing is used to provide alternate paths for data
distribution on an internetwor;. 8isco developed this method to use unused or
under utili>ed lin;s to increase bandwidth and networ; availability.
(,. I5F9 uses flash updates, poison reverse updates, holddown times, and split
3 *" seconds
3 1" seconds
3 +" seconds
3 \$. seconds
(A. 4he command show I9 protocol displays which information2
3 routing timers
3 networ; information
3 contents of the I9 routing table
3 information about all ;nown networ; and subnetwor;s
show I9 protocol displays routing timers and networ; information. show I9
route displays the routing table with information about all ;nown networ;s and
subnetwor;s.
3 +"
3 1"
3 ,"
3 *"
6ovellDs FI9 updates routing tables every ," seconds, AppleDs F4H9 is every
1" seconds, routers AF9 every ," seconds, E&8net hosts and I5F9 signal
every 1. seconds, and Canyan II6& signals every *" seconds.
(*. An autonomous system can only exist if all routers in that system meet which
criteria2
3 interconnected
3 run the same routing protocol
3 assigned same autonomous system number
3 run I5F9 only
3 run FI9 only
An autonomous system is a set of routers and networ;s under the same
administration. &ach router must be interconnected, run the same routing
protocol, and assigned the same autonomous system number. 4he networ;
Information 8enter -6I8/ assigns a uni7ue autonomous system number to
enterprises.
+". A default route is analogous to a GGGGGGGGG.
3 default gateway
3 static route
3 dynamic route
3 one@way route
A default route is analogous to a default gateway. It is used to reduce the length
of routing tables and to provide complete routing capabilities when a router
might not ;now the routes to all other networ;s.
+1. Fouters can learn about destinations through static routes, default, or
dynamic routing. Cy default, a router will use information derived from
GGGGGGGGGG.
3 I5F9
3 FI9
3 I9
3 489
4he 7uality of information is rated!
8onnected interface "
tatic route 1
I5F9 1""
FI9 1("
Qn;nown (..
4he lower the value, the more reliable the source with (.. signifying information
that the router will ignore. o, the router will use I5F9, rated at 1"", before FI9,
rated at 1(".
+(. Bou are logged into a router, what command would show you the I9
addresses of routers connected to you2
3 show cdp neighbors detail
3 show run
3 show neighbors
3 show cdp
++. As a system administrator, you perform an extended ping at the privileged
&:&8 prompt. As part of the display, you see et E< bit in I9 header2 RyesS !
1hat would happen if you answered no at the prompt.
3 4his lets the router fragment the pac;et.
3 It tells the router not to fragment the pac;et.
3 4his lets the router direct the pac;et to the destination it finds in its routing
table.
3 It tell the router to send the pac;et to the next hop router
et E< bit in I9 header2 is a response to an extended ping at the router. If you
answer yes -the default/ the router will not fragment the pac;et. If you answer
no, the router will fragment the pac;et.
+\$. Bou have typed ping 1A(.1,.1"1.1 and get the following display! 4ype
escape se7uence to abort. ending ., 1""@byte I8H9 &choes to 1A(.1,.1"1.1,
timeout is ( seconds!
.TTTT
1hat does the . signify2
3 4hat one message timed out.
3 4hat all messages were successful.
3 4hat one message was successful.
3 4hat one message completed in under the allotted timeframe.
4he possible responses from the ping command are! T uccessful receipt of an
echo reply. 4imed out waiting for a reply Q Eestination unreachable 8
8ongestion@experienced pac;et I 9ing interrupted 2 9ac;et type un;nown U
9ac;et 44' exceeded
+.. 1hich command, that is used to test address configuration, uses 4ime@4o@
'ive -44'/ values to generate messages from each router.
3 trace
3 ping
3 telnet
3 bootp
4he 8isco IO &:&8 command trace RprotocolS RdestinationS is used to
discover routes that pac;ets will travel to their destination hosts. 4race uses
44' -4ime to 'ive/ values to report destination route information.
+,. 1hat does the command I9 name@server (...(...(...(..) accomplish2
3 It sets the domain name loo;up to be a local broadcast.
3 4his is an illegal command.
3 It disables domain name loo;up.
3 4he command is now defunct and has been replaced by I9 server@name ip any
Cy default E6 is enabled on a router with a server address of (...(...(...(..,
which provides for a local broadcast.
1. As a system administrator, you need to provide your routers with a Eomain
6ame ystem -E6/ server. %ow many E6 servers can you specify with one
command2
3 ,
3 1
3 (
3 \$
Bou can only specify six name servers in one command. 4he syntax is I9
also enable
E6.
(. %ow would you configure one host name that points to two I9 addresses2
3 I9 host Wacob 1.".".. (.".".0
3 I9 Wacob 1.".".. (.".".0
3 I9 host Wacob 1."."..
3 I9 host duplicate all
4he correct syntax is I9 host name R 489@port@number S address R address SV..
o, I9 host 91F1 1.".".. (.".".0) is the correct choice. I9 host Wacob 1."."..)
only points the host name Wacob to one I9 address?1."."...
+. 4he following selections show the command prompt and the configuration of
the I9 networ; mas;. 1hich two are correct2
3 FouterXterm I9 netmas;@format Y bitcount Z decimal Z hexadecimal [
3 Fouter-config@if/XI9 netmas;@format Y bitcount Z decimal Z hexadecimal [
3 Fouter-config@if/Xnetmas;@format Y bitcount Z decimal Z hexadecimal [
3 FouterXip netmas;@format Y bitcount Z decimal Z hexadecimal [
FouterXterm I9 netmas;@format Y bitcount Z decimal Z hexadecimal [ and
Fouter-config@if/XI9 netmas;@format Y bitcount Z decimal Z hexadecimal [ are
correct. Bou can configure the mas; for the current session and you can
configure it for a specific line.
\$. 1hen configuring the subnet mas; for an I9 address, which formats can be
used2
3 dotted@decimal.
3 Cit@count
3 Octal
3 Cinary
.. Bou are given the following address! 1.+..".,.(AJ(.. Eetermine the subnet
3 (...(...(...1(0, C,1.+..".,.", 1.+..".,.1(A
3 (...(...(...1(0, 8,1.+..".,.", 1.+..".,.1(A
3 (...(...(...1(0, 8,1.+..".,.1(A, 1.+..".,."
3 (...(...(...((\$, 8,1.+..".,.", 1.+..".,.1(A
,. Bou are given the following address! 1(0.1,.+(.1+J+". Eetermine the subnet
3 (...(...(...(.(, C,1(0.1,.+(.1(, 1(0.1,.+(.1.
3 (...(...(...(.(, 8,1(0.1,.+(.1(, 1(0.1,.+(.1.
3 (...(...(...(.(, C,1(0.1,.+(.1., 1(0.1,.+(.1(
3 (...(...(...(\$0, C,1(0.1,.+(.1(, 1(0.1,.+(.1.
A. Bou are given the following address! 1..1,.1*+.,J(1. Eetermine the subnet
3 (...(...(\$0.", A, 1..1,.1*(.", 1..1,.1**.(..
3 (...(...(\$0.", C, 1..1,.1*(.", 1..1,.1**.(..
3 (...(...(\$0.", A, 1..1,.1**.(.., 1\$.1..1*(."
3 (...(...(\$(.", A, 1..1,.1*(.", 1..1,.1**.(..
0. Bou have an I9 host address of ("1.(((...1(1 and a subnet mas; of
3 ("1.(((...1(A
3 ("1.(((...1("
3 ("1.(((...1(1
3 ("1.(((...1((
4he easiest way to calculate this is to subtract (...(...(...(\$0 -subnet mas;/
from (...(...(...(.., this
e7uals A. 8onvert the address ("1.(((...1(1 to binary?11""1""1 11"1111"
"""""1"1 "1111""1. 8onvert the
mas; (...(...(...(\$0 to binary?11111111 11111111 11111111 11111""". A6E
them together to get! 11""1""1 11"1111"
*. "1111""" or ("1.(((...1(". ("1.(((...1(" is the subnet address, add A to
1". 5iven the address 1A(.1,.(.1(" and the subnet mas; of (...(...(...". %ow
many hosts are available2
3 (.\$
3 .1"
3 1(,
3 1,,+A(
1A(.1,.( 1(" is a standard 8lass C address with a subnet mas; that allows (.\$
hosts. Bou are a networ; administrator and have been assigned the I9 address
of ("1.(((...". Bou need to have (" subnets with . hosts per subnet. 4he
subnet mas; is (...(...(...(\$0.
3 ("1.(((...1A
3 ("1.(((...10
3 ("1.(((...1,
3 ("1.(((...1*
3 ("1.(((...+1
ubnet addresses in this situation are all in multiples of 0. In this example,
("1.(((...1, is the subnet, ("1.((...+1 is the broadcast address. 4he rest are
valid host IEs on subnet ("1.(((...1,.
1(. Bou are a networ; administrator and have been assigned the I9 address of
("1.(((...". Bou need to have (" subnets with
1+. hosts per subnet. 1hat subnet mas; will you use2
3 (...(...(...(\$0
3 (...(...(...1(0
3 (...(...(...1*(
3 (...(...(...(\$"
Cy borrowing . bits from the last octet, you can. have +" subnets. If you
borrowed only \$ bits you could only have 1\$ subnets. 4he formula is -( to the
power of n/@(. Cy borrowing \$ bits, you have -(#(#(#(/@(\1\$. Cy borrowing .
bits, you have -(#(#(#(#(/@(\+". 4o get (" subnets, you would need to borrow
. bits so the subnet mas; would be (...(...(...(\$0.
1\$. Bou are given the I9 address of 1A(.1,.(.1," with a subnet mas; of
(...(...".". 1hat is the networ; address in binary2
3 1"1"11"" """1""""
3 """"""1" 1"1"""""
3 1"1"11"" """"""""
3 111""""" 1111""""
"""1""""" """"""1" 1"1"""""?then A6Eed it with the subnet mas;?11111111
11111111 """""""" """""""". 4he rest is 1"1"11"" """1"""" """"""""
"""""""", which is 1A(.1,."." in decimal.
4he first octet rule states that the class of an address can be determined by the
numerical value of the first octet.
1.. .1. 1hich addresses are I68OFF&84'B paired with their class2
3 1(0 to 1*1, 8lass C
3 1*( to ((+ 8lass C
3 1(0 to 1*1, 8lass 8
3 1*( to ((+, 8lass 8
Address classes are! 1 to 1(,, 8lass A= 1(0 to 1*1, 8lass C, 1*( to ((+, 8lass 8= ((\$ to (+*,
8lass E= and
1,. .(. to (.., 8lass &. 4he first octet rule states that the class of an address can be determined
by the numerical value of the first octet.
.+. 1hich addresses are I68OFF&84'B paired with their class2
3 1 to 1(,, 8lass A
3 1(0 to 1*1, 8lass A
3 1 to 1(,, 8lass C
3 1(0 to 1*1, 8lass C
Address classes are! 1 to 1(,, 8lass A= 1(0 to 1*1, 8lass C, 1*( to ((+, 8lass 8= ((\$ to (+*,
8lass E= and
1A. .\$. to (.., 8lass &. 4he first octet rule states that the class of an address can be determined
by the numerical value of the first octet.
10. ... 1hich addresses are I68OFF&84'B paired with their class2
3 (\$" ? (.., 8lass E
3 (\$" ? (.., 8lass &
3 ((\$ ? (+*, 8lass E
3 ((\$ ? (+*, 8lass &
Address classes are! 1 to 1(,, 8lass A= 1(0 to 1*1, 8lass C, 1*( to ((+, 8lass 8= ((\$ to (+*,
8lass E= and (\$" to (.., 8lass &.
1*. .,. 1hich I9 Address 8lass is I68OFF&84'B paired with its range of networ; numbers2
3 8lass A addresses include 1*(."."." through ((+.(...(..."
3 8lass A addresses include 1."."." through 1(,."."."
3 8lass C addresses include 1(0."."." through 1*1.(..."."
3 8lass 8 addresses include 1*(."."." through ((+.(...(..."
3 8lass E addresses include ((\$."."." through (+*.(...(..."
8lass A addresses include 1."."." through 1(,."."."
8lass C addresses include 1(0."."." through 1*1.(..."."
8lass 8 addresses include 1*(."."." through ((+.(...(..."
8lass E addresses include ((\$."."." through (+*.(...(..."
(". .A. 1hich I9 Address 8lass can have 1, million subnets but support (.\$ hosts2
3 8lass 8
3 8lass A
3 8lass C
3 8lass E
9ossible ubnets I9 Address 8lass 9ossible %osts
(1. .0. A 1,H.
,\$] C ,\$]
1,H 8 (.\$
.*. 1hich I9 Address 8lass can have ,\$,""" subnets with ,\$,""" hosts per subnet2
3 8lass C
3 8lass A
3 8lass 8
3 8lass E
((. I9 Address 8lass 9ossible ubnets 9ossible %osts
,". A 1,H
,\$] C ,\$]
1,H 8 (.\$
(+. ,1. 4here are two processes to pair HA8 address with I9 addresses. 1hich process finds an
3 FAF9
3 AF9
3 FI9
3 I5F9
at the internet layer of the Internet Hodel or the networ; layer of the OI model.
(\$. ,(. 1hen the router runs out of buffer space, this is called GGGGGGGG.
3 ource ^uench
3 Fedirect
3 Information Fe7uest
3 'ow Hemory
ource 7uench is the process where the destination router, or end internetwor;ing device will
7uench the date from the source, or the source router. 4his usually happens when the
destination router runs out of buffer space to process pac;ets.
(.. ,+. 1hich protocol carries messages such as destination Qnreachable, 4ime &xceeded,
9arameter 9roblem, ource ^uench, Fedirect, &cho, &cho Feply, 4imestamp, Information
3 I8H9
3 QE9
3 489
3 4<49
3 <49
I8H9 -Internet 8ontrol Hessage 9rotocol/ is a networ; layer internet protocol described in
F<8 X A*(. I8H9 reports I9 pac;et information such as destination Qnreachable, 4ime
&xceeded, 9arameter 9roblem, ource ^uench, Fedirect, &cho, &cho Feply, 4imestamp,
(,. ,\$. 4wo of the protocols that can be carried in the 9rotocol field of an I9 pac;et are2
3 489
3 QE9
3 <49
3 4<49
4he following are the fields in an I9 segment,
their length, and their definitions!
I&F -Iersion number ? 1, bits/
%'&6 -6umber of +(@bit words in the header ? \$ bits/
4ype of erver -%ow the datagram should be handled ? +( bits/
4otal 'ength -4otal length of header and data ? +( bits/
Identification -9rovide fragmentation of datagrams to allow different H4Qs in the internet ? \$
bits/
<lags -9rovide fragmentation of datagrams to allow different H4Qs in the internet ? \$ bits/
<rag Offset -9rovide fragmentation of datagrams to allow different H4Qs in the internet ? ,
bits/
44' -4ime@4o@'ive ? , bits/
9rotocol -Qpperlayer protocol sending the datagram ? 1, bits/
I9 Options -networ; testing, debugging, security and others ? \$ bits/
Eata -\$ bits/.
(A. ,.. 1here would networ; testing be included in an I9 pac;et2
3 I9 Options field
3 Identification field
3 4ype of ervice field
3 Feservation field
4he following are the fields in an I9 segment, their length, and their definitions!
I&F -Iersion number ? 1, bits/
%'&6 -6umber of +(@bit words in the header ? \$ bits/
4ype of erver -%ow the datagram should be handled ? +( bits/
4otal 'ength -4otal length of header and data ? +( bits/
Identification -9rovide fragmentation of datagrams to allow different H4Qs in the internet ? \$
bits/
<lags -9rovide fragmentation of datagrams to allow different H4Qs in the internet ? \$ bits/
<rag Offset -9rovide fragmentation of datagrams to allow different H4Qs in the internet ? ,
bits/
44' -4ime@4o@'ive ? , bits/
9rotocol -Qpperlayer protocol sending the datagram ? 1, bits/
I9 Options -networ; testing, debugging, security and others ? \$ bits/
Eata -\$ bits/.
(0. ,,. 1hat field tells the Internet layer how to handle an I9 pac;et2
3 4ype of ervice
3 Identification
3 <lags
3 <rag Offset
4he following are the fields in an I9 segment, their length, and their definitions!
I&F -Iersion number ? 1, bits/
%'&6 -6umber of +(@bit words in the header ? \$ bits/
4ype of erver -%ow the datagram should be handled ? +( bits/
4otal 'ength -4otal length of header and data ? +( bits/
Identification -9rovide fragmentation of datagrams to allow different H4Qs in the internet ? \$
bits/
<lags -9rovide fragmentation of datagrams to allow different H4Qs in the internet ? \$ bits/
<rag Offset -9rovide fragmentation of datagrams to allow different H4Qs in the internet ? ,
bits/
44' -4ime@4o@'ive ? , bits/
9rotocol -Qpperlayer protocol sending the datagram ? 1, bits/
I9 Options -networ; testing, debugging, security and others ? \$ bits/ Eata -\$ bits/.
(*. ,A. 1hich fields of an I9 pac;et provide for fragmentation of datagrams to allow differing
H4Qs in the internet2
3 Identification
3 <lags
3 <rag Offset
3 4ype of ervice
3 4otal 'ength
Correct answer: A, B & C
4he following are the fields in an I9 segment, their length, and their definitions!
I&F -Iersion number ? 1, bits/
%'&6 -6umber of +(@bit words in the header ? \$ bits/
4ype of erver -%ow the datagram should be handled ? +( bits/
4otal 'ength -4otal length of header and data ? +( bits/
Identification -9rovide fragmentation of datagrams to allow different H4Qs in the internet ? \$
bits/
<lags -9rovide fragmentation of datagrams to allow different H4Qs in the internet ? \$ bits/
<rag Offset -9rovide fragmentation of datagrams to allow different H4Qs in the internet ? ,
bits/
44' -4ime@4o@'ive ? , bits/
9rotocol -Qpperlayer protocol sending the datagram ? 1, bits/
I9 Options -networ; testing, debugging, security and others ? \$ bits/
Eata -\$ bits/.
+". ,0. 1hich processes does 489, but not QE9, use2
3 1indowing
3 Ac;nowledgements
3 ource 9ort
3 Eestination 9ort
QE9 -Qser Eatagram 9rotocol/ does not use se7uence or ac;nowledgement fields in
transmission.
QE9 is a connectionless and unreliable protocol, since there is no delivery chec;ing
mechanism in the QE9 data format.
+1. ,*. 1hat is the QE9 datagram format2
3 ource 9ort ? 1, bits, Eestination 9ort ? 1, bits, 'ength ? 1, Cits, 8hec;sum ? 1, bits, Eata
3 Eestination 9ort ? 1, bits, ource 9ort ? 1, bits, 'ength ? 1, Cits, 8hec;sum ? 1, bits, Eata
3 ource 9ort ? 1, bits, Eestination 9ort ? 1, bits, 8hec;sum ? 1, Cits, 'ength ? 1, bits, Eata
3 ource 9ort ? 0 bits, Eestination 9ort ? 0 bits, 'ength @0 Cits, 8hec;sum ? 0 bits, Eata
4he QE9 format for a segment is as follows!
ource 9ort 1, bits
Eestination 9ort 1, bits
'ength 1, bits
8hec;sum 1, bits
Eata xx bits
+(. A". 1hat is the function of EEF on 8isco routers2
3 EEF is dial?on@demand routing. It provides a continuous 'A6 only connection.
3 EEF is dial@on@demand routing. It provides routing for high volume traffic.
3 EEF is dial?on@demand routing. It provides a continuous 1A6 connection.
3 EEF is dial@on@demand routing. It provides routing for low volume and periodic traffic.
EEF is dial@on@demand routing. It provides routing for low volume and periodic traffic. It
initiates a call to a remote site when there is traffic to transmit.
++. A1. 1hat are the two types of access lists that can be configured on a 8isco router2
3 tandard
3 &xtended
3 <iltering
3 9ac;et
4he access lists are standard and extended. tandard access lists for I9 chec; the source
address of pac;ets that could be routed. &xtended access lists can chec; the source and
destination pac;et plus chec; for specific protocols, port numbers, etc.
+\$. A(. 1hen using access lists, what does a 8isco router chec; first2
3 4o see if the pac;et is routable or bridgeable
3 4he pac;et contents
4he first thing chec;ed is to see if the pac;et is routable or bridgeable. If it is not, the pac;et
will be dropped.
+.. A+. %ow many access lists are allowed per interface2
3 One per port, per protocol
3 4wo per port, per protocol
3 Qnlimited
3 Fouter interface _1 per port.
Only one access list is allowed per interface. An access list must have conditions that test true
for all pac;ets that use the access list.
+,. A\$. 1hat do the following commands accomplish2
access@list 1 deny 1A(.1,.\$." ".".".(..
access@list 1 permit any interface ethernet "
I9 access@group 1 out
3 4his will bloc; traffic from subnet 1A(.1,.\$." and allow all other traffic.
3 4his will allow traffic from subnet 1A(.1,.\$." and bloc; all other traffic.
3 All traffic is allowed.
3 All traffic is bloc;ed.
4his will bloc; traffic from subnet 1A(.1,.\$." and allow all other traffic. 4he first statement
access@list 1 deny 1A(.1,.\$." ".".".(..) will deny access to the subnet 1A(.1,.\$.".
+A. A.. 1hat do the following statements in an extended access list accomplish2
access@list 1"1 deny 489 1A(.1,.\$." ".".".(.. 1A(.1,.+." ".".".(.. e7 (1
access@list 1"1 deny 489 1A(.1,.\$." ".".".(.. 1A(.1,.+." ".".".(.. e7 ("
access@list 1"1 permit 489 1A(.1,.\$." ".".".(.. "."."." (...(...(...(..
3 4his will bloc; ftp traffic.
3 4his will bloc; http traffic.
3 4his will permit ftp traffic.
3 4his will permit tftp traffic.
4his will bloc; ftp traffic since ftp uses ports (" and (1.
+0. A,. Access lists are numbered. 1hich of the following ranges could be used for an I9 access
list2
3 ,"" ? ,**
3 1"" ? 1**
3 1 ? **
3 0"" ? 0**
3 1""" ? 1"**
Correct answer: wer: B & C
Apple4al; access lists use numbers in the ,"" ? ,** range. I9 uses 1 ? ** for standard
access lists or 1""@1** for extended access lists. I9: uses 0"" ? 0** or *"" ? *** for
extended access lists. I9: A9 filters use 1""" ? 1"**.
+*. AA. 8isco routers use wildcard mas;ing to identify how to chec; or ignore corresponding I9
address bits. 1hat does setting a wildcard mas; bit to " cause the router to do2
3 It tells the router to chec; the corresponding bit value.
3 It tells the router to ignore the corresponding bit value.
3 It tells the router to chec; its alternate routing list.
3 It tells the router to use its primary routing list.
It tells the router to chec; the corresponding bit value.
\$". A0. Bou are a system administrator and you want to deny access to a group of computers with
addresses 1A(.+".1,." to 1A(.+".+1.". 1hich wildcard mas; would you use2
3 ".".1..(..
3 ".".(...(..
3 ".".+1.(..
3 ".".1(A.(..
3 ".".(...(..
".".1..(.. will chec; the last 1+ bits of an address so that computers 1A(.+".1,." to
1A(.+".+1." will be denied access. ".".+1.(.. would chec; the last , binary digits and deny
1A(.+"."." to 1A(.+".(.\$.". If you write decimal 1. in binary, you have """1111, the 1Ds tell
the router to ignore address with these bits set= "Ds tell the router to chec; the bits. 4he third
octet for 1A(.+".1,." is """1"""". 4he third octet for 1A(.+".+1." would be """11111. o,
traffic from these addresses would be denied.
\$1. A*. In order to limit the 7uantity of numbers that a system administrator has to enter, 8isco
can use which abbreviation to indicate "."."."2
3 host
3 any
3 all
3 include
8isco uses host to specify ".".".". 4his tells the router to chec; all. 8isco uses any to specify
(...(...(...(... 4his tells the router to ignore all and permit any address to use an access
list test.
\$(. 0". 1hat do the following commands accomplish2
access@list 1 permit 1A(.1,."." ".".(...(..
interface ethernet "
I9 access@group 1 out
interface ethernet 1
I9 access@group 1 out
3 Only traffic from the source networ; 1A(.1,."." will be bloc;ed.
3 Only traffic from the source networ; 1A(.1,."." will be forwarded. 6on@1A(.1,."." networ;
traffic is bloc;ed.
3 6on@1A(.1,."." traffic will be forwarded.
3 All traffic will be forwarded.
Only traffic from the source networ; 1A(.1,."." will be forwarded. 6on@1A(.1,."." networ;
traffic is bloc;ed. 4he wildcard mas; ".".(...(.. tells the router to chec; the first ( octets and
to ignore the last ( octets.
\$+. 01. 1hen using access lists, it is important where those access lists are placed. 1hich
statement best describes access list placement2
3 9ut standard access lists as near the destination as possible. 9ut extended access lists as
close to the source as possible.
3 9ut extended access lists as near the destination as possible. 9ut standard access lists as
close to the source as possible.
3 It isnDt import where access lists are placed since the router will read and cache the whole
list.
3 9ut access lists as close to corporate head7uarters as possible.
9ut standard access lists as near the destination as possible. 9ut extended access lists as
close to the source as possible. tandard access lists donDt specify the destination address.
\$\$. 0(. As the system administrator, you enter the following commands at the command prompt!
ipx routing
access@list 0"" permit (b \$d
int e"
ipx networ; \$d
ipx access@group 0"" out
int e1
ipx networ; (b
int e(
ipx networ; +c
\$.. 1hat did these command accomplish2
3 4raffic from networ; \$c destined for networ; \$d will be forwarded out &thernet".
3 4raffic from networ; +c destined for networ; \$d will be forwarded out &thernet".
3 4raffic from networ; (b destined for networ; \$d will be forwarded out &thernet".
3 4raffic from networ; \$d destined for networ; (d will be forwarded out &thernet".
4raffic from networ; (b destined for networ; \$d will be forwarded out &thernet". 4he other
interfaces &1 and &( are not subWect to the access list since they lac; the access group
statement to lin; them to access list 0"".
\$,. 0+. 4he following commands were entered at the command prompt of a 8isco router. 1hat do
they accomplish2
access@list 1""" deny *e.1(+\$..,A0.1(1( \$
access@list 1""" permit @1
interface ethernet "
ipx networ; *e
interface ethernet 1
ipx networ; \$a
interface serial "
ipx networ; 1
ipx output@sap@filter 1"""
3 <ile server advertisements from server *e.1(+\$..,A0.1(1( will not be forwarded on
interface ".
3 All other A9 services, other than file server, from any source will be forwarded on ".
3 All other A9 services, other than print server, from any source will be forwarded on ".
3 9rint server advertisements from server *e.1(+\$..,A0.1(1( will not be forwarded on
interface ".
<ile server advertisements from server *e.1(+\$..,A0.1(1( will not be forwarded on interface
". All other A9 services, other than file server, from any source will be forwarded on ".
\$A. 0\$. Bou receive input filter list is 0"" and output filter list is 0"1) as part of the output from a
show interfaces command. 1hat ;ind of traffic are you filtering2
3 I9:J9:
3 489JI9
3 'ocal4al;
3 EEF
Cecause the access list is numbered in the 0"" range, you are filtering I9:J9: traffic.
\$0. 0.. 1hich service uses telephone control messages and signals between the transfer points
along the way to the called destination2
3 ignaling ystem A -A/
3 4ime@division Hultiplexing -4EH/
3 :.(.
3 <rame relay
ignaling ystem A -A/ uses telephone control messages and signals between the transfer
points along the way to the called destination. 4ime@division Hultiplexing -4EH/ has
information from multiple sources and allocates bandwidth on a single media. 8ircuit
switching uses signaling to determine the call route, which is a dedicated path between the
sender and the receiver. Casic telephone service and Integrated ervices Eigital 6etwor;
-IE6/ use 4EH circuits. :.(. and <rame Felay services have information contained in
pac;ets or frames to share non@dedicated bandwidth. :.(. avoids delays for call setup.
<rame Felay uses permanent virtual circuits -9I8s/.
\$*. 0,. 1hich service ta;es information from multiple sources and allocates bandwidth on a
single media2
3 4ime@division Hultiplexing -4EH/
3 ignaling ystem A -A/
3 :.(.
3 <rame relay
.". 0A. 1hich three devices can be used to convert the user data from the E4& into a form
acceptable to the 1A6 serviceDs facility2
3 Hodem
3 8QJEQ
3 4AJ641
3 8O
3 A
Correct answer: A, B & C
A modem, 8QJEQ -8hannel ervice QnitJEata ervice Qnit/, or 4AJ641 -4erminal
AdapterJ6etwor; 4ermination 1/ can be used to convert the user data from the E4& into a
form acceptable to the 1A6 serviceDs facility.
.1. 00. 1hat is the Wuncture at which the 89& ends and the local loop portion of the service
begins2
3 Eemarc
3 8O
3 'ocal loop
3 'ast@mile
4he demarcation or demarc is the Wuncture at which the 89& ends and the local loop portion
of the service begins. 4he 8O -8entral Office/ is the nearest point of presence for the
providerDs 1A6 service. 4he local loop or last@mile is the cabling that extends from the
demarc into the 1A6 service providerDs central office.
.(. 0*. Bou can access three forms of 1A6 services with 8isco routers. elect the three forms!
3 witched or relayed services
3 Interface front end to ICH enterprise data center computers
3 Qsing protocols that connect peer@to@peer devices li;e %E'8 or 999 encapsulation.
3 I9:J9:
3 6etC&QI
Correct answer: A, B & C
Bou can access three forms of 1A6 services with 8isco routers. witched or relayed services
include :.(., <rame Felay, and IE6. An interface front end to ICH enterprise data center
computers includes E'8. And, you can access the services of 1A6 providers using
protocols that connect peer devices such as %E'8 and 999 encapsulation. I9:J9: and
6etC&QI are 'A6 protocols.
.+. *". elect the fields for the 8isco %E'8 protocol!
3 <lag, Address, 8ontrol, 9rotocol, '89 -8ode, Identifier, 'ength, Eata/, <8, <lag
3 <lag, Address, 8ontrol, Eata, <8, <lag
3 <lag, Address, 8ontrol, 9roprietary, Eata, <8, <lag
4he 8isco %E'8 frame format is <lag, Address, 8ontrol 9roprietary, Eata, <8, <lag. 4he
999 frame format is <lag, Address, 8ontrol, 9rotocol, '89 -8ode, Identifier, 'ength, Eata/,
<8, <lag. 4he E'8 and 'A9C format is <lag, Address, 8ontrol, Eata, <8, <lag.
.\$. 0.! elect the physical interfaces that 999 can be configured on a 8isco router!
3 Asynchronous serial
3 %I
3 IE6
3 ynchronous serial
Correct answer: A, B, C & D
All four of them can carry 999 traffic. %I is %igh peed erial Interface.
... *1. elect the correct statements about 999 and 'I9 for 1A6 communications2
3 999 uses its 6etwor; 8ontrol 9rograms -689s/ component to encapsulate multiple
protocols.
3 999 can only transport 489JI9
3 'I9 can only transport 489JI9.
3 'I9 uses its 6etwor; 8ontrol 9rograms -689s/ component to encapsulate multiple
protocols.
.,. 0Aa 1hich protocol for 999 '89 -'in; 8ontrol 9rotocol/ performs a challenge handsha;e2
3 8%A9
3 9A9
3 QE9
3 I9:
.A. 0Ab 1hich form of 999 error detection on 8isco routers monitors data dropped on a lin;2
3 ^uality
3 Hagic 6umber
3 &rror Honitor
3 Eroplin;
4he ^uality protocol monitors data dropped on a lin;. Hagic 6umber avoids frame looping.
.0. *(. 1hich protocol for 999 provides load balancing across multiple lin;s2
3 Hultilin; 9rotocol -H9/
3 ^uality
3 Hagic 6umber
3 tac;er
3 9redictor
.*. *+. As the system administrator, you type ppp authentication chap pap secret. 1hich
authentication method is used first in setting up a session2
3 secret
3 9A9
3 8%A9
3 999J'I9
,". *\$. elect the compression protocols for 9992
3 tac
3 9redictor
3 ^uality
3 Hagic 6umber
,1. *.. 1hat are the three phases of 999 session establishment2
3 'in; establishment phase
3 Authentication phase
3 6etwor; layer protocol phase
3 %andsha;e phase
3 Eial@in phase
Correct answer: A, B & C
,(. *,. 1hat is the default I9: &thernet encapsulation2
3 6A9
3 Arpa
3 0"(.(
3 6ovell@&ther
3 A9
,+. *A. 1hat must be true for two Fouters running I5F9 to communicate their routes2
3 ame autonomous system number
3 8onnected using &thernet only
3 Qse composite metric
E/8onfigured for 999
,\$. *0. 4he following is partial output from a routing table, identify the ( numbers in the s7uare
brac;ets= `1*(.1,0.1"." R1""J1+""S via 1".1.".1, ""!""!(+, &thernet1a
3 1"" \ metric, 1+"" \ administrative distance
3 1"" \ administrative distance, 1+"" \ hop count
3 1"" \ administrative distance, 1+"" \ metric
3 1"" \ hop count, 1+"" \ metric
,.. **. Identify + methods used to prevent routing loops2
3 plit hori>on
3 %olddown timers
3 9oison reverse
3 9< algorithm
3 '9Ds
,,. 1"". 1hich statement is true regarding full duplex2
3 Allows for transmission and receiving of data simultaneously
3 Only wor;s in a multipoint configuration
3 Eoes not affect the bandwidth
3 Allows for transmission and receiving of data but not a the same time
<ull duplex is Wust the opposite of half duplex. It handles traffic in both directions
simultaneously.
,A. 1. Identify the switching method that receives the entire frame then dispatches
it2
3 8ut@through
3 Feceive and forward
3 tore and forward
3 <ast forward
tore and forward switching receives the entire frame before dispatching it.
*0Identify the purpose of I8H92
3 Avoiding routing loops
3 end error and control messages
3 8ollision detection
I8H9 is used to send error and control messages. 9ing uses I8H9 to carry
**1hich statement is true regarding the user exec and privileged exec mode2
3 4he `2D only wor;s in 9rivileged exec
3 4hey are identical
3 4hey both re7uire the enable password
3 Qser exec is a subset of the privileged exec
4he user exec mode is a subset of the privileged exec mode. Only a certain
number of commands are available at the user exec mode.
,0. (. 1hich OI layer end to end communication, segmentation and re@
assembly2
3 6etwor;
3 4ransport
3 9hysical
3 Application
3 Eata@'in;
3 9resentation
'ayer \$ the 4ransport layer performs this function.
,*. +. 1hat I9 command would you use to test the entire I9 stac;2
3 tac;@test
3 Arp
3 4elnet
3 9ing
3 4race
Cecause 4elnet is an application and it resides at the top of the stac; it
traverses down the stac; and up the stac; at the receiving end.
A". \$. Identify the ( hardware components used to manage andJor configure a
router2
3 Auxiliary port
3 FOH port
3 Hanagement port
3 8onsole port
4he ( hardware ports used to configure the router are the console and
auxiliary ports.
A1. .. 1hat is the default bandwidth of a serial connection2
3 1("" baud
3 1..\$\$ Hbps -41/
3 1" Hbps
3 *,]pbs
4he default bandwidth is 41.
A(. ,. Identify ( functions of I9: access@lists2
3 8ontrol A9 traffic
3 'imit number of 6ovell servers on a networ;
3 'imit number of wor;stations on a networ;
3 Cloc; I9: traffic
I9: access lists are used to restrict I9: traffic and A9 broadcasts.
A+. A. Identify ( %E'8 characteristics2
3 Eefault serial encapsulation
3 Open standard
3 upports tac;er compression
3 upports point@to@point and multipoint
%E'8 is the default serial encapsulation and supports point@to@point and
multipoint. It is not an open standard and does not support compression.
A\$. 0. Identify + I9 applications2
3 AQF9
3 AF9
3 4elnet
3 H49
3 E6
3 FAF9
AF9 and AQF9 are not part the application layer of the 489JI9 stac;. H49 ?
imple Hail 4ransfer 9rotocol, 4elnet, E6 ? Eomain 6ame ervices -name
to I9 resolution/.
A.. *. Identify + 'A6 technologies2
3 <EEI
3 %E'8
3 %I
3 :.(.
3 0"(.+
3 0"(..
4he 7uestion is as;ing for + 'A6 technologies, %E'8, %I and :.(. are all
1A6 technologies.
A,. 1". Identify the \$ that are not 'A6 technologies2
3 %E'8
3 <EEI
3 0"(..
3 %I
3 E'8
3 <rame Felay
8orrect answer! A D E F
0"(.. and <EEI are 'A6 technologies
AA. 11. 1hich OI layer supports the communication component of an
application2
3 Eata@'in;
3 9hysical
3 ession
3 9resentation
3 Application
3 4ransport
'ayer A the Application layer performs this function.
A0. 1(. Identify the length of an I9: address and itDs components2
3 0" bits, \$0 bits networ; and +( bits node
3 +( bits, 1, bits networ; and 1, bits node
3 6one of the above
3 0" bits, +( bits networ; and \$0 bits node
I9: address has ( components= networ; and node. 4he networ; address is
+( bits and the node is \$0 bits, total of 0" bits.
A*. 1+. Identify the administrative distance and appropriate routing protocol2
3 FI9 \ (.., I5F9 \ 1""
3 FI9 \ 1"", I5F9 \ 1("
3 FI9 \ 1, I5F9 \ "
3 FI9 \ 1(", I5F9 \ 1""
4he administrative distance for FI9 is 1(" and I5F9 is 1"". 4he lower the AE
the better the routing information.
0". 1\$. 1hich OI layer incorporates the HA8 address and the ''82
3 Eata lin;
3 6etwor;
3 9hyscial
3 4ransport
'ayer ( the Eata@'in; layer incorporates the HA8 and ''8 sublayers
01. 1.. If configuring a 8isco router to connect to a non@8isco router across a
<rame Felay networ;, which encapsulation type would you select2
3 ^*++a
3 IE6
3 I&4<
3 8I8O
3 A6I
4here are two types of <rame Felay encapsulations= 8isco and I&4<. I&4< is
re7uired when connecting a 8isco to a non@8isco router.
0(. 1,. Identify the ( items that 489 and QE9 share in common2
3 Coth use port numbers to identify upper level applications
3 Operate at the 6etwor; layer
3 Coth are 4ransport protocols
3 Coth are reliable communications
489 and Q9E are both layer \$ 4ransport protocols and both use port number
to identify upper level applications.
0+. 1A. Identify + characteristics of I9 FI92
3 Eistance vector
3 9eriodic updates every ," seconds
3 Qses a composite metric
I9 FI9 is a distance vector protocol, it can load balance up to \$ e7ual cost
paths and itDs rating of trustworthiness is 1(".
0\$. 10. 1hich of the following is a layer ( device2
3 witch
3 Fouter
3 Fepeater
3 %ub
A %ub and Fepeater are layer 1 devices. A Fouter is a layer + device.
0.. 1*. Identify the definition of demarcation2
3 Eate in which the 1A6 service contract expires
3 8abling which extends from the 1A6 service provider to the customer
3 Eivision of responsibility, where the 89& ends and the local loop begins
3 &7uipment which is located at the customer premises
Eemarcation is the point in which responsibility changes hands.
0,. (". Identify the + ;ey features of the 8isco Eiscovery 9rotocol2
3 Off by default
3 1ill allow for the discovery of layer + addresses on neighbor routers
3 Ierify connectivity
3 Open standard
3 Eoes not re7uire any layer + protocols to be configured
8E9 is used for ( basic reasons= neighbor connectivity and layer + discovery
if configured. It is proprietary and is on by default.
0A. (1. Identify the + characteristics of I9: FI92
3 Eistance vector
3 Eoes not support multiple paths
3 Eefault encapsulation is A9
3 Qses tic;s and hop count as a metric
I9: FI9 is a distance vector routing protocol, it does support multiple paths,
the default encapsulation is `novell@etherD, it uses tic; count as a primary
metric and hop count as a tie brea;er and it sends itKLMNOMbLs updates every
," seconds.
00. ((. Identify the access@list range for an extended I9 access@list2
3 0"" ? 0**
3 1 ? **
3 1""" ? 1"**
3 1"" ? 1**
I9 extended access@lists use the number range of 1""@1**.
0*. (+. Identify the :.(. addressing standard2
3 :.1(1
3 :.(.a
3 I4Q@1
3 ^*++a
4he :.(. layer + addressing standards is :.1(1.
*". (\$. Identify + features of I5F92
3 8omposite metric
3 6ew hori>on
3 9oison reverse
I5F9 uses a composite metric made up of bandwidth and delay by default, it
updates every ," seconds and will trigger an update if the topology changes.
*1. (.. 1here is the bac;up configuration file stored2
3 FAH
3 FOH
3 8onsole
3 6IFAH
One location to store the bac;up configuration is 6IFAH.
*(. (,. Identify the correct pair of 6ovell &thernet encapsulation and 8isco
terminology2
3 &thernet II, nap
3 &thernet 0"(.+, 6ovell@&ther
3 &thernet 6A9, Arpa
3 &thernet 0"(.(, nap
4he default I9: 'A6 encapsulation is 6ovell@&ther which is 0"(.+
*+. (A. Identify + characteristics regarding I9 access@lists2
3 8an be configured as a standard access@list
3 8an be run from another router running I9
3 8an be configured as a named access@list
3 Are the same as I9: access@lists
3 8an be configured as an extended access@list
4here are + types of I9 access@lists= standard, extended and named. 6amed
access@lists can be either standard or extended depending on how they are
configured.
*\$. (0. Identify + ways in which a router can be configured2
3 4<49
3 6vram
3 9ing
3 8onsole
3 4race
8hanges to the configuration can be entered via the console, a config stored
in 6IFAH or on a 4<49 server. 4race and ping are tools to verify connectivity.
*.. (*. A traffic light is an example of what type of mechanism2
3 8ollision detection
3 <low control
3 e7uence numbering
3 6etwor; management
A 4raffic light is an example of flow control.
*,. +". 1indowing is a type of2
3 6egative ac;nowledgement
3 'ayer transition mechanism
3 <low control
1indowing allow the sender and receiver to dictate how much information that
can be received prior to an ac;nowledgement. It is a form of flow control.
*A. +1. Identify the ( types of access@list filters that control A9 traffic2
3 6ovell@ether
3 Arpa
3 Input@sap@filter
3 Found@robin
3 Output@sap@filter
A9Ds can be bloc;ed by ( methods= inbound and outbound.
*0. +(. Identify the + guidelines for routers in the same autonomous system2
3 Hust be configured for I5F9 or FI9
3 Interconnected
3 Assigned the same autonomous system number
3 8onfigured for the same routing protocol
3 Hust be same model of router
Autonomous system must be interconnected, assigned the same A X and
configured with the same routing protocol.
**. ++. Identify the hardware component used to store buffers, tables, running@
configuration etc2
3 6IFAH
3 FOH
3 FAH
3 <lash
FAH is the dynamic memory area. FOH contains the boot strap code,
6IFAH contains the startup@config and <lash contains the IO.
1"". +\$. Identify + QE9 characteristics2
3 Feliable communication protocol
3 Applications that use QE9 must incorporate reliability
3 8onnection@less oriented
3 Incorporates no handsha;ing
Q9E is a layer \$ 4ransport protocol. It is connection@less because it does
establish a connection therefore the + step handsha;e is not needed, it does
6O4 implement any flow control or ac;nowledgments. Any application that
uses QE9 must incorporate any needed reliability.
1"1. +.. Identify the I9: standard access@list number range2
3 ,"" ? ,**
3 1""" ? 1"**
3 1 ? **
3 1"" ? 1**
3 0"" ? 0**
I9: standard access@list range is 0""@0**.
1"(. +,. 1hich OI layer provides best effort end to end pac;et delivery2
3 Eata@'in;
3 9resentation
3 6etwor;
3 4ransport
3 9hysical
3 Application
'ayer + the 6etwor; layer performs this function.
1"+. +A. Identify the ( methods to modify the routers boot se7uence2
3 etup program
3 Coot system commands
3 F:Coot
3 8onfig@register
`Coot systemD command the `config@registerD are used to manipulate the boot
se7uence.
1"\$. +0. Identify the + pieces of hardware you would not install to prevent
3 witch
3 Fepeater
3 Cridge
3 Fouter
Fouter are implemented not only to brea; up networ;s into smaller segments
but they are used to bloc; broadcasts.
1".. +*. Identify ( features of 999 9A9 authentication2
3 Qsername and password is sent in clear text
3 Authentication messages are sent periodically during the connection
3 Hore secure than 8%A9
3 Femote node is control of authentication process
999 9A9 authentication sends the username and passwords in clear text and
the remote node initiates the authentication process.
1",. \$". Identify the switching method that examines the destination HA8
address as the frame is being received then begins forwarding the frame prior
to receiving the entire frame2
3 <ragment@free
3 tore and <orward
3 8ut@through
3 <ast forward
8ut through examines the destination HA8 address and begins forwarding
the frame prior to receiving the entire frame.
1"A. \$1. Identify 1 characteristic of FAF92
3 I9 to HA8 address translation
3 8onnectionless delivery of pac;ets
3 8an be used to initiate remote OJ load se7uence
3 5enerates error and control messages
Feverse Address Fesolution 9rotocol is used to obtain a layer + address if the
1"0. \$(. Identify the protocol to test connectivity without configuring any
layer + protocols2
3 489
3 9ing
3 I9
3 8E9
3 4elnet
8E9 can be used to verify connectivity prior to any layer + protocols being
configured.
1"*. \$+. 'HI operates between the <rame witch and what other device2
3 89& device
3 Another <rame witch
3 :.(. switch
3 6ovell <ile erver
'HI stands for local management interface. It operates between the <rame
Felay switch and the customer e7uipment.
11". \$\$. Identify I9: A9 and itDs purpose2
3 onet Access 9ipe ? interface to onet ring
3 erver Appletal; 9rotocol ? appletal; directory services
3 ervice Access 9oint ? identify upper layer protocols
A9 is an 6ovell protocol to advertise services.
111.\$.. Identify the default values that ma;e up I5F9Ds composite metric2
3 Candwidth
3 Feliability
3 H4Q
3 Eelay
I5F9 can be configured to use all . within itDs metric. Cy default it uses
bandwidth and delay.
11(. \$,. Identify the default serial encapsulation2
3 IE6
3 %E'8
3 E'8
3 <rame Felay
3 999
4he default serial encapsulation is %E'8.
11+. \$A. Identify the purpose of AF92
3 Avoiding routing loops
3 Eetermining a wor;stationDs I9 address
3 Eetermining a wor;stationDs HA8 address
AF9 is used to find a devices HA8 address given an I9 address.
11\$. \$0. 1hat is the purpose of the E'8I2
3 Identifies the remote routers
3 8ontained with a 0"(.( frame for routing purposes
3 Qsed with 999 during authentication
3 Identifies the 9I8 in a <rame Felay networ;
E'8I stands for Eata 'in; 8onnection Identifier. It identifies the local 9I8.
11.. \$*. Identify + characteristics of the 6etwor; layer -OI layer +/2
3 8onnection oriented
3 9ath determination
3 upports multiplexing
3 Hanages sessions
3 9ac;et forwarding
4he networ; layer is responsible for routing which entails learning the paths,
selecting the best path and forwarding the pac;et. Cecause it services
multiple layer \$ protocols it multiplexes.
11,. .". Identify + characteristics of switches2
3 Increase available bandwidth
3 upport full duplex in a multipoint topology
3 Ha;e forwarding decision using HA8 address
3 8reate collision domains
witches operate at layer (. 4hey increase bandwidth by reducing the number
of devices sharing the media. 4hey isolate collisions. 'i;e a bridge they
11A. 1. 1hich OI layer handles physical address, networ; topology2
3 9resentation
3 9hysical
3 4ransport
3 Application
3 Eata@'in;
3 6etwor;
'ayer ( the Eata@'in; layer performs this function.
110. (. Identify ( reasons for disabling 8E92
3 If the router is not configured for FI9
3 ave bandwidth by eliminating overhead
3 If the router is configured for Appletal;
3 1hen connected to a non@8isco router
8E9 can be disabled here are a couple of reasons. 8onnecting a 8isco router
to a non@8isco router. EonDt want to exchange 8E9 information to save
bandwidth.
11*. +. Identify + characteristics of IE62
3 4ransports voice and data
3 4ransports voice only
3 upport both CFI and 9FI
3 Funs over existing phone lines
3 ame as :.(.
IE6 supports voice, data, and video. It runs over existing phone lines and
supports 1(0] -CFI/ and 41 -9FI/.
1(". \$. Identify the + characteristics of I5F92
3 Qses hop count as a metric
3 upports multiple une7ual paths
3 8onfigured with an Autonomous system number
3 'in; state
I5F9 is a distance vector routing protocol, itDs degree of trustworthiness is
1"", it can support up to , un@e7ual paths and must be configured with an
autonomous system number.
1(1. .. Identify ( features of 999 8%A9 authentication2
3 Qsername and password is sent in clear text
3 Authentication messages are sent periodically during the connection
3 'ess secure then 9A9
3 'ocal router `challengesD the remote router
999 8%A9 authentication message are sent periodically during the
connection by challenging the other end of the connection.
It is more secure than 9A9 and passwords and username are encrypted.
1((. ,. Identify the default I9: serial encapsulation2
3 6ovell@&ther
3 E'8
3 6A9
3 %E'8
4he default I9: serial encapsulation is %E'8.
1(+. A. Identify the hardware component that stores the bac;up
configuration2
3 FAH
3 6IFAH
3 <lash
3 FOH
6IFAH contains the bac;up config. FAH is the dynamic memory area, FOH
contains the boot strap code and <lash contains the IO.
1(\$. 0. Identify the extended I9 access@list number range2
3 ,"" ? ,**
3 1 ? **
3 *"" ? ***
3 1"" ? 1**
4he extended I9 access@list range is 1""@1**.
1(.. *. Identify + <ast &thernet technologies2
3 1"" Case <ast&ther
3 1"" Case <:
3 1"" Case 4\$
3 1"" Case 4:
1(,. 1". Case<ast&ther is false. 1"" Case <:, 4: and 4\$ are all valid.
1(A. 11. Identify the OI layer which is responsible for end@to@end
connections2
3 6etwor;
3 4ransport
3 ession
3 Eata lin;
3 489
'ayer \$ is the 4ransport layer and is responsible for end@to@end connections.
1(0. 1(. Identify the ( characteristics regarding HA8 addresses2
3 8ontains a networ; portion and host portion
3 Always assigned by ystem Administrator
3 \$0 bits long
3 8ontains a vendor code and serial number
HA8 addresses are assigned by the vendor. &ach HA8 address is \$0 bits
long and made up of (\$ bits vendor code and (\$ bits serial number.
1(*. 1+. Identify the number range for I9: A9 filters2
3 *"" ? ***
3 1""" ? 1"**
3 0"" @0**
3 1"" ? 1**
4he I9: A9 filtering range is 1"""@1"**.
1+". 1\$. 1hat is the purpose of AF92
3 I9 to host name resolution
3 %ost name to I9 address resolution
3 Hac to I9 address resolution
3 I9 to Hac address resolution
;nown. It is a layer + protocol.
1+1. 1.. 1hich OI layer establishes, maintains and terminates sessions
between hosts2
3 Application
3 9hysical
3 Eata@'in;
3 9resentation
3 6etwor;
3 ession
'ayer . the ession layer performs this function.
1+(. 1,. 1hich statement is true regarding Administrative distance2
3 It is a metric
3 6umber of hops between two routers
3 4rustworthiness of the routing information
3 FI9 Administrative distance is 1""
Administrative distance is rating of trustworthiness of the routing information.
4he lower the AE the better the information.
1++. 1A. Identify the purpose of the 9ing command2
3 hare routing information with a neighbor router
3 4ransmit user data when buffers are full
3 4est connectivity at layer +
3 4est entire protocol stac;
4he ping command tests layer + connectivity.
1+\$. 10. Identify the order of the . step encapsulation2
1. 8reate the segment
(. 8onvert the frame to bits
+. 8reate the pac;et
\$. 8reate the frame
.. Qser creates the data
3 1,(,\$,(,.
3 (,1,+,\$,.
3 .,1,+,\$,(
3 .,+,\$,1,(
8isco . step encapsulation.
1/ Qser creates Eata
(/ Eata is converted into a segment at layer \$
+/ 4he segment is converted to pac;et at layer +
\$/ 4he pac;et it converted into a frame at layer (
./ 4he frame is converted into bits at layer 1
1+.. 1*. 4he 8isco IO is stored where2
3 FOH
3 8E
3 <lash
3 6IFAH
Cy default the 8isco IO is stored in flash.
1+,. (". e7uence and ac;nowledgement numbers are used for2
3 'ayer transitioning
3 <low control
3 Feliability
489 uses se7uence numbers and ac;nowledgements to implement reliability.
1+A. (1. Identify I9: 56 and itDs purpose2
3 5o 6etwor; erver ? sends a print Wob to a networ; server
3 5et 6earest erver ? locate the nearest server
3 5uaranteed 6etwor; ervices ? allocates resources to users
3 5et 6otes erver ? locates Eomino erver
56 stands for 5et 6earest erver, initiated by a wor;station.
1+0. ((. Identify the true statement regarding subnetting2
3 Allows for more host address
3 Corrow bits from the networ; portion of the address
3 Allows for unlimited number of networ;s
3 Corrow bits from the host portion of the address
ubnetting involves borrowing bits for the host portion of the address to be
1+*. (+. Inverse AF9 serves what purpose2
3 Hethod for a local router to introduce itself to the remote end of the
connection
3 Croadcast a routing table update
3 ent every 1" seconds used to verify the <rame witch is still active
Inverse AF9 operates in a <rame Felay networ; so the two end points can
identify themselves to each other.
1\$". (\$. Identify + characteristics of a HA8 address2
3 Curned into the 6I8
3 \$0 bits long
3 'ength is +( bits
3 Qsed to deliver the frame to the end device
3 8ontains a networ; portion and a host portion
4he HA8 address is \$0 bits long not +(. It does 6O4 contain a networ; and
host portion with the address. It is used to deliver the frame to the destination
device.
1\$1. (.. Identify + I9 routing protocols2
3 FI9
3 AQF9
3 O9<
3 I5F9
3 AF9
3 I8H9
AQF9 and I8H9 are not routing protocols.
1\$(. (,. Identify the type of routing protocol that exchanges entire routing
tables at regular intervals2
3 'in; state
3 Interior gateway protocols
3 Appletal; routing
3 Eistance vector
Eistance Iector routing protocols exchange entire routing tables with itDs
neighbors. 'in; tate routing protocols exchange '9Ds to share information
regarding the networ;s they ;now.
1\$+. (A. Identify the type of hardware re7uired to connect a 4o;en ring
networ; to an &thernet networ;2
3 Fepeater
3 4F@&net
3 Fouter
3 4o;en Fing to &thernet translation hub
Fouters are used to connect dissimilar networ;s with different access@
methods, li;e connecting 4o;en Fing to &thernet.
1\$\$. (0. Identify + characteristics regarding 8E92
3 On by default
3 hows only directly connected neighbors
3 Fe7uires I9 or I9:
3 ," second update interval by default
3 +" second updates interval by default
8E9 stands for 8isco Eiscovery 9rotocol. It is used to discover directly
connected neighbors, it is on by default and has a ," second update interval
by default.
1\$.. (*. Identify ( transport layer protocols2
3 I9
3 489
3 8E9
3 AF9
3 QE9
498 and QE9 are ( layer\$ 4ransport protocols.
1\$,. +". Identify ( features of :.(.2
3 upports only I9
3 Qtili>es switched and permanent virtual circuits
3 8ontains minimal flow control and error recovery
3 Qtili>es 'A9C as itDs data@lin; protocol
:.(. utili>es 'A9C and uses switched and permanent I8Ds. It supports
multiple layer protocols and is heavy laden with error detection and correction
mechanisms.
1\$A. +1. Identify the purpose of the 4race command2
3 &xplorer pac;et transmitting routing information
3 4est connectivity
3 Eetermine the path a pac;et is ta;ing through the networ;
3 4ransmits user data when buffers are full
4he trace command is used to determine the path a pac;et has ta;en through
the networ;.
1\$0. +(. Identify the purpose of the 489 + step handsha;e2
3 etup a un@reliable connection
3 Initiali>e routing tables
3 ynchroni>e se7uence numbers between hosts
3 8onnection tear down process
4he + step handsha;e establishes the parameters re7uired for a 489
connection. Euring the handsha;e process se7uence numbers are
synchroni>ed allowing for the end points to properly ac;nowledge and re@
assemble the segments.
1\$*. ++. Identify ( 999 characteristics2
3 Is proprietary to 8isco
3 upports authentication
3 upport compression
3 Fun on a multi@access networ;
999 supports authentication= 9A9 and 8%A9. It also supports compression=
tac;er and 9redictor.
1.". +\$. 1hich statement is true regarding half duplex2
3 Only wor;s in a point@to@point configuration
3 Allows for transmitting and receiving but not a the same time
3 Allow for transmitting and receiving of data simultaneously
3 Eoubles the bandwidth
%alf duplex is analogous to a single a lane bridge, it can handle traffic in both
directions but no at the same time.
1.1. +.. Identify the purpose of the wildcard mas;2
3 Hatch a certain portion of the I9 address while ignoring the rest of the
3 Eetermine the class of the I9 address
3 Eetermine the networ; portion of an I9 address
3 %ide the host portion of an I9 address
4he purpose of the wildcard mas; to match a certain portion of the I9 address
while ignoring the rest.
1.(. +,. Identify the OI layer associated with bits2
3 9hysical
3 6etwor;
3 Cinary
3 Eata lin;
4he 9hysical layer converts the frames to bits.
1.+. +A. Identify the type of routing protocol that maintains a topological
database of the networ;2
3 4opological state
3 hortest 9ath <irst
3 'in; state
3 Eistance vector
'in; tate routing protocols maintain a database that lists all the networ;s in
the internetwor;.
1.\$. +0. Identify the + maWor functions at layer + of the OI model2
3 <orwarding process
3 &nd@to@end connections
3 9ath selection
3 6etwor; monitoring
'ayer + determines the path, forwards the pac;et and implements software or
1... +*. Identify the ( rules used when configuring a Eistance Iector routing
protocol2
3 9hysically connected networ;-s/
3 8onfigure the classful address, no subnets
3 &nable 8E9 so neighbors can be detected
3 8onfigure all networ;s in Area"
1hen configuring a Eistance Iector routing protocol only assign the
physically connected networ;s with the classful address only.
1.,. \$". Identify + characteristics of an I9 address2
3 8ontains a networ; portion and a host portion
3 +( bits long
3 Qni7ue to each networ;
3 9art of the default 8isco configuration
3 Feferred to as the hardware address
An I9 address is +( bits long, it is referred as the logical or software address.
It contains a networ; and host portion. &ach I9 address is uni7ue.
1.A. \$1. Identify + feature of access@lists2
3 Implicit deny will deny any pac;ets not matched
3 9rocessed se7uentially from bottom to top
3 9rocessed se7uentially from top to bottom
3 If a pac;et is denied it would be tested against the remaining statements in
the access@list
3 Once a match is made the pac;et is either denied or permitted
3 &nabled on all interfaces by default
Access@list are processed from top to bottom, once a match occurs the pac;et
is either denied or permitted and is no longer tested and if no match occurs
the pac;et is denied via the implicit deny.
1.0. \$(. 1hich OI layer performs code conversion, code formatting and
encryption2
3 9hysical
3 Eata@'in;
3 Application
3 4ransport
3 9resentation
3 6etwor;
'ayer , the 9resentation layers performs this function.
1.*. \$+. Identify the + methods routers learn paths to destinations2
3 Eynamic routing
3 6one of the above, configured by default
3 Eefault routes
3 tatic routes
Fouters can learn paths via + different sources= static routes, dynamic routing
protocols -i.e. FI9/ and default routes.
1,". \$\$. Identify the purpose of the following command `ip route
1*(.1,0.1""." (...(...(..." 1".1.".1a
3 &nabling a dynamic routing protocol
3 8reating a static route to the 1".1."." networ;
3 4eaches the router about the distant networ; 1*(.1,0.1""." and how it can
be reached via 1".1.".1
3 Assigning the I9 address 1*(.1,0.1""." to an interface
A static routes teaches the router about a distant networ; and the next hop to
reach that networ;. 8ommand syntax!
1,1. \$.. Cased upon the 1st octet rule identify the range for a 8lass A
3 1 ? 1(,
3 1*( ? ((+
3 1(0 ? 1*1
3 1 ? 1*1
8lass A address has the 1st octet between 1 ? 1(,. 8lass C between 1(0 ?
1*1 and 8lass 8 between 1*( ? ((+.
1,(. \$,. 1hat does a tandard I9 Access@list use as test criteria2
3 I9 source and destination address, protocol numbers and port numbers
3 I9: source and destination address
tandard I9 access list use only source address.
1,+. \$A. 1hat is the function of the 4ransport layer and which protocols
reside there2
3 Interhost communication ? ^', 6<
3 Cest effort 9ac;et delivery ? 489, QE9
3 &nd@to@end connections ? 489, QE9
'ayer \$, the 4ransport layer, is responsible for end@to@end connections. 4he
two 489JI9 protocols that reside there are 489 and QE9.
1,\$. \$0. Identify the + Internet layer I9 protocols2
3 6etCios
3 I9:
3 AF9
3 I9
3 FAF9
6etCios and I9: are not layer + I9 protocols. I9 ? Internet 9rotocol, AF9 ?
9rotocol.
1,.. \$*. I9: routing updates occur how often2
3 &very +" seconds
3 &very ," seconds
3 Only as needed
3 1hen the remote router as;s for an update
I9: FI9 updates are exchanged every ," seconds.
1,,. .". Identify + methods not used to prevent routing loops2
3 %olddown timers
3 e7uence numbers
3 plit hori>on
3 Area hierarchies
3 Order of router startup
Area hierarchies, se7uence numbers and order of router startup all relate to
'in; tate routing protocols which do 6O4 incur routing loops.
1,A. .1. Identify the hardware component that stores the bootstrap
program2
3 FOH
3 6IFAH
3 FAH
3 <lash
FOH contains the boot strap code.
1,0. .(. 1hich OI layer provides mechanical, electrical, procedural for
activating, maintaining physical lin;2
3 9resentation
3 6etwor;
3 Application
3 9hysical
3 4ransport
3 Eata@'in;
'ayer 1 the 9hysical layer performs this function.
1,*. .+. Identify ( characteristics of 9992
3 Qses ''8 to establish the lin;
3 Eefault serial encapsulation
3 upport multiple layer + protocols
3 Offers two types of authentication= 9A9 and 8%A9
999 is not the default encapsulation and uses '89 not ''8 to establish the
lin;. It support multiple layer + protocols and supports authentication.
1A". .\$. Identify + characteristics of a connection oriented protocol2
3 9ath determination
3 <low control
3 Ac;nowledgements
3 Qses hop count as metric
3 + step handsha;e
8onnection oriented protocols must first establish the connection -+ step
handsha;e/, employ methods to ac;nowledge the receipt of data
-ac;nowledgements/ and slow down the flow of data if re7uired -flow control/.
1A1. ... 1hat is the maximum hop count for I9 FI92
3 Infinity
3 1,
3 1.
3 1
1A(. .,. is the maximum hop count, underscoring the si>e limitation of FI9.
1A+. .A. 1hat is 8iscoDs default encapsulation method on serial interfaces2
3 A6I
3 8isco
3 ^*++a
3 %E'8
8iscoDs implementation of %E'8 is only compatible with 8isco routers. It is
the default encapsulation type for serial interfaces.
1A\$. .0. 1hich of the following is a characteristic of a switch, but not of a
repeater2
3 witches forward pac;ets based on the I9: or I9 address in the frame
3 witches forward pac;ets based on the I9 address in the frame
3 witches forward pac;ets based on the HA8 address in the frame
3 witches forward pac;ets based only on the I9 address in the pac;et
A repeater regenerates the signal it receives, a switch ma;es decisions based
upon HA8 addresses to determine whether a frame should be forwarded.
Fepeaters forward all pac;ets.
1A.. .*. 9ing uses which Internet layer protocol2
3 FAF9
3 I8H9
3 AF9
3 <49
Internet 8ontrol Hessage 9rotocol ? I8H9 is a management protocol and
messaging service provider for I9. Its messages are carried as I9 datagrams.
I8H9 is used in the following events!
Eestination Qnreachable ? If a router cannot send an I9 pac;et any further, it
uses an I8H9 echo to send a message bac; to the sender notifying it that the
remote node is unreachable.
Cuffer <ull ? If a routers memory buffer is full I8H9 will send out a message to
the originator.
%ops ? &ach I9 datagram is assigned a path. 4his consists of hops. If it goes
through the maximum number of hops, the pac;et is discarded and the
discarding router sends an I8H9 echo to the host.
9ing ? 9ing use I8H9 echo message to chec; connectivity.
1A,. ,". 1hich is true regarding store@and@forward switching method2
3 'atency varies depending on frame@length
3 'atency is constant
3 It is default for all 8isco switches
3 It only reads the destination hardware address before forwarding the frame
tore@and@<orward switching copies the entire frame into its buffer and
computes the 8F8. If a 8F8 error is detected, the frame is discarded, or if
the frame is a runt -less than ,\$ bytes including the 8F8/ or a giant -more
than 1.10 bytes including the 8F8/. 4he 'A6 switch then loo;s up the
destination address in its switching table and determines the outgoing
interface. 4he frame is then forwarded to the outgoing interface. 8isco
8atalyst .""" switches uses the tore@and@<orward method. 4he problem
with tore@and@<orward switching is latency is increased. 'atency also varies
with the si>e of the frame. 4he larger the frame, the more latency associated.
4his of course is due to the fact that the entire frame is copied into its buffer
before being forwarded.
1AA. ,1. 1hich three of the following are true statements about connection@
oriented sessions2
3 4he segments delivered are ac;nowledged bac; to the sender upon their
reception
3 Any segments not ac;nowledged the are retransmitted by the receiver
3 A manageable data flow is maintained in order to avoid congestion,
3 egments are se7uenced bac; into their proper order upon arrival at their
destination
8onnection@oriented services are useful for transmitting data from applications
that are intolerant of delays and pac;et re@se7uencing. <49 and 4elnet
applications are based on connection@oriented services as well as some voice
and video programs. Any segment that is not ac;nowledged by the received is
retransmitted by the sender.
1A0. ,(. 1hat does a metric of 1, hops represent when using FI92
3 6umber of hops to the destination
3 Eestination unreachable
3 6umber of routers
3 Candwidth
Fouting Information 9rotocol -FI9/ is a distance vector routing protocol that
used hop count as its metric. 4he maximum hop count is 1., 1, hops is
default. FI9 has an administrative distance of 1(".
1A*. ,+. Bou need to come up with a 489JI9 addressing scheme for your
company. 1hich two factors must you consider when you define the subnet
mas; for the networ;2
3 4he location of E%89 servers
3 4he volume of traffic on each subnet
3 4he number of subnets on the networ;
3 4he location of the default gateway
3 4he number of host IEs on each subnet
1hen determining which subnet mas; to use, you must determine how many
hosts and how many subnets are re7uired.
101. ,\$. 1hat is the difference between 489 and QE92
3 489 is connection@oriented= QE9 uses ac;nowledgements only
3 489 is connection@oriented= QE9 is connectionless
3 Coth 489 and QE9 are connection@oriented, but only 489 uses windowing
3 489 and QE9 both have se7uencing, but QE9 is connectionless
489 provides guaranteed connection oriented delivery of pac;ets, QE9 does
not.
10(. ,.. 1hat does the `D mean when loo;ing at the routing table2
3 tatically connected
3 Eirectly connected
3 Eynamically attached
3 hutdown route
tatically connected routes are those that an administrator has manually
entered into the routing table.
10+. ,,. 1hy would you use static routing instead of dynamic routing2
3 1hen you want automatic updates of the routing tables
3 All the time
3 1hen you have very few routes and want to conserve bandwidth
3 1hen you have a gateway of last resort
tatic routes are typically used when there are very few routes and you want
to conserve bandwidth. ince routing protocols are constantly sending their
updates across the wire, it can cause a great deal of congestion.
10\$. ,A. On 8isco catalyst .""" how would you set the second port on the
controller in the first slot to full duplex2
3 et port duplex 1J1 full
3 et port duplex 1J( full
3 et port duplex "J1 full
3 et port duplex "J( full
4he syntax is! set type duplex slotJport
10.. ,0. 1hat does the acronym AF9 stand for2
3 AF9 Fesolution 9rotocol
10,. ,*. 1hat is the default encapsulation of 6etware +.1(2
3 &thernetGII
3 0"(..
3 0"(.(
3 0"(.+
4he 0"(.( <rame 4ype is the default frame@type for 6etware +.1(.
10A. A". Fegarding frame relay, which of the following statements are true2
3 Bou must use A6I encapsulation if connecting to non@8isco e7uipment
3 Bou must use I&4< encapsulation if connecting to non@8isco e7uipment
3 Bou must use ^.*++a encapsulation if connecting to non@8isco e7uipment
3 Bou must use 8isco encapsulation if connecting to non@8isco e7uipment
8iscoDs encapsulation for <rame relay is proprietary. 4o communicate with
non@8isco e7uipment when using frame@relay encapsulation, the I&4< method
must be used.
100. A1. 1hat is re7uired to support full@duplex &thernet2
3 Hultiple paths between multiple stations on a lin;
3 Automatic sensing operation by all connected stations
3 'oopbac; and collision detection disabled
3 <ull@duplex 6I8 cards
<ull duplex ethernet re7uires that the 6I8 supports full@duplex, and loopbac;
and collision detection are disabled.
10*. A(. 1hich layer is responsible for determining if sufficient resources for
the intended communication exists2
3 Application
3 6etwor;
3 ession
3 9resentation
3 4ransport
4he Application layer is responsible for determining if sufficient resources for
the intended communication exists.
1*". A+. 1hat are the ( functions of the Eata 'in; Hac layer2
3 9rovides A9s for higher level protocols
3 Allows multiple devices to uni7uely identify one another on the data lin; layer
the physical networ; medium. 4he I&&& HA8 specification defines HA8
addresses, which allow multiple devices to uni7uely identify one another at
the data lin; layer.
1*1. A\$. Eescribe &nd to &nd networ; services! -8hoose all that apply/
3 Cest Foute selection
3 Accomplished egment by egment, each segment is autonomous
3 <low 8ontrol U Eata Integrity
3 Cest efforts pac;et delivery
8orrect answer! A B C D
All of the above &nd to &nd networ; services.
1*(. A.. 1hich of the following provide correct information about a protocol
at the transport layer of the OI model2
3 QE9 ? 9rovides 8onnectionless datagrams service
3 489 ? 9rovides 8onnection Oriented ervices
3 H49 ? 9rovides Hail &xchange
3 I9 ? Foute determination
3 489 ? 9rovides <low 8ontrol and &rror 8hec;ing
3 <49 ? 4ransfers of <iles
Only 489 and QE9 wor; at the 4ransport layer of the above choices. I9 is a
6etwor; layer protocol. H49 and <49 are application layer protocols.
1*+. A,. 1hich protocol wor;s at the Internet layer and is responsible for
ma;ing routing decisions2
3 QE9
3 I9
3 489
3 AF9
Internet 9rotocol ? I9 provides routing and a single interface to the upper
layers. 6o upper layer protocol and now lower layer protocol have any
functions relating to routing. I9 receives segments from the transport layer
and fragments them into pac;ets including the hosts I9 address.
1*\$. AA. 1hich layer is responsible for providing mechanisms for
multiplexing upper@layer application, session establishment, and tear down of
virtual circuits2
3 ession
3 6etwor;
3 9hysical
3 4ransport
3 Application
3 9resentation
4he 4ransport layer does the following! Fesponsible for end@to@end integrity of
data transmission. %andles multiplexing upper@layer application, session
establishment and tear down of virtual circuits. %ides details of networ;
dependent info from the higher layers by providing transparent data transfer.
4he `windowsD wor;s at this level to control how much information is
transferred before an ac;nowledgement is re7uired.
1*.. A0. 1hich of the following are logged when I9 access list logging is
enabled2
3 protocol
3 source port
3 access list number
3 destination port
8orrect answer! A B C D E F
All of the above are logged when I9 access list logging is enabled.
1*,. A*. 1hatDs the default 8E9 holdtime in seconds for 8isco routers2
3 +" seconds
3 10" seconds
3 *" seconds
3 ," seconds
8isco Eiscovery 9rotocol is a proprietary protocol to allow you to access
configuration information on other routers and switches with a single
command. It uses 6A9 at the Eata@'in; 'ayer. Cy default 8E9 sends out a
broadcast every ," seconds and it holds this information for 10" seconds.
8E9 is enabled by default.
1*A. 0". 1hich two of the following protocols are used at the 4ransport
layer2
3 AF9
3 QE9
3 I8H9
3 FAF9
3 489
3 Coot9
489 and QE9 operate at the 4ransport layer.
1*0. 01. 'A6 stands for which of the following2
3 'ocal Area 6etwor;
3 'ocal Arena 6etwor;
3 'ocal Area 6ews
3 'ogical Area 6etwor;
'A6 stands for 'ocal Area 6etwor;
1**. 0(. 8hoose three reasons why the networ;ing industry uses a layered
model!
3 It facilitates systematic troubleshooting
3 It allows changes in one layer to occur without changing other layers
3 It allows changes to occur in all layers when changing one protocol
3 It clarifies how to do it rather than what general function to be done
3 It clarifies what general function is to be done rather than how to do it
1hy do we have a 'ayered Hodel2
1/ It reduces complexity
(/ Allows for a standardi>ed interface
+/ <acilitates modular engineering
\$/ &nsures interoperable technology
./ Accelerates evolution
,/ implifies teaching and learning
("". 0+. 1hich layer is responsible for identifying and establishing the
availability of the intended communication partner2
3 Application
3 9resentation
3 4ransport
3 ession
3 6etwor;
4he Application layer performs the following! ynchroni>ing sending and
receiving applications. 9rogram@to program communication. Identify and
establish the availability of the intended communication partner, and
determine if sufficient resources exist for the communication. 9opular
application protocols include 111, H49, &EI, <49, 4elnet, and 6H9
("1. Interview questions on DNS
202. !s the 4N3 protocol involved when a users pins a we)site name
("+. Nes it is in1ol1e". O)en t)e #ser pin\$s t)e we&site na%e. a D,9 reM#est pac+et is sent to
t)e D,9 ser1er w)ic) wo#l" t)en respon" wit) t)e ! a""ress o* t)e we& ser1er on w)ic) t)e
we&site is )oste".
204. 2n a networ*> should the 4N3 server !P address )e confiured on the computer or
the internet router for users to )rowse the internet
(".. ()e D,9 ser1er ! a""ress s)o#l" &e con*i\$#re" on t)e co%p#ter *or t)e #sers to &rowse
t)e internet.
206. !n a 5AN networ* should the 4N3 server )e inside the networ* or can it reside on
the internet
("A. ()e D,9 ser1er can resi"e an'w)ere as lon\$ as t)e co%p#ters an" "e1ices reM#irin\$ D,9
208. ,ow does a computer *now to which 4N3 server it has to sent the request
("*. ()e D,9 ser1er ! a""ress is con*i\$#re" on t)e (C!C! a"apter settin\$ o* t)e co%p#ter.
Oit) t)is in*or%ation. t)e co%p#ter +nows t)e D,9 ser1er to w)ic) t)e reM#est )as to &e sent.
(1". ,ow man- root 4N3 servers are availa)le in the world
13
211. Which port does a 4N3 3erver Bse
(1(. JD! port 53
213. A user opens the )rowser and t-pes the !P address of the we)server on which a
we)site is hosted. !s 4N3 protocol involved durin the scenario"
(1\$. ()e D,9 protocol is #se" to resol1e t)e we&site na%e into t)e correspon"in\$ ! a""ress.
n t)is case. since t)e ! a""ress is alrea"' +nown. D,9 protocol is not reM#ire" an" is not
in1ol1e" in t)e scenario.
215. Name two methods )- which 4N3 can )e confiured on a computer
(1,. t can &e %an#all' con*i\$#re" on t)e (C!C! a"apter or &' a D-C! ser1er.
217. !f a computer is confiured with a default atewa- address> should the same address
)e used as the 4N3 server !P address
(10. t is not %an"ator'. ()e D,9 ser1er ! a""ress can &e an' 1al#e pro1i"e" t)e co%p#ter
219. What happens when -ou pin a 4N3 server !P address
((". A response to t)e pin\$ is sent &' t)e D,9 ser1er ! a""ress.
((1. STP interview questions
222. What is the 3pannin 1ree Protocol used for
((+. 9pannin\$ tree protocol is #se" to pre1ent loopin\$ o* *ra%es. Jnli+e !. w)ic) )as a ((6
1al#e *iel" in t)e pac+et w)ic) is "ecre%ente" e1er' ti%e t)e pac+et passes t)ro#\$) a ro#ter an" is
"roppe" once t)e 1al#e reac)es 0. t)e *ra%e "oes not )a1e an' si%ilar *iel". 9o i* a scenario arises
w)ere a *ra%e is loopin\$ in a switc)e" en1iron%ent. t)e *ra%e wo#l" not a#to%aticall' ti%e o#t.
()e spannin\$ tree protocol is #se" *or pre1entin\$ t)e loopin\$.
224. Can 31P )e confiured on a router
((.. 9(! can &e con*i\$#re" onl' on switc)es an" not on ro#ters. 9(! is #se" to pre1ent *ra%e
loopin\$
226. !s 31P required to )e confiured when there is onl- one switch involved.
((A. t is not reM#ire". 9(! is #se" to s)#t"own re"#n"ant lin+s &etween switc)es to pre1ent
loops.
((0. RIP interview questions
229. What is the destination !P address of a Rip v1 pac*et
(+". 8ip 11 is a &roa"cast pac+et. ()e "estination ! a""ress o* a 8ip 11 pac+et is
255.255.255.255
231. What is the main difference in R!P v1 and v# pac*et
(+(. 8! 11 "oes not incl#"e t)e s#&net %as+ in*or%ation insi"e t)e pac+et. t "oes not
s#pport classless a""ressin\$. 8! 12 incl#"es t)e s#&net %as+ in*or%ation insi"e t)e pac+et. =or
exa%ple ass#%e t)at t)e s#& nette" networ+ 192.168.1.64C26 is con*i\$#re" on a 8! ena&le"
ro#ter. * 8! 11 is con*i\$#re". t)e ro#te wo#l" &e a"1ertise" as 192.168.1.0 3 t wo#l" ta+e t)e
"e*a#lt s#&net %as+ o* C24 an" not C265. * 8! 12 is con*i\$#re". t)e s#&net %as+ in*ora%tion 3C265
wo#l" also &e a"1ertise" in t)e ro#te.
233. !f a Rip v# router advertise itCs route> would it )e received )- all the devices on the
networ*
(+\$. 8ip 12 is %#lticast. 9o t)e ro#te a"1ertise%ent wo#l" &e recei1e" onl' &' "e1ices w)ic)
)as 8ip 12 ena&le". * t)e a"1ertise%ent was 8ip 11. t)en it wo#l" &e recei1e" &' all "e1ices on
t)e networ+ as 8ip 11 is &roa"cast.
235. ,ow can a Rip route advertisement )e )loc*ed on a specific interface
(+,. B' #sin\$ t)e passi1e inter*ace co%%an".
237. Which transport la-er protocol does R!P use and the associated port num)er
(+0. JD! < !ort 520
239. !f a static route and a Rip learnt route is availa)le on a router which entr- would )e
chosen )- the router to forward the pac*et
(\$". 9tatic ro#te wo#l" &e c)osen since it )as lower a"%inistrati1e "istance t)an 8ip
241. What is the maDor )enefit of d-namic routin protocol li*e R!P over 3tatic route
(\$(. n a static ro#te. t)e ro#te entries )as to &e %an#all' con*i\$#re" on t)e ro#ter. O)ereas in
a "'na%ic ro#tin\$ protocol li+e 8ip. ro#tes are learnt a#to%aticall'.
243. Can a su)net mas* information )e stored in a Rip v1 pac*et
(\$\$. 8ip 11 is a class*#ll ro#tin\$ protocol. t "oes not #n"erstan" classless concepts li+e
9#&nets. 9o it is not possi&le
245. !s a su)net mas* field availa)le in a Rip v# pac*et
(\$,. 8ip 12 is classless ro#tin\$ protocol. A rip 12 pac+et )as a *iel" to incl#"e t)e s#&net %as+
in*or%ation.
(\$A. What is the administrative distance of Ripip
(\$0. 120
249. What is the multicast address that Rip v# uses
(.". 224.0.0.9
(.1. Interview questions on DHCP
252. !n a 4,CP environment> which of the components EClient or 3erverF initiates the
request
(.+. ()e client wo#l" alwa's initiate t)e D-C! reM#est. ()e reM#est is tri\$\$erre" *ro% t)e
client . w)en t)e (C!C! a"apter is con*i\$#re" *or t)e option GB&tain ! a""ress a#to%aticall'H.
O)en t)is is selecte". t)e operatin\$ s'ste% wo#l" a#to%aticall' \$enerate t)e D-C! Disco1er to
i"enti*' 1ali" D-C! 9er1ers on t)e networ+.
254. ,ow man- 4,CP pac*ets are e0chaned )etween a client and a server )efore the
(... 4 D-C! pac+ets are exc)an\$e" &etween t)e client an" t)e ser1er. ()e' are D-C!
Disco1er. D-C! B**er. D-C! 8eM#est. D-C! Ac+.
256. What t-pe of pac*et is a 4,CP 4iscover pac*et
(.A. D-C! Disco1er is a la'er 3 &roa"cast pac+et wit) "estination ! a""ress as
255.255.255.255
258. What is an !P ,elper address feature and wh- is it required in a 4,CP environment
(.*. D-C! Disco1er pac+ets are &roa"cast pac+ets. ()is %eans t)at a D-C! Disco1er pac+et
w)ic) is sent *ro% t)e client wo#l" not reac) t)e D-C! 9er1er . i* t)e ser1er resi"es on a "i**erent
networ+. ()is is &eca#se . ro#ters are reM#ire" *or co%%#nication &etween "i**erent networ+s an"
ro#ters "o not *orwar" &roa"cast pac+ets. ()e ! -elper a""ress *eat#re is con*i\$#re" on t)e
ro#ter. ()e *eat#re in*or%s t)e ro#ter t)e D-C! 9er1ers ! a""ress *or t)e networ+. 9o. O)en t)e
ro#ter recei1es t)e D-C! Disco1er pac+et. it wo#l" con1ert it *ro% &roa"cast to #nicast pac+et
an" t)en sen" it to t)e D-C! 9er1er.
260. What is a 4,CP 3cope and wh- is it required
(,1. A scope incl#"es in*or%ation li+e ! a""ress ran\$es. 9#&net 7as+s. \$atewa' a""ress.
D,9 9er1er etc. ()is reM#ire" so t)at clients wo#l" reM#ire t)e necessar' in*or%ation *ro% t)e
ser1er.
(,(.
263. What would happen if there are multiple 4,CP servers on a networ*
(,\$. ()e clients wo#l" tri\$\$er D-C! Disco1er pac+ets an" t)e ser1er w)ic) respon"s *irst
wo#l" pro1i"e t)e ! a""ress to t)e client
265. ,ow does a client *now that a lease has e0pired and how is it renewed
(,,. O)en a client recei1es an ! a""ress *ro% t)e D-C! 9er1er. t)e lease expir' "ate an"
ti%e is pro1i"e" as part o* D-C! options. ()is is %aintaine" an" recor"e" &' t)e client. ?#st
&e*ore t)e lease expir' ti%e. t)e client wo#l" initiate a renew reM#est to t)e ser1er *or a new lease
267. ,ow man- 4,CP 3ervers can reside on one su)net
(,0. tPs #nli%ite". B#t i* t)ere is a D-C! client. w)ic) ser1er wo#l" lease o#t t)e ! a""ress Q
tPs a si%ple lo\$ic. ()e *irst ser1er w)ic) respon"s to t)e D-C! clients ! a""ress reM#est wo#l"
lease o#t t)e ! a""ress.
269. /0plain the communication flow )etween a 4,CP client and server on a networ*
with two 4,CP 3ervers
(A". ()e *irst pac+et t)e D-C! Client initiates wo#l" &e t)e D-C! Disco1er pac+et. ()e
D-C! Disco1er pac+et is &roa"cast in nat#re an" wo#l" &e recei1e" &' &ot) t)e D-C! ser1ers.
()e D-C! ser1ers wo#l" respon" wit) D-C! o**er pac+et containin\$ t)e ! a""resses w)ic) t)e'
o**er. Base" on t)e *irst D-C! o**er t)e client recei1es. t)e client wo#l" respon" wit) D-C!
reM#est pac+et w)ic) contains t)e ! a""ress w)ic) it wo#l" &e #sin\$ alon\$ wit) t)e D-C!
ser1ers ! a""ress w)ic) )a" pro1i"e t)e respecti1e. ()is pac+et is sen" as &roa"cast. ()e pac+et.
w)en recei1e" &' t)e ot)er D-C! ser1er wo#l" #n"erstan" t)at t)e ! a""ress w)ic) it )a" lease"
to t)e client 3n t)e D-C! o**er pac+et5 is not ta+en. 9o t)e D-C! ser1er wo#l" p#t t)e ! a""ress
&ac+ to itPs pool.
(A1. Interview questions on
networking basics
272. Can a Window )ased operatin s-stem communicate with a 5inu0 operatin s-stem.
Provide supportin statements
(A+. ()is is possi&le. since &ot) On"ows an" 6in#x s#pport (C!C!
274. A Cisco router and a Window operatin s-stem wish to use 1CPA!P to achieve
networ* communication. !s this possi)le
(A.. (C!C! is a 1en"or ne#tral protocol. An' 1en"or can "eplo' (C!C!. Cisco an" 7icroso*t
can )a1e (C!C! installe" as part o* t)eir respecti1e operatin\$ s'ste%s an" co%%#nicate.
276. !s the 23! model installed on an operatin s-stem
(AA. ()e B9 %o"el is a set o* \$#i"elines w)ic) is "e1elope" &' 9B or\$aniRation. t is not
installe" on an' operatin\$ s'ste%. !rotocols are "e1elope" &' #sin\$ B9 %o"el as a re*erence
(A0. !s 1CPA!P software> hardware or a theoretical model
(C!C! is a so*tware w)ic) is installe" on a "e1ice. =or exa%ple. operatin\$ s'ste%s li+e
Oin"ows. 6in#x )as (C!C! installe" as part o* t)e operatin\$ s'ste%.
279. A PC is confiured with a 4N3 server address )ut not the default atewa-. Can the
PC access internet.
(0". A "e*a#lt \$atewa' is alwa's reM#ire" *or pac+ets to &e sen" to t)e internet. ()is is
&eca#se pac+ets w)ic) are &o#n" *or t)e internet are alwa's on "i**erent networ+ a""resses an"
not +nown &e*ore)an".
281. What is the destination mac?address of a frame whose destination !P address is
19#.1&8.1.#%%
(0(. ()e "estination ! a""ress. 192.168.1.255 is a "irecte" &roa"cast. ()is is a &roa"cast
pac+et an" t)e correspon"in\$
"estination %ac2a""ress in t)e *ra%e wo#l" &e ==2==2==2==2==2==
283. What is the destination mac?address of a frame whose destination !P address is
#%%.#%%.#%%.#%%
(0\$. ()e ! a""ress 255.255.255.255 is a All s#&net "irecte" &roa"cast. ()e correspon"in\$
"estination %ac2a""ress in t)e *ra%e wo#l" &e ==2==2==2==2==2==.
285. Give an e0ample of a pac*et which uses the destination !P address of
#%%.#%%.#%%.#%%
(0,. D-C! Disco1er pac+ets #se 255.255.255.255 as t)e "estination ! a""ress. D-C!
Disco1er pac+ets are initiate" &' D-C! clients to *in" D-C! ser1ers on t)e networ+.
287. What is the common securit- issue with telnet and G1P
(00. Bot) telnet an" =(!. sen"s "ata in clear text. 9o con*i"ential in*or%ation li+e Jserna%e.
passwor"s. "ata etc can &e sni**e" easil' #sin\$ a protocol anal'Rer.
289. !s a ' wa- handsha*e initiated when a 1G1P client communicates with a 1G1P
server
(*". ()e (=(! protocol #ses JD! protocol at t)e transport la'er. ()e 3 wa' )an"s)a+e is a
*#nctionalit' o* t)e (C! protocol. t is initiate" onl' &' applications w)ic) #ses (C! at t)e
transport la'er.
(*1. Wh- isnCt a response received for a pin request when a Pro0- is confiured
!in\$ #ses C7! at la'er 3. A prox' #n"erstan"s onl' protocols *or w)ic) it is con*i\$#re" *or.
Exa%ples o* proxies are -((!. =(! &ase" prox'. 9o w)en a pin\$ pac+et reac)es t)e prox' . it
wo#l" "rop t)e pac+et. since a prox' is not a ro#tin\$ "e1ice an" cannot ro#te ! pac+ets.
(*(.
293. ,ow much data can )e accommodated in a 1CP ' wa- handsha*e
(*\$. ()e (C! 3 wa' )an"s)a+e is #se" onl' *or s'nc)roniRation an" not #se" *or carr'in\$
"ata. Data trans*er )appens onl' a*ter t)e (C! 3 wa' )an"s)a+e is s#ccess*#l
295. ,ow does a PC differentiate traffic )etween two different instances of the same
we)site on multiple )rowsers
(*,. Ass#%e t)at t)e #ser opens t)e we&site on E an" t'pes www.tcpip\$#r#.co%. ()e #ser
t)en opens anot)er &rowser 37oRilla5 an" t'pes www.tcpip\$#r#.co%. O)en t)e #ser opens t)e
&rowser an" initiates t)e connection to t)e we&sites. "i**erent pairs o* (C! soc+ets are create" on
t)e !C *or &ot) t)e instances. Oit)in t)e (C! soc+ets. t)e (C! so#rce port n#%&ers wo#l" &e
#se" *or "i**erentiatin\$ t)e connections
297. ,ow does a PC route internet traffic when two connections are availa)le
(*0. Ass#%e t)at a !C )as two networ+ inter*ace car"s. o#t o* w)ic) &ot) )as internet
connection. ()e ro#tin\$ ta&le o* t)e !C wo#l" consist o* two "e*a#lt ro#te entries *or networ+s
associate" wit) &ot) t)e car"s. ()e ro#te entr' w)ic) )as a lower %etric wo#l" &e c)osen *or t)e
internet connection.
299. Can a computer )e connected to two internet connections simultaneousl-
+"". ()is is possi&le. A t'pical scenario wo#l" a co%p#ter connecte" to t)e internet t)ro#\$)
6A, inter*ace an" anot)er internet connection t)ro#\$) a wireless J9B "e1ice.
301. Which oraniHation is responsi)le for manain Pu)lic !P addresses on the !nternet.
+"(. CA,,
303. Can two oraniHations have networ*s )elonin to the same private !P address
rane
+"\$. !ri1ate ! a""resses are #se" &' or\$aniRations *or "e1ices w)ic) resi"e wit)in t)eir
networ+. t is not #se" *or p#&lic co%%#nication 3nternet5. 9o t)is is possi&le.
305. Which protocol is used to find out the mac?address of a atewa- in an ethernet )ased
networ*
+",. ()e A8! protocol is #se" to *in" o#t t)e %ac2a""ress o* "e1ices on an et)ernet se\$%ent
307. Can two computers use the same d-namic ports for communication to a remote
server simultaneousl-.
+"0. ()is is possi&le since co%%#nication is &ase" on soc+et pairs. Eac) soc+et pair consist o*
a #niM#e port n#%&er an" an ! a""ress. 9o t)e soc+et pair on t)e respecti1e !CPs wo#l" &e
"i**erent as t)e ! a""resses o* t)e co%p#ters wo#l" &e "i**erent
+"*. Interview questions on routing
310. Can routers chec* ethernet frames
+11. 8o#ters loo+ *or in*or%ation insi"e t)e ! pac+et )ea"er *or ro#tin\$ t)e pac+ets. B#t t)e
pac+ets itsel* wo#l" &e encaps#late" insi"e *ra%es li+e et)ernet. !!! etc. =or exa%ple. i* t)e !
pac+et is encaps#late" insi"e an et)ernet *ra%e. t)e ro#ter wo#l" *irst nee" to c)ec+ t)e
"estination %ac2a""ress insi"e t)e *ra%e an" 1eri*' i* it is inten"e" *or itsel* an" onl' t)en &e a&le
to process t)e ! pac+et )ea"er. w)ic) wo#l" &e t)e "ata insi"e t)e pac+et.
312. ,ow do routers populate routin entr- for a directl- connected networ*
+1+. A "irectl' connecte" networ+ re*ers to t)e networ+ a""ress correspon"in\$ to t)e !
a""ress an" s#&net %as+ con*i\$#re" on t)e speci*ic networ+ inter*ace car" on t)e ro#ter. ()e !
a""ress an" s#&net %as+ wo#l" &e GAn"H e" to "eri1e t)e networ+ a""ress.
314. ,ow do routers forward !P pac*ets
+1.. O)en a ro#ter recei1es an ! pac+et. it wo#l" c)ec+ t)e "estination ! a""ress in t)e
pac+et. ()e ro#ter wo#l" t)en per*or%in\$ an GAn" G operation wit) t)e s#&net %as+ o* t)e
"i**erent ro#te ta&le entries wit) t)e "estination ! a""ress an" 1eri*' i* t)e correspon"in\$ networ+
a""ress in t)e ro#tin\$ ta&le %atc)es. Bn a %atc). t)e pac+et wo#l" &e *orwar"e" to t)e inter*ace
to w)ic) it t)e ro#te entr' is associate" wit).
316. What are the parameters that are provided in a static route
+1A. A static entr' wo#l" t'picall' contain t)e networ+ a""ress. networ+ %as+ an" t)e "e*a#lt
\$atewa'. 6etPs ta&le an exa%ple w)ere a ro#ter )as two "irectl' connecte" networ+s. ()e )osts
wit)in t)e ro#ter. nee"s to access a networ+ w)ic) is not a "irectl' connecte" networ+. ()e
networ+ is one )op awa' *ro% t)e ro#ter an" is reac)a&le 1ia t)e "e*a#lt \$atewa' o* t)e ro#ter. 9o
t)e networ+ a""ress 1al#e wo#l" &e t)e one w)ic) t)e )osts wo#l" want to reac) 1ia t)e ro#ter.
()is networ+ a""ress alon\$ wit) t)e networ+ %as+ an" t)e \$atewa' a""ress t)ro#\$) w)ic) t)e
networ+ can &e reac)e" is con*i\$#re" as a static ro#te.
318. ,ow does a PC *now as to whether the destination !P address is on the same or
different networ*
+1*. Ass#%e t)at a !C is con*i\$#re" wit) an ! a""ress 192.168.2.1 an" s#&net %as+
255.255.255.0. * t)e #ser on t)e !C iss#es a pin\$ to t)e ! a""ress 192.168.1.1. t)e !C wo#l"
c)ec+ in its ro#tin\$ ta&le *or %atc)in\$ networ+ a""ress an" "eci"e i* it is on t)e sa%e or "i**erent
networ+.
320. An A435 router is confiured for internet connection. A switch is connected to the
router to which the hosts are connected. What t-pe of route entr- should )e confiured on
the router for the hosts to access the internet
+(1. A "e*a#lt ro#te entr' s)o#l" &e con*i\$#re" on t)e ro#ter. ! a""resses w)ic) are internet
&ase". cannot &e con*i\$#re" explicitl' on t)e ro#ters since t)e' wo#l" not &e +nown &e*ore)an".
Exa%ples are ! a""resses o* we&sites w)ic) t)e #ser tries to access. ()e "e*a#lt ro#te once
con*i\$#re" wo#l" ta+e care o* "estination networ+s w)ic) t)e ro#ter is #naware
322. !n which t-pe of addressin Eclass full or classlessF is the su)net mas* information
+(+. O)ate1er t)e t'pe o* a""ressin\$. t)e s#&net %as+ is ne1er carrie" in an ! )ea"er
324. What is the difference )etween class full and classless addressin
+(.. n class*#l a""ressin\$. &ase" on t)e *irst octet 1al#e o* t)e ! a""ress. t)e class o* t)e
networ+ 3A.B.C5 is "eci"e". n classless a""ressin\$. t)e octet 1al#e is not consi"ere". 8at)er. t)e
s#&net %as+ is #se" to "eri1e t)e networ+ a""ress.
326. What t-pe of !P address EPrivate or Pu)lic F is used when a computer is connected to
the internet directl-
+(A. !#&lic ! a""ress
328. 2n which hardware component on a computer is the !P address confiured
+(*. ()e ! a""ress is con*i\$#re" on t)e networ+ car".
330. 4oes a computer have routin ta)les
++1. A co%p#ter )as ro#tin\$ ta&le. ()e ro#tin\$ ta&le is pop#late" &' t)e operatin\$ s'ste%.
once t)e ! a""ress. s#&net %as+ an" "e*a#lt \$atewa' is con*i\$#re". Bn a win"ows !C. t)e
ro#tin\$ ta&le can &e 1iewe" &' t'pin\$ t)e co%%an" Sro#te printP on t)e co%%an" pro%pt.
332. What route would )e populated in the routin ta)le of a PC when the default
atewa- is confiured on it
+++. A "e*a#lt ro#te 30.0.0.05 wo#l" &e pop#late" w)en t)e "e*a#lt \$atewa' is con*i\$#re". ()e
"e*a#lt ro#te is reM#ire" to ro#te pac+ets to #n+nown networ+s . li+e pac+ets &o#n"e" *or internet.
334. ,ow man- default route entries would )e availa)le in the routin ta)le of a PC with
two atewa-s
++.. E1er' "e*a#lt \$atewa' wo#l" correspon" wit) a "e*a#lt ro#te. 9o two "e*a#lt entries
wo#l" &e a1aila&le on t)e ro#tin\$ ta&le o* a !C wit) two \$atewa's
++,. Interview questions on VLAN
++A. >#estion 21
++0. -ow %an' #nta\$\$e" F6A,Ps can a switc) port &e a %e%&er o*
a51
&5Jnli%ite"
c54096
"5Depen"ent on t)e capacit' o* t)e switc)
++*. >#estion 22
+\$". Bn a switc) . port 1 an" port 2 are con*i\$#re" as %e%&ers o* 1lan 2 an" 1lan 3
respecti1el'. O)ic) o* t)e *ollowin\$ is tr#e
+\$1. a5Broa"cast tra**ic initiate" on port 1 will not &e a1aila&le on port 2
&5Jnicast tra**ic initiate" on port 1 will &e a1aila&le on port 2
c5Broa"cast tra**ic initiate" on port 1 will &e a1aila&le on port 2 i* a ro#ter is con*i\$#re".
"5All o* t)e a&o1e
+\$(. >#estion 23
+\$+. O)at a""itional "e1ice is reM#ire" *or co%%#nication &etween two !CPs on sa%e F6A,
+\$\$. a58o#ter
&56a'er 3 switc)
c5De*a#lt \$atewa'
"5,o a""itional "e1ice is reM#ire"
+\$.. >#estion 24
+\$,. An ! a""ress is reM#ire" *or (C! co%%#nication &etween two co%p#ters resi"in\$ on t)e
sa%e F6A,.
+\$A. a5(r#e
&5=alse
+\$0. >#estion 25
+\$*. -ow %an' F6A,Ps can &e con*i\$#re" on a switc)
+.". a54096
&52048
c5,#%&er o* ports on t)e switc) 0 ,#%&er o* F6A,Ps
"5Base" on t)e switc) "esi\$n
+.1. >#estion 26
+.(. O)ic) *eat#re can &e #se" to carr' all F6A, tra**ic on one lin+ *ro% a switc) to a ro#ter
+.+. a5(r#n+in\$
&5!r#nin\$
c56AC!
"5,one o* t)e a&o1e
+.\$. >#estion 27
+... O)ic) o* t)e *ollowin\$ wo#l" &e #na1aila&le in a 802.1M ta\$\$e" *ra%e
+.,. a59o#rce %ac2a""ress
&5Destination %ac2a""ress
c5802.1M ta\$
"5,one o* t)e a&o1e
+.A. >#estion 28
+.0. !C1 an" !C2 are connecte" to port 1 an" port 2 o* a switc). !ort 1 an" !ort 2 are
%e%&ers o* F6A, 1 an" F6A, 2 respecti1el'. A ro#ter is also con*i\$#re". wit) F6A, 1 !
a""ress as 192.168.1.1C24 an" F6A, 2 ! a""ress as 192.168.2.1C24 an" connecte" to t)e switc)
wit) tr#n+in\$ ena&le". O)at s)o#l" &e t)e "e*a#lt \$atewa' on !C1 *or it to access !C2.
+.*. a5192.168.2.1
&5192.168.1.1
c5A "e*a#lt \$atewa' nee" not &e explicitl' con*i\$#re" since a ro#ter is a1aila&le
"57ana\$e%ent ! a""ress o* 1lan 1
+,". VLAN Scenario Base
!uestion
+,1. 8e*er t)e ex)i&it &elow
+,(.
+,+. ! a""ress o* !C1 < 192.168.1.1C24
! a""ress o* !C2 < 192.168.1.2C24
! a""ress o* !C3 < 192.168.2.1C24
+,\$. !C1. !C2 an" !C3 are connecte" to port 2. port 3 an" port 4 on t)e switc). !ort 2. !ort 3
an" !ort 4 are %e%&ers o* F6A, 2.
365. Questions I
+,,. 1. * !C1 pin\$s !C3. will a response &e recei1e".
+,A. 2. * an A8! !ac+et inten"e" *or !C2 is initiate" &' !C1. will it reac) !C3.
+,0. 3. Can !C1 pin\$ !C2 wit)o#t a "e*a#lt \$atewa' con*i\$#re" on itPs (C! ! a"apter
settin\$s.
+,*. 4. * !ort 3 is %a"e a %e%&er o* F6A, 3 wo#l" !C1 &e a&le to pin\$ !C2.