Simulink Tank

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Simulink Tank

© All Rights Reserved

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Tank is open (atmospheric)

Hydrostatic conditions (negligible fluid velocities)

Incompressible liquid

Well stirred tank (homogeneous density and temperature)

High thermal conductivity of the liquid: no energy accumulation.

The velocity of the free surface is negligible

No heat transfer and no work: liquid is isothermal with metal walls and metal walls are

isolated from the environment

No pressure drop between entering and leaving ports ("capacitive" component)

High thermal conductivity of the liquid (instantaneous temperature transmission, flat

temperature profile)

Development of Model Equations

Inputs f

E

, f

L

, h

E

Outputs P

E

, P

L

, h

L

, H

Parameters A, P

atm

Conservation Equations

The mass conservation gives:

( )

( )

1

L E

L E

L E

dM

f f

dt

d AH

f f

dt

dH

f f

dt A

=

=

=

The momentum equation applied to the tank taken as a CV reduces to a forces

balance.

On the bottom of the tank this gives:

atm

P P gH = +

Where P

a

is the atmospheric pressure, and P is the absolute pressure.

Therefore

atm

P P

H

g

=

Moreover, by assuming no pressure losses over the tank (resistive hypothesis), on the

bottom of the tank the pressure is the same,

E

P P

L

= , and it is determined by the

hydrostatic height.

Substituting the expression for H in the mass conservation equation yields:

( )

( )

1

L atm

L E

L

L E

P P d

f f

dt g A

dP g

f f

dt A

=

=

The energy conservation equation with no work or heat transfer and no moving

boundary is given by:

1

E E L L

dh dM

f h f h h

dt M dt

=

The stirred tank approximation (flat enthalpy profile) gives:

1

L

E E L L L

dh dM

f h f h h

dt M dt

=

Substituting the continuity equation

L E

dM

f f

dt

=

for the mass derivative in the energy balance gives:

( )

[ ]

( )

1

1

1

L

E E L L L L E

L

E E E L

L

E E L

dh

f h f h h f f

dt M

dh

f h f h

dt M

dh

f h h

dt M

=

=

=

Because of the hypothesis of high thermal conductivity, there is no accumulation of

internal energy inside the tank, therefore

0

L

L E

dh

dt

h h

=

=

Constitutive Equations

The density can be calculated using a thermodynamic library as a function of

enthalpy and pressure. This way the slight temperature dependence of the density of

the liquid can be taken into account.

( ) ,

L L L

P h =

Of course for the hypothesis that there is no heat transfer to hold, the validity of this

model is limited to mild temperatures, therefore the density variation of the liquid is

very small.

Solving System of Equations

Inputs (3) f

E

, f

L

, h

E

Outputs (4) P

E

, P

L

, h

L

, H

Parameters (1) A

Initial conditions (1) P(t=0) = P(H

0

, h

E

)

4 Outputs (or unknowns) => independent equations are necessary:

( )

( ) ,

L

L E

E L

L E

L a

L L

dP g

f f

dt A

P P

h h

P P

H

P h g

Comments

Note that the initial condition for pressure can be rigorously calculated from initial

density and liquid height:

( )

0 0 0 0

,

a

P P P h g H = +

0

Therefore can be obtained by solving the equation:

( )

0 0 0 0 0

, 0

a

P P P h g H

+ =

for P

0

where:

( )

( )

0

0

0

0

E

h h t

H H t

= =

= =

Moreover a maximum liquid level should be introduced to deal with tank overflow in

simulations

Validation

Steady State Validation

For a 1 by 1 m tank the pressure on the bottom is 1.1 bar if the fluid is water

Dynamic Validation

If the entering mass flow is set to 10 kg/sec and the leaving mass flow to 20 kg/sec

the tank level decreases linearly.

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

0.88

0.9

0.92

0.94

0.96

0.98

1

time [sec]

H

[

m

]

A =1 m

2

H

0

=1 m

P

atm

=1.0135 bar

f

E

=10 kg/sec

f

L

=20 kg/sec

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