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Consumer behaviour is defined as activities people undertake when

obtaining, consuming and disposing of products and services. Simply


stated consumer behaviour has traditionally been thought of as the study of
why people buy with the premise that it becomes easier to develop
strategies to influence consumers once a marketer knows the reasons
people buy specific products or brands. Three primary activities are
included in the definition of consumer behaviour are given below.

According to Stefano Puntoni and Nader Tavassoli (2005), Customers
obtain maximum of information about a particular product from experienced
users and sometime make buying decision on the basis of their own
choices and preferences. Because social factors like opinion leaders,
reference groups and consumer surrounding affect buying behaviour
directly. However sometime customer buy a product unconsciously due to
the strong perception of that product in his mind.
According to J.M Shapiro (1993), personality and self concept factors guide
the consumer buying behaviour in his research he explain that peoples who
want to improve their self concept and want to impress others from their
personality are usually engage in buying gifts for their close groups.
Whereas during research it is also concluded that lonely persons are
observed not involve in this type if consumer behaviour.
According to S.E Heckler and T. L childers, (1989) two studies are
conducted to identify that how much parents influence and subculture
factors will motivate consumer behaviour. Therefore they find that family
influences have more impact on buying behaviour especially in those
countries where children lived with their parents as a result children
develop their attitudes and values according to information gain from their
parents experiences. So marketers should attract first adults to catch young
generations.
J.Kacen and A.Lee, (2002), conduct research to find out how cultural
factors became a part of buying behaviour therefore they conclude that
cultural environment in different countries influences impulse consumer
buying behaviour. Like in western culture people have more knowledge
about product or service because of the strong advertising and
development in e-commerce activities. Cultural factors vary from region to
region or country to country and in a single country may be there are two or
three ore subcultures.
In (2006) J. Sengupta and R. Zhou study the fact that why consumer go for
unhealthy eating options like fast-food. Therefore they consider hypothesis
food with great taste containing high calories. But in the end they found that
it is a psychological influence that consumers always go for tasty fast-food
items without paying any intension to their unhealthy affects like high
calories, fats etc but the main important outcome for consumers is their
satisfaction.
In May (2007) J. Sengupta and R. Zhou conduct an experimental research
to identify the influence of promotion strategies on buying behaviour of
impulsive and non-impulsive eaters. After their experiment they conclude
that consumers are mostly attract to product through strong marketing
campaign to launch product in the market because first exposure make
customer to decide whether to buy or not. They consider the example of
chocolate cake.
According to (S.L OBrien February 1, 2006) buying decision involve
different kinds of factors which peoples are mostly unaware. (Brown, 2005)
discuss that buying are influenced by different key factors like Social,
Psychological and personal. Therefore marketers always promote their
products according to characteristics of peoples. Because behind every
small purchasing decision whole buying decision model is
working.(Armstrong et al, 2005)


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Consumer Behaviour
A milestone definition of marketing by Peter Drucker (1999) would firmly
establish the relative value and importance of consumer behaviour in
effective marketing, arguing that marketing is the whole business seen
from the point of view of its final product, that is, from the customers point
of view (58). Marketing, therefore, becomes a composite of both pre-
purchase consumer behaviour interpretation and forecasting and post-
purchase behavioural analysis. In this way, a rapid increase in consumption
over a short period of time may be viewed as an opportunity to develop a
broader, loyal consumer base and marketing tactics must change to
accommodate such an opportunity. While early marketing efforts were
based on communicating new and diverse products with a growing class of
discerning consumers, Raaij et al. (2001:60) argue that marketing
communication has since been repurposed in order to establish brand
loyalty and reinforce consumer perceptions of value. In effect, marketers
attempt to influence consumer behaviour through their presentation of a
strategic, targeted marketing message, establishing the unique value of a
given product or brand that will ensure future purchasing loyalty.
In his empirical analysis of consumer behaviour and its affectation by
marketing initiatives, Foxall (1992:397-98) argues that marketing
interventions provide reinforcement of the anticipated result or features of a
given product while simultaneously modifying the scope of consumer
settings (i.e. purchase intent, brand loyalty, etc.). Such reinforcement is
affected through a variety of channels including product features, strategic
delays in provision, and modulation of information exchange and
messaging (Foxall, 1992:398). Ultimately, the marketer assumes
responsibility for a psychological connection between a particular brand or
product and the consumer, strategically directing communications in order
to improve a cognitive connection that can potentially influence consumer
behaviour. Foxall (1992:398) addresses key concerns surrounding the
effectiveness of such communication, but indicates that consumer
behaviour has a direct impact on marketing strategies, the result of a
measurable need for reinforcement and connection.
As the internet age continues to challenge marketers to consider more
diverse relationship formats in the online environment, behavioural analysis
has quickly become an effective means of programme development and
modulation. From trust to satisfaction to site navigability, Taylor and
Strutton (2010:954) have compiled widespread academic evidence that
investigates various behavioural features that are frequently evaluated by
marketers seeking to enhance their online presence and consumer loyalty.
Consumer satisfaction, for example, was found to have a direct impact on
trust and brand loyalty in addition to the perceived value of a given product,
potentially influencing future purchasing decisions or commitments (Taylor
and Strutton, 2010:954). While such concerns are more traditional in nature,
their applicability within an online purchasing environment is undeniable,
and without marketer intervention and a strategic reinforcement of value,
there is a potential that future purchases will be impacted. Yet such
interventions require a concise and accurate understanding of consumer
behaviour in order to effectively provide value-oriented reinforcement and
messaging that is directly related to consumer value systems.
Aside from the electronic nature of online consumption, the diversification
of communication channels and its impact on consumer behaviour in the
past decade has had direct and remarkable influences purchasing
decisions, brand loyalty, and consumer commitment. Anton et al. (2007:515)
argue that as consumer access to information, feedback, and peer reviews
has increased, consumers have increasingly become intolerant to
inconsistency and mediocrity, the result of exposure to choice. Essentially
the consumer right to choose continues to impact behaviour and future
purchasing considerations, as substitute products and competitive
messaging have a direct impact on interpretation and loyalty. By
communicating added value and fostering a stable and sustainable
relationship, Anton et al. (2007:516) suggest that marketers are able to
influence consumer switching behaviour and restrict the influence of
competitive initiatives. The affectation provided by strategic marketing
communication is essentially a direct link to consumer preferences and
purchasing models, as psychological affectation becomes a means of
sustaining a particular, idealised behaviour.
The role between consumer behaviour and marketing is based on
adaptation, a concept that is oftentimes difficult to implement within a
diverse, competitive environment as firms attempt to strategically manage
resources and reduce corporate excess. Thrassou and Vrontis (2009:499)
argue that the consumer behaviour is the most valuable information conduit
for marketers as they attempt to navigate market changes, competitive
influences, and the consumer buying cycle. From channel preferences (i.e.
television, magazine, etc.) to message content, the consumer response to
various initiatives should be predictable, a function of extensive market
research and behavioural analysis (2009:510). Marketing communications,
as a strategic, value-added enterprise for modern organisations has shifted
in its purpose, embracing the demonstration and modelling of product value
within the context of consumer preferences, as opposed to past models of
feature presentation, differentiation, etc (2009:516). Essentially, the role of
the consumer has become one of exchange and communication, providing
marketers with information necessary to evolve their messaging, models,
and marketing channels.
While there is inherent value in strategic messaging, the targeted nature of
such communication must be linked to key stimuli which inspire consumer
behaviour. Chiu et al. (2005:1682) evaluate such phenomena from a more
scientific perspective, suggest that the stimulus-organism-response (SOR)
paradigm provides evidence the underlying psychological response that
can be expected from consumers. Essentially, the relational bonding
activities by a firm (stimulus) can have a measurable impact on consumers
value perceptions (organism), whereby their purchase behaviours may be
influenced (response) (Chiu et al., 2005:1682). Within such a model, it is
evident that the consumer perception of value has a direct influence on
their subjective response to stimuli from marketers, but in order to ensure
that such responses are consistent with what the marketing initiative had
intended, marketers must understand consumer perceptions and their
impact on behaviour. Chiu et al. (2005:1687) used empirical data to model
the influence which value perceptions can have on switching behaviour
amongst consumers, suggesting that dissatisfaction in general cannot be
overcome through messaging or branding alone. Instead, there is a
measurable link between the depth of the relationship between a given
brand and its consumers which can allow marketers to overcome
dissatisfaction and achieve a renewed state of trust. Such relational
bonding focuses on the inherent value of a given product to the consumer
in relation to their wants and needs, establishing a connection between
fulfilment and the particular product in which there is an inherent
purchasing response when considering that particular need.
When considering the decision making process of consumers, there
tangible rewards which must be considered for picking a particular brand or
product. De Wulf and Okerken-Schroder (2003:97), for example, have
suggested that at the first level of relationship marketing, basic, tangible
rewards are identified including cost savings and pricing incentives which
provide consumers with a more general value based on financial concerns.
More dynamic rewards also focus on intrinsic value in which rewards
systems connect consumers and products according to an extended,
implied position of loyalty. From rewards coupons to frequent flyer
programmes to loyalty bonuses, the long term achievement of reward for
consumers can lead them to remain loyal to a particular brand, as switching
behaviour would ultimately have a measurable consequence for their
rewards earnings (De Wulf and Okerken-Schroder, 2003:97). Such second
tier rewards systems establish a long term relationship between the
consumer and the brand, ultimately defining consumer participation within
the programme in spite of other value challenges or product
inconsistencies.
Oftentimes the value of understanding consumer behaviour can provide
marketers with the information necessary to repurpose their products,
meeting consumer needs without directly impacting the product or brand
itself. Fine (2010) presents evidence of the information value associated
with purchase behaviour, as consumers self-actualise particular objectives
and needs through consumptive actions. From luxury items to particular
brands, the decision to purchase a particular product is frequently based on
deeper psychological influences, oftentimes influencing brand loyalty
according to psycho-social interpretation of product value (Fine, 2010:244).
While such peer-based acknowledgement of value can be identified
through survey and research, information surrounding consumer behaviour
and brand preferences is much more valuable when considering
rebranding efforts and consumer communication. Ultimately, Fine
(2010:245) argues that it is the achievement of status through the purchase
of a luxury or personally valuable brand that can provide consumers with a
level of satisfaction that is linked to their future purchase intentions. As
previously discussed, dissatisfaction or product failure can ultimately lead
to reduced value within this relationship and dissolve the psychological
connection.
Consumer behaviour is both time sensitive and immediate, experiencing
influences according to various stimuli over time. Kowatsch and Maas
(2010:702) have modelled the impact which direct communication can have
on consumer behaviour during their purchasing process, using an in-store,
mobile recommendation agent (MRA) to provide information and feedback
for consumers as they shop. The inherent value of such decision
assistance systems was demonstrated from a practical perspective,
allowing consumers to access additional product data that might have
otherwise remained unavailable. The authors also determined that the
effectiveness of the system (MRA) had a measurable impact on consumer
purchasing behaviour, suggesting that the personal value of the information
and the means in which it was communicated could determine whether or
not the consumer would engage in the purchase (Kowatsch and Maass,
2010:702). These findings also have implications for more practical
marketing applications, as information exchange during the consumption
process can have different influences on consumer behaviour than
information exchanged over a more extended period of time.
Whether communicated at the point of purchase or over other channels,
the marketing message can have a direct impact on consumer behaviour.
Research on exploratory buying behaviour has been conducted by
Baumgartner and Steenkamp (1996:132), demonstrating how
psychological affectation can ultimately lead to consumers decision to
purchase, even without original experience with a particular product. The
authors argue that there are a host of unique, individual-specific traits
which can lead to differences in product purchasing behaviour, the result of
interpretation of stimuli and risk taking proclivity (Baumgartner and
Steenkamp (1996:131). In order to chase consumers motivated by curiosity
or by particular incentives, the authors suggest that marketers must explore
the psychological implications of their particular messaging, potentially
resulting in a greater sales opportunity. Taking advantage of promotional
campaigns and marketing to specific niche consumers are some methods
in which consumer behaviour can be influenced by particular psychological
undercurrents within a singular marketing mix. The authors also suggested
that there may not be a large difference in consumption behaviour amongst
individuals with similar cultural ties, as the influence of marketing
campaigns may resonate universally amongst these individuals
(Baumgartner and Steenkamp, 1996:134). Regardless of affectation, such
findings do have important implications when considering the inherent
value of marketing campaigns in affecting consumer purchasing behaviour.
While marketing initiatives are frequently associated with consumer
purchasing behaviour, there are underlying variables related to such
consumption that must also be addressed in order to encapsulate the value
of a particular product or brand for consumers. Demirdijian and Senguder
(2004), for example, have investigated products from a psychological
perspective, highlighting key genetic characteristics that influence
behaviour and programme future purchasing behaviour. Whether linked to
an individuals personal preferences or actually a function of internal
chemical stimuli, the researchers suggest that there are more scientific
reasons for consumer behaviour that can ultimately be determined,
modelled, and used in product marketing (Demirdijian and Senguder ,
2004:351). From the interpretation of a particular taste to the analysis of
various sensations associated with fabric, analysts are able to determine
and synthesise a future intent to purchase. While such product
development can be used for consumer influence, it can also be used to
generate data relevant to the development of those products and services
that have greater value to consumers over the long term. While value-
added positioning can be achieved through market research, scientific
analysis of consumer behaviour will also produce a means of defining
those more subversive value components that might otherwise not be
identified, from product packaging to secondary uses to the inherent status
perceptions held by consumers during use.

Attitudes are important characteristics of psychological factors and they
mostly come from the influence that we can get from our close family
members and other daily social interactions. Therefore in marketing sense
a set of cognitions that a consumer has related to his buying environment
regarded as aggregate of consumer attitudes. That is why different stores
and organization use different promotion campaign to get favourable
attitudes from consumers and build consumer loyalty regarding their
product or brand. Because once certain attitude is set up in the consumer
stimuli then it is so difficult to change their attitude.