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INDEX

S.No. Topic Page No.
1. Introduction 2
2. Electricity Distribution Company - Functions 4
3. Duties and Responsibilities of Linemen 8
4. Rajiv Gandhi Grameen Vidyutikaran Yojana 13
5. Accelerated Power Development & Reforms Programme 19
6. Line Construction 22
7. Commissioning of new line 38
8. Earthing 38
9. Earth Tester & Earth Resistance 41
10. Transformer 43
11. Service Connection 56
12. Theft of Energy 63
13. Necessity of Power Capacitor and its connection 65
14. Types of Cables 68
15. Maintenance 68
16. Necessity of Fuse Grading 69
17. Vigilance and Safety 76
18. Fire Fighting Equipments 99
19. Annexure 105
20. Capacitor 114

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CHAPTER-1
INTRODUCTION

C&D Employees
Large number of non-executives in secretarial staff, accounts wing, technical staff in non-
executives and Class-IV In Power Distribution Companies are categorized as C&D
employees. The UDC, LDC, Stock Verifier, Store Clerks, Typist etc. are the ministerial staff.
Helper, Linemen, Line Inspectors, Electrician, Sub-station Operators, Consumer Complaint
Attendants, Meter Readers fall under the technical staff whereas Peon, Chowkidar, Jamadar
etc. belong to Class-IV employees.
National Training program for C&D employees
A comprehensive plan titled as, National Training program for C & D employees aiming at
skill upgrades of the C&D employees working in Power distribution companies in the Country
is approved by the Ministry of Power, Government of India, with Rural Electrification
Corporation Limited as the nodal agency for implementation. The program will run through
the remaining period of 11
th
five year plan.
The program envisages imparting training to around 75,000 Group C&D employees in
association with various power distribution companies. Among many other things, it provides
for the development of course ware, training of the faculty, partial financial support to the
power companies /empanelled training institutes as the case may be. The component of
training program delivery consists of the following objectives.

Objectives

Identify three or four major categories under the C & D category of employees in
power distribution companies, and design custom made training programs for these
employees

Develop reference material and other instruments necessary to conduct these training
programs.

Identify and empanel the power utilities and the qualifying training institutions under
the power utilities or otherwise to deliver the training programs.

Develop an MIS as an online portal to capture and report updates and also serve as a
platform to provide an information to all concerned.

This Compendium is for Line staff

This compendium is first in the series of training variants proposed to be developed under,
National Training program for C & D employees and is part of the course kit of the Training

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program to Line men. It contains useful information on various topics such as functions of
Linemen, Safety, Earthing; Repairing of Lines, prevention of theft etc. The material developed
under Distribution reform, Upgrades and Management (DRUM) Training program is taken for
adaptation at this stage, to kick start the program early. .Some additions have been made on
Functions of a Distribution Company, Role & responsibilities of Linemen, RGGVY, and
APDRP etc. Add On to these will be a continuous exercise, with state and region specific
issues related to Linemen in the electricity distribution sector.




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CHAPTER-2
ELECTRICITY DISTRIBUTION COMPANY FUNCTIONS


DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM

Distribution is a network of lines, receiving Power at 66 Kv/33 Kv and derating to
11 Kv, and 440 volts and supplying Power to customers

The distribution is divided into two divisions

1. Primary Distribution: Primary Distribution is the network at 11 KV emanating from
33/11 Kv SS or 66/11 KV SS
2. Secondary Distribution: It is the network operating at utilization voltage i.e.
440v/220 volts at consumer premises.

CUSTOMER:

One who receives Power supplied by Licensee (Power Co) at appropriate tariff.

At what voltages customer gets Power in a Distribution:

33 KV
22 KV
11 KV
440 volts

General Terms Used in Distribution:

1. CURRENT: Current is measured in Amps. The Ampere is the basic unit of electric
current. It is that current which produces a specified forces between two parallel wires.

2 VOLTAGE: It is measure of electric potential. A potential of one volt appears across a
resistance of one ohm when current of one Amp flows through that resistance.

3. RESISTANCE: Voltage
Current
The unit of resistance is ohm ( )

4. KILOVOLT AMPERE: (KVA): It is the product of Kilovolts and Amps. This measures
the electrical Load on a Circuit or a System.

For Single Phase Circuit KVA : Voltage x Amps
1000
For three Phase Circuit KVA 3 x Voltage x Amps
1000

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5. KILOWATT (KW) ACTIVE POWER:

It is the active power of work producing Part
For Single Phase Power (KW) : Volts x Amps x Power Factor
1000

For 3 Phase: Power Kw = 3 x Volts x Amps x Power Factor
1000

POWER FACTOR: It is the ratio between KW and KVA.

Power Factor Kw
KVA
6. KILOWATT HOUR: (Kwh): It is the energy consumed by 1000 watts in one hour. If 1
kw of electrical equipment is operated for one hour, it would consume 1 kwh of energy
(one unit)

7. MAXIMUM DEMAND: It is highest average KVA recorded with in a month. The
demand is measured using trivector meter/ Digital Meter.

4. POWER TRANSFORMER: AT 33 KV
It receives Power at 33 KV and derate to 11 KV

Capacities of Power Transformers: 10 MVA, 8 MVA, 5 MVA, 3.15 MVA, 1.6 MVA

5. Distribution Transformer: It receives Power at 11 KV and derates to 4 33 Volts


ELECTRICITY DISTRIBUTION COMPANY

1. What is Electricity Distribution Company:
It is a company having license and distribute power to various categories of
customers in the area at tariff fixed by Electricity Regulatory Commission and
responsible for energy purchased, and sold.

2. Who will be the Head of Distribution Company
Distribution Company will be headed by Chairman Managing Director with 3-
4 Directors

3. What is the role of Distribution Company
Distribution Company purchases power from Transco/ National Grid and Sell
to Customer, maintain quality and reliable supply to Customers


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4. Administration of Distribution Co
a. Distribution Company is divided in to Zones headed by Chief
Engineer Zone
b. Each Zone is divided into Circles, headed by Superintending
Engineers
c. Each Circle is divided in to Divisions, headed by Divisional
Engineer/Executive Engineers
d. Each Division is divided into Sub-Divisions, headed by Asst.
Divisional Engineer/Sub-Divisional Engineer
e. Each sub-division is divided into sections headed by Assistant
Engineer/Junior Engineer. Each section comprising of average 6000-
7000 connections.

FUNCTIONS OF ELECTRICITY DISTRIBUTION COMPANY

Purchase of Power from Transco/ National Grid
Distribution of Power to Customers
Accounting of Energy (input Units) purchased
Accounting of Energy (Sales) sold to customers
Maintaining company assets i.e. No. of 33/11 KV Sub-Stations, 33 KV network length,
Power Transformer Capacity, 11 KV network, Distribution Transformers, LT network,
Customer metering.
Planning for Expansion of substation Capacity
New sub-stations, lines, additional transformers etc.
Good Customer Service
Periodical review of Distribution System

1. Line Losses
2. Overloaded Distribution Transformers
3. Overloaded HT Lines
4. Overloaded Sub-Stations
5. Revenue Collections
6. System Defects
7. Low Voltage Pockets
8. Purchase of Line material, and Equipment
9. Execution of new Sub-Stations, Lines
10. Providing Quality Metering to Customer
11. Maintaining Quality and reliable Power to Customer
12. Providing training to employees for upgrading their skills.


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FUNCTIONS OF DISTRIBUTION SECTION

A Distribution Section is having workload of average 6000-7000 customers

1. Who will head the Section:
Assistant Engineer/Junior Engineer will head the Section

2. What are the functions carried out in section

a) Maintaining Assets of Section i.e. length of 33 kv line, No. of Poles, Power
Transformers, 11 KV lines, Distribution Transformers and LT Lines, Meters etc.
b) Maintaining and up dating route maps of 33 KV, 11kv and LT Lines with Distribution
Transformers
c) Customer Index
d) Maintaining Equipment registers, Power Transformers, Distribution Transformers
e) O&M of 33/11Kv Sub-station
f) Maintenance of Lines, and Equipment
g) Monthly meter reading, billing and Collections
h) Peak Load Average readings of DTRS
i) Maintaining fuse call centre
j) Customer Care
k) Releasing New Connections
l) Execution of Extension Works
m) Study on losses and Planning for revamping

M.I.S. reporting to higher-ups
Arresting Pilferage
Proper allocation of work to O&M Staff
Guiding employees, workers on safety precautions
Educate Employees, workers on System Losses
Educate Customer on Energy Conservation
Educate Workers, employees about Best Practices in Operation and Maintenance
of System.



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CHAPTER-3
DUTIES AND RESPONSIBILITIES OF LINEMEN


The jurisdiction of Linemen will be fixed by Asst. Engineer/Operation in writing. ALM and
Helpers coming within the jurisdiction shall be under the control of this Linemen. Apart from
executing the work independently and the responsibilities stated below, ye shall be
responsible for all the works turned out by Helper, A under his jurisdiction.

1. He shall know all the details within his jurisdiction such as length of EHT, HT, LT and
type of conductors, spans, number of distribution transformers and number of services
and their connected load, etc. He shall conduct ground patrol as per schedule and
make out a report.

2. He shall be responsible for proper tree clearance and ground clearance in his area. It
is his responsibility to intimate his next superior in writing about the defects noticed by
him in distributions.

3. He is responsible to carry out the works . By the virtue of his post, he shall execute
the works as per technical standards and also effectively supervise all the works under
O&M as well as construction works. All works entrusted to him by the virtue of his
post, in respect of works coming under Technical, Commercial and MRT branches
shall also be executed as per the standards and as per instructions issued by his
superiors.

4. In respect of execution of construction works, either under operation section or
construction section, he shall keep up all the standards as communicated to him, given
in the I.E. Rules and other statutory obligations required by the Board.

5. In case he is incharge of sub-stations, shift duty, he shall be responsible for prompt
resumption of supply in case of interruptions, observing the equipment and taking the
readings as per schedule, maintaining a log book, preparation of daily reports,
observing Telephone calls, maintenance of battery, noting and recording the number
of tripping of the circuit breakers. All the instructions with regard to O&M of sub-
stations, including breakdown operation instructions shall be followed scrupulously.
Any abnormalities in a sub-station shall be brought to the notice of Section Officer/Line
Inspector as quickly as possible.

6. A Linemen in general maintenance duty responsible for maintenance of the equipment
of sub-station as per schedule enclosed. He should make entries in the maintenance
registers and get them attested by concerned Section Officer.

7. He shall conduct patrolling of line as per schedule and also execute the rectification of
various lines as directed by the Section Officer.


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When a Linemen is posted in-charge of distribution, the following are his duties
and responsibilities.

8. He is responsible for maintenance of LT, HT, EHT and equipment under his charge as
per the schedule fixed up. He is responsible for maintenance of continuity of supply.
Any interruption beyond one hour on LT lines shall have to be reported to the
concerned Section and restore supply. He is also responsible for rectification of HT
and EHT Lines and he should take instructions from his superiors for such rectification.

He is responsible for proper meter readings, effecting disconnections and reconnection
of services. He shall verify all the disconnected services in his area to prevent any
unauthorised usage of energy. He shall check up the area to prevent any theft of
energy.

9. He shall maintain all registers connected with the distributions maintained in the
Section Office. He should review the meter reading of services under his control and
give certificate to the Section Officer. He shall inspect 20% services under his
jurisdiction every month and report the condition of seals and cut outs to the Section
Officer. He should cover up all the services in his jurisdiction once in six months. If he
is direct in-charge, he shall check all services under his charge every month.

10. He is responsible to report the condition of seals by visual observation of all services in
his jurisdiction.

11. A certificate has to be given regarding inspection of services under his charge stating
that the connected load, tariff meters and properties of the Board are safe.

12. He is responsible for maintaining the proper gradation of fuse in services and all other
places where fuses are used and certificate to be given for the above.

13. A certificate to be given that the loads in the distribution are properly balanced to avoid
unbalanced loads on distribution transformers.

14. For all the minor extension works, he shall prepare all the required data for estimates
as directed by Section Officer. If he is put in-charge of execution, it is his responsibility
for proper execution of such works. He should see that no deviation comes up. He
shall be responsible for materials handed over to him and account for them.

When Linemen is posted for execution of construction works, he shall perform
the following duties:

15. He shall be responsible for surveying HT lines and LT lines and report to his superiors
any variation from the original estimates.

16. He shall be responsible for executing the lines and erecting transformers as per
technical standards.

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17. He shall be responsible for all T&P issued for execution of works.

18. He shall maintain the Time Rolls and mark the attendance regularly.

19. He shall maintain a register showing the allocation of works every day and also write in
the same register the progress of works against the allocation.

20. He shall prepare Pole Schedules, after completing the work and hand over the same
to his superiors.

21. In case he is put in-charge of contract works, he shall be responsible for proper
supervision of work and see that the works are executed as per standards. Materials
issued to the contractor shall properly be accounted for.

22. He shall maintain a dairy showing the day to day work done in detail and take the
signatures of his next superiors once in a fortnight. Unless such diaries are produced
to the Section Officers, no TA will be admitted.

23. All the above duties defined for a Linemen apply to an Electrician, who is put in-charge
of sub-station.

24. He shall be responsible to ensure that the code of safety rules are followed by him and
his staff working under him. A copy of said code is already supplied to him. Any
instances where the staff fail to use safety appliances as per the code shall be brought
to the notice of his superiors immediately for taking disciplinary action.

25. He shall be responsible for upkeep of T&P and safety appliances supplied to him and
keep them in working order

The above functions are broad, general indication of his functions. In addition to the
above, Line staff have to perform the role expected of them in the respective Distribution
Companies with which they are associated.


DUTIES AND RESPONSIBILITIES OF ASSISTANT LINEMEN

1. The jurisdiction of Asst. Linemen will be fixed by the Asst. Engineer/Operation in
writing. The Helpers coming in the area shall be subordinate to the ALM, if so
specified. The
ALM will be responsible for all the works done by Helpers under his jurisdiction. Any
negligence and consequent losses will be treated as negligence of his duties.

2. He shall know all the details within his jurisdiction such as length of EHT, HT and LT
lines and Telephone lines, type of conductors, spans, number of distribution

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transformers and number of service and their connected load etc. He shall ground
patrol all the HT and LT lines

3. He shall be responsible for proper tree clearance and ground clearance in his area. It
is his responsibility to intimate his next superior in writing about the defects noticed by
him in the distribution.

4. The transformers should be maintained properly and schedule of maintenance should
be carried out as per the statement enclosed and the transformer maintenance register
should be got written up to date and initialled . Lines and other equipment shall be
maintained as per schedule.

5. The ALM shall be responsible for maintaining continuity of supply to the area in his
jurisdiction and maintenance of LT lines, Telephone lines and power line crossing up
to 11 KV and for failures and of the distribution transformers due to the faults in
equipment and feeders, ALM shall be help responsible.

6. He shall be responsible for meter readings, disconnections and other connected
revenue meters viz. variation in connected load, classification in tariff. He is also
responsible for the functions of Helpers for such works.

7. He is responsible to report the condition of seals by visuals observation of all services
in his jurisdiction.

8. He is responsible for maintaining the proper gradation of fuses in all services and
Section fuses.

9. A certificate has to be given regarding inspection of services under his charge, stating
that the connected load, tariff, meters and other properties of Board are safe.

10. He shall be fully acquainted with the area, consumer lines and connected load of such
consumers so that he will be able to detect any unauthorised extension of loads.

11. He shall maintain diaries showing the day to day work done and get the signatures of
his superiors once in a fortnight. Unless such diaries are produced to the Section
Officer, the T.A. Bill shall not admitted.

12. Any field complaints or defects shall be recorded in the register kept at Section office
and no other plea of the staff that the matter was brought to the notice of Section
Officer orally will be entertained.

13. They should also maintain a register showing all the statistics and details of services,
lines, transformers, equipment. They shall also possess maps of these lines, with
location numbers, cut points and geographical features etc., supplied by the Section
Officer.


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14. He shall be responsible for meter reading, disconnections and reconnections
whenever he is called on to undertake them. He shall report to superiors, cases of NIL
consumption and reasons therefor. All cases where meters are stuckup and continued
shall be recorded till the meter is changed.

15. He shall be responsible for all T&P issued for execution of works.

The above functions are in addition to the present duties that they are performing and
they cannot absolve themselves of any responsibility simply on the ground that such an item
is not mentioned in the above.

-0o0-



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CHAPTER-4
RAJIV GANDHI GRAMEEN VIDYUTIKARAN YOJANA

Rajiv Gandhi Grameen Vidyutikaran Yojana (RGGVY) was launched in April-05 by merging all
ongoing schemes. Under the programme 90% grant is provided by Govt. of India and 10% as
loan by REC to the State Governments. REC is the nodal agency for the programme.
The RGGVY aims at :
Electrifying all villages and habitations as per new definition
Providing access to electricity to all rural households
Providing electricity Connection to Below Poverty Line (BPL) families free of
charge
Infrastructure under RGGVY :
Rural Electricity Distribution Backbone (REDB) with 33/11 KV (or 66/11 KV)
sub-station of adequate capacity in blocks where these do not exist.
Village Electrification Infrastructure (VEI) with provision of distribution
transformer of appropriate capacity in villages/habitations.
Decentralized Distributed Generation (DDG) Systems based on conventional &
non conventional energy sources where grid supply is not feasible or cost-
effective.
Implementation Methodology and conditions under RGGVY :
Preparation of District based detailed project reports for execution on turnkey
basis.
Involvement of central public sector undertakings of power ministry in
implementation of some projects.
Certification of electrified village by the concerned Gram Panchayat.
Deployment of franchisee for the management of rural distribution for better
consumer service and reduction in losses.
Undertaking by States for supply of electricity with minimum daily supply of 6- 8
hours of electricity in the RGGVY network.
Making provision of requisite revenue subsidy by the state.
Determination of Bulk Supply Tariff (BST) for franchisee in a manner that
ensures commercial viability.
Three tier quality monitoring Mechanism for XI Plan Schemes made
mandatory.
Web based monitoring of progress
Release of funds linked to achievement of pre-determined milestones

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Electronic transfer of funds right up to the contractor level
Notification of Rural Electrification Plans by the state governments.
RGGVY IN THE XI PLAN
Continuation of "Rajiv Gandhi Grameen Vidyutikaran Yojana Scheme of Rural
Electricity Infrastructure and Rural Household Electrification", has been sanctioned in
the XI-Plan for attaining the goal of providing access to electricity to all households,
electrification of about 1.15 lakh un-electrified villages and electricity connections to
2.34 crore BPL households by 2009. The approval has been accorded for capital
subsidy of Rs.28000 crore during the Eleventh Plan period.

Ninety per cent capital subsidy is provided towards overall cost of the projects under
the scheme, excluding the amount of state or local taxes, which will be borne by the
concerned State/State Utility. 10% of the project cost to be contributed by states
through own resources/loan from financial institutions.

The states will finalize their Rural Electrification Plans in consultation with Ministry of
Power and notify the same within six months. Rural Electrification Plan will be a
roadmap for generation, transmission, sub-transmission and distribution of electricity in
the state which will ensure the achievement of objectives of the scheme.

For projects to be eligible for capital subsidy under the scheme, prior commitment of
the States be obtained before sanction of projects under the scheme for:

i) Guarantee by State Government for a minimum daily supply of 6-8 hours of
electricity in the RGGVY network with the assurance of meeting any deficit in this
context by supplying electricity at subsidized tariff as required under the Electricity
Act, 2003.

ii) Deployment of franchisees for the management of rural distribution in projects
financed under the scheme and to undertake steps necessary to operationalize the
scheme.

SCOPE OF THE SCHEME
Under the scheme, projects could be financed with capital subsidy for provision of:
1. Rural Electricity Distribution Backbone (REDB)
Provision of 33/11 KV (or 66/11 KV) sub-stations of adequate capacity and lines in
blocks where these do not exist.
2. Creation of Village Electrification Infrastructure (VEI)
i) Electrification of un-electrified villages.
ii) Electrification of un-electrified habitations with a population of above 100.

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iii) Provision of distribution transformers of appropriate capacity in electrified
villages / habitation(s).

3. Decentralized Distributed Generation (DDG) and Supply
Decentralized distribution-cum-generation from conventional or renewable or non-
conventional sources such as biomass, bio fuel, bio gas, mini hydro, geo thermal and solar
etc. for villages where grid connectivity is either not feasible or not cost effective. The funding
will be on the pattern of 90% subsidy from Government of India and 10% loan from REC or
from own funds of the state/loan from financial institutions. The Monitoring Committee on
RGGVY, while sanctioning DDG projects under RGGVY, shall coordinate with MNRE to avoid
any overlap. The provision for subsidy requirement for DDG is Rs.540 crore.
4. REDB, VEI and DDG would indirectly facilitate power requirement of agriculture and
other activities including irrigation pump sets, small and medium industries, khadi and village
industries, cold chains, healthcare, education and IT etc. This would facilitate overall rural
development, employment generation and poverty alleviation.
5. Rural Household Electrification of Below Poverty Line Households:
i) BPL households will be provided free electricity connections. The rate of
reimbursement for providing free connections to BPL households would be
Rs.2200 per household.
ii) Households above poverty line are to pay for their connections at prescribed
connection charges and no subsidy would be available for this purpose.
iii) Wherever SC/ST population exists amongst BPL households and subject to being
eligible otherwise, they will be provided connection free of cost and a separate
record will be kept for such connection.

6. The over-all subsidy of components from Paras 1, 2, 3 and 5 (above) taken together
should be kept within 90% of the over-all project cost.

THREE-TIER QUALITY MONITORING MECHANISM

The projects under the scheme will be subject to Quality Monitoring Mechanism. The details
of the Three Tier Quality Control Mechanism are as under :-

(a) First Tier
Project implementing agency (PIA) would be responsible for the first tier of the Quality Control
Structure. Further PIA will engage third party inspection agency, whose responsibility will be
to ensure that all the materials to be utilized and the workmanship confirm to the prescribed
specifications. It will be synchronized with phased release of funds under RGGVY and
inspection and proof of corrective action will be mandatory requirement for release of funds.
This inspection will cover approx. 50% villages on random sample basis for each project and
10% pre-despatch inspections of major materials.

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(b) Second Tier
Rural Electrification Corporation, will get the inspection done of the works/materials from its
non-field staff and by outsourcing it. REC may outsource it to retired employees of State
Electricity Boards/State Utilities/ CPSUs. All such reports should be organized and analyzed
by REC through the project implementation. These individuals would be designated as REC
Quality Monitors (RQM).
The inspection will cover quality checks at pre-shipment stage at the vendors' outlet of major
materials and 10% villages on random sample basis.
(c) Third Tier
1. Independent Evaluators (Individuals /Agency) will be engaged by the Ministry of Power
for evaluation, at random, of supply and erection under the programme. These persons would
be designated as National Quality Monitors (NQM). It will be the responsibility of the state to
facilitate the inspection of works by the NQM, who shall be given free access to all
administrative, technical and financial records. Evaluation will cover 1% villages. They shall
also report on the general functioning of the Quality Control mechanism in the District.

2. The Monitors shall submit their report to the Ministry. The reports of the NQMs will be
sent by REC to the RQM for appropriate action within a period to be specified. In case quality
check by RQM or NQM reveals 'unsatisfactory' work, the implementing agency shall ensure
that the contractor replace the material or rectifies the workmanship (as the case may be)
within the time period stipulated. In respect of NQM Reports, the REC Quality Coordinator
shall, each month, report on the action taken on each of the pending Reports. All works rated
'unsatisfactory' shall be re-inspected by RQM or NQM after a rectification report has been
received from the REC Quality Coordinator. REC will designate an Executive Director as in-
charge of the Monitoring system.
3. Recurrent adverse reports about quality of works in a given District / State might entail
suspension of the Programme in that area till the underlying causes of defective work have
been addressed.
4. The REC Quality Coordinator / Third party inspection unit shall be the authority to
receive and inquire into complaints / representations in respect of quality of works and they
would be responsible for sending a reply after proper investigation to the complainant within
30 days. The REC for this purpose, shall ensure the following:-
(i) The name, address and other details of the REC Quality Coordinator / third party
inspection unit will be given adequate publicity in the State (including tender
notices, websites, etc.) as the authority empowered to receive complaints.
(ii) All complaints shall be acknowledged on receipt (giving registration no.) and likely
date of reply shall be indicated. On receipt of the report, the complainant shall be
informed of the outcome and the action taken / proposed.
(iii) Complaints received through the Ministry of Power, REC will normally be sent to
the REC Quality Coordinator for enquiry and necessary action. In case report from
an RQM is desired, this shall be furnished within the time specified. In case an
adequate response is not received within the stated time schedule, the REC may

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depute an NQM and further processing will be done only on the basis of NQM
report.
(iv) The RQC shall make a monthly report to the REC (in a prescribed format) and the
status of action on complaints shall be discussed in the District Committees.
(v) REC could develop a web site for complaints, inspection and rectification.

5. The Quality Control Mechanism would be governed by the Quality Control Manual
prepared by REC for the scheme.

OTHER FEATURES
Monitoring Committee
The Monitoring Committee constituted by the Ministry of Power under the Chairmanship of
Secretary (Power), Government of India will sanction the projects, including revised cost
estimates, monitor and review the implementation of the scheme in addition to issuing
necessary guidelines from time to time for effective implementation of the scheme.
Cost Norms
The cost norms for village electrification are as below. 90% grant will not be applicable to the
amount of state or local taxes, which will have to be borne by the concerned State / State
Utility. They would be released by the Monitoring Committee in exceptional cases to be
analyzed for border area, remote districts etc.
COST NORMS FOR VILLAGE ELECTRIFICATION
1. Electrification of un-electrified village Cost (Rs. in lakhs)
a In normal terrain 13
b In hilly, tribal, desert areas 18
2. Intensive electrification of already electrified village
a In normal terrain 4
In hilly, tribal, desert areas 6
3. Cost of electricity connection to BPL household 0.022

FRANCHISEES
The management of rural distribution would be through franchisees who could be Non-
Governmental Organisations (NGOs), Users Association, Panchayat Institutions,
Cooperatives or individual entrepreneurs. The franchisee arrangement could be for system
beyond and including feeders from sub-station or from and including Distribution
Transformer(s). The franchisee should be preferably input based to reduce AT&C losses so
as to make the system revenue sustainable.
Revenue Sustainability
Based on the consumer mix and the prevailing consumer tariff and likely load, the Bulk Supply
Tariff (BST) for the franchisee would be determined after ensuring commercial viability of the
franchisee. Wherever feasible, bidding may be attempted for determining the BST. This Bulk
Supply Tariff would be fully factored into the submissions of the State Utilities to the State
Electricity Regulatory Commissions (SERCs) for their revenue requirements and tariff

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determination. The State Government under the Electricity Act is required to provide the
requisite revenue subsidies to the State Utilities if it would like tariff for any category of
consumers to be lower than the tariff determined by the SERC. While administering the
scheme, prior commitments may be taken from the State Government regarding
a) Determination to bulk supply tariff for franchisees in a manner that ensures their
commercial viability.
b) Provision of requisite revenue subsidy by the State Government to the State Utilities
as required under the Electricity Act.

The capital subsidy for eligible projects under the scheme would be given through REC.
These eligible projects shall be implemented fulfilling the above conditionalities. In the event
the projects are not implemented satisfactorily in accordance with the conditionalities indicated
above, the capital subsidy would be converted into interest bearing loans.
The services of Central Public Sector Undertakings (CPSUs) have been offered to the states
for assisting them in the execution of Rural Electrification Projects as per their willingness and
requirement. With a view to augment the implementation capacities for the programme, REC
has entered into Memorandum of Understanding (MOUs) with NTPC, POWERGRID, NHPC
and DVC to make available CPSUs' project management expertise and capabilities to states
wishing to use their services. This is being operationalised through a suitable Tripartite /
Quadripartite Agreement.


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CHAPTER-4
ACCELERATED POWER DEVELOPMENT AND REFORMS
PROGRAMME (APDRP)
Distribution Reforms
The Distribution Reform was identified as the key area to bring about the efficiency and
improve financial health of the power sector. Ministry of Power took various initiatives in the
recent past for bringing improvement in the distribution sector. 29 states have signed the
Memorandum of Understandings with the Ministry to take various steps to undertake
distribution reforms in a time bound manner. Subsequently, 21 states have constituted SERCs
and 18 have issued tariff orders in the direction of rationalizing the tariffs. States are now
better committed towards subsidy payment to the utilities.
Accelerated Power Development and Reforms Programme (APDRP)
Government of India approved a scheme called Accelerated Power Development and
Reforms Programme (APDRP) in March 2003 to accelerate distribution sector reforms. The
main objectives of the programme are:
Reduce Aggregate Technical & Commercial (AT&C) losses
Bring about commercial viability in the power sector
Reduce outages & interruptions
Increase consumer satisfaction

Re-structured APDRP ( R APDRP)
The Govt. of India has proposed to continue R-APDRP during the XI Plan with revised terms
and conditions as a Central Sector Scheme. The focus of the programme shall be on actual,
demonstrable performance in terms of sustained loss reduction. Establishment of reliable and
automated systems for sustained collection of accurate base line data, and the adoption of
Information Technology in the areas of energy accounting will be essential before taking up
the regular distribution strengthening projects.

Programme Coverage

It is proposed to cover urban areas - towns and cities with population of more than 30,000
(10,000 in case of special category states). In addition, in certain high-load density rural areas
with significant loads, works of separation of agricultural feeders from domestic and industrial
ones, and of High Voltage Distribution System (11kV) will also be taken up.

Further, towns / areas for which projects have been sanctioned in X Plan R-APDRP shall be
considered for the XI Plan only after either completion or short closure of the earlier
sanctioned projects.
Scheme
Projects under the scheme shall be taken up in Two Parts. Part-A shall include the projects for
establishment of baseline data and IT applications for energy accounting/auditing & IT based

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consumer service centres. Part-B shall include regular distribution strengthening projects. The
activities to be covered under each part are as follows:

Part - A: Preparation of Base-line data for the project area covering Consumer Indexing, GIS
Mapping, Metering of Distribution Transformers and Feeders, and Automatic Data Logging for
all Distribution Transformers and Feeders and SCADA / DMS system (only in the project area
having more than 4 lacs population and annual input energy of the order of 350 MU). It would
include Asset mapping of the entire distribution network at and below the 11kV transformers
and include the Distribution Transformers and Feeders, Low Tension lines, poles and other
distribution network equipment. It will also include adoption of IT applications for meter
reading, billing & collection; energy accounting & auditing; MIS; redressal of consumer
grievances; establishment of IT enabled consumer service centres etc. The base line data and
required system shall be verified by an independent agency appointed by the Ministry of
Power. The list of works is only indicative.

Part - B: Renovation, modernization and strengthening of 11 kV level Substations,
Transformers/Transformer Centers, Re-conductoring of lines at 11kV level and below, Load
Bifurcation, feeder separation, Load Balancing, HVDS (11kV), Aerial Bunched Conductoring in
dense areas, replacement of electromagnetic energy meters with tamper proof electronics
meters, installation of capacitor banks and mobile service centres etc. In exceptional cases,
where sub-transmission system is weak, strengthening at 33 kV or 66 kV levels may also be
considered.

Eligibility Criteria for R-APDRP assistance

The States / Utilities will be required to:
1) Constitute the State Electricity Regulatory Commission

2) Achieve the following target of AT&C loss reduction at utility level:
a) Utilities having AT&C loss above 30%: Reduction by 3% per year
b) Utilities having AT&C loss below 30%: Reduction by 1.5% per year

3). commit a time frame for introduction of measures for better accountability at all levels in
the project area
4). submit previous years AT&C loss figures of identified project area as verified by an
independent agency appointed by Ministry of Power (MoP) by 30th June; the independent
agency would verify that:
a). All input points are identified and metered with downloadable meters for energy inflow
accounting in scheme area
b). All outgoing feeders are to be metered in substation with downloadable meters

c). Scheme area should be ring fenced i.e. export and import meters for energy
accounting shall be ensured besides segregating the rural load of the scheme area by ring
fencing if not on separate feeder


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d). The above shall provide the input energy and corresponding cash collected for
calculating AT&C losses. The same shall be carried out for at least for three billing cycles and
got verified by the independent agency. This loss level will be the baseline for considering
conversion of loan into grant for Part B projects

5). Devise a suitable incentive scheme for staff linking to achievements of 15% AT&C loss in
the project area.

Funding Mechanism
1). GoI will provide 100% Loan for part A of the R-APDRP schemes which shall include
projects for establishing Base Line data and IT applications for energy accounting/ auditing
and IT based consumer services etc.
2). GoI will provide up to 25% (90% for special category States) Loan for Part B of the R-
APDRP schemes which shall include regular distribution strengthening projects.
3). The entire loan from GoI will be routed through PFC/REC (FIs) for the respective
schemes funded by them.
4). The counterpart funding will be done by PFC/REC (FIs) as per its prevailing policy.
5). PFC / REC will be the prime lender for funding these schemes. In case of default by the
utility the commercial loan of PFC / REC will be recovered first (being the primary Lender)
before that of any other lender for funding such schemes.

Conversion of GoI Loan to Grant:
1). The entire amount of GoI loan (100%) for part A of the project shall be converted into
grant after establishment of the required Base-Line data system within a stipulated time frame
and duly verified by TPIEA.
2). Up to 50% (90% for special category States) loan for Part-B projects shall be converted
into grant in five equal tranches on achieving 15% AT&C loss in the project area duly verified
by TPIEA on a sustainable basis for a period of five years.
3). If the utility fails to achieve or sustain the 15% AT&C loss target in a particular year, that
years tranche of conversion of loan to grant will be reduced in proportion to the shortfall in
achieving 15% AT&C loss target from the starting AT&C loss figure.


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CHAPTER-5

LINE CONSTRUCTION

SURVEY
The Director of Research and R.E.C. have circulated the method of construction of
lines and equipments. It should be followed. For construction of new lines, initial survey should
be carried out.
The transformer should be proposed at load center. Avoid the location where
transportation of Transformer is inconvenient. Avoid installation of transformer at roadside, if it
is possible to install at load center because it will be uneconomical, illegal and non-technical.

Voltage Regulation :

As per the I.E. Rule 1956, the L.T. voltage at consumers premises should be
maintained 6 % of the declared voltage. There is agreement between consumer and utility
about providing 440 volt supply. If L.T. line extension carried out exorbitantly and increasing
load without any technical consideration; then the consumers will get the voltage lower than
the permissible limit. Benefit of keeping the length of L.T. lines short is that patrolling length
while breakdown is reduced, resulting consumer complaints attended in least time. This will
reduce the interruption period thereby revenue loss of company. Also this will reduce the
occurrences of conductor snapping, fatal accidents, etc.
Short length H.T. line reduces interruption period and also line loss reduction.
Emanating more than one feeder from Substation does this. During line survey various type of
crossings i.e. Highway crossing, Railway, River, Telephone lines, E.H.V. lines etc to be taken
in account. It should be seen that Telephone line should not be parallel to power line for
excessive length. The Induction effect on telephone line will cause disturbance to Telephone
communication and even damage equipments. It is necessary to obtain the approval of P & T
Department (B.S.N.L.) for route of lines 33 KV and above voltages.
Any crossing should be at right angle i.e. 90 degree, which enables to keep short span
and safe clearance. If possible, Highway and Railway crossings should be avoided. Railway
authority gives permission for overhead crossing only for E.H.V. Lines. Low and medium
voltage lines to be crossed with underground cables.
Double pole structure should be used for river crossings and large span. In case of
large span, to maintain safe clearance, long supports are used and additional stays required.
While carrying out survey of overhead lines, provision of proper number of supports
with sufficient height and stays should be done, as estimates are prepared as per the survey.
Line should not be constructed without the approval and permission of competent
authority. Also alteration in line, shifting of line, removing one circuit from double circuit line,
shifting of load from one transformer to another, removing neutral conductor etc. should not be
done without approval. This may cause low voltage to consumer, reduce the company's
revenue and reduce the life of equipment due to overloading, safety of lines and also illegal.

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Before transferring the load from one H.T. feeder to another, capacity of another
feeder breaker, C.T. capacity, etc. should be considered. Otherwise interruptions may
increase and cause fast decay of equipments. Construction should be carried out as per the
sanctioned estimate and approved line layout. The length of lines should not be more than
sanctioned one. Unless all the sanctioned H.T. Lines, transformers and L.T. load diversions
are totally commissioned under system improvement, no additional load should be connected,
or if the double circuit is sanctioned no load shall be connected unless the additional circuit is
erected.
Generally short length lines up to 33 KV on single pole are surveyed with ranger
rod. The distance between poles being less, sag is also less. Following points are
to be considered while survey.
1) Line voltage.
2) Maximum current
3) Type of cross arm to be used.
4) Whether single circuit or double circuit.
5) Line Formation.
6) Maximum wind pressure of the area.
7) Sag of the line.
8) Span
9) Ground clearance .
10) Snow fall.
11) Position of support (pole) in the line (i.e. Straight, angle or end pole.)
Pole Errection :- Poles are transported before erection. While transporting P.S.C.poles, care
should be taken to avoid breakage. They should be unloaded carefully from the truck. Two or
three channels to be placed slanting the truck edge. Each pole is to be tied by ropes and
slowly slide on the channels. Care should be taken that the pole will not strike the ground.
When the pole is lying on the ground it should be transported to the proposed site by lifting or
by pushing by crowbars.
Mark pole pit before digging. The pit shall be normally 2'2 size. While digging the
pit the excavated soil should not be kept along the pit edge to avoid the soil falling in the pit.
The depth of the pole pit shall be 1/6th of the pole height. While digging the pit it should be
dug straight. After pit digging, base of the pole shall be brought near the pit. Once the pole is
brought near the pit it should be uplifted by bipod/ gadam .The pole should be tied up from all
four sides by rope and when the pole is lifted to sufficient height, it's base should be put into
the pit and erected. Once the pole is erected, it should be supported from all sides, and it
should be aligned properly. Cant hook tool is used for alignment of pole. Concreting should
be done after pole erection.
General proportion of Concrete Mixer are as below:-
Material. Proportion. Proportion. Proportion.
1 : 3 : 6 1 : 2 : 4 1 : 4 : 8
1) 1x 1/4" Stone metal. 100 Cft. 100 Cft. 100 Cft.
2) Sand. 50 cft 50 cft 50 cft
3) Cement. 13 bag. 20 bag. 10 bag.
4) Water. 484 Ltr. 484 Ltr. 484 Ltr.

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Due to the weight of fittings, pole, and conductor, pole may sink in soft soil. Hence base
padding is necessary. The base padding distributes the total weight and reduces the weight
per Sq. feet.

Poles and its use.

The pole or supports are classified as per the material used for it.
1) Steel (2) Cement (3) Wooden.
1) Types of steel poles used are-
A) I type beam (B) Rail Pole (C) Tubular pole (D) Fabricated.
2) Cement Pole: -
P.S.C. i.e. Pre Stressed Cement concrete pole. These poles are solid or ladder type
i.e. English "A" type.

Care to be taken while transportation of P.S.C. poles.
1. While loading/unloading, avoid concentrated pressure.
2. Do not thrust pole from truck.
3. Unload on soft soil.
4. During transportation, avoid cantilever loading.

Selection of poles.
1) The strength of pole.
2) Conductor type.
3) Maximum wind pressure.
4) Maximum line tension.
5) Size of conductor.
6) Snow fall.
7) Different crossings like river, road, railway, telephone lines etc.
8) Guarding.
9) Fruit farm.

All the above points decide span of the line. All the crossings should be at right angle.
If it is not possible the angle should not be less than 60 .

Precautions while pole erection.
1) After tightening of nut bolts, threads should be punched at least at three places.
2) The length of bolts should be such that only two threads will be left out after tightening
of the nut. If the length of bolt is more, unnecessary washers are required. This will
increase the expenditure.
3) Always use one spring washer and one plain washer.
4) The rail pole should be erected in such a way that its flat portion will be towards
roadside.
5) Girder, P.S.C. pole or rail pole should be erected as shown below. (The weaker
section towards line and stronger section towards a wind direction.). For angle
location the stronger axis will be in line with axis of angle and end pole shall be

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erected as the line poles. For tubular or square poles this question does not arise, as
it is stronger from all sides.
6) Cracked P.S.C. pole should not be used.
7) It is the habit of the line staff to strike the pole on the edge of the pit to align pole in
line. This should not be done as P.S.C. poles may crack. The pole should be lifted
and pushed or by fixing a clamp at lower portion of the clamp for alignment.

Tapping of the line should always be from pole and not from mid span.
8) When split pin is used, it should be spited.
9) Many times quarter pin and split pins are given instead of nut bolts. These split pins
should be invariably spited.
10) The steel pole for which complete concreting is not done, anti corrosive paint should
be applied. The portion in concrete should never be painted.
11) Worn out conductor should not be used.
12) If the jointed pole is used, the small jointed portion of the should be kept on upper
side and larger portion towards the ground.
13) Rust on the steel pole should be removed by steel wire brush before painting.
14) While concreting or lifting the pole, it should be tied up by crowbars, which are firmly
pierced in the ground to avoid accident.


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27

S T A Y S
(1)Ordinary Stay, (2) A Type, (3) Self Stay,(B type) (4) Y stay (5) Flying stay, (6) Strut,
(7) Storm guys .
Ordinary Stay: - This type stay is generally used. The size of stay rod, turn buckle and
stay wires are to be used as per the line tension. Generally, for H.T. lines 19 mm (3/4)
dia. stay rod, 20 mm (5/6) size eye bolt, 7/8 size stay wire used and for L.T. line 15 mm
(5/6) stay rod, 12.5 mm (1/2) eye bolt and 7/10 size stay wire is used. Stay insulator shall
be used at a vertical height of 3 meter (10) from the ground.
A Type Stay: - When the line tension is less and there is no sufficient space for stay, this
type stay is used. In city area, many times, there is no sufficient space for stay. At such
places, the stay pit is dug at short distance from the pole and hence cannot take adequate
tension. A support angle is fixed to the pole. Arrangement is available to affix the stay
wire to the angle. This is called Stay out trigger. This type looks like English A.
Self stay or B type stay: -
When there is no space for stay, the lower portion of the stay wire is clamped by stay
clamp to the lower portion of the pole. Such type is called Self or B type stay.
Flying stay: - When the line is on roadside and there is no space for stay, pole piece of
sufficient height is erected at the other side of the road and a stay wire is tied up between
pole and pole piece. For giving tension to the pole piece, stay wire and stay rod is used.
Strut (Stud): - When the pole is on the roadside and there is no space for stay, one pole is
used as a support to the line pole from opposite side of stay. The support pole is called
Strut. Strut is fixed to line pole by a suitable clamp.
Y type Stay: - It is used for supporting guarding cross arm. It is also used for side
brackets.
Storm Guys: - When the line is straight and cut-points to cut-points distance is more,
this type of stay is used. At mid pole of the line, two stays at an angle of 60 on both sides
are tied up. Such type of stay is called Storm Guys. For angle location, stays are to be
given so as to avoid the tilting of pole due to conductor tension. Stay insulators are used
to obstruct the leakage current.
Stay Binding: - The stay should be linked with pole earthing and /or neutral wire using
G.I.wire so that leakage current will pass through earthing or neutral to the ground. Such
binding is called Stay Binding.

Remember :-
1. If stay insulator is not provided, 8 s.w.g. G.I. wire shall be used near the stay clamp
and link it to neutral conductor. The length of G.I. wire should be sufficient to join
the stay wire to neutral of L.T. line or in case of H.T. line, to the H.T. earthing. This
G.I. wire should be well bound to the earthing or neutral.
2. Stay insulator should not be less than 10 ft from ground.
3. While binding the stay, pole should not be tilted
4. Thimble is necessary for stay binding. If the thimble is not available, the portion on
stay wire on eye bolt should be bounded properly.

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GUARDING.

Guarding means safe guard . This is below the line. In case of conductor snapping, it will
touch the guarding wire before laying on ground or will lay on guarding. The guarding is
always earthed. The line protection will operate and will switch off the line. Snapped
conductor will not remain charged. In absence of guarding, conductor will fall on ground
and as no protection is operated, conductor will remain charged. This will cause
accidents. Hence the guarding is very essential.

Types of Guarding :-
(1)P. V. C. Guarding. (2) Lecing guarding.
1) P.V.C. Guarding: This is mainly used for L. T. Lines passing through agriculture field.
This is used where formation of line is vertical. The upper end is tied in shackle bolt and
lower end is tied to the neutral. A G.I. wire frame is prepared so that there will be
horizontal G.I. wire piece at equal distance below every conductor. The vertical wires of
the frame are insulated with P.V.C. pipe. Even conductor swings, it will not be earthed
due to P.V.C. pipe. In case of snapping of conductor, it will make contact with the G.I. wire
and get earthed, resulting blowing of the fuse. There are two type of guarding according
to the formation.


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A). To use in case of D clamps. (B) Direct shackle type.

























2. Lecing guarding. This has following types.
a) Carpet guarding, b) Cradle type c) Box type.
There is two, three or four guard wire for lacing guarding. These are bound with cross
arm. The horizontal laces at a specific distance are tied up to the above wires. This
guarding is used up to 33 KV lines.
Carpet Guarding: - The specific length cross arms are fixed on the poles. Four G.I. wires
are used for guard wire. Lacings are tied up at specific distance. This type is used for
power line crossing or power and telephone line crossing.
Cradle Guarding: - It consists of 6 guard wire. Four are on lower side and two on the
upper side. Cross lacing is done from three sides. It is also called Tray guarding. Even
though the conductor while snapping jumps up drastically, it will not go out of the cradle
guarding. This is used for railway or L.T. to 33 KV guarding in residential area, for road
crossing or along the road lines.


30




















































31

Box type guarding: - This is used for composite lines. By fixing cross arms to the lower
line, carpet guarding is done and also for the upper line, the upper guard wire is fixed to
the lower by vertical lecing.
Road crossing and guarding.
a. As far as possible road crossing should be at right angle, but not less than an angle of
60.
b. Cradle guarding is used for road crossing of power line or along the line.
c. G.I. wire of 10 W.S.G. for L.T. line and 8 W.S.G for 11 KV to 33 KV lines is used for
guarding.
d. The first lacing should be at a distance of 750 mm from the pole. Other lecing are tied
at a distance of 3 meter from each other.
e. The vertical distance between conductor and guarding in mid span should be
minimum
610 mm for L.T. and 1220 mm for H.T line.
f. The vertical distance between L.T. line guarding cross arm and neutral should be 610
mm
(2 ft.) and the length of cross arms should be 750 mm (2 ) .
g. The clearance between line and guarding cross arm for 11 KV, 22 KV and 33 KV line
should be 650 mm (2 ), 750 mm (2 ) and 840 mm (2 ) respectively.
h. There is no need of guarding for lines above 66 KV, as their circuit breakers are
sensitive.
The breaker trips when conductor snaps thereby isolating the line.

Special Instructions :-
i. Power lines should always be guarded as above.
j. The distance between guard-wire and telephone line should be minimum 920 mm.
k. The telephone crossings for 66 KV and above are done by Telephone Deptt. The
clearance between the power line and telephone line shall be as below: -
66 KV and 132 KV - - 2750 mm (9).
220 KV and 400 KV -- 4575 mm (15)
Fitting Accessories on H.T./L.T. line :-
It is essential to fix accessories after pole erection.
Line accessories are of two types.
a. Conductor accessories.
b. Pole accessories.
a.) Conductor Accessories: -
l. Binding Tape: - Binding tape is used for binding pin insulator, shackle or Line
insulator to the conductor. The tape is wound on the conductor. The metal of
binding tape should be same as that of conductor. The first layer is wound along the
wire in direction of twist of wire and second layer is in opposite the twist. The portion
on which the binding wire is to be wound should be taped 25 mm more from either
side. This tape is used for avoiding conductor snapping due to friction.
2. Binding wire: - It is used for binding insulator to the conductor.
3. P.G.Clamp: - Means parallel groove clamp. This is used for joining jump wire. Line
tension cannot be given on P.G. Clamps. Bi-metallic P.G. Clamp is made out of two

32

different metals and the conductor of the same metal is used in the same type of
metal groove of P.G.Clamp.
4. T clamp: T clamps are used in substation to connect the jumps and cannot sustain
tension.


B) Pole Accessories: -
1. Cross Arm, (2) Channel, (3) Guarding, (4) Anti-climbing device (Barbed wire), (5)
Number plate, (6) Phase plate, (7) Circuit plate, (8) Danger Board, (9) Insulator etc.
1) Cross Arms:- Cross arm designed as per the formation of line i.e. vertical, horizontal,
or delta.
The length, width and design is based on following conditions.
1. The min. distance required between line and pole. This depends on line
voltage.
2. Weight of conductor.
3. Tension on the conductor.
4. Max. sag.
5. Minimum clearance between two phases (it depends on line voltage.)
2. Channels: - Channels are used for mounting of Transformer, D.O. set, A.B. switch,
L.A., guarding etc. on pole.
3. Stays: To avoid pole bending.
4. Guarding: - To avoid snapping of conductor on ground/ another line.
5. Barbed wire: - To obstruct the persons from climbing on the pole. Fixing of anti climbing
device is mandatory..
Barbed wire used as below.

Line. Ground Clearance Barbed wire span. Number of turns for every 305 m
H.T.Line. 2134 m (7 ft.) 1220 m (4 ft.) 12
L.T.line -do- 610 m (2 ft.) 12

6. Number plate: - Number plate should be fixed on every pole or number should be
painted. It facilitates attending breakdown by giving proper address.
7. Phase plate: - On cut point of H.T. line or specific distance poles or tapping poles, Red,
Yellow and Blue phase plates are fixed.
8. Circuit Number: - When there is double circuit on a tower or pole, a circuit number are
written on number plate. Hence fixing of number plate should be done carefully. If
wrong circuit number plate is fixed, permit will be issued wrongly which may cause
accident. Confirm the circuit at orientation, and start fixing of the number plates at a
right side.
9. Danger Board :- Danger Board should be fixed on every H.T. pole at following points.
1. Danger Board of every road side pole should face the road .
2.Danger Board should be on both side poles at Road crossing, Telephone crossing,
Power line, Railway, River crossing .
3.Up to K.M. on both sides of village or city.


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CONDUCTOR TYPE AND ITS USE.

Generating stations are far away from load centers and for transmission of energy high
voltage lines are to be erected. Different size conductors used in distribution of Electricity.
If proper size conductor is not selected for transmission or distribution network, losses
are increased considerably. While selecting the conductor following points are observed.
1) Conductor capacity: - The current carrying capacity of conductor depends on the
type of metal used and its size.
2) Mechanical strength of Conductor: - When the conductor is strung, it has to bear
tension. If the conductor cannot bear tension, it will break and snap. Hence
proper capacity conductor should be used. Types of conductor are as below.

a. Copper.
b. All Aluminum Conductors.
c. All Aluminum Alloy conductors.
d. Aluminum Conductor steel reinforced one.
e. Steel conductor (Galvanized Iron or G.I.)
f. Cables (1) Control Cable, (2) Service Wire (3) Power Cable.

The Copper conductor is best one; but due to its high cost it is not used widely.
The Copper Conductor has low resistance and high mechanical strength.
All Aluminum conductor is generally made of strands and is used when the line
tension is low. It is generally used for L. T. lines. General sizes are No.8,No. 6, Rose, Ant,
etc.
A.C.S.R. Conductor is used for E.H.V. and H.T. lines. Aluminum strands carry the
current and steel strands bear the mechanical tension. The sizes used are: 0.02 Squirrel,
0.03 weasel, 0.06 Mint, 0.1 Dog, 0.15 Wolf, 0.2 Panther, 0.3 Goat, 0.35 Sheep, 0.4 Deer, 0.5
Moose etc.
Based on conductor covering there are two types.1.Bare Conductor: - It is not covered
with insulation. 2.Insulated Conductor is covered by insulation and called as cable. They are
again classified as (1) Solid, (2) Stranded i.e. made of bunch of strands twisted. The
conductor size is measured in Standard Wire gauge.
Measurement of Standard Conductor: - Two numbers are used for this. The first number
shows the number of strands and second one the gauge of each strand or dia. For ex. A) 7/8
S.W.G. stay wire means it has 7 strands with 8 S.W.G. size strands. (B) 3/0.36 inch weather
proof wire means 3 strands each having 0.36 inch dia. Or 1/1.4 weather proof wire means one
strand with 1.4 mm dia.
CONDUCTOR JOINTING.
It means joining two conductors each other.
Necessity. 1) While construction of new line, one conductor coil is insufficient; the other has
to be laid in continuation.

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2.The conductor breaks by some reason.
Types of Joints: -
(1) Britannia, (2) Telephone, (3) Merid Joint, (4) T joint, (5) Steel joints, (6) Compression
joint.
1) Britannia Joint: - This type of joint is made only on solid conductors and cannot be made
on stranded conductor. Two conductors to be joined are brought in front of each other. 6 inch
(150 mm) length of each conductor is cleaned by wire brush or sand paper. This will clear the
rust and will be clean. Then it is washed with soft soda water. If the conductor is of copper; it
should so as to make good electrical connection. Then ends of both conductors are bend
through half centimeter and placed on each other. The length of contact portion should be
min. 100 mm. This joint should be bound by 14 mm copper wire as shown in figure.








2) Telephone Joint (Western Union): - This is used only for solid conductors. It is used for
conductors of size 8 No. or higher. First bend is given at 100 to 125 mm from the edge and
are placed over each other. Then each one is twisted with the another conductor. The
conductor is to be cleaned for 200 to 250 mm length.

3) Meried Joints: - This joint is made between copper conductors having central strand of G.I.
wire. It should not be made between Al. conductors. Approximately 175 to 200 mm length
conductor strands are unwound and every strand is well washed and brushed. The G.I. strand
of both conductors should be broken up to 175 mm in length. Both conductors should be
brought in front of each other and their strands should be woven in each other. The strand of
one conductor is twisted on other conductor, and strand of other conductor is twisted on the
first. Likewise all the strands twisted and then soldered. This is used only for small span
length.

35


4)T Joint: - This joint is made with stranded conductor. This joint cannot take tension. It is
used for Jumper or tapping in S/s. The conductor strands to be separated up to 100 mm.
Then middle steel strands are cut. Then it shall be placed to horizontal conductor with 3
strands each on either side and shall be twisted over the horizontal conductor.









Sleeve Joint: - It can be made with any type of Aluminum conductor. First the conductor
should be washed with caustic soda solution and wiped off cleanly. Graphite Greece is
applied over the conductor and as shown in figure two Al. sleeves should be taken. These
sleeves should be placed on the conductor as shown. Sleeves should be twisted by twisting
wrench. This joint is made for L.T., H.T., ACSR, AAC conductor up to 0.06 size.

3) Compression Joint: - This is used for conductors of more than 0.06 cm
2
sizes. For
jointing, two different sleeves are used. Steel sleeve is used for steel conductor strands
and Al. sleeve is used for Al. conductor strands. There are two holes in Al. sleeve.
Rebating is done through these holes. First both sleeves should be cleaned and dried.
Then Al. sleeve to be mounted on one side. The length of steel sleeve is then measured.
Its half distance is taken. Suppose it is X cm. Then the ends which are to be joined and
more to X cm. distance is taken on the conductor is banded there. The Al. strands are
opened up to that point and cut. Steel strand should not be touched while this. Then the
steel sleeves are cleaned without opening. They are placed in the steel sleeve. They
should be kept in front of each other. Then the center of steel sleeve is compressed in
Compression machine. Then on the half portion of the right side sleeve be compressed
and then on the left half portion. Due to compression the length of sleeve will be
increased by 6 mm on both sides and it will reach Al. strands. Then Al. sleeve should be
measured. It should be halved. Suppose it is Y cm.+ 25 mm then Y cm. should be
measured and marked on both sides of conductor measured from center of steel sleeve.
Both parts of conductor are brought in sleeve in front of each other. The filler parts should
be filled in the sleeve by Grease until it comes out the holes. Both the holes are then
closed by rivets and hammered by hammer. There is one stencil mark on Al. sleeve.
Then first compression will be there; afterwards it should be compressed up to one end.
Similarly other part is compressed up to other end.


36

JUMPERING.








1. Jumper should not be connected to main conductor. The jumper should always be
connected by P.G. clamps as shown.







2. When the jumpers are near metallic portion, all such jumpers are covered with
alkathine pipe.
3. Conductor joint are marked on A.C.S.R. conductor when dispatched. Mid span joint
should be made before stringing because the steel strand is not kept continuous.
Hence it is necessary to replace the company joint.
4. Care should be taken that mid span joint will not be less than 40 ft. from pole.
5. Every joint should be done carefully.
6. Where conductor strands are cut, repair sleeve is used.
7. Conductor joint strength should be 95 % that of conductor, and resistance should be
that of main conductor.
Conductor paving and stringing.
Conductor paying is the first step for conductor stringing. Paying out is carried
out after pole erection is completed. Following T & P is used for the same.
1) Revolving Platform or Shaft. 2) Roller.
3) Twisting wrench or hydraulic press machine. 4) Hack saw.
5) Pliers. 6) Screw driver.
7) Wire wrench. 8) Crowbars.
9) Ropes. 10) Chain pulley.
11) Hammer. 12) Sag Board.
13) Zola.
While conductor paying out, care should be taken that the conductor should not
rub the ground. A revolving platform and rollers are used to avoid damage. If the
conductor is rubbing the ground, it should be lifted and stretched. Conductor paying out
can be done easily by use of revolving platform. Care should be taken to avoid sharp
bend while unwinding. Sharp bend may lead to breaking of conductor.
Sag Board should be used while stringing. Wind pressure, snow fall, etc
should be considered and proper sag should be given.

37

Binding tape should be used for conductor binding. While binding the conductor,
conductor should be inspected to ascertain the damages. Kerolite compound is also
used. There should not be gap between tape and conductor as there is a possibility of
sparking.
1) For L.T. neutral conductor binding on pole, if the conductor is of copper C.I. bobbin to
be used and in case of Aluminum conductor Al. bobbin should be used.
2) Tension clamp should be fixed as shown in the figure.










3) Before use of disc insulator, please confirm that the ball of hardware fits properly by fixing
of security clip. Only then the disc should be used. Accidents have occurred due to
failure of ball socket joint at disc insulator.
4) The conductor stringing should be done by use of rollers. It should not rub the insulator
or ground.
5) While conductor paying out the drum should be unwound with revolving platform or if it is
in coil, it should be unwound over the wheel to avoid damage.
6) The minimum clearance between the pole and live wire should always be as per I.E.
Rules.
7) Conductor loop to be provided near the pole after the line is completely strung. It
facilitates the service connection.
8) Double layer of binding tape should be fixed to the conductor near L.T. insulator. It will
avoid damage to the conductor in case of flash over.
9) Proper tools should be used while working with the conductor to avoid damage.
10) Before joining, the conductor ends should be properly cleaned. In case of copper, clean
by sand paper and for aluminum conductor, first apply jointing compound and then brush
so as to remove the al. oxide. In absence of jointing compound caustic soda can be used.
After cleaning, use graphite grease and then complete the joint.
11) P.G. clamps and the conductor should have the same current capacity.
12) To avoid bi-metallic action in bi-metallic P.G. clamps, lead foil is used.
In order to avoid by material action a strip is used as a media in bi-metallic P.G. clamps. As
there is bimetal action between copper and aluminum; but no action occurs between copper,
zinc and aluminum.







38

CHAPTER-6
COMMISSIONING OF NEW LINE.

The line under first commissioning should be thoroughly inspected. Rigorous
inspection should be carried out to see whether the line is erected as per I.E.Rules.
Clearance at all places, guarding etc. should be thoroughly checked. The concreting of
every pole should also be checked. Stays should be checked for proper tension. Fixing of
danger board, phase plates should be checked. Earthing on poles, L.As., Horn gap or
D.O. fuses should also be checked.
After inspection, some line test should be carried out before commissioning. Insulation
resistance between phase to phase and phase to neutral should be checked by megger
and values to be recorded in register. After removing all the faults/descripancies observed
in patrolling and if the megger results are proper, a written report for commissioning
should be given to Senior Officer. Permission from Electrical Inspector is necessary for
charging the line.
If the line is charged satisfactorily, it means that line commissioning is complete.


CHAPTER-7
EARTHING

Earthing and its types.
It is very important to earth the line and electrical equipment. It will be
electrically unsafe without earthing. The pole/ body of equipment connected solidly to
earth is called earthing.

1) For Electrical supports and equipments.
It case of short circuit or leakage, current will pass with minimum resistance to
earth so that maximum current will flow through effected circuit so that fuse will blow or
circuit breaker to trip. This will isolate the faulty line or equipment from live circuit.

2) Transformer neutral earthing.
a. The leakage or unbalanced current will have path with minimum resistance.
b. Sensitive protecting equipment works properly. (Earth Fault Relay.)
c. It prevents the lines being charged to excessive high voltage due to lightening
or switching surges.
d. By connecting resistance in the neutral earthing, fault current is controlled.
e. It helps for keeping neutral voltage always zero.

3) For Lightening Arrestor: -
The lightening arrestor earthing discharges the lightening charge with very low
resistance, which prevents possible damages. For this, very low earth resistance is

39

necessary. This quality can be achieved by piercing earth electrode deep in the ground
up to wet soil. Earth resistance depends on-
1) Types of soil, (2) Temperature of soil, (3) Wetness of soil, (4) Minerals in soil, (5) Size
of Electrode, (6) Cross section of electrode, (7) Deepness of electrode in ground, (8)
Distance between two electrodes.
Earth tester measures Earth resistance and its unit is ohm.

LINE AND POLE EARTHING.

1) Every fifth metallic pole of L.T. line should be earthed.
2) Cross arms, top clip, insulator pins of P.S.C. pole should be earthed along with
the pole.
3) Guarding at Railway crossing, Telephone crossing, Road crossings should be
earthed along with pole on both side. If earth electrode is not available 8 S.W.G.
G.I. wire coil of 25 mm dia and 120 to 150 mm long should be used and placed in
a pit at a distance of 90 cms. from pole at a depth of 150 cms. It is very
necessary to earth the guarding. All the metal fittings of L.T. pole and stay
should be earthed and connected firmly to neutral because neutral is multiple
earthed neutral.
4) A separate earth electrode to be used for L.A. earthing and the earth wire should be
through an Alkathine pipe without touching the pole.




























40

Methods of Earthing.
1) Plate Earthing :
A) In major power stations and major sub-stations 12 mm thick, 1200 m long, 1200 mm
wide Cast Iron plates are used.
B) For minor sub-stations 18 mm broad, 50 x 50 cm. G.I. plates are used. These plates
are dug vertically in the pit. Coal, sand and salt are filled in the pit each of 150 mm layer.
The plate should be dug deep so that soil will be wet from all sides. The plate should be
placed at a distance of 1200 cm. from each other.

2) Pipe Earthing
A) For Power Stations, and major sub-stations 12 mm thick, 150 mm dia, 300 cms. Long
G.I. pipes are used. A minimum distance of 1200 cm. should be kept between earth
electrodes in major sub-stations and 180 cms in case of minor sub-stations. At least one
electrodes to be used at every corner in sub-stations. Each electrical equipment structure
and the entire metal fitting should be earthed. Three earth electrodes are used for pole-
mounted transformer. The transformer neutral and body should be double earthed. A
minimum 8 S.W.G. G.I. wire should be used for earthing. Separate earthing should be
done for distribution box. 7/10 SWG G.I. wire should be used for tower earthing, and for
S/s. gantries 3mm thick, 50 mm x 50 mm M.S. plate is used. G.I. pipe of 25 mm thick,
1910 mm long is used for H.T. line, and 20 mm thick, 1720 mm long for L.T. lines.
The purpose of coal and salt is to keep wet the soil permanently. The salt percolates and
coal absorbs water keeping the soil wet. Care should always be taken by watering the
earth pits in summer so that the pit soil will be wet. Coal is made of carbon which is good
conductor minimizing the earth resistant. For sub-station earthing the provisions in I.S.I.
3043 (1966) Section 1,2 & 3 should be utilized.
Joints: - Rivets are used for joining the earth system, nut bolts or welding also used
depending on the temperature rise of the system.
The joint to earth conductor in switchgear unit or cable sheaths required to be
separated frequently, hence nut bolts are used at joint. In case of steel system they should
inconsistently be by welding. Only the places where earth testing is carried, should be nut
bolted.
All joints should be properly painted. Channel, supporting control boards and
panels are used as earth electrodes (This is possible only when they are connected to
earth system at both ends.)



41

CHAPTER-8
EARTH TESTER & EARTH RESISTANCE

Use of Earth Tester - Earth tester is used for measurement of Earth resistance. If earth
resistance is more, proper treatments to be given.
Working of Earth Tester :- There is hand operated D.C. generator. While feeding current to
spike. D.C. current is converted into A.C. current by the converter and A.C. current received
from spike is again converted in D.C. current by the help of rectifier, while going to generator.
A.C. current is fed to the spike driven in earth because there should not be electrolytic effect.

Measurement of Earth Resistance (Three point method):-




















In this method earth tester terminals C1 & P1 are shorted to each other and connected
to the earth electrode (pipe) under test. Terminals P2 & C2 are connected to the two separate
spikes driven in earth. These two spikes are kept in same line at the distance of 25 meters
and 50 meters due to which there will not be mutual interference in the field of individual
spikes. If we rotate generator handle with specific speed we get directly earth resistance on
scale.
Note :- Spike length in the earth should not be more than 1/20th distance between two spikes.
Four Point Method :- In this method 4 spikes are driven in earth in same line at the equal
distance. Outer two spikes are connected to C1 & C2 terminals of earth tester. Similarly inner
two spikes are connected to P1 & P2 terminals. Now if we rotate generator handle with
specific speed, we get earth resistance value of that place.
In this method error due to polarisation effect is eliminated and earth tester can be operated
directly on A.C.


42

Earth Resistance :- (A) -Earth resistance is depended on following factors.
1) Type of earth soil.
2) Temperature of earth.
3) Humidity in earth.
4) Minerals in earth.
5) Length of electrode in the earth.
6) Electrode shape and size.
7) Distance between two electrodes.
8) Number of electrodes.

(B) Maximum earth resistance allowed is as below :-
Major power station 0.5 .
Major Sub-stations 1.0
Minor Sub-station 2
Neutral Bushing. 2
Service connection 4
L.T.Lightening Arrestor 4 L.T.Pole 5
H.T.Pole 10
Tower 20-30

If earth resistance is more than above values, following Treatments can be made for
minimizing resistance.
1) Oxidation on joints should be removed and joints be tightened.
2) Sufficient water should be poured in earth electrode.
3) Earth Electrode of bigger size as far as possible be used.
4) Electrodes should be connected in parallel.
5) Earth pit of more depth & width- breadth be made.












43

CHAPTER-9
TRANSFORMERS

Transformers: Need, Types & Applications.

Need: - In our Power Generating Stations, electricity is generated at 15 kV or less voltage. It
would be un-economical to transmit the electricity at such a low voltage because of its high
current. As well as there will be voltage drop & conductor size will also be required to be
increased very much.
Hence, the power generated in generating stations is stepped up in voltage by means
of Power Transformer.
The Power transmitted at high voltage is again stepped down for Distribution purpose
at low voltage because three phase equipments and single phase equipments/ appliances are
designed to work at 440 v. & 230 v. respectively as per I.E. rules.
Hence for proper distribution, also transformers are used.

Advantages: - 1. Transformer being a stationary machine, there is no wear and tear.
2. High voltage insulation can be provided due to stationery windings.
3. Low cost of maintenance because less maintenance is required.

Capacity: - The capacity of Power Transformer is denoted in MVA & that of Distribution
transformer is denoted in KVA.

Types: - Transformers are classified in two basic types.
1) Power Transformers.
2) Instrument Transformer.

Power Transformers can further be classified as :
a) As per cores - 1) Core type (2) Shell type.
b) As per phases - 1) Single phase (2) Three phase.
c) As per windings- 1) Single winding. (2) Two windings.
d) As per voltage - 1) Step up (2) Step Down.
e) As per application 1) Power Transformer (2) Dist. Transformer.

Note: - In a Power Transformer (1 MVA & above) voltage is changed and then it is sub
transmitted by transmission lines.

Power (0.5 MVA or less)
But in a Dist. Transformer, line voltage is reduced and is used to cater load on
secondary side.
There are two main types of Instrument Transformers.
1) Current Transformer ( C.T.)
2) Potential Transformer (P.T.)



44

Applications of Instrument Transformer are:
1) To isolate metering instruments, relays & wiring from main supply.
2) To convert high voltage & current as per instrument capacity ratings.
3) To maintain & standardize voltage & current ratings of instruments and relays.
Note:- Current Transformers are always connected in series & Potential transformers in
Paralleled with the line.
Auto Transformers: - Autotransformer is a Power transformer with a single winding
having a central tap. Auto transformers are economical only when transformation
ratio is 1: 3 or near to it.

Transformer Parts and Accessories.
Definition: - The stationary equipment, which converts high voltage to low or vice versa by
virtue of magnetizing effects and keeping magnitude and frequency of the electrical energy
the same, is called transformer.
Principle of working :- It works on the principle of Mutual Induction.
Mutual Induction :- When the transformer winding is connected to induce voltage in it. It is
also known as back emf. and the process to form the induced voltage is known as Self-
induction.
The same magnetic field also cuts the secondary winding to form induced voltage in it.
This is known as Mutual Induction.
Transformers are mainly classified in (1) Power Transformer and (2) Instrument
transformer and Step Up or Step down as per the application.

Parts of Transformer
(1) Main Tank: - It is made of steel sheets by welding them. In the main tank, core, winding
and transformer oil is placed.
(2) Core: - It is a set of 0.35 mm thick high-grade electrical steel sheets. Both sides of these
lamination sheets are coated laminations with insulating varnish to insulate them electrically
from each other. The shape of the core can be square shape or stepped shape windings are
assembled on the limbs of the core. Magnetic flux is transformed from one side to other
through the yoke.
(3) Winding :- Windings of the transformers are assembled on limbs of the core while
assembling the windings on core, first L.V. winding is assembled and H.V. or Secondary
winding is assembled over it. Conductors of both the windings are coated with insulation
varnish. In addition to that, they are covered with paper and cotton tapes, which are properly
impregnated with insulation, vanish. Both windings are insulated from core and main tank by
providing sufficient electrical insulation. Primary is generally connected in delta whereas
secondary is connected in star. As the resistance of the winding conductor is very low, it
cannot be supplied with D.C.
Back emf is not created in D.C. and hence the current will flow excessively thereby damaging
the coil. Whereas in the case of A.C., due to impedance and back e.m.f., current does not
exceed the limit.


45

Accessories of Transformer :-

1) Bushings: - Winding leads are to be taken out of the transformer tank for connections. To
maintain sufficient safe clearance of these leads from body, Porcelain bushings are provided
on Primary and Secondary sides of the transformer. Rain sheds are provided to the bushings
to protect them from rainwater.
Oil filled or condenser bushings are used in case of EHV Transformers.

2) Explosion Vent :- On the top plate of the transformer tank, a narrow pipe of sufficient
diameter with diaphragms on its both ends is fitted. One diaphragm is in between the oil in
the tank and the pipe whereas the upper diaphragm is at the top end of the pipe. Whenever
there is severe fault inside the transformer, large quantities of gases are formed inside
transformer tank. Due to the pressure of these gases, the lower diaphragm ruptures first and
due to the upcoming gases and oil the upper diaphragm ruptures indicating the fault
conditions inside transformer. Due to this protection, oil from transformer tank is thrown out
and chances of bursting of transformer are avoided.
Sometimes, the lower diaphragm ruptures without any inside faults just due to oil
pressure and in such cases, oil is visible in the glass window provided on the explosion vent.
In such cases, the measures to replace the ruptured diaphragm are to be taken
immediately.

3) Conservator Tank: - Conservator tank is provided for the provision of expansion and
contraction of the oil in the transformer. Conservator tank is also called as expansion tank.
This tank is connected to the main tank through a pipe with valves. Oil level in conservator
tank is maintained at half of its volume. An oil level indicator is provided on the visible side of
the conservator tank. Whenever the loan on transformer increases, oil inside the transformer
tank expands due to heat and the oil level increases. In such cases if sufficient space is not
available for the expanding oil, the top cover of the transformer tank may burst due to
excessive pressure. But due to the provision of conservator tank, this expanded oil goes into
conservator tank and the level in the main tank is maintained constant. Due to this; the
chances of exposure to windings and damage to radiators due to partial vacuum are avoided.


46

4) Equalizer Pipe :- The pipe connecting the conservator tank and the explosion vent is
known as equalizer pipe. If small quantities of gases are formed inside transformer tank,
these gases will be collected in conservator tank. These gases will maintain equal pressure in
between explosion vent and conservator tank by the help of equalizer pipe.

5) Breather :- Due to the variations in loads on the transformer the oil in the transformer
expands or contracts. Whenever the oil expands, the air in the conservator tank is to be
expelled out and when the oil contract, the air is inhaled inside the conservator tank. This
action is known as breathing action. For this, a breather is connected at the bottom of the
conservator tank by way of a pipe projecting inside the conservator tank up to the air borne
space. Breather is filled with Silica Gel crystals and a small cup with holes is provided at its
bottom with small quantity of oil filled in it. Silica gel crystals absorb moisture from the air
getting in the conservator tank while the oil in the bottom cup of the breather; arrests dust
particles getting in the breather.
Silica gel crystals allow the dry air to let in conservator tank.






















Due to the absorption of moisture, the blue colour of silica gel crystals turns to pink.
Such pink coloured crystals of Silica gel are to be re-activated by heating either by spreading
it on a paper in sun or by heating it slowly in a metallic vessel. Whenever the crystals turn
white, it renders useless and are to be replaced by new. Oil in the bottom cup of the breather
also needs replacement if it becomes dirty.

6) Tap Changer :- It is essential to control the voltage in the system for two reasons.
i) To control the flow of KW & KVAr in the lines connecting generating stations.
ii) To maintain voltage at consumer end as per I.E. rules (+ 6%)


47

Voltage regulation is done by means of change of number of turns in H.V. winding with
the help of tapings and the tap changer switch provided outside the tank. In a three-phase
transformer, the arrangement of the switch is made in such a manner that the contacts of all
the three windings are changed simultaneously. This tap changing assembly is known as Tap
changer. There are two types of tap changers.

(a) Off Load Tap Changer :- Off Load Tap Changer is provided to transformer on H.V.
windings by making taps on them. Connection of off load tap changer is brought on the top
plate of the tank. It is oil immersed and is located in main tank. It is designed to carry full load
current of the transformer and is dissimilar to Circuit Breaker design i.e. it is not designed to
work under loading conditions. Hence if Off load tap changer is operated while the
transformer is "ON"; there can be severe damage to the transformer and so the taps in such
type of tap changer are changed by switching the transformer "OFF".

(b) On Load Tap Changer (O.L.T.C.) :- In this type of the tap changers, transformer tap can
be changed while the transformer is "ON" and is under loaded conditions. It is not essential to
switch off the supply in this type of changer.
The operations can be local manually; local electrically and remote electrically as per
requirements.
There are various types of OLTC as per constructional difference.
1) Winding is done in circuit and in this arrangement; taps can be operated serially
without making the transformer OFF. In such arrangement, twice the number of
tappings is required as compared to normal tapings of the winding.
2) Preventive Reactor Type Changer: - In this type, reactor from the central tap is used
whenever the contacts are connected to any tapping, the current is divided and it flows
in opposite direction in the reactor and gets neutralized. During the transaction, two
tapings are connected to reactor thereby causing more losses and resulting into more
noise.

Maintenance :- Damaged fixed contacts to be replaced by removing them from the insulated
phase board after disconnecting the leads. Moving contacts and springs if required can be
refitted. Retaining pins clips should be replaced by new. Oil in the tap changer is to be
filtered generally after 30,000 operations through the drain valve and top cover valve of
O.L.T.C. During filtration, switching unit should be cleaned thoroughly with fresh oil and
carbon deposits in the switch unit to be removed.
During the normal maintenance, driving mechanism should be inspected. Gear teeth,
rollers etc. should be lubricated using grease and polydrum disulphide. Filters pads may be
cleaned by using petrol or by vacuum cleaner.

7) Buchholtz Relay :- Buchhoultz Relays are used for transformer above 500 KVA. It is a
gas operated relay and is used in Power transformers. Whenever there is fault inside the
transformer; due to decomposition of oil, gases are formed in bubbles. These bubbles pass
through the pipe connecting transformer tank and conservator. In this route, the Buchholtz
Relay is situated. Gas bubbles are trapped in the Buchholtz Relay thereby creating pressure.
It is made of cast iron. It consists of two floats. In the upper hollow float, mercury switch is
located which is connected to Buchholtz Alarm circuit and the mercury switch that is located in

48

the lower baffle is connected to the trip circuit. On the top of the relay chamber, a pet cock is
provided for gas sampling. The gases trapped in Buchholtz can be released from this pet
cock. Relay chamber is also provided with a glass window through which the quantity and
colour of gas can be seen. There is a provision for operating the trip and alarm mechanism
manually. To pump air through the pet cock and operate the relay is also one of the simple
methods for testing the working of the relay.

8) Radiators :- Radiators are used to limit the temperature of the transformers to a safe limit.
Fins are provided to the radiators to radiate the heat of the oil to atmosphere more effectively.
Hot oil circulates through the radiator tubes/fins and the heat is radiated to atmosphere by the
principle of conduction and radiation. In the radiator oil circulates downwards because the hot
oil in the main tank goes to the top portion of main tank and to the radiator. After its heat is
lost in atmosphere through the radiator, it becomes cool and goes downwards again entering
the main tank through bottom valves of radiators.

Note :- While carrying out oil filtration, all the radiator valves are kept close and after some
time, all the radiator valves are opened to filter the oil entirely.
Some of the accessories are finding their use in Power Transformers recently.

1) Dry Cool Breather :- This instrument works on electronic circuits. In this, the air above the
conservator oil level is dehydrated/ dried in the breather. It is generally used for transformers
above 50 MVA.

2) Thermosyphon Filter :- It is a typical accessory which is fitted to larger transformers. In
this a metallic cylinder in which filter media and activated Alumina balls are provided. It is
connected to the transformer main tank in series. Due to the convection principle, hot oil
passes through this, thereby getting in contact with alumina balls which reduces the acidity in
it and when it passes through the filter media, the suspended impurities are also removed.
Thus the total quantity of oil in main tank slowly passes through it thereby monitoring acidity
on line.
It's filter media should be maintained cleaned once a year and the Alumina balls also
need to be activated simultaneously.

3) Pressure Relief Valve :- It is a latest protection instrument used in place of explosion vent.
Whenever any fault occurs inside the transformer tank, oil pressure increases due to liberated
gases. In such events, tank may explode and oil may catch fire. To avoid this, pressure relief
valve is provided on transformer tank. When this valve operates, it rings alarm in control room
alerting the operator.

3) Filter Machine :- Using the filter machine, oil in the transformer tank is heated up to 75C.
When this oil circulates through transformer tank, it removes moisture from winding and
core. This moisture is removed in the filter machine dehydration chamber thereby
increases the dielectric strength of oil.



49

In this way, transformer is dehydrated and dielectric strength of oil also improves.




















Transformer Maintenance.

Transformers give prolonged efficient service if regular inspections and maintenance is carried
out. Maintenance will also require less expenditure if carried out regularly. Following factors
need be considered while carrying out transformer maintenance.
1) Oil :- (a) Transformer oil is a hydrocarbon base mineral oil. It is free from impurities
and moisture. Physical/ Chemical & Electrical properties and their values are laid
down as per IS 335:1989. Especially Dielectric strength of new transformer oil should
be minimum 50 Kv for 1 minute.
2) Visual Inspection observations of Transformer oil may be compared with following.
Colour. Oil Quality.
Yellowish/Transparent/Sparkling. 1) Very Good
Yellow/Dull. 2) Good
Brownish
3)Bad.
Black/ Brownish 4) Contaminated
Black. 5) Discardable

(b) Oil Temperature :- Transformer temperature rises due to various reasons. Overloading is
one of the reasons for rise in transformer oil and winding temperature. If there is an abnormal
rise in winding and oil temperature of the transformer; it should immediately be isolated and
inspected for reasons. Cooling systems of adequate efficiency should be provided to
Transformer. If fans are provided for forced air-cooling, they should be kept running till the
temperature of transformer returns to normal.

(c) Oil Level: - Transformer oil level should be checked regularly. If oil level found reduced
due to leakages or evaporation, transformer should be topped up with good quality fresh oil.

50


(d) Oil Leakages :-Oil leaks at oil level gauge, gasket sheet, packing gaskets, Bolts, Welded
joints, radiators, valve flanges etc. Any type of oil leakage should be attended on priority.
Nuts & Bolts should be tightened to attend gasket oil leakages. If the oil leakage does not
stop after tightening of Nut & Bolts, the gasket should be replaced by new. If the leakage is
from joints then it should be attended by welding.

Reasons of contamination of Transformer Oil.

1) Overloading of transformer. When transformer is overloaded, more heat is generated in
transformer winding causing overheating and oxidation of transformer oil, thereby reducing its
dielectric strength.

2) Absorption of Moisture - Due to load variation, transformer oil expands and contracts,
each time the breathing action takes place. If oil is inhaling moist air while breathing, Moisture
will be absorbed in oil thereby increasing its water content and reducing BDV/resistivity.

3) Gases :- When there is inside fault, of incipient nature, such as intermittent sparking, partial
discharge, arcing etc., various gases are generated inside transformer due to decomposition
of oil. These gases dissolve in oil thereby reducing its flash point.

4) Sludge :- Due to continuous heating of transformer insulation material such as varnishes,
cellulose, paper insulation etc. get decomposed and dissolves in oil and form a sticky
compound called sludge. Sludge formation results into reduction in heat dissipation capacity
of oil thereby increasing O.T. & W.T.

5) Acids :- Due to the combined effect of heat, dissolution of varnishes and cellulose,
inorganic & organic acids are formed in transformer oil thereby increasing its acidity. Acidity
when increased, it ultimately results into reduction of resistivity, dielectric strength and tan
delta of oil and also it corrodes the winding material. Acidic oil is very harmful to transformer
health.

Oil Testing :- Transformer oil samples should be tested for various tests regularly. If the
dielectric strength of oil goes down below 40 KV; it should be filtered till B.D.V. reaches to 50
K.V.
Oil filtration by regular type of filter machine cannot reduce acidity of the oil unless the
filter is provided with special attachment of acidity removal Alumina Column.
If the acidity of the oil increases above 0.1 Mg.KOH/gm. Core and windings of
transformer should be checked through inspection manhole. Oil from OCB and Transformer
needs to be tested periodically. Following precautions should be taken while sampling the oil.
1) Sampling bottle, preferably of glass or polythene should be thoroughly cleaned and dried.
It should be rinsed twice with the oil sample itself.
2) Clean the valve externally from which the sample is to be drawn. This would reduce the
chances of contamination of the sample due to dust.
3) Draw the sample by PVC tube as rubber may chemically react with oil.
4) Sample should not come in contact with fibrous cloth or body touch.

51

5) Cock/Stopper of the bottle should be cleaned with the same oil and be replaced
immediately after filling the sample bottle. This will avoid insertion of any moisture in the oil
sample.
6) Always draw the oil sample from the bottom valves of transformer or O.C.B. because the
impure oil with heavy impurities such as sludge, moisture always settles at bottom.
7) Do not dip fingers in oil samples because it reduces BDV of the oil for example; if the BDV
of the oil is 45 KV & if fingers are dipped in it for few moments, its BDV reduces to 20 K.V.
which has been experimentally proved.
8) Always test BDV of oil at ambient temperature because, temperature has its effect on
B.D.V. as per following table.
Temp. : 30C 40 50 60 70 80
B.D.V.KV : 33 35 36 37 38 39

9) Never draw oil samples in rainy or cloudy weather because it will increase moisture in the
oil.

Oil Testing Kit :- In this instrument, a glass or PVC transparent oil cell with dimensions of
8055100 mm is provided with two numbers of polished and chrome plated electrodes of
standard size specified as per I.S. are fitted at a distance of 40 mm from bottom.
There is a provision of adjustment of electrodes by horizontal movements. It helps to
adjust the specified spark gap of 2.5 mm. between the faces of the electrodes.
The test cell is designed to sustain voltage up to 60 K.V. Oil is kept in such test cell for
testing with the level adjusted 1mm below the top level of the cell. A single-phase
autotransformer is provided in this instrument with 230 V A.C. primary and 0 to 60 K.V. as
secondary output voltage. Voltmeter, which is connected on primary side shows the voltage
of the secondary in K.V. A switch, an Ammeter and a circuit breaker is provided on primary
side. When spark takes places between the electrodes, the C.B. trips on overload thereby
isolating the kit from H.T. supply.

1) Method of Oil Testing: - Fill the test cell with the oil sample up to the mark i.e. 10 mm
below top cover of the cell. If the machine is manually operated, raise the voltage (after
making the H.T.Switch "ON") @ 2K.V./Sec. with the help of the variac. If it is motor
operated, the stepper motor is set to raise voltage accordingly. Raise the voltage till spark
or break down of the oil in between the electrodes takes place. Take 6 readings of the
same sample and the average value of these six readings denotes the B.D.V.




Oil Testing Kit

52

2) Transformer Body: - Check transformer body and other parts for rusting. If any part found
rusted, painting should be carried out. Transformer should be painted periodically.

3) Core & Winding: - Core and winding should be inspected once in 5 years and be ensured
that no nuts bolts inside are tight and no sludge deposit is found.

4) Insulator Bushings: - Clean insulator bushings free of dust, using clean and dry cloth.
Check bushings for cracks or chippings. If found, make up with M-Seal adhesive compound.

5) Cable sealing ends: - Check cable boxes periodically for sealing. There should not be
leakage of compound. Gasket joints should be tightened.

6) External connections: - All external connections should be checked. Burnt or rusted
connectors should be replaced.

7) Conservator Tank: - Check oil level in conservator tank regularly.

8) Breather :- Silica gel and oil in the bottom cup of the breather should be checked regularly.
Silica gel if turns pink, should either activated or replaced. Hole at the bottom of breather
should be maintained free.

9) Bucholz Relay :- Inspection of the relay should be regularly carried out and test trials of
relay should be conducted every six month.

10) Explosion Vent: - Inspect explosion vent. If the diaphragm is found damaged, it should
be replaced and cause should be investigated.

11) Gaskets: - Nuts and Bolts of gasket joints should be tightened periodically and leaking
gaskets should be replaced.

12) Coolers and Cooling Fans: - Radiators should be maintained free of dirt and painted if
necessary. Cooling fan bearings lubricated and maintained in good working condition.

13) Earthing: - Neutral earthing should be checked regularly and soil resistivity should be
checked periodically.

14) Tap Changers: - (a) Diverter switch contacts should be serviced. Oil level in the diverter
switch tank should be maintained (b) Driving Mechanism: - Notch controller and contact rings
should be maintained free of dust and do not lubricate them. Heaters should be maintained in
working condition. Copper contacts should be finely surfaced. If copper contacts are silver
amalgamated and if amalgamation is worn, contacts should be replaced..
(c) Selector switch contacts should be checked annually.

Note: - 1) Oil testing kits, Megger and gas testing kits should be available in every sub-
station.

53

2) (a) Silica gel needs to be heated between 150C to 200C for proper activation.
(b) While replacing Silica gel; oil in the bottom cup of the breather should also be
replaced.
3) While working on transformer, it should be isolated from both the ends and should be
solidly grounded at bushings.
4) (a) While maintaining tap changers, recommendations from manufacturers should be
followed.
(b) While carrying out servicing of transformer; if any abnormalities are observed;
manufacturers should be referred along with order reference.

Care to be taken while charging a transformer :-
After complete fitting of accessories of transformer and after proper drying out of
transformer and filtration, following precautions, care is required to be taken.
1) Radiator valves should be open.
2) Conservator tank oil level should be as per marking.
3) Breather should have blue Silica Gel and oil at the bottom cup.
4) Jumper connections on both H.T. & L.T. sides should be properly connected.
5) L.T. cable if provided should be tested.
6) Neutral connection should be proper and as per rules.
7) For Distribution Transformer: -
(a) There should be separate earthing for Dist. box body and Main switch body and it
should be firm.
(b) Neutral of incoming and outgoing cables should be connected to each other.
(A) After confirming the above things.
1) Provide proper capacity D. O. fuses, Keep L.T. Main switch off and charge the transformer.
Check humming of the transformer to be normal.
2) In the Main Switch; voltage between phase to phase and phase to neutral should be tested
by Voltmeter or Avometer and it should be proper as per rating.
(B) Following tests should be conducted prior to charging of new transformer.
(1) I.R.values (2) Continuity Test (3) Insulation Test (4) Ratio Test (5) Short circuit Test (6)
Polarity Test (7) Phase sequence & (8) Phasing out.

1) Megger Test: - While carrying out megger tests, leads of Megger should be properly
insulated. For this purpose, 7/20 swg copper PVC coated wire is adequate. Do not use
aluminium wire for lead connections. Do not touch leads to transformer body.
Note: - In cloudy or rainy weather, Megger results may not be correct.

2) Continuity Test: - Megger results for a healthy transformer should be as follows.
H.T. Phase to Phase i.e. R-Y; Y-B; B-R = 0
L.T. -do- i.e. r-y; y-b; b-r = 0
L.T. Phase to neutral i.e. r-n; y-n; b-n = 0
Neutral to body (if earthed) = 0


54

3) Insulation Tests :- I.R. values should be as follows :
H.T. Phase to Earth.
L.T. Phase to Earth.
H.T. Phase to L.T. Phase. Normally above 500 Mega ohms.
Neutral to Body (if not earthed)

Note: - With every 10C to 15C rise in temperature; I.R. values halve.

Causes of failure of transformer :-

(a) Transformer requires minimum maintenance. But the minimum required maintenance and
inspection is also not carried out and transformer fails due to negligence in maintenance.

(1) Damage of Insulation :- Loosening of core laminations or improper insulation in core,
improper or unhealthy insulation in winding or short circuit.

(2) Bushings: - Cracking of bushings or tracking of insulation due to dust.

(3) Switching Surge or Lightening Surge: - Due to improper earthing to L.A.; failure of L.A.
or non availability of L.A.

(4) Unbalancing or Overloading: - Unbalancing due to uneven load/ phase. Overloading
due to improper size of L.T./ H.T. fuses.
(5) Overheating: - Due to lack of proper Protection, fuses, loss of oil level or loose
connections.

Following points/factors should be carefully observed while carrying out
maintenance.

1) Oil Temperature: - Transformer temperature rises abnormally due to overloading. In such
case, transformer should be switched off and cooling fans should be made on for cooling.

2) Oil leakage: - There can be number of oil leakage sources. After tightening of Nuts & Bolts
of the flanges or plates, if the leakage does not stop, gaskets should be replaced. If there is
leakage through welding joints; it should be attended by welding.
3) Bushings should be maintained clean and polished. Cracks/ Chipping if any found should
be made up with M-seal putty. Joints, connections should be maintained tight.

4) Breather: - Silica gel in the breather should be maintained blue as well as hole at the
bottom of the breather should be maintained through.
To identify neutral bushing of an unmarked old Distribution Transformer.

Make primary connections and charge the transformer without secondary connections.
With the help of series test land (i.e. having two bulbs of same wattage in series connection );
test two of the four bushings on L.T. side with test lamp. If the bulbs glow with full brightness,

55

both the bushings are phases and if it glows dim, then one of the bushing is neutral. In this
way; neutral can be identified by testing all the bushings.
1) Unbalanced current in neutral is dangerous to transformer and this can be avoided by
properly grounding the neutral.
2) Transformer body earthing as well as neutral earthing should be provided with double
conductor each with separate earth pits and earth electrodes.
3) Some distribution transformers are also provided with explosion vent. In a very loaded
areas like Bhivandi; many times, hot oil is expelled out of transformer bushings or explosion
vent causing accidents and burning injuries to public. For this, L.V. side MCB is a must and it
should never be by-passed.
4) Many times, due to some reasons, a phase in an A.B. switch, a fuse in Dist. Box/ or Main
switch is made direct. Such practices should never be adopted and if adopted due to utter
emergency, clear cut danger board stating the changed status should be displayed. This
board or safety warnings will be helpful to avoid accidents.
5) Many times, just due to haste, proper discharging of equipment is not done before starting
the works. This practice invites accidents. Discharge rods should have sufficient length such
as D.O.rods. Not using discharge rods just due to idleness habits will invite accidents.

Note :- Discharge rods and handgloves are the protective shields which will save the life of an
employee from all types of accidents occurring due to wrong operations done by others or
from unknown faults.


Tap Changers: - Many times low voltage complaints are received from the consumers which
are away from transformer centers. This happens due to drop of voltage and lengthy of
distribution lines. In such cases, tap changers of the transformer should be operated.

To operate the tap changer is not the job of an unskilled helper. Only linemen or Senior staff
are authorized for it. Before operating the tap changer, D.O.fuses should be dropped;
transformer should be made dead and then only tap changer be operated.

Oil leakages should be attended on priority. New transformer when charged, humming should
be checked and if found unsatisfactory; then only load should be taken on it.
-0o0-

















56

CHAPTER-11
SERVICE CONNNECTION

General Knowledge :
El ectri ci ty i s generated at 11kV/15kV vol tage. To reduce l i ne l osses
the vol tage i s stepped up 132/220/400 KV to transmi t at the l oad center. It i s
stepped down sui tabl y up to servi ce vol tage and suppl i ed to the consumer.

H.T. Consumer : There are some consumers to whom power i s suppl i ed
at 132 KV e.g. Ozar Ai rpl ane factory, Mul a Prawara Li censee, etc. There are
some consumers to whom the power i s suppl i ed at 33KV. Some consumers are
suppl i ed at 11KV e.g. l i ft i rri gati on, Gi nni ng pressi ng factory, etc.

L.T. Consumer : There are general consumers to whom power i s
suppl i ed at 440V or 230V. The Bi l l i ng rates of the power are di fferent as per the
category of consumer. Thi s i s cal l ed as tari ff e.g. H.T. Tari ff, LT Tari ffs, etc.

Importance of Work of the Tech. Worker i n thi s Fi el d :-
[1] Erecti on of equi pments as per standards fi xed by REC (Rural
El ectri fi cati on Corporati on) and I.E.Rul es 1956.
[2] Mai ntenance and repai r of the equi pments and l i nes i s to be done wi thi n
ti me and as per the i nstructi ons gi ven by research and trai ni ng department from
ti me to ti me.
[3] Procedure of Safety i s to be fol l owed.
The type of servi ce connecti on shal l be gi ven as per the l oad
deci ded by company and i t i s to be fol l owed.
[i ] Up to 7.5 KW si ngl e phase connecti on i s to be gi ven.
[i i ] If the l oad i s more than 7.5 KW but wi thi n 200 HP three phase
connecti on at 440 phase to phase vol tage i s to be gi ven.
[i i i ] If the l oad i s more than 200 HP (150 KW), the connecti on i s to be
gi ven on 11KV wi th fi xi ng T.O.D. Meter and the cons. i s to be treated as H.T.
consumer.

SURVEY

After receipt of the application, Companys representative will inspect the consumers
premises as per chronology.
At the ti me of i nspecti on fol l owi ng poi nts shal l be noted.
[1]Whether 1 phase or 3 phase LT l i ne exi sts nearby and i f so the di stance
between pol e and poi nt of suppl y.
[2] Whether overhead wi re of proposed servi ce connecti on passes over any
bui l di ng/non agri cul tural open l and.
[3] Locati on of i nstal l ati on of meter shoul d be fi xed.
At the ti me of fi xi ng the l ocati on of meter fol l owi ng poi nts shoul d be
noted.



57

[A] Meter shoul d be i nstal l ed at see l evel .
[B] The consumer s mai n swi tch shoul d not be at a di stance more than one
meter (Three feet) from the energy meter.
[C] Meter shoul d be easi l y accessi bl e for meter readi ng, i nspecti on and fuse
repl acement for company' s representati ve.

[4] After recei pt of test report consumer s i nstal l ati on shoul d be tested wi th
500 vol t Megger.
[5] If the di stance of the consumer' s premi ses (poi nt of suppl y) i s more than
35 meter, end pol e charges shoul d be recovered from consumer and servi ce
wi re shoul d be l ai d though thi s end pol e.
[6] Road cross cl earance shoul d be at l east 17' i n case of cross-country road
and for hi ghway 20' mi ni mum.
[7] Tappi ng connecti on shoul d not be more than 25' from exi sti ng connecti on.
[8] The servi ce wi re shoul d not pass over any N.A. pl ot owned by other
person.
[9] Support of the meter box shoul d be fi rm.
[10] The meter shoul d be easi l y accessi bl e to company' s representati ve and
safe.

Procedure for giving the L.T. Service Connection :
[1] Connecti on shoul d be gi ven from pol e and not from mi d span.
[2] Reel insulator should be used. Clips should not be used.
[3] The servi ce connecti on span shoul d not be more than 35 meters.
[4] Sag of the servi ce connecti on shoul d be at l east 1% of span.
[5] If there i s a stay to the pol e, the stay wi re shoul d be connected to neutral
conductor.
[6] Bearer wi re shoul d be 10 SWG G.I. wi re and i t i s to be fi xed to pol e by
cl amps.
[7] Thi s bearer wi re shoul d be connected to neutral conductor.
[8] Servi ce wi re shoul d be of proper si ze, i nsul ated and weather proof and
conti nuous (wi thout j oi nt).
[9] The di stance between servi ce wi re and bearer wi re shoul d be 75mm.
[10] Di stance between Reel i nsul ators shal l be 620mm.
[11] To keep the ground cl earance, G.I. pi pe wi th bend at top to be used at
consumer s premi ses. If necessary i t may be supported by an angl e.
[12] Bearer G.I. wi re shal l be connected to pi pe or Angl e.
[13] 8 or 10 SWG G.I. wi re may be used for provi di ng stay to thi s Angl e/pi pe.
[14] The bends of G.I. Pi pe shoul d be ti ght at both ends and PVC Bushes
shoul d be used at ends.
[15] 10/12 SWG G.I.wi re earth shoul d be wound to pi pe/angl e and connected
to Bearer G.I. wi re.
[16] Meter Board shoul d be fi xed i n front room and at easi l y accessi bl e pl ace.
It shoul d be at such hei ght so that meter readi ng can be taken easi l y wi thout



58

any support. The meter board shoul d be fi xed at 6-7 feet from ground so that the
cutout fuse can be easi l y repl aced.
[17] For si ngl e-phase servi ce connecti on, Meter Board of 250 x 310mm and for
3 phase connecti on 450 x 450 mm si ze to be used.
[18] There shoul d not be any extra hol e to meter box so as to prevent the rat
entrance, water, etc. to avoi d acci dent.
[19] Earthi ng bol t of 7 to 10 mm x 75mm l ength wi th three nuts and si x
washers shal l be provi ded. It may be of brass or G.I. It i s cal l ed as earthi ng
termi nal . Earthi ng of (i ) Meter Body, (i i ) Cutout, (i i i ) Consumers earthi ng, (i v)
Company s earth to be connected to thi s earthi ng bol t.










[20] The earth wi res of pi pe, cutout body, meter body, and consumer' s
earthi ng, al l these earthi ng shoul d be connected to earth termi nal .
[21] 50 x 30 mm si ze number pl ate i s to be fi xed on meter board. Consumer
No., Pol e No. and Fuse si ze shoul d be wri tten by whi te pai nt on bl ack
background.
[22] To avoi d the mi suse of el ectri c power the servi ce wi re shoul d be
connected to i n conni ng termi nal of meter fi rst and thi s wi re shoul d not be kept
open or bare.
[23] A i nch (12mm) thi ck wooden board shoul d be fi xed to pol e wi th cl amp
610 mm bel ow neutral conductor for aeri al fuse. The pol e fuse wi res shoul d be
taped and fi xed wi th cl i ps to avoi d movement i n ai r and thereby l oose
connecti on.
[24] The servi ce wi re comi ng to fuse board shoul d be gi ven a l oop of 300mm
l ength.
[25] 300 mm l oop to be provi ded to i nsul ator wi re provi ded between conductor
and aeri al fuse.
[26] Connecti on l eads shoul d be strai ght and good. It shoul d not come i n
contact wi th other conducti ng parts.
[27] The wi ndi ng di recti on of the j umper shoul d be toward i nsul ator. 3 to 4
rounds shoul d be provi ded to i nsul ated wi re so as to avoi d the di sconnecti on
due to vi brati on. Joi ni ng compound i s to be appl i ed on j oi nt coveri ng
i nsul ated porti on and over i t kerol i te tape i s to be wound to avoi d corrosi on.
[28] If the servi ce wi re i s of copper and conductor i s of Al umi num, Bi metal l i c
P.G. Cl amp i s to be used for connecti on.
[29] Cutout, meter cover, meter termi nal s shoul d be seal ed.
[30] A meter card i s to be kept near the meter.



59


Internal connecti on di agram of meter









Fuse Grading:
Mai n swi tch fuse of consumer shoul d be of mi ni mum si ze but of
suffi ci ent capaci ty. The pol e fuse shoul d be of some more capaci ty than mai n
swi tch fuse. If we adopt thi s gradi ng procedure, the fuse next to the secti on wi l l
bl ow off. It wi l l hel p to fi nd out the faul t easi l y. So the fuse si ze shoul d be as per
the fuse gradi ng. Before gi vi ng the servi ce connecti on the wi ri ng of the
consumer s shoul d be tested i n presence of consumer or contractor. Thi s testi ng
i s to be carri ed out as bel ow:

Insulation Test :
[A] In between phase and neutral wi re.
[1] Al l swi tches shoul d be made on and the bul bs, fans etc. al l
connected l oad shoul d be di sconnected (Taken out)
[2] Neutral Li nk i s to be di sconnected.
[3] Connect megger between phase and neutral , dri ve handl e sl owl y.
Use 500 V Megger.

[B] Phase to Earth Test : Connect al l l oad whi ch was di sconnected
previ ousl y. Make al l swi tches ON. Connect (Short) neutral l i nk and phase l i nk of
mai n swi tch. Connect megger between thi s phase and earth wi re and di rve
Megger.
50
Megger Readi ng = ohm
No. of poi nts

The resul t shoul d be more than thi s readi ng: -
After releasing the connection, confirm whether meter is working properly.
Meter revolutions shall be observed. Thereafter fill up following details on the backside of the
test report.
1] Meter Number 2] Meter make 3] Meter Capaci ty 4] Ini ti al Meter Readi ng 5]
Purpose for whi ch the power wi l l be uti l i sed (for Tari ff purpose), 6] Date of
connecti on wi th si gnature. 7] Consumer s connecti on number. These detai l s
shoul d be wri tten on meter card. Keep the card near meter. Seal the meter
termi nal box and cut out. Take the si gnature of the consumer for date of
connecti on and seal i ng.



60


List of Material For Service Connection :
[1] Aeri al fuse (Ki t Kat) 15 A / 30 A.
[2] Wooden Board for fi xi ng ki t kat (L-Board)
[3] Cl amp and Nut Bol t (for Fi xi ng L-Board on pol e)
[4] G.I. Wi re 10 SWG/ 8 SWG (for servi ce and earthi ng)
[5] G.I. Pi pe or PVC Pi pe 12mm, 20mm or 25mm .
[6] G.I. Bend (i f pi pe end i s not bend).
[7] G.I. Coupl i ng (i f pi pe end i s not bend).
[8] Pi ece of Angl e (For support of pi pe).
[9] Reel i nsul ators (Bobbi ns)
[10] Bi ndi ng wi re (To fi x reel i nsul ator to G.I. Wi re).
[11] PVC Bushes (Both si des of pi pe).
[12] Proper si ze of servi ce wi re.
[13] G.I. Saddl es (for pi pe fi tti ng).
[14] Nai l s 50mm l ength (for pi pe fi tti ng).
[15] Meter Board (250mm x 310mm or 450mm x 450mm) for si ngl e phase and
three phases.
[16] G.I. Earthi ng nut bol t (70mm l ength 8/10 mm wi th three nuts and si x
washers).
[17] I.C. Cut out 15 A / 30A.
[18] Earthi ng wi re 16 or 14 swg (copper).
[19] Screws for fi xi ng Meter Board, Meter, cut out etc.
[20] Energy meter si ngl e phase/ three phase
[21] Fl exi bl e pi pe G.I. or/ p.v.c
[22] Insul ati on tape
[23] Kerol i te compound
[24] Seal wi re
[25] Seal Bi ts
For rel easi ng connecti on, materi al as above al ong wi th proper tool s &
safety equi pments shoul d be taken. Before connecti ng servi ce wi re to l i ne, i t
shoul d be made off, di scharged & both ends shoul d be earthed. Secti on fuse of
streetl i ght shoul d be removed and kept wi th & then onl y cl i mb on pol e for work.

Periodical Inspection & Maintenance of Service Connection

After rel ease of servi ce connecti on peri odi cal i nspecti on & mai ntenance i s
essenti al .
General l y the i nspecti on of the servi ce connecti on i s to carri ed out before
monsoon i .e. i n Apri l /May and after monsoon i .e. i n Oct/Nov. At l east two ti mes
i n a year i nspecti on i s to be carri ed out. Pre-monsoon mai ntenance i s requi red
as duri ng rai ny season due to rai ns and storms, faul ts may occur. Due to rai ns
servi ce connecti on damages. Hence post monsoon mai ntenance i s requi red

The i nspecti on and mai ntenance of servi ce connecti on i s to be carri ed out
as fol l ows: -



61


[1] Inspection of service wire: - The PVC coati ng of the servi ce wi re seems
good but the wi re mi ght be broken. It shoul d be repl aced, i f found broken.

[2] If the servi ce wi re found damaged wi th i n three years from the date of
connecti on, cost of the servi ce wi re shoul d be recovered from consumer
provi ded consumer i s responsi bl e for the same. If the wi re found damaged after
the three years, company shoul d repl ace wi re free of cost.

[3] Sag of the Servi ce wi re shoul d be 1% of servi ce span; i f i t i s more than
that the s/wi re i s to be ti ghtened.

[4] Tree cutting: - Tree branches touchi ng servi ce wi re or the tree grown
under servi ce wi re shoul d be cut so that at l east 1 meter cl earance i s
mai ntai ned. The servi ce wi re shoul d not touch or rub the ti n roof or cei l i ng of
house.

[5] PVC Bushes: - The pvc bushes provi ded at both end of servi ce pi pe
shoul d be i nspected. If l oose, i t shoul d be fi tted properl y.

[6] Earthing: - G.I. Wi re(Bearer wi re) shoul d be ri gi dl y connected to neutral
on pol e. Al so i t shoul d be ti ghtened at earthi ng nut bol t.

[7] The meter body earth, cut out, shoul d be ti ghtened at earthi ng nut bol ts.
Precauti on shoul d be taken that the earthi ng connecti on shoul d not be l oose any
where.

[8] Wire Connection: - The connecti on wi re shoul d be connected to l oop
formed on the overhead l i ne after properl y cl eani ng the contact area. Kerol i te
compound shoul d be appl i ed to thi s j oi nt and pol e ki t kat termi nal s. Ki t kat
contact screws shoul d be ti ghtened. Meter termi nal connecti on shoul d al so be
properl y ti ghtened to avoi d l oose connecti on. Four turns of i nsul ated porti on
shoul d be taken on l oop before maki ng connecti on on pol e.

[9] Kit Kat and Cut Out: - The contacts of the pol e fuse and I.C. cutout
fuse shoul d be i nspected and ti ghtened. Deteri orated contact shoul d be
repl aced. The pol e ki t kat should not be i n hangi ng posi ti on.

[10] Fuse Grading: - Mai n swi tch fuse, I.C. cut out fuse and pol e fuse shoul d
be properl y graded. If the mai n swi tch fuse si ze i s of 5A. Then I.C. cut out fuse
si ze shoul d be 7.5 A and pol e kit kat fuse si ze shoul d be 10A.

[11] Meter and Sealing: - Confi rm proper functi oni ng of energy meter. Confi rm
that the meter capaci ty i s proporti onate to l oad. If noti ced i mproper, report to
the authori ty. Meter termi nal cover and I.C. cutout shoul d be seal ed and the
si gnature of the consumer shoul d be obtai ned i n regi ster. Meter Gl ass shoul d be



62

cl eaned and confi rm that the readi ng i s vi si bl e. Check whether consumer No. i s
correctl y wri tten on meter board. If i t i s not cl ear i t i s to be pai nted. There
shoul d be meter card near meter, i f not new meter card i s to be pl aced there.
Consumer' s earthi ng shoul d be ti ghtl y connected to earthi ng nut bol t. The
earth resi stance of servi ce connection shoul d not be hi gher than 4 ohms. If
noti ced hi gher, consumer shoul d be asked to strengthen i t.

The service connection surveillance for preventing theft of energy and
misuse of electric power to increase Companys revenue.

Every l i neman shoul d be vi gi l ant regardi ng theft of energy and i ts i l l egal
use wi thi n hi s j uri sdi cti on
The i l l egal use of el ectri ci ty can be as fol l ows :
[1] Load extensi on wi thout permi ssi on. Many factori es, fl oor mi l l s etc.
connects l oad more than the sancti on e.g. 15 HP l oad i s connected agai nst 10
HP sancti on.
[2] Power used for commerci al purpose agai nst resi denti al sancti on.
[3] Use for l i ghti ng purpose from Industri al connecti on.
[4] Use for rel i gi ous or soci al functi ons from resi denti al connecti on.
[5] Reconnecti ng the suppl y at hi s own even though i t i s di sconnected
temporari l y.




63

CHAPTER-12
THEFT OF ENERGY

Many a times, it is found that the consumers found stealing electrical energy. It is
prime duty of Janmitra to avoid theft. Following modes of theft noticed.

[1] Direct Connection : Taps, makes connecti on wi th Company s servi ce
mai ns di shonestl y.
[2] Tampers a meter.
[3] Stops the meter or reverse the meter readi ng by breaki ng meter gl ass.
[4] Stops the meter by i nserti ng a pi n or sti ck through a smal l hol e made for
i t to the meter.
[5] Stops the meter by di sturbi ng the i nternal equi pments of the meter by
gi vi ng a sudden bl ow to i t.
[6] Reduces the speed of meter di sc by breaki ng the meter seal , and openi ng
the meter.

[7] Breaks the termi nal cover seal and reverse the meter connecti ons (Load
phase wi re to i ncomi ng suppl y phase wi re and l i ne to l oad wi re) thereby
reversi ng the rotati on of meter di sc, and readi ng.
The theft of energy i s a ' cri mi nal offence.
If the theft of energy or i l l egal use of power comes to the noti ce of
Janmi tra, he shoul d not di sconnect the suppl y wi thout pri or permi ssi on of the
authori ty. He shoul d not take l aw i n hands even though the consumer i l l egal l y
abstracts energy. He shoul d not di scl ose the matter and keep i t secretl y.
Confi denti al report shoul d be gi ven to the authori ty and obey hi s i nstructi ons.
Al ways keep i t secret that l ocal Janmi tra detected the theft. The offi cer
empowered by Company wi l l take the l egal acti on

Reasons For Disconnection Of Supply And Reconnection
Company i s empowered to di sconnect the suppl y on fol l owi ng grounds:
[1] Non-payment of bi l l i n speci fi ed ti me peri od.
[2] Il l egal extensi on of suppl y from one premi ses to another.
[3] Theft of energy.
[4] Connecti on of addi ti onal l oad wi thout permi ssi on of Company.
The competent authori ty gi ves i nstructi ons form ti me to ti me about
di sconnecti on or reconnecti on and i ssues noti ces accordi ngl y. Janami tra has to
serve these noti ces to consumers wi th dated acknowl edgement. Di sconnecti on
or reconnecti on of the suppl y i s to be carri ed out as per i nstructi ons.
Procedure for attending a consumers fuse-off call and safety equipments
required for the work.
Consumer shal l regi ster hi s compl ai nt i n a fuse-off cal l regi ster kept at
Company' s offi ce or Grampanchayat. Register shal l have fol l owi ng col umns i n
l ocal l anguage.



64

[1] Sr.No.
[2] Date and Ti me.
[3] Name and Address of the Consumer.
[4] Pol e No. and consumer number.
[5] Detai l s of Compl ai nt.
[6] Si gnature of consumer or hi s representati ve.
[7] Date and ti me of sendi ng the staff for attendi ng the compl ai nt.
[8] Name and desi gnati on of the person attendi ng the compl ai nt.
[9] Detai l s of i nspecti on and repai r work done.
a] Pol e fuse.
b] Cutout fuse .
c] Loose contact.
d] Carbon (Oxi dati on)
e] Whether the seal s opened for repai r.
[10] Si gnature of consumer' s representati ve present at the si te.
[11] Si gnature of the consumer after seal i ng I.C. Cutout.
After recei pt of the compl ai nt, Janmi tra wi l l attend the compl ai nt wi th
safety equi pments, tool s and fuse. Janmi tra shal l have fol l owi ng equi pments &
tool s.
1. Bamboo l adder 2. Insul ated pl i er
3. Insul ated screw dri ver 4. Zool a
5.Safety rope 6. Hand gl oves
7. Fuse wi res of di fferent rati ngs 8. Test l amp and l i ne tester
9. Kni fe, etc.

1. Whi l e attendi ng the compl ai n, check consumer s mai n swi tch fuse. If
found bl own repl ace i t and take consumer s si gnature i n regi ster.
2. If consumer s fuse not bl own, check I.C. cutout fuse. Repl ace i t, i f
found bl own.
If consumer as wel l as company' s I.C. cutout fuse are i ntact, check the
aeri al fuse & repl ace i f found bl own. Check the I.C. Cutout fuse and consumers
fuse gradi ng.
Other than above, there are fol l owi ng reasons for fuse-off cal l compl i ant.
[1] Loose connecti on wi th neutral at pol e, near pi pe end or behi nd the meter
board.
[2] Corrosi on (Carbon) at j oi nt on pol e.
[3] Breakage i n PVC servi ce wi re.
In above condi ti ons, suppl y shal l be di sconnected from aeri al fuse before
starti ng the work. If the work i s to be carri ed out on pol e, sel f permi t on L.T. l i ne
before starti ng the work shal l be taken.




65

CHAPTER-13
NECESSITY OF POWER CAPACITOR AND ITS CONNECTION.

As per company' s condi ti ons of suppl y, moti ve power consumer
(Industri al or Agri cul tural ) shal l mai ntai n the power factor mi ni mum to
0.90.Company i nsi st for i nstal l ati on of capaci tor. Power factor of 3 i nducti on
motor i s 0.5 to 0.6. Instal l ati on of capaci tor i mproves power factor. Power factor
means
Power Factor= Watts or Ki l owatts
Vol ts Amp. K.V.A.
Ful l l oad current of el ectri c motor i s about one and hal f ti mes i ts rated
capaci ty i n H.P. 10 H.P. motor consumes fi fteen ampere current at ful l l oad. If
proper capaci ty capaci tor put i n ci rcui t the same motor wi l l consume 12 Amp.
i nstead of 15 Amp. on ful l l oad. Thus current i s reduced by 3 Amp. due to use of
capaci tor. Si mi l arl y, 100 H.P. motor wi l l consume 120 Amp i nstead of 159 amp.
due to uti l i zati on of proper capaci tor. Use of capaci tor reduces l i ne l osses and
thereby commerci al l oss.

We experi ence that l i ne vol tage reduces as l i ne current i ncreases due to
i ncrease i n vol tage drop. Instal l ati on of capaci tors reduces l i ne current for same
connected l oad. Thi s i mproves the vol tage. Thi s hel ps to i mprove vol tage to
consumers. Capaci tors are of two types 1] L.T.Capaci tors, 2] H.T. Capaci tors.
L.T. capaci tors are of 440 vol t capaci ty. They are connected i n shunt wi th
moti ve power l oad. H.T. capaci tors used at 33/11 KV S/s are 11KV Vol t
capaci ty and they are connected through the ci rcui t breaker. If the capaci tor i s
touched even after di sconnecti ng suppl y, we get a shock due to the stati c
charge generated i n the capaci tor. Hence i t i s necessary to di sconnect the
suppl y and di scharge the capaci tor by use of di scharge rod before worki ng on
capaci tor. Thi s shoul d al ways be remembered.


Fol l owi ng tabl e shows the requi red capaci tor agai nst H.P.
S.N. H.P. Capaci tor Capaci ty
KVAR
1500 RPM 1000 RPM
1. 2 1 1
2. 5 2 2
3. 7 3 3
4. 10 4 4
5. 12 4 5
6. 15 5 6
7. 20 6 7
8. 25 7 9
9. 30 8 10
10. 35 9 11
11. 40 10 13
12. 44 11 14
13. 50 12 16
14. 75 17 21
15. 100 23 26





66

Fol l owi ng type of connecti ons made when L.T. capaci tors are connected wi th
el ectri cal motor.























Underground cable & service connection: - Now a days, di stri buti on
network i n urban area i s underground. Due to non-avai l abi l i ty of proper
cl earance, i t i s di ffi cul t to l ay overhead l i nes i n urban area. Mul ti -story bui l di ng,
heavy vehi cl e traffi c on road. etc. cause l ess cl earance. Hence i n urban area
and especi al l y i n corporati on ci ti es, for di stri buti on, servi ce connecti on, etc.
underground network i s l ai d.
Benefits of underground lines and service connections -

[1] Cabl es etc. are i nvi si bl e as l ai d under ground; i t does not affect
archi tecture of bui l di ngs and Ci ti es.
[2] There are mi ni mum i nterrupti ons due to storms, rai n etc. & al so l ess
mai ntenance.
[3] Acci dental damages and i nterrupti on due to fal l i ng of tree branches/tree
on overhead l i ne and dash of vehi cl e i s avoi ded
[4] Acci dents due bare overhead l i nes are avoi ded.
[5] The reacti ve i nductance of cabl e i s l ess than overl oad l i ne.
[6] Di sturbance to transportati on i s avoi ded.
[7] Cabl es are covered by metal l i c sheath, whi ch nearl y di mi ni sh di sturbance
to tel ecommuni cati on system.
Fol l owi ng defi ci ts are there.
[1] System i s very costl y. It costs about 3 to 5 ti mes more.
[2] It i s very di ffi cul t to detect defects or faul ts
By consi deri ng the total rel ati ve benefi ts and defi ci ts, the underground
system i s sui tabl e (Speci al l y i n urban area).



67


Underground Distribution Network

Survey shoul d be carri ed out for l yi ng underground cabl e. Whi l e deci di ng
the route, see that mi ni mum obstacl es are there. Cabl e shoul d be l ai d al ong the
road. Avoi d pri vate property whi l e l ayi ng cabl e and i n unavoi dabl e
ci rcumstances pri or permi ssi on of the owner shoul d be sought. Safe di stance
from underground drai nage, water pi pe l i nes, and tel ephone cabl es shoul d be
mai ntai ned.
After deci di ng the route, di g a cabl e trench hal f meter wi de & one meter
deep. The trench shoul d be as mi ni mum wi de as possi bl e but meter wi dth i s
requi red to di g up to one meter depth. Then a l ayer of 150mm sand made. Sand
shal l not be coarse. Lay a sui tabl e cabl e i n trench. Keep bri cks al ong the cabl e
at a di stance 1 to 2 i nch on both si des. Fi l l up the porti on i n between cabl e and
bri cks. Cover the cabl e by bri cks l yi ng i n hori zontal . The trench shoul d be
backfi l l ed by soi l neatl y. In order to know the exact route of the cabl e, cabl e
marker shal l be pl aced at vari ous pl aces i n route.
Whi l e crossi ng the road, cabl e shoul d be l ai d through G.I. / C.I./ Cement
pi pe.
Cabl e ends are drawn out of ground near feeder pi l l er or mi ni -pi l l er.
Sui tabl e l ugs shal l be cri mped at ends. The cabl e l ai d from di stri buti on
transformer i s cal l ed as "Feeder Cabl e". Then i ts termi nal end i s connected to
feeder pi l l ar. Feeder pi l l ar i s a mi ni di stri buti on box. Incomi ng cabl e i s
connected to fuse uni t. Ki tkat fuse should be of proper si ze. Out goi ng contacts
of fuse uni t are connected to feeder pi l l er bus bar. Two or three cabl es are
drawn from feeder pi l l er bus bar and routed to wherever necessary. Mi ni pi l l er
are pl aced at thei r end. The arrangement of mi ni pi l l er i s si mi l ar to feeder pi l ar.
Servi ce connecti on i s gi ven from mi ni pi l l er. Juncti on box can be connected i n
between or at end of the cabl e for tappi ng.
Lugs shoul d be cri mped at cabl e ends. Sui tabl e si ze nut bol ts shal l be
used for ti ghteni ng the l ugs at bus bar. Earthi ng shoul d be done properl y.
Pl ease do vermi n proofi ng to al l pi l l ers to prevent the entry of ani mal s l i ke
l i zards, etc. through the pi l l er hol es.
Heat generated i n cabl e i s di ssi pated due to the sand surroundi ng i t Al so
water oozes out speedi l y through i t.
Cabl e i s easi l y i denti fi ed whi l e di ggi ng as covered by bri cks al ong the
si de and at top. When bri cks are found, due care shoul d be taken whi l e di ggi ng
to avoi d damage.

Cables: -
Cabl es are used for underground network. Indi an Standard Insti tute has
l ai d down the standards for cabl es vi de No. IS-692(1965), IS 1554 Part II. The
cabl e carri es the current. It consi sts of conductor as wel l as i nsul ator.
Consi deri ng, al umi num or copper conductors are i nsul ated consi deri ng appl i ed
vol tage and current to be drawn. Provi di ng armori ng, metal l i c sheath further
strengthens i t. The conductor cross secti on i s deci ded, accordi ng the current to
be drawn and the vol tage deci des the i nsul ati on.





68

CHAPTER-14
TYPES OF CABLES

Cabl es are named accordi ng to the formati on, vol tage, materi al used. The
cabl es are al so named accordi ng to the use i .e. l ow tensi on, hi gh tensi on cabl es
etc. as per vol tage and si ngl e core, two core, three core, 3 1/2 core, etc.
As per the form of the i nternal conductor, ci rcul ar sector armoured,
unarmoured as per composi ti on and i n addi ti on gas fi l l ed, oi l fi l l ed, PLCC,
XLPE, PILC etc.
General l y, PLCC and XLPE cabl es are used i n H.T. network, and oi l fi l l ed,
gas fi l l ed for EHV Network. Proper cabl e end boxes shal l be used for these
cabl es. When the cabl e i s not used, i ts both ends shoul d be properl y seal ed.
PVC armoured cabl es are used for L.T. di stri buti on. Gl and shoul d be used at
cabl e end to have earth conti nui ty wi th armouri ng. Gl and provi des ri gi di ty so
that cabl e wi l l not swi ng and damage of i nsul ati on, l oose connecti on i s avoi ded.
Appl y m-seal to avoi d water entry i n the cabl e.
Lugs shal l be properl y cri mped at cabl e ends. Connect the l ugs by usi ng
nut bol ts and washer to avoi d l oose connecti on. Heat i s generated due to l oose
connecti on and i nsul ati on i s damaged reduci ng the l i fe of the cabl e. Whi l e
sel ecti ng cabl e capaci ty, factor of safety i s taken as 1.5.
General l y, there are two types of faul ts i s any el ectri c ci rcui t [1] Open
ci rcui t, [2] Short ci rcui t.
The open ci rcui t faul t occurs due to break i n conductor. The suppl y i s
di sconti nued due to open ci rcui t. Short ci rcui t means phase to neutral or phase
to earth faul t due to whi ch fuse bl ows, C.B. Tri ps. It i s very di ffi cul t to detect the
faul t poi nt preci sel y. Meggeri ng can detect the faul t. The faul t l ocati on i s
searched wi th faul t detector.
Strai ght Joi nt i s used for connecti ng one cabl e to another cabl e or after
removi ng smal l damaged porti on of the cabl e.


CHAPTER-15
MAINTENANCE

Necessity of Maintenance :- To reduce the faults in installation in normal & abnormal
conditions.
Types of Maintenance :- There are two types-
1) Preventive Maintenance.
2) Breakdown Maintenance.
Preventive Maintenance - Maintenance done prior to onset of Monsoon and after end of
Monsoon.
Breakdown Maintenance- Maintenance done on breakdown in the installation.
Fuse Grading of L.T.Line & Clearances :-
Fuse grading - Fixing of fuses of different capacities at different locations of line in the
proportionate of load.




69

CHAPTER-16
NECESSITY OF FUSE GRADING

If fault occurs in any section of the line, the supply of whole line will be interrupted
from transformer and consumers connected on that line would be suffered. Hence we fix the
fuses in ascending order from the fag end of line towards the transformer. At the end of line
we fix fuse of minimum size (as per load capacity) and higher & higher capacity of fuses
while going towards the transformer as the line load increases in ascending order towards
transformer.

Diagram :-















If fault occurs in last section i.e. in Breaker Section then the first fuse that is of lowest
capacity will be blown off and supply of the consumers up to point B will remain present from
the transformer so that minimum consumers would be affected.

Merits of Fuse Grading :-

1) Supply will be present up to the nearest tapping point from the fault location of line.
2) Less number of consumers will be affected.
3) Time required for fault finding will be less.

Note :- Similarly as per above if D.O.sets are fixed at different tapping points on 11 KV line
then
D.O. fuse nearer to fault point will blown off and only supply of that tapping line will be cut
and supply of other section of that feeder will remain present.

Tree Cutting :- All trees having height more than clearance as shown below are likely to fall
on line and hence should be cut.

The trees and fruit bearing trees of which height does not grows more than 10 feet
should not cut. The trees of which height grows more than 10 feet should be trimmed
suitably and safe clearance should be maintained.



70


Minimum Clearance of line from trees to be maintained as below :
Horizontal Distance Vertical Distance
Either side Fruit farm Cross contry
Line
Feet Meter Feet Meter Feet Meter
L.T. Line 3 1 3 1 3 1
11 Kv rural 15 5 10 3 15 5
11 & 22 Kv Trunk(Exp.) 20 6.4 10 3 20 6.4
33 Kv rural 20 6.4 10 3 20 6.4
33Kv Trunk(Exp.) 25 8.5 15 5 25 8.5
66Kv & above 25 8.5 17 4.5 40 13

`Clearances in Line & Guarding :-
Following clearances are to be maintained as per rule while constructing the line.
1) Distance between two poles of 11/0.4 KV Distribution Transformer- 2440 mm,
Phase to Pole-460 mm and
Phase to Phase - 760 mm.
2) Ground clearance of H.T. bushing for plinth mounted transformer- 4572 mm.
3) Distance from ground to Distribution box on pole - 915 mm.
4) Distance between two phases of 11 KV line - 1220 mm.
5) 11 KV Cross arm to be fixed on pole at 1220 mm. distance from Top (of the pole).
6) First lecing should be at 750 mm from pole in carpet or cradle type guarding. Similarly,
distance between two lecing should be 3 meter except road crossing.
7) Distance of 11 KV line phase from Guard wire at the center of span should be - 1220 mm.
8) When power line and Telephone line cross to each other, the minimum distance between
top wire of telephone line and guard wire should be 915 mm and lines crossing should be at
90 degree.
9) Guarding channel should be fixed on pole at the distance shown below:-
11 KV Phase to Guarding Channel - 685 mm.
22 KV -do- - 750 mm.
33 KV -do- - 840 mm.
L.T. -do- - 610 mm.
10) Distance between two phases of L.T. line should be kept as below :-
Horizontal formation - 300 mm.
Vertical formation - 260 mm.
Vertical Guarding should be fixed at 450 mm distance from pole. Distance between phase
wire and Lecing wire of vertical guarding should be maintained-50 mm.
Maintenance of AB Switch, D.O.Fuse & Distribution Box.- Generally it is assumed that
maintenance means, work to be done after failure of equipments/installation which is wrong.
Maintenance means work to be done prior to failure of the equipments/installation by
checking the same time to time.



71

While carrying out the maintenance of A.B.Switch (Air Break Switch) proper repairs
to be done after checking the following things.
1) Lock should be provided to AB Switch if not available. If lock is available see that it
should operate properly.
2) Pipe of AB switch should be in proper position so that blades of all 3 poles made on or off
at the same time.
3) Check whether it rotates properly at different positions while operating A.B.Switch.
4) Clean the carbon deposited on the A.B.Switch contacts by polish paper.
5) Change the contacts of A.B.Switch if they are deteriorated.
6) Observe distance between A.B.Switch blades in open position.
7) Check nut-bolts of A.B.switch for properness.
8) Ensure earthing is proper.
9) Ensure that there is no sparking when A.B. switch is in ON position.

Maintenance of D.O.Fuse :-
During maintenance of Drop out (D.O.) fuse following things are to be checked and
accordingly maintenance should be done.
1) Ensure proper tension in female contacts.
2) Change D.O. Fibre if it is damaged.
3) Change D.O.fuse fibre rod if burnt.
4) Ensure D.O.fuse capacity.
5) Ensure proper earthing of D.O.fuse.
6) Ensure proper operation of D.O. fuse.

Maintenance of Distribution Box -
1) Ensure self lock of Dist.Box for proper operation.
2) Ensure properness of doors and other sides of Dist.Box.
E) Note down whether kitkats are fixed properly. If kitkats are damaged, same should be
replaced.
4) Ensure proper fuse capacity fixed in Dist.box.
5) Ensure proper size of cable lugs and proper contact of lugs with contact strip.
6) Wrapping of insulation tape if minor damages to cable insulation.
7) Change cable wire if burnt.
8) Change insulation tape of contact plates if burnt.
9) Apply petroleum jelly on contact plates.
10) Ensure blocking of box holes.
11) Ensure proper earthing of box.
12) Ensure that main switch is operating properly.
13) Always keep box clean.
14) Always keep connections tight as box become hot due to loose connections.




72

LINE PATROLLING AND PREMANSOON MAINTENANCE.

1) Before starting patrolling divide the staff in groups.
2) Divide line in to sections and decide patrolling work to be completed by each group.
3) After completion of patrolling, patrolling report should be submitted by the Incharge of
group in prescribed format.

Format for Line Patrolling Report.
Section/Sub-Division- Month-
Name of line-
Sr.No. Date
Pole/Tower
No.
Circuit
No.
Observations Remarks











Name of person who patrolled
Date Signature


While patrolling the line following things are to be kept in mind.

A) Service line.
1) Check the service wire insulation and capacity.
2) Arial fuses should not be hanging.
3) There should be no carbon deposition in Area and Cutout.
4) Ensure that fuse capacity should be in proportionate of load.
5) Ensure availability of wooden bushes on service pipe openings & Alklathine pipe upto
meter box.
6) Ensure that earthing connections are correct.
7) Sag of service wire should be proper.
8) Ensure that no tree branches are rubbing to service wire.


B) Street Lights :-

1) No sparking marks should be observed on street light conductor and no cut strands
should be there in conductor.
2) There should be Arial fuse to every street light.
3) There should be wooden bush to the opening of street light bracket.
4) Street light bracket should be well fitted.
5) Check the street light holder, Nipples & reflector etc.



73

6) There should be no sparrow nest in reflectors.
7) Earthing of street light box and bracket should be proper.
L.T. Lines: -

1) Poles should not be in tilted position so that they will not fall down.
2) Nut bolts of bracket arms should be tight.
3) Insulators should not be cracked & chipped, binding should be proper.
4) There should not be loose or removed binding and jumpers.
5) Circuit fuse capacity should be in the proportionate of load.
6) Stay & Strut - a) Clamps should not be loose or slipping.
b) Stay wire should not be loose or cut.
c) Stay wire should not be connected to neutral.
7) Guarding should not be loose, there should be proper clearance of guarding from
phase wire and
8) Guard wire should be earthed.
9) Conductor- a) There should not be cut strands of conductor and loose joints.
b) Ensure proper sag of conductor.
10) Ensure that earth wire is not cut or not removed and earth resistance is within limit.
11) Nut bolts- There should not be loose nut-bolts.
12) Ensure proper tree clearance and no possibility of falling the trees on line.

H.T.Lines :-

Ensure all above points as per L.T.Line and in addition following things are to be
observed.

1) A.B.Switch - Contacts of A.B.Switch & Isolator Switch should be cleaned and lubricated
with grease.

2) Jumpers - Jumpers should be run through Alkhathine pipe at cut point.

3) D.O.Set- No cut & burnt fiber links should be there.

4) Horn Gap Fuse Unit - Ensure that fuse capacity is proper. Fuse wire should be properly
tightened.

Tong Tester & Megger :-
1) Tong Tester - Tong tester is used for measurement of current and voltage. When we can
not connect ammeter
to measure the current, we use the tong tester. In short we can measure current of cable or
insulated conductor by Tong Tester.
On Tong Tester knob for current scale setting is given. Suitable scale of current can
be set by this knob as per the range of current to be measured. Similarly the same knob (or



74

another knob) for voltage setting and measurement can be used by setting it on voltage/
voltage range etc.

2) Megger :- Megger is used for measurement of insulation value of lines, transformers,
breakers etc. After completion of measurement both terminals should be shorted to
discharge the voltage remained, otherwise there is possibility for getting shock due to this
voltage. Similarly while taking reading or while operating megger do not touch the terminals.

There are two types of Megger - (1) Motor driven & (2) Hand driven.

As per as possible Motor driven megger can be used for EHV lines. Before operating
megger, zero adjustment can be made by shorting both terminals. Then both terminals are
connected to the object of which earth resistance is to be measured. Then rotate the handle
speedily with constant speed so that generator will generate voltage. This voltage is given to
the coil and from coil current circulated through the insulation resistance connected in circuit.
Due to which Torque produced on pointer proportionately to the current circulating and the
value of insulation resistance will be same as shown by pointer. Insulation resistance is
measured in Mega-Ohms.

Megger Capacity and good I.R. values as below :-
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Equipment. Megger capacity in KV Minimum Insulation Resistance.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
S/s.equipments. 5 5000 Mega ohms.
EHV Lines. 5 10 -do-

H.T.Lines. 1 5 -do-
LT & Service Lines. 0.5 5 -do-
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Generally meggering is taken as below :-
A) Lines - Phase to Phase and Phase to earth.
B) Sub-station Bus (1) Phase to earth - C.T., L.A., Open Isolator.
(2) Phase to earth - C.T., L.A., Closed Isolator.
(3) Phase to earth - C.T., L.A., Breaker in ON position.
C) Transformer- Phase to phase, phase to neutral, phase to earth and H.T.Bushing to
L.T.Bushing.

Remember :-
1) Do not megger when humidity is more than 70 %.
2) Good Insulation- Megger reading increases first then remain constant.
3) Bad Insulation- Megger reading increases first and then decreases.
4) Expected IR value get on Temp. 20 to 30 decree centigrade.
D) If above temperature reduce by 10 degree centigrade, IR values will increased by two
times.



75

E) If above temperature increased by 70 degree centigrade IR values decreases by 700
times.

Figure of Megger.





























76

CHAPTER-17
VIGILANCE AND SAFETY

General Safety Precaution & Safety Rules :

Sel f care as wel l as co-worker s has utmost i mportant whi l e carryi ng out
el ectri cal works to avoi d mi shap/acci dent and thereby i nj uri es. The acci dent wi l l
not occur i f sel f safety i s observed.

Everybody should follow the following points :-

[A] Safety of the sel f [B] Safety of the Co-workers.
[C] Safety of the Publ i c [D] Safety of the Company' s Property.
Before starti ng any work, i f the worki ng condi ti on seems to be unsafe or i f
there i s confusi on, get matter cl ari fi ed and then take the work i n hand.

Please take following safety precaution before starting the work.

1] Do not consume l i quor whi l e worki ng or before comi ng to work.
2] Whi l e worki ng on l i ne avoi d cracki ng of j okes or any foul pl ay.
3] Checkout the worki ng condi ti ons of safety tool s and pl ants l i ke l adder,
hand gl oves, Zol a, safety rope / wai st-bel t, etc.
4] Make sure about safety precauti on.
Exampl e - Whether l i ne i s dead or not, Earthi ng i s done or not.

Basic Elements / about Safety Fundamentals:

1] Co-operati on of al l co-workers i s essenti al to avoi d acci dent.
2] Unsafe worker i s burden on the Company, as he may become the cause
of acci dent to sel f as wel l as to others.
3] Use of i ncompl ete or l i ttl e knowl edge i s dangerous and may i nvi te
acci dent.
4] Acci dent i s the resul t of unsafe worki ng condi ti on and unsafe work.

General Causes of Accidents :

a] Worki ng wi thout authori ty.
b] Doi ng work i n an unsafe way, such as throwi ng T & P/ l i ne materi al or
doi ng hasty work.
c] Usi ng hi gher capaci ty fuse or by passi ng the fuse.
d] Use of i mproper T & P Exampl e - usi ng pl i ers i nstead of Screw-Dri ver,
usi ng pl i ers i n pl ace of spanner, not usi ng i nsul ated pl i ers or screw - dri ver etc.
e] To work on unsafe or dangerous equi pment such as - cl eani ng / greasi ng
or adj usti ng any of runni ng m/c.



77

f] Di verti ng the attenti on of worker from hi s work or cracki ng j ocks etc. at
work pl ace.
g] Non-use of safety equi pments and T & P l i ke - l adder, Zol a, wai st bel t /
rope, hand gl oves, D.O. operati ng rod, Earthi ng rod, etc.
h] Worki ng i n i nsuffi ci ent l i ght

Precautions to be taken while working on live line / equipment :

1]Al l the el ect. ci rcui ts or equi pments are hazardous. Hence do not start work
unl ess fol l owi ng steps are taken -
a] Ci rcui t i s i n off condi ti on b] Li ne cl ear permi t i s taken on equi pment.
c] Equi pment / Li ne i s properl y earthed.
2] Every El ect. l i ne / equi pment shoul d be fi rst made off and take l i ne cl ear
permi t before taki ng the work i n hand.
3] It i s essenti al to get authori zed permi t on 11 KV and above vol tage l i ne. If
the l i ne i s under own authori ty, then take sel f-permi t.
4] Make sure that feeder / equi pment i s made off and properl y earthed as
noted i n l i ne cl ear permi t.
5] A.B. Swi tch shoul d be kept off and l ocked. If possi bl e, keep somebody
there for watch / ward.
6] Li ne shoul d be got di scharged and earthed by earth - rod at one pol e
before and after the work pl ace before starti ng the work.
7] Make sure that al l men and materi al has safel y reached / cl i mbed down to
ground after compl eti on of work. Further, make sure that no T&P l eft on the l i ne
and earth rods are removed properl y.
8] Whi l e operati ng A.B.Swi tch or other l i ne equi pments Hand gl oves shoul d
i nvari abl y be used.
9] Use the safety bel t or Zol a and wai st bel t / rope whi l e worki ng on l i ne.
Most of the acci dents / eventual i ti es can be avoi ded, i f above
i nstructi ons fol l owed whi l e worki ng or before worki ng on El ect.
Li nes/Equi pments. If proper attenti on i s gi ven, acci dent to the worker hi msel f
and al so the co-worker can be avoi ded.

Safety Equipments & Safety of Equipments:

We have taken the i nformati on of general safety precauti ons. Now
we wi l l see whi ch are the safety equi pments and how to use and where to use
the same. What care shoul d be taken for the safe use and safety of these safety
equi pments.
Fol l owi ng equi pments / T&Ps are known as safety equi pment and
the techni cal staff must use them properl y.




78

SAFETY EQUIPMENTS / T&P

1] Rubber Handloves:

Rubber handgl oves are mai nl y of two types and used for HT & LT
Li ne respecti vel y. The handgl oves meant for L.T. l i nes shoul d not be used for
H.T. Li ne work. Handgl oves shoul d i nvari abl y be used for fol l owi ng works -
1] For cl osi ng and openi ng of A.B.Swi tch and i sol ators.
2] For di schargi ng the HT & LT l i nes and equi pments, usi ng di scharge rod
and for Earthi ng work.
3] For i nserti ng and taki ng out of Di stri buti on box fuse and pol e fuse.
4] For operati ng transformer D.O. and Horn -gap fuse
5] For on or off O.C.B. operati ons.

Safety Precaution for Keeping & Handling Handgloves :

1] Use handgl oves, where i t i s essenti al .
2] Do not fol d handgl oves and don' t store them wi th other materi al .
3] Don' t keep any T & P etc i nsi de handgl oves.
4] Al ways keep gl oves cl ean and dry. Bori c Aci d Powder be used i nsi de and
outsi de.
5] Use gamaxi n powder for vermi n proofi ng of gl oves.
6] Inspect the gl oves careful l y for any cut or l eakage, etc. before use.

II] Bamboo-ladder:

1] Al ways use bamboo - l adder for cl i mbi ng on pol e.
2] Ladder shal l be of 6 meters l ength.
3] The l adder shal l be varni shed or oi l ed so as to keep safe from rai n /
water. Never use metal l i c col ours to l adder.
4] Metal - l adder shoul d not be used unl ess permi tted.
5] Onl y one person shal l cl i mb and work at a ti me on l adder.
6] Di scard the damaged l adder.

III] Discharge - Rod:
The di scharge rod shal l be used to di scharge the stati c and
i nducti on charge of the power l i ne after openi ng i t. The di scharge rod i s a pri me
i mportance safety tool , whi ch can safeguard from unforeseen dangers and even
fatal acci dent.
1] Di scharge rod shal l safeguard i n the event of openi ng l i ne other than
earmarked. The questi on wi l l not ari se to say " I was not aware of i t ' or ' I don' t
know how i t happened. ", because the di scharge rod wi l l safeguard from above
eventual i ty.
2] The use of di scharge rod safeguards us from al l types of back feedi ng
cases / eventual i ti es such as -
a] Consumer may start hi s generator set.



79

b] The l i ne i s charged by some mi schi evous or unknown person not havi ng
adequate knowl edge.
c] The area of T/F under shutdown due to faul t, the l i ne i s charged from
other source.
d] Power swi ng may cause chargi ng l i ne i f the guardi ng i s not provi ded at
l i ne crossi ng.
e] Li ne cl ear permi t i s gi ven, but forget to open the l i ne.
f] Operator may forget that the l i ne i s under permi t and he may charge the
l i ne for testi ng etc.
g] The change i n status of l i ne feedi ng i s not known to the operator after
returni ng from l ong l eave, etc.
h] The use of di scharge rod safe guards from above type of eventual i ti es.
The l i ne shoul d be treated charged unti l the neutral or earth wi re i s di scharged.
There i s possi bi l i ty of chargi ng of l i ne due to stati c charge, i nducti on or faul t
current. Hence fi rst di scharge the l i ne by usi ng di scharge rod.

Maintenance of Discharge - Rod

1] The rod shoul d not be kept i n wet condi ti on.
2] Ensure that the conti nui ty of al l wi res of di scharge rod i s i ntact.
3] Carbon deposi ted on Hook of the rod be cl eaned regul arl y.
4] The conti nui ty of wi res be tested regul arl y.




















Method of using Discharge - Rod

a] Confi rm the cl eanl i ness of the wi re ends/l ugs provi ded before use. Make
fi rm connecti on of wi res wi th earth poi nt by nut-bol t. Where use of Nut-bol t i s



80

not possi bl e then after rubbi ng the earth wi re wrap i t fi rml y to earthi ng.
Confi rmati on of the conti nui ty and good condi ti on of earthi ng i s a must.
b] Handgl oves shal l be used whi l e di schargi ng the l i ne by di scharge/earth rod.
c] While working on L.T.Line, first discharge the neutral and then phases. Thus the wire
of discharge/ earth rod shall be connected to earthing first and then discharge the phases
one by one.
d] The l i ne shoul d be di scharged at one pol e before and one pol e after the
pol e where to attend work.
e] The rods shal l be kept on l i ne ti l l the work i s compl eted.
f] After compl eti on of work and cl i mbi ng down the pol e, di scharge rods shoul d
be removed one by one usi ng handgl oves i nvari abl y. After removi ng al l rods,
Earthi ng shal l be removed.
g] After thi s, i f we noti ce that some work i s sti l l bal ance or some T&P, etc. i s
sti l l l eft on the l i ne, then Do not cl i mb on l i ne unl ess the l i ne i s di scharged
agai n. The eventual i ty often occurs wi thi n seconds, Hence don' t take ri sk or
don' t be hasty and work cal ml y and wi th concentrati on, wi thout any
di sturbances. There i s no any al ternati ve to di scharge rod.

IV] Insulated T&P:
Al l i nsul ated T&P shoul d be used as per correct procedure. Ensure
that the i nsul ati on of T&P i s i ntact before use. Insul ated T&P means
screwdri ver, pl i ers, tester, etc.

V] Zoola:
Al ways use zol a whi l e worki ng on pol e or D.P. etc. Ensure that the
rope of zol a, thi mbl e, hook, etc. are i n good condi ti on and then onl y start the
work.

VI] Safety - Rope:
Someti me the zool a may broke and worker fel l on the ground.
Hence whi l e worki ng on zool a, the worker must use a safety rope on wai st.
Confi rm the knot i s ti ght and other end of thi s rope shoul d be wrapped ti ghtl y
wi th the pol e to avoi d any mi shap. The rope must be i n good condi ti on, qual i ty
and si ze.

VII] Crash - Helmet:
Whi l e worki ng on pol e or on D.P., the nut bol t, cl amp, spanner,
pl i ers and other T&P may fal l acci dental l y on ground and on head /body of the
worker worki ng on ground. Hence the worker shoul d use the crash hel met as a
safety precauti on.

VIII] Welding - Goggle:
Duri ng wel di ng work, one must wear the wel di ng goggl es to avoi d
i nj uri es to eyes due to spark and i ntense l i ght of wel di ng.




81

IX] Fire - Fighting Equipments:
The bucket ful l wi th sand, carbon di -oxi de cyl i nders, etc., shoul d be
kept i n the substati on, offi ces, generati ng stati on, etc. so as to use the same i n
case of fi re.

X] Gumboots:
The gumboots must be used whi l e patrol l i ng, parti cul arl y i n the
ni ght or rai ny season to safeguard from snakebi te /repti l e etc. Al so, i t shal l be
used whi l e operati ng D.O. Swi tch / A.B.Swi tch, etc. al ong wi th handgl oves.

Safety of Equipments

The safe and ti mel y mai ntenance of the equi pments used i n the
substati on as wel l as on l i ne such as transformers, ci rcui t breakers, battery,
earthi ng, etc. i s a pri me i mportant duty of techni cal staff.

Transformers

In case of Power and Di stri buti on T/Fs, al ways take care that
the T/F shoul d not be over l oaded because i t can not sustai n the hi gher l oad /
current than rated capaci ty wri tten on Name-pl ates. The oi l l evel of the T/Fs
shoul d be watched for adequate l evel and l eakages etc. shoul d be avoi ded and
attended i f any. Lugs of Bushi ngs and j umpers etc. shoul d be properl y checked
and ti ghtened at the ti me of shutdown.

Circuit - Breakers:
For the safety of the l i nes and T/Fs, vari ous types of ci rcui t -
breakers are used. The ci rcui t breaker oi l shal l be tested and repl aced as per
manufacturer s i nstructi ons. The ai r/gas pressure of breaker shoul d be checked
from ti me to ti me and be fi l l ed i f necessary. The proper worki ng of mal e/femal e
contacts shoul d al so be got checked at the ti me of pre-arranged shutdown.

Sub-Station Panels

The regul ar mai ntenance of rel ay and control panel s shoul d be
carri ed out. Care shoul d be taken to avoi d l oose connecti on, unnecessary
openi ngs to panel . The vermi n proofi ng shoul d be done. The Earthi ng nut-bol ts
shoul d be ti ghtened. The Earth resi stance shoul d be measured quarterl y. It
shoul d be wi thi n l i mi ts as per IE rul es.

Safety of T&Ps

T&P used for erecti on and mai ntenance of l i nes and s/stn
equi pment, etc. shoul d be kept i n good worki ng condi ti on so as avoi d acci dents
and for l onger l i fe. For exampl e -



82

1] The rope must be wrapped and kept i n proper condi ti on. The rope shoul d
not be i n wet condi ti on. It shoul d be knot properl y. Damaged rope shoul d not be
used.
2] Avoi d overl oadi ng on steel rope, turfer m/c.
3] Don' t use spanner as a hammer.
4] Check zol a rope before use.
5] Ladder shoul d be varni shed regul arl y.
6] Handgl oves shal l be cl eaned. Use bori c powder before keepi ng i t i n store.
Do not wrap or keep any T&P i nsi de i t.
Proper care of T&P should be taken


Rules regarding permit and important notices / information :

1] General :
These i nstructi ons are gi ven for safe worki ng on el ectri cal
i nstal l ati ons. These i nstructi ons are gi ven for the safeguard of the worker
hi msel f and hence shoul d be fol l owed stri ctl y.
2] Permit :
Unl ess l i ne cl ear permi t i s i ssued by the authori zed person, worker
shoul d not cl i mb on pol e or apparatus. No one shoul d go i n the vi ci ni ty of bare
conductor and work.

3] Competent and Authorized Person :

[a] Onl y Shi ft Engi neer or Operati on In charge i s Authori sed to i ssue
permi t.
[b] The l i ne cl ear permi t shoul d onl y be i ssued to person dul y
authori sed for sai d work.
[c] The Competent Authori ty to authori se the person as (a) & (b) i s
Executi ve Engi neer of that di vi si on or Superi ntendi ng Engi neer onl y. It i s
essenti al to i ssue wri tten authori sati on order.

[d] The permi t can onl y be i ssued or obtai ned by such authori sed
person as (a) & (b) above for the work and j uri sdi cti on as prescri bed i n the
wri tten authori sati on order of Competent Authori ty menti oned at (c).
[e] The Wri tten Order of Competent Authori ty menti oned at (c) shoul d
i nvari abl y be di spl ayed on noti ce Board at concerned Sub-stati on, Power House
and Di stri buti on Centers i n speci fi c format.
[f] The consol i dated Authori sati on shoul d be kept at offi ce of the
concerned Superi ntendi ng Engi neer.
[g] The Superi ntendi ng Engi neer or Chi ef Engi neer of Ci rcl e / Zone
can authori se person other than stated above such as E.E. (Testi ng) or Testi ng
Staff (Or any other person who i s competent to work i n the vi ews of concerned
SE/CE)



83

The Area Authori ty shoul d i ncl ude the names of such
authori sed persons i n thei r l i st.
[h] The Area Offi cer shoul d obtai n the l i st of authori sed persons of
bul k consumers and area i n the vi ci ni ty and al so handover hi s l i st to them.
[i ] General l y, Li ne Inspector or Equi val ent post persons are authori sed
for the worki ng on H.T. Li ne / Instal l ati ons. However Di vi si on Engi neer may
authori se the person/persons of bel ow rank i f confi dent about hi s ski l l s.

[4] Method of Issuing / Obtaining and returning the Permit :

[A] For obtai ni ng l i ne cl ear permi t, the authori sed person shoul d appl y to the
person authori sed to i ssue l i ne cl ear permi t and such authori ty wi l l i ssue the
permi t accordi ngl y.
[B] Where i t i s not possi bl e to obtai n permi t i n wri ti ng then permi t can be
obtai ned on Tel ephone. In such case, the permi t obtai ni ng authori ty shoul d
confi rm by repeati ng the matter wi th permi t i ssui ng authori ty on phone. The
same shoul d be noted i n the permi t book by both the persons. The dupl i cate
copy of l i ne cl ear permi t after cancel l ati on be sent to each other by post / i n
person as earl y as possi bl e for record. Thi s regi ster shoul d be i nspected by
Area / Di vi si onal Offi cer from ti me to ti me.
[C] The permi t book i s an i mportant record and shoul d be preserved properl y.
The pages of permi t book shoul d be numbered seri al l y. Pages from thi s book
shoul d not be taken out or torn out or used for any other work. In case i f any
page i s torn-out or taken-out by some person due to any reason, then the
concerned person shoul d si gn on the same and make dated entry i n the l og-
book of S/stn./ Power House wi th si gnature.
[D] The person, who has taken the permi t, shoul d return i t. In case where the
permi t i ssui ng and obtai ni ng authori ty i s same, the sel f-permi t shoul d be taken
i n hi s name and cancel after compl eti on of work. Thi s procedure shoul d be
fol l owed stri ctl y.
[E] In case the permi t i s taken i n personal l y, same can be returned on phone.
However, the procedure as stated i n (a) above shal l be fol l owed as far as
possi bl e (Onl y i n event of Breakdown)
[F] Whi l e i ssui ng or returni ng permit on phone, the code words shoul d be
used.

[5] Precautions to be taken while issuing permit :

It i s the duty of the Shi ft Engi neer or person i ssui ng the l i ne cl ear
permi t to ensure that the S/Stn./Feeder/Equi pment for whi ch the permi t i s bei ng
i ssued, shoul d be made dead equi pment / feeder shoul d be di scharged and
properl y earthed.

Fi rst, he shoul d swi tch off the equi pment / feeder as per the
i nstructi ons l ai d down. Thereafter, he shoul d fol l ow the fol l owi ng i nstructi ons
regardi ng groundi ng and l ocki ng of equi pment.



84



[a] The H.T. and L.T. si de Control l i ng Isol ators of the step down or step-up
power T/F shoul d be opened (off posi ti on) and l ocked, at S/stn. respecti vel y and
the warni ng Board wi th fol l owi ng i nstructi ons shoul d be tagged on handl es of
i sol ators / breakers.

" Do not charge. Workers are worki ng."
" The l i ne / equi pment under permi t - Don' t charge."
" Attenti on - work i n progress - Do not change the l i ne / equi pment."
Further, the same type of warni ng Board' s shoul d be tagged on
handl es of control swi tchgear. Panel of ckt. breaker / T/f etc. The control ckt.
fuse of control panel shoul d al so be taken out and kept i n the custody of permi t
i ssui ng authori ty.

Al so, the L.V. si de breaker of the T/f shoul d be pul l ed out from the
breaker - panel .

The HT and LT Termi nal s of the T/F shoul d be permanentl y
di scharged usi ng di scharge rods and earth rods shoul d be kept as i t i s unti l
cancel l ati on of permi t.

[b] The Hi gh vol tage potenti al T/Fs and LA' s, i f erected on ground l evel , the
same be di scharged from outsi de the fenci ng and then earthed perfectl y.

[c] Out-door type ckt. breakers shoul d be fi rst di scharged from al l si x
termi nal s and then perfectl y earthed.

The both si des i sol ators of ckt. breakers shoul d be l ocked i n off condi ti on
and warni ng board be tagged to i ts handl e.

[d] In case of i ndoor type H.T. Panel s, P.Ts shoul d be made off, di scharged
and perfectl y earthed before permi t i s gi ven.

[e] Outdoor Bus Bar, i sol ators etc. and swi tchgear or compl ete secti on of Bus
Bar where l i ne cl ear permi t i s to be i ssued, shoul d be fi rst i sol ated from al l
equi pments and perfectl y earthed.

The i sol ated porti ons or parts shoul d be brought to the noti ce of person to
whom permi t i s bei ng i ssued and accordi ngl y noted i n the permi t.

It i s possi bl e that some part of i sol ated swi tch may remai n l i ve; the same
shal l be brought to the noti ce of person whom permi t i s bei ng i ssued and noted
i n the permi t.
Whi l e doi ng mai ntenance work above the ground l evel , the l i ve parts or
conductors may come i n the vi ci ni ty of the worker, such possi bi l i ti es shoul d be



85

brought to the noti ce of person whom permi t i s bei ng i ssued and i n such cases,
temp. screeni ng arrangements shoul d be made.

[f] At some pl aces, the transformers, i sol ators are associ ated wi th the
structure. In such cases, the cl i mbi ng on the fuse structure i s not advi sabl e. The
l adder shoul d be used for repl acement of fuses.

[g] Outdoor H.T. (Kiosk) :- The O.C.B. must be swi tched off i n case of
outdoor H.T. (Ki osk). The i ncomi ng and outgoi ng l i nks of OCB, PT and CT
shoul d be removed usi ng operati ng rod and di scharged. The bus i sol ators of are
i n l i ve condi ti on and thi s poi nt shoul d be kept i n mi nd.

[h] Indoor Cubical Gears :- The OCB shoul d be swi tched off. Use operati ng
rod to open l i nks and earth. The i sol ati ng chamber or i ncomi ng cabl e may be
l i ve and such cases shoul d be brought to the noti ce of person whom permi t i s
bei ng i ssued.


H.T. LINE

1] H.T. OVERHEAD LINE:-

The Ci rcui t/ conductor on whi ch work to be carri ed out, shoul d be
i sol ated by openi ng the CB and l i ne l i nks. In case of doubl e feedi ng ci rcui t,
swi tches of both the ends shoul d be opened and the earth swi tches of ei ther end
cl osed i f provi ded or l i ne shoul d be earthed l ocal l y before i ssue of l i ne cl ear
permi t.

If the feeders are control l ed through trunk type metal cl ad gears,
then gear must be separated from each other.

Where earthi ng swi tch i s not provi ded, conductors shoul d be
di scharged and earthed perfectl y.

2] H.T. UNDERGROUND FEEDERS: -

The procedure l i ke overhead l i nes i s al so appl i cabl e here. Further
before taki ng work i n hand i t shoul d be di scharged and earthed at speci fi c
poi nts.

3] The l ow/medi um pressure ci rcui ts, apparatus, equi pments, control
swi tches shoul d be opened and made el ectri cal l y dead. If ci rcui t fuses are
provi ded, they shoul d be separated or breaker uni ts shoul d be racked down. The
swi tches shoul d be l ocked i n off posi ti on and warni ng Boards shoul d be tagged
on i t.




86

Before starti ng work, the overhead l i ne conductors shoul d be perfectl y
earthed ti l l the work i s compl eted i n al l respect.

4] Where Apparatus/or swi tches are remotel y control l ed, the control ci rcui t
fuses shoul d be removed and kept i n the custody of permi t i ssui ng authori ty and
handed over to the person of next shi ft.

5] PERMIT LOG IN, ISSUE AND RETURN
PERMIT :

Al l the operati ons carri ed out shoul d be l ogged i n the substati on
l og book as per the sequence of operati ons. Al l operati ons carri ed out at Down
Substati on/ up substati on/other end person shoul d be l ogged i n.

The l ast operati on regardi ng i ssue of/ return of permi ts shoul d be
entered i n the l og-book wi th red-i nk. Duri ng shi ft change, the outgoi ng operator/
Engi neer shoul d gi ve the oral i nformation about pendi ng l i ne permi ts and l ogged
i n the l ogbook by red i nk al ong wi th other i mportant i nformati on about pendi ng
permi t.

The i ncomi ng operator/ Engi neer shoul d al so note about the
bal ance work and note i n the l og-book about permi t

Al l the sub-stati on operators concerned shoul d fol l ow the above
practi ce. Equi pment / l i ne shoul d not be charged unl ess permi t i s returned and
cancel l ed.

The person who has taken the permi t shoul d hi msel f return the
permi t to the person from whom the permi t i s taken or to the next duty operator
i f shi ft changes.

6] PRECAUTIONS TO BE TAKEN DURING THE WORK BY PERMIT
HOLDER :

[a] The permi t hol der shoul d ensure before taki ng the work i n hand that
equi pments / l i nes, swi tchgear, etc. on whi ch permi t i s taken, are dul y earthed.
If i t i s not earthed properl y, then the permi t hol der shoul d not permi t hi s staff to
touch the equi pment/swi tchgear.
The i nformati on such as the speci fi c pl aces where one shoul d not cl i mb,
the dead equi pments, l i mi t swi tches and structures etc. are brought to the noti ce
of the co-workers/staff.
The no entry warni ng Board' s shoul d be tagged on l i ne porti on or
on pl aces where cl i mbi ng i s not permi tted. The rope or red-fl ag can al so be used
at such pl aces.



87

When one has to cl i mb on any structure or equi pment, whi ch are i n
the vi ci ni ty of l i ve porti on, then permi t hol der hi msel f shoul d be present there
and proper gui dance be gi ven to the workers.

7] PRECEAUTION TO BE TAKEN WHEN WORK IS TO BE CARRIED
OUT ON LIVE EQUIPMENT OR LINE :
[1] Al l the ci rcui ts or equi pments are to be treated as dangerous one. The
work shoul d not be started unl ess the fol l owi ng thi ngs are done :
(a) Equi pment / Li ne i s made off.
(b) Permi t i s taken.
(c) Earthi ng i s done
[2] No work shoul d be carri ed out on l i ve l i ne or equi pment unl ess permi t i s
taken. If one or more phase at Di stri buti on Box i s made di rect, then worki ng on
i t i s dangerous. Hence i n such case, by openi ng the D.O. Li nk shoul d make the
same off.
[3] It i s necessary to obtai n authori sed permi t i f work i s to be carri ed out on
11 KV or above vol tage l i ne / equi pment. In case of L.T. Li ne under your own
authori ty, sel f-permi t shoul d be taken so that the chances of maki ng mi stake are
el i mi nated.
[4] Pl ease ensure that the feeders / equi pment menti oned i n the permi t are
made off and dul y earthed. The AB Swi tch shoul d not be opened on l oad and
taki ng permi t on i t i s a must.
[5] After openi ng the AB Swi tch, i t shoul d be l ocked and one person shoul d
be kept there. Pl ease ensure that the three phases of AB swi tch are opened.
[6] Before starti ng the work pl ease discharge and earth one pol e before and
one pol e after the work pl ace. Further, pl ease ensure that no T&P remai ns on
l i ne and then onl y earthi ng rod shoul d be removed.
[7] Hand Gl oves shoul d be used whi l e operati ng the AB Swi tch or any other
equi pment.
[8] After compl eti on of work, pl ease ensure that al l the workers on l i ne have
cl i mbed down and no T&P i s remai ned on l i ne. Then onl y the earthi ng rod
shoul d be removed.
[9] Al ways use the wai st bel t / rope and zool a when worki ng on overhead
l i ne.
[10] If the di fferent groups are worki ng at di fferent pl aces on l i ne at same
ti me, then cl ear communi cati on and understandi ng shoul d be establ i shed
between them and they shoul d be ful l y aware of work and i nformed cl earl y then
onl y operati ons can be started. Work shoul d not be carri ed out and l i ne shoul d
not be charged by fi xi ng some approxi mate ti me or by fi xi ng fi cti ti ous codes. Al l
the rel evant i nformati on regardi ng the network of l i ne, i ts changeover
arrangements, back feedi ng poi nts, unguarded l i ne crossi ng poi nts or pl aces
where cl earance i s very l ess, possi bi l i ti es of chargi ng of l i ne from another
transformer/l i ne shoul d be known to workers. In case of paral l el l engthy H.T.
Li nes, the hi gh pressure may be devel oped due to i nducti on effect. The spots of
mul ti pl e feedi ng poi nts or common street l i ght phase from 2 or 3 T/fs, shoul d be
ful l y known to workers. The possi bi l i ty of testi ng of street l i ght by workers and



88

from Panchayat / Munci pal i ty organi sati on from other source may be taken i nto
consi derati on whi l e attendi ng fuse cal l compl ai nts. The person who knows all
above possi bi l i ti es / poi nts i s the correct authori sed person to attend the work
on such l i nes. Al so the person who has cl ear knowl edge of poi nts from where or
up to whi ch poi nt suppl y coul d be made off and what are the dangerous spots,
and one who has suffi ci ent knowl edge of above poi nts and can i nform the same
to person taki ng permi t, i s the correct authori sed person to i ssue permi t.
[11] H.T. Handgl oves shoul d be used whi l e operati ng H.T. Swi tchgear. L.T.
handgl oves shoul d be used for operati ng L.T. Swi tchgear. The L.T. handgl oves
shoul d not be used i n any case for operati ons on H.T. l i ne because i t may
endanger one' s l i fe.
[12] Before removi ng the Earth connecti on, the di scharge rod shoul d be
removed fi rst. Al so earth connecti on shoul d be done before putti ng di scharge
rod on the l i ne.
[13] Al l the three phases of l i ne shoul d be made off even i f one has to work on
si ngl e phase onl y and sel f permi t be taken accordi ngl y.
[14] There i s danger at pl ace where two different l i nes are i n vi ci ni ty of each
other, because there i s possi bi l i ty of touchi ng the hand or conductor to l i ve l i ne.
Hence i n such cases permi t be taken on both the l i nes.
[15] Do not cl i mb on l i ne even for putti ng D.O. l i nks or don' t try to put D.O. by
cl i mbi ng on Di stri buti on Box or usi ng onl y hal f operati ng rod.
[16] Whi l e worki ng, one shoul d not wear wri stwatch or chai n (Metal l i c) on the
neck.

The Methods of Taking Self - Permit

When work i s to be carri ed out by the authori sed and competent authori ty
wi thi n hi s own j uri sdi cti on for i ssui ng the permi t, no hi gher rank authori ty /
person i s avai l abl e, then i n such cases, the concerned competent /authori sed
person shoul d take permi t i n hi s own name and cancel by hi msel f after
compl eti on of work. Such type of permi t system cal l ed ' Sel f-Permi t system.
However, al l the rul es and precauti on of i ssuance and cancel l ati on of
permi t shoul d be stri ctl y observed by person getti ng sel f permi t.

Accident and Prevention Thereof

Acci dents are never occurred acci dental l y but occurred due l ack of safe
condi ti on or due to unsafe worki ng practi ces.
In case of worki ng of El ectri cal Company/Board, the meani ng of
occurrence of acci dent means ei ther due to El ectri c current or on the l i ne. There
are cl assi fi ed i n two categori es. (1) Non-fatal and (2) Fatal acci dent.

[A] We Can Cl assi fy the Acci dents as gi ven bel ow so far as work on l i nes i s
concerned. For Ex. : (1) The acci dent occurred due to fal l i ng of pol es whi l e
stri ngi ng of conductor duri ng erecti on of pol es, erected i n non-al i gned condi ti on.



89

(2) Due to non use of proper stay or due to l ack of proper earthi ng, the l i ne
may be charged and acci dent may occur to persons or ani mal s.
(3) Due to l ack of provi si on of guardi ng at Road-crossi ng poi nts and crossi ng
of H.T./ L.T. l i nes may resul t i n acci dent.
(4) The l i ne comi ng to AB Swi tch or D.O. fuse i s not connected at proper
pl ace and proper way.
(5) Acci dent may occurs when servi ce connecti on i s not provi ded properl y as
per standard practi ce.

[B] Accidents occurred due to work carried out by unauthorised person:-
(1) Usi ng the servi ces of N.M.Rs for overhead work or for pl aci ng a fuse l i nk.
(2) Instructi ons i ssued to work on l i ve l i ne to the l i ne hel per.
(3) When fuse l i nks or meter cutout fuses are repl aced by consumer.

[C] Accidents occurred due to ignorance of proper working methods :-
(1) Proper precauti on i s not taken, whi l e worki ng on such pol e whi ch i s fed
through both si des i .e. at mul ti feedi ng poi nts.
(2) The ci rcui t on whi ch work i s to be carri ed out i s not ful l y and properl y
made dead, or street l i ght l i ne i s not made off.
(3) Proper precauti on / attenti on i s not gi ven when some phase i s made
di rect.
(4) Proper attenti on i s not gi ven to probabl e danger whi l e doi ng crossi ng
work of H.T., L.T. l i nes or carrying out work at crossi ng poi nts.
(5) When permi t i s taken but l i ne i s not made off and person sent for
patrol l i ng or cl i mbi ng on pol e.

[D] Accidents occurred due to non-use of safety equipment :
(1) Not usi ng the safety rope and zool a.
(2) Not usi ng of handgl oves or i nsul ated pl i er, screw dri ver, etc.
(3) Non - use of l adder whi l e doi ng work of street - l i ght mai ntenance.
(4) Non-use of di scharge rod, earthi ng rods at proper pl ace.

[E] Non-obeying of Standing Orders or not obtaining authorized permit :-
(1) To work on H.T. Li ne wi thout obtai ni ng proper permi t.
(2) Carry out work on T/f without openi ng of D.O. Li nks.
(3) Where there i s H.T. and L.T. l i nes on same pol e and starti ng of work on
L.T. Li ne wi thout taki ng permi t on H.T. Li ne or not maki ng L.T. Li ne off.
(4) Due to non-use of and l ock at AB Swi tch poi nts.

[F]Accident due to carelessness: -

(1) No proper attenti on i n gi ven whi l e erecti ng the pol e or duri ng stri ngi ng
l i ne.
(2) Non-use of safety equi pment.
(3) Whi l e doi ng work, the wri st watch or metal s/ metal l i c chai n of neck are
not removed.



90

(4) Work on l i ve l i ne i n over-confi dence.
(5) Doi ng work i n unsafe condi ti on or proper safety precauti on not taken.

[G] Accidents due to lack of regular or necessary maintenance:-
(1) Not gi vi ng proper attenti on to tree-cl earances.
(2) Non-mai ntenance of broken guardi ng or earthi ng.
(3) Non-repl acement of broken / ki tkats.
(4) Non-repl acement of worn out / cracked servi ce wi re.
(5) Proper and regul ar mai ntenance of T/Fs i s not done.

Way of Avoiding Accidents

[A] Responsibility of Super Visors :- Precauti ons to be taken by supervi sor
/ i nspector.
(1) Maki ng safe-condi ti ons and methods and use thereof.
(2) Confi rmi ng avai l abi l i ty of safety equi pments and use thereof.
(3) Proper mai ntenance of T&P shoul d be got done.
(4) Confi rmi ng that workers are doi ng work i n proper way and as per general
i nstructi ons.
(5) Al l otment of work to workers as per thei r capaci ty of doi ng work.
(6) If i t i s l earnt or observed that safety precauti ons and rul es are not
fol l owed up by workers, then i mmedi ate remedi al measures be taken and
i mpl emented accordi ngl y.
(7) Confi rmi ng that worker knows the fol l owi ng poi nts :
(a) About the work whi ch i s to be carri ed out.
(b) probabi l i ty of dangers be i nformed.
(c) Safe-procedure of work adopted by worker.
(8) Repeati ng the oral i nstructi ons and get i t confi rmed from worker.

Personal Responsibility : Observance of the fol l owi ng precauti on i s
the responsi bi l i ty of supervi sor / concerned staff.
(1) (a) Sel f-safety, (b) Safety of Co-workers, (c) Safety of outsi de persons,
(d) Safety of Board' s / Company' s assets.
(2) Confi rmi ng that worker / supervi sor knows about safety precauti ons.
(3) The doubts about rul es / procedures i f any shoul d be got cl eared from
hi gher authori ti es.
(4) Informi ng the doubts or dangers i n the work i nvol ved i f any by the
worker to i n charge of work and taki ng hi s suggesti ons.
(5) The i mproper condi ti on of Board' s equi pments or some dangerous
posi ti on i f observed, shoul d be i nformed to i n charge or supervi sor.

[B] Personal Behavior :-
(1) Smoki ng and l i quor consumpti on whi l e on duty i s prohi bi ted.
(2) Unnecessary tal ki ng other than work or cracki ng j okes etc. at work pl ace
i s al so prohi bi ted.




91

[C] Personal Precautionary Measures to be taken before starting the
work :-
(1) Al ways make practi ce to keep yoursel f al ert mental l y and physi cal l y. Al so
take noti ce of danger - boards / Marki ngs i f any at work pl ace.
(2) Work Safety : Overl ook i f somebody from worker al l eges about you that
you are of fearful nature.
(3) The work al l otted to you shoul d be got cl earl y understood.
(4) If some work i s done i n i mproper way and nothi ng has happened that
ti me, hence agai n doi ng the work i n same way i s not correct way of worki ng and
shoul d be avoi ded.
(5) Al l the T&Ps and safety equi pments be got checked before starti ng work.
(6) Due to i l l ness or physi cal weakness i f you are unabl e to work, then the
same shoul d be brought to the noti ce of supervi sor.

[D] Reporting of Accidents :-
(1) The report of acci dents i f any shoul d be i mmedi atel y reported to al l
authori ti es concerned and wi thi n sti pul ated ti me.
(2) Al l the acci dents shoul d be anal yzed for reason of acci dent.
(3) Keep the record of acci dents al ong wi th reasons, so that the acci dent i n
future can be avoi ded.

ELECTRIC SHOCK AND SAFETY MEASURES FOR ACCIDENTS

If any El ectri c Current passes through the body of the worker, then he
feel s shock and causes severe pai n. Because, i n event of passi ng of current
through our body the body ti ssues / muscl es get vi brati ons. The same i s cal l ed
' El ectri c-shock' . The resi stance of a general person' s body between two hands
i s about 1000 ohms, but i f both the hands are i n wet condi ti on, than the
resi stance becomes 150 ohm onl y. In case i f your hands are wet wi th sal t or
sal ty water, then the resi stance becomes 50 ohms onl y. Therefore, i n Bathroom
or at wet pl aces or duri ng rai ny season, the el ectri c shock wi l l be severe and
can cause fatal i ty.

The reasons of Electric Shock :
(1) Fl owi ng of El ectri c Charge through our body.
(2) El ectri c Vol tage.
(3) The porti on of body comes i nto contact of l i ve wi re. (Area thereof)
(4) Resi stance of human / ani mal body.
(5) Peri od of Contact.
(6) Hi gher the porti on or area comes i nto contact of El ectri c Wi re, the El ectri c
shock wi l l al so be of that magni tude.
When a current of 1 mi l i amp. to 10 mi l i . amp. wi th 50 cycl es frequency
fl ows through the body then the ti ssues of muscl es start vi brati ng and person
feel s el ectri c shock.
But the human body may sustai n fl ow of current up to thi s l i mi t onl y. If
el ectri c current of 29 mi l i .amp. (29/1000 Amp.) started fl owi ng i n the body then



92

the person body l ooses the muscl e control and he became i nj ured. In case 40 to
50 mi l i .amp. current fl ows through the body, then the respi ratory system of
person fai l s. In such cases, the person can be kept survi ved by usi ng method of
arti fi ci al respi rati on.
In event of such i nci dences, the fol l owi ng measure shoul d be taken:-
(1) Fi rst di s-connect the power suppl y and i f possi bl e send somebody el se for
di sconnecti ng the suppl y.
(2) The person i f under contact of l i ve wi res / equi pments, than do not i sol ate
hi m by hands or don' t try to i sol ate him away by standi ng on wooden pl anks.
Because even i f we are on wooden - pl ank, the ckt. i s compl eted through body
of person getti ng el ectri c shock and there i s possi bi l i ty that you may get
el ectrocuted.
(3) If a person came i nto contact with now or medi um vol tage l i ne /
equi pment than usi ng rubber gum-boots and handgl oves, the el ectrocuted
person can be i sol ated from l i ne contacts. However, confi rm that the thi ngs used
for such operati ons are dry and i nsul ated one. If the shock i s through H.T. Li ne
then the safety equi pments/i tems used for separati on shoul d be of that much
vol tage capaci ty i .e. H.T. Vol tage capaci ty, otherwi se don' t try to i sol ate the
person under shock.
(4) After removi ng / i sol ati ng the el ectrocuted person from l i ve l i ne /
equi pment, fi rst l oose hi s cl othes. Then take out the pan, Tobacco, Betel nuts or
arti fi ci al teeth from hi s mouth. If the respi rati on system has fai l ed, than try to
gi ve hi m arti fi ci al respi rati on i mmedi atel y.

(5) Following important points be noted.

(i ) Take remedi al measures i mmedi atel y wi thout del ay.
(i i ) Passi ng of ti me may cause i nto death of the shocked person.
(i i i ) Though al l el ectri c shocks are of fatal tendency, but ti mel y ai d and
remedi al measures may save the l i fe of the shocked person. Otherwi se del ay
may cause i nto certai n death.
(i v) The Heart muscl es remai ns l i ve up to 1/2 hour ti me after shock. Hence,
the arti fi ci al respi rati on may save the l i fe of the shocked person.
(v) Cal l the doctor/medi cal hel p i mmedi atel y.
(vi ) The arti fi ci al respi rati on shoul d conti nue ti l l doctor or medi cal hel p
arri ves.
(vi i ) The el ectri c shock wi th passi ng of 50 mi l i ampere current for more than 3
seconds, the Heart functi on gets fai l ed and resul ted i nto death.
(vi i i ) For fl owi ng of 10 mi l l i ampere current at 50 Hz frequency and suffi ci ent
enough to cause the fl ow of 50 vol ts through the body. Do not get pani c i n the
event of el ectri c shock and conti nuous try may save the l i fe of el ectrocuted
person.




93

First Aid to Electrocuted Person

(1) Appl y the burnol or furasi n type creams to burnt part of body of
el ectrocuted person and do the bandage. The wound shoul d not come i nto
contact of ai r. Hence the same shoul d be bandaged properl y.
(2) Keep the person warm by wrappi ng bl anket or coat. Do such thi ngs that
hi s body shoul d remai n worm enough.
(3) If possi bl e, both the feet of hi m shoul d be kept i n worm water.
(4) If the el ectrocuted person become unconsci ous then do not gi ve hi m any
dri nk / water etc.
(5) Do not gi ve hi m any toxi c dri nk unl ess doctor permi ts.
(6) Arrange i mmedi atel y for gi vi ng arti ci fi ci al respi ratory system.
(7) After the person become consci ous pl ease do the fol l owi ng thi ngs :
(a) Enough quanti ty of water mi xed wi th Soda-bi -carbonate be gi ven to
the el ectrocuted person.
(b) Gi ven hi m tabl e-sal t i nhal i ng.
(c) If hi s throat i s i nj ured or he has pai ns i n throat, no any dri nk / water be
gi ven unl ess otherwi se advi sed by doctor.
(d) If the person passes the uri ne, than keep the uri ne - sampl e for
pathol ogi cal tests.
(e) Arrange i mmedi atel y to cal l doctor and arti fi ci al respi ratory system
shoul d be kept conti nued.
(f) Don' t try to do anythi ng whi ch can cause mental / physi cal stress ti l l
the doctor i s avai l abl e.
(g) If the person becomes normal then al l ow hi m to take rest, the tea
shoul d be gi ven.

Treatment on Electrocution (Artificial Respiratory System)

(1) Fi rst shut-off the el ectri c suppl y i f somebody i s el ectrocuted. Thi s shoul d
be done i mmedi atel y. If not possi bl e, don' t waste ti me i n searchi ng of swi tches
etc.
(2) Isol ate the person from el ectri c suppl y. Whi l e doi ng so, you shoul d keep
yoursel f safe. Rest on i nsul ated i tem/ pl ace l i ke rubber matti ng, dry wooden
pl ank or l i nol i um.
Al ways use Rubber Handgl oves, dry wooden baton or dry rope or dry
cotton. If the person' s respi rati on i s stopped then arrange to gi ve hi m arti fi ci al
respi rati on. The same shoul d be gi ven ti l l the person' s respi rati on starts.

There are fol l owi ng types of methods used for Arti fi ci al respi rati on :

1] Mouth to Mouth Procedure : In thi s system fi rst standup near the head
of el ectrocuted person or si t on hi s knee. Hi s head shoul d be kept i n down
posi ti on by one hand and by other hand l ift hi s l ower j aw and you i nhal e the
deep breath and keep your opened mouth on the mouth of el ectrocuted person.
Cl ose hi s both nostrai l s of hi s nose by one hand and exhal e your breath i nto the



94

l ungs of subj ect person sl owl y. By doi ng so, see whether hi s chest get expanded
or not. Then keep your mouth away and agai n i nhal e deep breath i n your l ungs
and repeat the procedure as menti oned above. Try to repeat such arti fi ci al
respi rati on about 10 to 12 ti mes i n a mi nute. If there i s some di ffi cul ty i n doi ng
so, try to push more the persons head and agai n pul l the l ower j aw. If agai n you
fi nd i t di ffi cul t to gi ve hi m thi s treatment, than see whether the l i ps of the person
are open and try to see i f the teeth are j ammed, i f so, then use the nose to
mouth method.

2] Nose to Mouth System : If the above procedure i s not possi bl e than try
to use nose to mouth system. In thi s system stand up near head of person or si t
on hi s knees. Push hi s head ful l y to down si de and pul l up the l ower j aw of
person. Then i nhal e deep breath and after openi ng the l i ps cover the nose of
person ful l y.
By other hand cl ose the mouth of the person ti ghtl y and exhal e the breath
from your mouth i n to the nose of person sl owl y so that ai r enter hi s l ungs. See
i f hi s chest gets expanded. The same procedure be repeated 10 to 12 ti mes i n a
mi nute. When the person starts breathi ng hi s own, then gi ve hi m such breathi ng
i n a synchronous way and see i f hi s chest gets expanded.
When person comes to comfortabl e posi ti on, al l ow hi m ful l rest. Put hi m
on a stretcher and see that no any di ffi culty comes i n hi s respi ratory system. Hi s
body shoul d be wrapped i n a cumbl e or bl anket and keep hi m worm.
The unconsci ousness posi ti on due to el ectri c shock may cause damage to
hi s heart. Thus every worker / engi neer shoul d know thi s method and try to get
trai ni ng of such procedures.

Note :
(1) If the practi ce of nose to mouth i s requi red to be done, then the ai r wi l l go
sl owl y, to the el ectrocuted person. Hence thi s system i s more safe and i n case
when the nose of the person el ectrocuted i s very narrow then the system of
mouth to mouth shoul d be adopted.
(2) If i t i s observed that the throat of person i s very narrow or cl osed due to
some obj ect, then the same shoul d be cl eaned by fi ngers.
(3) In case, the teeth of the person are ti ghtl y cl osed, then use the nose to
mouth system.
(4) If possi bl e keep a thi n handkerchi ef on the mouth of the person for usi ng
mouth to mouth procedure.
(5) For i nfant or young chi l dren i f affected, then use the bl ow of ai r from our
mouth. Send at l east 20 ti mes per mi nute respi rati on of whi ch respi rati on shoul d
be done.
(6) In case, when we have to use thi s arti fi ci al respi rati on on pol e, then fi rst
safeguard yoursel f from the l i ve parts and al so safeguard yoursel f from comi ng
i nto the contact of el ectrocuted person i f he i s sti l l under shock. Stand careful l y
i n such a way on pol e by usi ng safety bel t so that we pl ace our mouth on the
mouth / nose of el ectrocuted person.



95

Always remember that :-
(1) Stop the bl owi ng of ai r i nto the mouth of person, i f hi s chest i s expanded.
(2) There i s a possi bi l i ty that due to bl owi ng of ai r i nto the stomach of
person, the bl ood suppl y to heart may reduce or vomi ti ng sensati on may occur.
(3) Take out the ai r from stomach sl owl y. So we have now l earnt the
procedure of arti fi ci al respi rati on mouth to mouth or mouth to nose. Now we wi l l
see that how the arti fi ci al respi rati on can be done by way of muscul ar movement
or wi th hel p of some equi pment.

Three Systems of artificial respiration :-
(1) Hol ger Nel son System : In thi s procedure, fi rst l ay down the person i n
downward posi ti on and keep hi s hands on back i n crossed posi ti on, and on that
hand, keep hi s neck i n one si ded posi ti on and gi ve pressure l i ghtl y. Both the
shoul der of person. Keep our ri ght si de knee near the head of the person and
the feet near the el bow of affected person. Put our pal ms on the back of
affected person i n such a way that our thumbs of both hands rest on back-bone
of person and the other porti on of pal ms rests on bal ance porti on of back si de of
person. Then start gi vi ng l i ght pressure by both the pal ms on back of affected
person and keepi ng thi s posi ti on for 2.5 seconds durati on and then start
rel easi ng pressure sl owl y from back. Now hol d the arms of crossed - hands of
person and put hi s hands i n upward posi ti on and pul l them forward. In thi s way,
the procedure shoul d be repeated 10 to 12 ti mes permi nute ti l l the person starts
breathi ng on hi s own.

(2) Sheffer system (exhal e ai r outsi de) :
In thi s system al so l ay down the person i n downward posi ti on and keep
some pi l l ow / or cl othes bel ow hi s head and put hi s neck on one si de. Now l ay
the knees and on the back si de of wai st, bri ng the thumb of hands i n such a way
that both the thumbs are near to each other. Pl ace your fi ngers of hands on
back si de of persons fore-arm from both si des. Bowdown on person sl owl y.
Whi l e doi ng so, gi ve the constant pressure on back of person.

Inhaling the Breath :

Gi ve a ti l t to back si de of person i n such a way that your hands remai n on
hi s back. For exhal i ng the breath keep your hands on back of person i n the
same posi ti on. Keep conti nue both the works si mul taneousl y. Thi s si mul taneous
procedure i s to be done wi th rate of 15 ti mes per mi nute. The reason behi nd thi s
i s to keep the respi rati on conti nuous of el ectrocuted person through the
expansi on and contracti on of l ung muscl es. The person doi ng thi s functi on
shoul d breath sl owl y for exhal i ng and i nhal i ng acti on by pushi ng / pul l i ng the
el ectrocuted person and he can see the effects of thi s acti on and amount of
pressure wi l l mai ntai n and wi l l resul t i nto synchroni zati ons of breathi ng of
affected person. Thi s procedure shoul d keep conti nued ti l l the person
el ectrocuted starts breathi ng of hi s own.



96

Thi s exerci se may take 1/2 hour or more to get proper effect of
respi rati on. The subj ect system descri bed above i s consi dered as best system.
The pressure shoul d be 20 to 25 pound magni tude.

(3) Si l verester' s System :

Lay down the el ectrocuted person i n upward posi ti on. Loosen the cl othes
on hi s chest and stomach. A pi l l ow shoul d be pl aced bel ow hi s shoul ders i n
such a way that the neck and head of the affected person wi l l be i n some what
downward posi ti on. Then pul l hi s tongue outsi de. The person gi vi ng treatment
shoul d si t on hi s knees near the affected person. Keep the hands of the person
bel ow the el bow and pul l hi s hands ti l l i t becomes paral l el to earth. Thi s
treatment shoul d be gi ven for 3 seconds. After that, bri ng both the hands of
person bel ow hi s chest and press the chest to i nsi de posi ti on. Thi s acti on
shoul d be gi ven for 2 seconds. Thus the procedure be repeated 10 to 12 ti mes
per mi nute. In thi s system si nce the head of the affected person remai n i n
upward posi ti on, the effect or acti on of arti fi ci al respi rati on can be seen
i mmedi atel y. If the persons treati ng the affected person, are more one, that
duri ng every acti on, the tongue of the person be pul l ed upward when l ungs get
expanded and push i t i nsi de, when the l ungs get contracti on.

Note :- For man, gi ve 20 to 25 pound pressure for 10 to 12 ti mes. In case
of women and chi l d, the pressure shoul d be 10 to 15 pounds for 10 to 12 ti mes
per mi nute. For very young chi l d or i nfant, the pressure shoul d be 15 ti mes per
mi nute.
Thi s procedure be kept conti nued ti l l the affected person starts taki ng
breath of hi s own.

FIRST AID

The fi rst-ai d i s a pri me - i mportance i n event of any acci dent. Hence,
everybody shoul d know the methods of fi rst ai d.
(1) Bri ng the affected person at peaceful and ai ry pl ace and care shoul d be
taken that he shoul d not get suffocated.
(2) Al l the parts of body of affected person be kept i n strai ght posi ti on and
shoul d be l ai d down on even spot.
(3) If he got head i nj ury than l ay down the affected person i n such a way that
hi s head rest i n upward posi ti on.
(4) If he i s havi ng troubl e i n proper respi rati on, then he shoul d be kept i n
si tti ng posi ti on.
(5) If he i s i n the epi l apti c condi ti on, then l ay down hi m ensuri ng that hi s
head i s bel ow the l evel of hi s body.
(6) If he i s havi ng wounds, then take water i n one smal l bucket and add 4
drops of Iodi ne i n i t to make i t anti -bacteri al and wash the wounds neatl y and
careful l y and dry i t. Then appl y the i odi ne on wounds and wrap i t by medi cated
/anti bacteri al cotton.



97

There are four types of bl eedi ng through i nj uri es :
(1) Mi nor bl eedi ng.
(2) Bl eedi ng through artery or mai n bl ood ci rcul atory system.
(3) Bl uenen or bl eedi ng from vai n.
(4) Internal bl eedi ng.
(A) If the bl eedi ng i s of (1) or (3) type, then fi rst ti ghtl y wrap the part of
body before and after of wound so as to stop the bl eedi ng. In case the bl eedi ng
i s of i nternal type such as i n stomach, from brai n or trough l ungs etc. then we
can not see such type of bl eedi ng. However, i t can be seen i n the vomi ti ng or
spi ti ng of i nj ured person. The i nternal bl eedi ng i s very dangerous rather than
external bl eedi ng. In such si tuati on gi ve hi m the col d water or i ce and arrange
for i mmedi ate medi cal hel p. The excessi ve bl eedi ng after i nj ury may cause
death rather than bl eedi ng from wounded spot. Hence arrangi ng i mmedi atel y for
medi cal hel p i s MUST.

(B) Inj uri es to Bones : In event of some acci dents, the bones of the
body may brea, and the ti p of the broken part may come out al ong wi th wound.
In such cases, fi rst try to stop bl eedi ng wi thout touchi ng the wounded part. Then
try to j oi n the broken bones by pushi ng from both the si de of wound or broken
poi nt. Whether i t i s effecti ve or not always wrap the broken body part resti ng on
wooden pl ank and take the i nj ured to hospi tal as earl y as possi bl e and i f the
bones of l egs are broken then the i nj ured person shoul d be taken on structure.

(C) Inj uri es due to Burni ng : In some types of acci dents, there may be
i nj uri es due to burni ng. Then never use the i odi ne on such wounds, i nstead we
shoul d use soft cl oth whi ch shoul d be di pped i n the sol uti ons backi ng soda wi th
water. Stri ps of such type of cl oth be used for such burni ng i nj uri es. If the burn
i nj uri es are more, then appl y the ol i ve oi l on the same.
If the burn i nj uri es are due to aci d acti on then we shoul d fi rst wash and
cl ean the wound usi ng backi ng soda water. The burn i nj ury i s due to carbol i n-
aci d the such i nj uri es be cl eaned and washed by spi ri t.


The fol l owi ng medi ci nes / i tems shoul d be kept i n fi rst-ai d-box :
(1) Smal l si ze dressi ng cotton / patty.
(2) Medi um si ze dressi ng patti .
(3) Large si ze dressi ng patti .
(4) Yel l ow patti or dressi ng pad for burn i nj uri es.
(5) Cl ean and sterl i sed cotton pads.
(6) Ti ncture - i odi ne.
(7) Pottessi um permagnate.
(8) Sol -vi ol ate spi ri t (for smel l i ng of unconci ous person)
(9) Adhesi ve pl aster.
(10) Eye drops.
(11) Bori c powder.
(12) Tourni quet.



98

(13) Three angl e bandage (i n case of Broken bone)
(14) Safety pi ns
(15) Soda-Bi -Carbon.
(16) 2 or 3 wooden pl aques.
(17) Tabl ets of Aspi ri n
(18) Bottl e of Dettol
(19) Bottl e of spi ri t
(20) Sci ssor / kni fe etc.











99

CHAPTER-18
FIRE FIGHTING EQUIPMENTS


The Chapter IV in Indian Electricity rules, specifies the General Safety
precautions required to be taken by supplier of Electrical Energy. The rules regarding
Fire-fighting equipment, First-aid box and Treatment for electric shock are produced
below.
Rule No. 43 : Provisions Applicable To Protective Equipment.
1) Fire buckets filled with clean dry sand and ready for Immediate use for
extinguishing fires, In addition to fire extinguishers suitable for dealing with
electric fires, shall be conspicuously marked and kept in all generating stations,
(enclosed sub- stations and switch stations) In convenient situations.
2) First-aid boxes or cupboards, conspicuously marked and equipped with such
contents, as the State Government may specify, shall be provided and maintained in
every generating station, enclosed sub-station and enclosed switch station so as to
be readily accessible during a11 working hours. All such boxes and cupboards shall,
except in the case of unattended sub- station and switch station, be kept in charge of
responsible persons who are trained In first-aid treatment and one of such persons
shall be available during working hours.
Rule No. 44 : Instructions For Restoration or Persons suffering from Electric
Shock.
1) Instructions, In English, Hindi and the local language of the district, for the
restoration of persons suffering from electric shock, shall be affixed by the owner
in B conspicuous place in every (Generating station, enclosed sub- station,
enclosed switch- station and in every factory as defined in clause (tn) of Section
2 of the Factories Act, 1948 (LXIII of 1948) In which electricity is used and in
such other premises where electricity is used as the Inspector ( or any officer
appointed to assist the Inspector, may by notice In writing served on the owner
direct.
2) Copies of the Instructions shall be supplied on demand by an officer or
officers appointed by the Central Government or state Government in this behalf at
a price to be fixed by the Central or state Government.
3) The owner of every generating station, enclosed switch station and every
factory or other premises to which this rule applies shall ensure that all authorized
persons employeed by him are acquainted with and are competent to apply the
instructions referred to in sub-rule (1)
The Information about different types of fire-extinguishers, their Installation,
maintenance and testing is given below for guidelines. '
At all our E.H. V., H. V. substations, we do have some fire fighting equipment
Installed.
In order to have uniform practices everywhere, the fire fighting equipments to
be provided for (I) Major substations viz 66 KV and above (II) Minor sub-
stations 33 KV and below. (III) Central Stores etc. have been standardized vide
DOR Circular No. DR/FF/554136 dt.21.11.66.
Carbon dioxide (CO2) Extinguisher 15 Litters or C. T. C. of quivalent capacity 2
Litters (1) 66 KV and above Substations
(I) Transformers - One for the first -2 transformers.
One for every additional 2 transformers or less.
(2) OCBs One for the first 2 E.H.V. bulk oil circuit breakers. Ono for every
additional 2 E.II.V O.C.Bs or less



100

b) One for the first 3 E.H.V,. air blast circuit breaker (ABCBs) or Min. oil
circuit breakers - one for every additional 3 E.H.V. ABCBs or less,
Note.:- Where O.C.B.s and ABCB's are both in service in a substation ,they may
be either treated as OCBs or ABCBs depending upon which ever are more.
(3) 33 KV line bus-one if OCBs or ABCB's are in service.
(4) 11 Kv line bus -one If OCBs or ABCB's are service.
(5) Control panel -one for the panel.
In addition to above, one/two 50 lbs, trolley mounted CO2 fire extinguisher may
provided for all the
above category of substations having 3 EHV transformers or more in service.


Sand and water buckets:
At every E.H.V. substation 6 Nos. each round bottomed sand buckets water
buckets hung on stand
may be prescribed just outside
the control houses door
leading to the yard. The
buckets may
he painted
from out side
raid paint and fire work written
on them.
ii 33 and 11 KV substation

I. Transformers

I. Foam extinguisher : Should be used on fires involving Inflammable liquids.
e.g. petrol,
varnish etc.
II. Soda Acid extinguisher : Should not be used on fires involving electricity or
inflammable
liquids.
III. CTC and carbon dioxide : CTC and carbon dioxide extinguisher should be only
used for
electrical fires, These shall be kept In cable bays,
switch yard
and control rooms and also in other places where
there Is
(Iv) Sand and water buckets
B) First Aid Boxes.
,This shall be conspicuously marked and equipped with all contents. This should be
readily accessible during all working hours. This shall be kept In charge of responsible
persons who are trained In first aid treatment and one of such persons shall be available
during working hours.
The Instructions contained regarding (I) Different type of extinguishers (II) Use of
extinguisher (III) Inspection & testing equipment & (Iv) Maintenance of fire fighting equipment
shall be got noted by all the staff attached to sub-station.
DIFFERENT TYPE OF EXTINGUISHERS AND ITS USES:
: One for the first 2,transformers.
One for every additional 2 Transformers or less.
: Where O.C.Bs are Installed, one In coming side
bus and
the other one out going side bus.
: Where Indoor Breakers are installed, alleast 2 Nos.
. to be provided.

: As at I
(II) O.C.Bs
(III) Control
room



101

Likelihood of fire. When the current is switched off,
tile fire
should be treated as an ordinary fire.
IV. Fire Hydrants : The fire hydrants should be operated only after the power supply
is cut off to the transformer and other equipments. It is also necessary to keep some
foam powder and foam branch pipe for use in case of oil fire in the substation.
V. All the extinguisher should have the following information
a) Serial Number b) Date of charge c) Date of test
A history sheet for each extinguisher in service should be maintained giving
a) Source of Receipt
b) Date of Receipt
c) Date initial charge
d) Date of subsequent charges.
e) Date of hydraulic test carried out.
f) Date of subsequent painting
g) Date when repairs, overhauling work carried out so as to ensure that
the extinguishers installed all over the premises are kept in serviceable condition. .

INSTRUCTIONS REGARDING USE OF EXTINGUISHERS:

Water and sand buckets:
(i) About 2/3
rd
of the bucket should be filled with
water.
(ii) Only loose sand will be filled for about 2/3 capacity of the bucket. No water
will be poured on the bucket Sand if becomes heap will be made loose or replaced.
(iiI) Buckets will not be removed from the fire points except for fire fighting and
water/sand filling therein and shall not be used for any other purposes. This shall be
replaced Immediately after the practices.
II. Foam extinguishers:
(I) To operate: (Operated by one man)
Release locking device on top of extinguisher. Grasp
extinguisher by handle and base, invert, keep Inverted
and direct jets of foam so that a blanket is formed on the
surface or burning liquid

(II) Recharging: Refill consists of two separate powders. Thoroughly clean the
extinguisher
(inside & outside) with water. See that the nozzle and vent holes
are free from
obstructions. Mix the powders with , water according to Instructions
Issued with
refill. Pour Into the respective containers. Insert inner container.
Replace filler
cap, close locking device.
III. Soda Acid Extinguisher:
(I) To operate : (operated by one man)
Remove protecting cap If In use. Grasp extinguisher
by handle. Invert, Strike, on ground so that plunger is
driven Into the extinguisher. Keep Inverted and direct



102

jet on fire.

(iI) . Recharging: Refill consists of a quantity of powder and a bottle
containing an
acid. Thoroughly clean extinguisher (inside and
outside) with
water. See that nozzle and vent holes are free from
obstructions.
Mix powder Into ten Liters of water and pour into
extinguisher.
Place acid bottle in position. Replace filler cap and
screw tight.

IV. Portable Foam Extinguisher (Wheeled) :
This is exactly similar in working principle to the 10
litter type described above but is filled with a
wheeled carriage so that it can be easily moved.
Operation: Take extinguisher to the scene of fire, run out
holes.
Open sealing valve at head of extinguisher.
Pull down
handles so that extinguisher is in horizontal
position.
Agitate at intervals to
ensure proper mixing of
contents.
(ii) Refilling: The refill consist of - NO.1
Foam salt or outer container refill.
NO.2 Acid salt or inner container refill.
Instructions for refilling are provided on Label affixed.

, "
INSPECTION AND TESTING OF EXTINGUISHERS
Regular Inspection and testing by makers is recommended, since periodical
reconditioning and pressure testing of the outer container can then be carried out if
necessary. For satisfactory performance, inspection and testing should be carried
out by acredited representative of the makers. The date of Inspection should be
recorded and attached to each extinguisher. If signs of corrosion are found, the
containers should be replaced.
In all extinguisher's Inspection, the liquid levels should be checked and the hose
if any and its attachments examined to ensure, that they are in good condition.
Type of What to Remarks
Exllngulsher Inspect




1) Water type Examination
of (Soda acid) container,
discharge
orifices, acid
bottle plunger
and breathing
device if fitted
Type of Extinguisher:
a) The sealed acid bottle type generally retain the efficiency
for several year but they should be Inspected at least once
during each year and 20% should be tested by discharge
each year, In rotation so that every extinguisher is
discharged at least once in every five years. If any defect is
discovered during the test, the cause to be investigated and
If it is one which is not likely to be revealed in the annual
inspection, the discharge of all the remaining extinguishers
may be necessary.



103





















b) Foam (gas pressure) type should be inspected In the
same way as water type (gas pressure) except that the foam
portion should be renewed and the container checked for
gas contents every 2 years.
These should be inspected at frequent intervals and steps
taken to ensure that the required level of water or sand is
maintained. Any defective buckets should be replaced.
4) Fire
buckets
b) Of the open bottle type:
Inspected al least once a year and 50% tested by discharge
each year in rotation so that every extinguisher is
discharged at least once every two year.
5)
Portable
A) Hand Pump & Stirr up hand pump These should be
tested in
intervals of approx. one month by being put into use. ,
b) Bucket hand pump: Same as above but with the
addition that the water container should be examined for
rusting or corrosion.
)
Inspected at least once during each Year and in particular,
the gas pressure containers should have their contents
checked by weight annually, unless an Indicating device,
to enable it be seen or ascertain that the container holds;
the pressure of gas it is intended to hold is provided in
which case annual Inspection will suffice.
2) Water
(gas
Pressure
)
Examination of
container,
discharge orifice
gas pressure
container, plunger
& breathing
device.
MAINTENANCE OF FIRE FIGHTING EQUIPMENT:

It is important that portable fire appliances should always be kept in their proper
position but if temporarily removed they should be replaced.
Portable extinguishers : All extinguishers should be recharged immediately
after discharge and spare refills always kept in stock. Care should be taken to see
that all movable parts are working properly and that the nozzle is not obstructed in
any way.
A) Chemical type should be inspected every six months and
50% .
should be tested by discharge each year In rotation so that
every extinguisher is discharged at least once every two
years.
3) Foam type Examination of
, container;
discharge
orifice, and any
movable parts.
, Once each month, agitate contents by moving ,the cylinder
from the vertical to the horizontal and back, two or three
times, having made sure that control valve is firmly closed.



104




















Recommended maintenance
1) Water type - (Soda
Acid)
They should be kept properly filled up to but not above the
liquid line. After use they should be taken to see that all
movable parts
are free from corrosion and see that they are not too tight to
restrict
operation or so loose that they allow gas to escape. Keep
nozzle
and vent holes clear. Grease plunger spindle. Every month
remove
filter cap and acid bottle, stir content , replace acid bottle
and stir cap. '
2) Water type - (Gas
pressure)
These require the same maintenance as the soda acid type
and particular care should be taken to avoid over filling.
The contents of both the Inner and outer containers should
be maintained at the correct level. After use they should be
thoroughly washed out, including the cap and loose before
recharging. The nozzle and vent holes shall be clear.
Grease locking device. Periodically the contents of Inner
and outer containers should be stirred using different sticks
for each. Take out a little from each container and mix
outside to ensure formation of foam.
3) Foam type
Fire buckets should be kept in position, properly filled, in
good condition and clear and be repainted at regular
Intervals.
5) Fire
buckets
The strainer should be kept clean. A little grease should be
kept on pump rod, the nozzle kept clean and screwed hose
and the connection of the hose to the pump kept sound. Care
should also be taken to see that the ball valves, particularly
the one immediately behind the strainer, do not become
fixed, through lack of use. .
6) Portable
pumps
The rubber hoses used in the portable pumps and
extinguishers require little attention If the appliances are
kept away from extremes of temperature and in places
where factors contributing to perishing e.g. petrol, oil grease
and the like are reduced to minimum.
The nozzle holes and vent holes should be clear and free
from obstruction.



105

CHAPTER-19
ANNEXURE
RATING OF PVC COPPER WIRE

STRANDS S.W.G. NO. DIAMETER CURRENT
RATING
VOLTAGE DROP
FOR 50 FT.
1 18 0.044 1.291 5 2.78
3 22 0.029 0.736 5 2.13
3 20 0.36 0.914 10 2.86
7 22 0.29 0.736 15 2.94
7 20 0.36 0.914 29 3.70
7 18 0.44 1.219 29 3.70
7 17 0.052 1.422 45 2.70
7 16 0.064 1.626 56 2.20
19 18 0.044 1.219 67 2.08
19 17 0.052 1.422 78 1.75
19 16 0.064 1.626 102 1.45
19 14 0.082 2.032 147 --


WIRES SIZE OF WHETHER PROOF (W.P.)

Aluminium Wire Size (m.m.) Type of
Service
Connection
Service
Connection
Amp.
Capacity of
Meter (Amp.) Phase Nutal
Reced Voltage
(Volt)
Single Phase 5 Amp. 5 Amp., 250
V.
1/1.42 1/1.42 250
Single Phase 10 Amp. 10 Amp., 250
V.
1/1.83 1/1.83 250
Single Phase 20 Amp. 20 Amp., 250
V.
1/3.25 1/3.25 250
Three Phase 3 H.P. 10 Amp., 440
V.
1/1.83 1/1.83 440
Three Phase 5 H.P. 10 Amp., 440
V.
1/2.34 1/2.34 440
Three Phase 15 H.P. 25 Amp., 440
V.
1/3.25 1/3.25 440
Three Phase 35 H.P. 50 Amp., 440
V.
19/2.03 7/3.25 440




106


SERVICE CONNECTION TABLE
Fuse on Pole In I.C. Cut Out
Fuse Wire Fuse Wire
Sr.
No
.
Service
Conne-
ction
Maximu
m Load
Size of
Kitkat Size of
S.W.G.
Rated
Current
Amp.
Fuzing
Current
Amp.
Size
of
Kitka
t
Size of
S.W.G.
Rated
Current
Amp.
Fuzing
Current
Amp.
Pipe
Size for
Service
Connecti
on
1 Single
Phase
5 Amp. 15 Amp. 29 10 16 15
Amp
.
33 6 10 20 mm.
2 Single
Phase
10
Amp.
30 Amp. 25 15 30 30
Amp
.
28 12 18 20 mm.
3 Single
Phase
20
Amp.
60 Amp. 21 29 58 30
Amp
.
23 20 38 25 mm.
4 Three
Phase
3 H.P. 15 Amp. 29 10 16 15
Amp
33 6 10 30 mm.
5 Three
Phase
5 H.P. 30 Amp. 25 15 30 30
Amp
.
28 12 18 30 mm.
6 Three
Phase
10 H.P. 60 Amp. 21 29 58 60
Amp
.
25 15 30 50 mm.
7 Three
Phase
15 H.P. 75 Amp. 18 45 106 60
Amp
.
22 24 48 50 mm.

Note : 1] For Single Connection 100 V = 0.5 Amp.
2] For Three Phase Connection 1 H.P. = 1.5 Amp.
3] Distance in Two Insulator Ril 620 mm (2 fit.)
4] From Phase wire Distance of Pol Fuse 620 mm. (2 fit.)





107

TIND COPPER OF FUSE WIRE RATING (FOR KITKAT)

Standard Wire Gage No. Diameter
M.M. in Inch
Current Rating
in Amp.
Fusing in
Amp.
40 0.122 0.0048 1.5 3
39 0.132 0.0052 2.5 4
38 0.152 0.0060 3.0 5
37 0.173 0.0681 3.5 6
36 0.193 0.0076 4.5 7
35 0.213 0.0084 5 8
34 0.234 0.00921 5.5 9
33 0.254 0.0100 6 10
32 0.274 0.0108 7 11
31 0.95 0.0116 8 12
30 0.315 0.0124 8.5 13
29 0.345 0.0136 10 16
28 0.376 0.0148 12 18
27 0.416 0.0164 13 23
26 0.457 0.0180 14 27
25 0.508 0.020 15 30
24 0.559 0.022 17 33
23 0.610 0.024 20 38
22 0.711 0.028 24 48
21 0.813 0.032 29 58
20 0.914 0.036 34 70
19 1.02 0.040 38 81
18 1.22 0.048 45 106
17 1.42 0.056 65 125
16 1.63 0.064 73 166
15 1.86 0.072 78 197
14 2.03 0.080 102 230
13 2.34 0.092 130 195

PRIMARY & SECONDARY OF SIDE CURRENT OF DISTRIBUTION TRANSFORMER

Transformer Capacity
(KVA)
Primary Secondary
22 K.V. 11 K.V. 433 V.
25 0.65 Amp. 1.31 Amp 33.33 Amp.
50 1.31 Amp. 2.62 Amp. 66.67 Amp.
63 1.65 Amp. 3.30 Amp. 84.00 Amp.
100 2.62 Amp. 5.25 Amp. 133.34 Amp.
200 5.24 Amp. 10.60 Amp.




108

STANDARD WIRE GUAGE

Standard
Wire
Guage No.
Diameter Standard Wire
Guage No.
Diameter
In Inch in mm. In Inch. In mm.
Seven Zero 0.500 12.70 18 0.048 1.22
Six Zero 0.464 11.79 19 0.040 1.02
Five Zero 0.432 10.97 20 0.036 0.9813
Three Zero 0.372 9.45 21 0.032 0.813
Two Zero 0.342 8.84 22 0.028 0.711
Zero 0.324 8.26 23 0.024 0.610
1 0.300 7.32 24 0.022 0.559
2 0.276 7.01 25 0.020 0.508
3 0.252 6.40 26 0.0180 0.457
4 0.232 5.89 27 0.0164 0.416
5 0.212 5.38 28 0.0148 0.376
6 0.192 4.88 29 0.0136 0.345
7 0.176 4.47 30 0.0124 0.315
8 0.160 4.06 31 0.0116 0.295
9 0.144 3.66 32 0.0108 0.274
10 0.128 3.25 33 0.0100 0.254
11 0.116 2.15 34 0.0092 0.234
12 0.104 2.64 35 0.0084 0.213
13 0.092 2.24 36 0.0076 0.193
14 0.082 2.03 37 0.0068 0.173
15 0.072 1.81 38 0.0060 0.152
16 0.064 1.61 39 0.0052 0.132
17 0.56 1.42 40 0.0040 0.122





109

D.O. FUSE ELIMENT (SIDE OF TRA. PRA.) FUSE CAPACITY

K.V.A. Transformer Pra. Volt. K.V.A. Transformer Pra. Volt.
11 K.V. 22 K.V. 33 K.V. 11 K.V. 22 K.V. 33 K.V.
25 3 Amp. 2 Amp. 2 Amp. 300 30 Amp. 15 Amp. 10 Amp.
50 5 Amp. 3 Amp. 3 Amp. 400 40 Amp. 20 Amp. 20 Amp.
100 10 Amp. 5 Amp. 5 Amp. 500 50 Amp 25 Amp. 20 Amp.
150 15 Amp. 7.5 Amp. 5 Amp. 750 60 Amp. 40 Amp. 25 Amp.
200 20 Amp. 10 Amp. 7.5 Amp. 1000 75 Amp. 50 Amp. 30 Amp.

D. Transformer Capacity & Fuses Size
Transformer
Capacity
(K.V.A.)
Tind Copper Fuse Wire S.W. G.No.
22 K.V. Side (D.O.) 11 K.V. Side (D.O.) 440 V. Side (D. Box
Incoming)
25 38 38 21
50 38 35 16
63 37 33 17 (1/2)
100 35 29 14 (1/2)
200 29 23 14 (1/2) for per circuit

Main of Transformer (Incoming) & Fider (Outgoing)
PVC Insulated Shithed & Armered Aluminium Cable

Incoming Cable Outgoing Cable
Size Size
Transform
er
Capacity
(KVA)
Strand
s Diameter
mm.
Area
Sq.
mm.
Current
Capacity
Amp.
Strands
Diameter
mm.
Area
Sq.
mm.
Current
Capacit
y
25 7 3 50 62 7 1.6 25 42
50 19 2.24 70 82 7 3 50 62
63 19 2.3 95 94 19 2.24 70 82
100 37 2.06 120 114 19 2.3 95 94
200 61 3.0 300 202 37 2.06 120 114




110

Ins. Resistance of a Health T/F @ Temp Variation (in Mega Ohm)

Voltage
K.V.
Temp.
30
(Degree)
C.
Temp.
40 (Degree)
C.
Temp.
50 (Degree)
C.
Temp.
60 (Degree)
C.
Temp.
70
(Degree)
C.
Temp.
80 (Degree) C.
6.6 100 50 26 14 7 4.2
11 160 80 40 20 13 7.6
22 430 210 110 55 37 21
33 700 370 165 95 56 35
66 1500 700 370 190 110 70
132 3000 1500 700 390 230 150
220 5200 2600 1300 650 320 240
400 9000 4500 2400 1200 600 380

Transformer Arking Horn & Lightning Arestor

Reded Volt. On Transformer Bushing of Aarking
Horn Air Gap
Maximum Distance in L.A. &
Transformer Bushing
K.V. Inch mm. Inch mm.
400 80 2050 120 3050
220 45 1150 120 3050
132 27 700 120 3050
110 25 650 120 3050
66 1.55 400 80 1930
33 Arking Horn is not
Using
Arking Horn is not
Using
60 1525
22 Arking Horn is not
Using
Arking Horn is not
Using
50 1270
11 Arking Horn is not
Using
Arking Horn is not
Using
40 11120





111

HORN GAP FUSE SIZE
Capacity of
Transformer
(In KVA)
Transformer Volt.
(In KVA)
Size of S.W.G. No. of
Tind Coper Fuse
Horn Gap Fuse Distance
1500 110 26 33 850
3000 66 21 20 500
2500 66 21 20 500
2000 66 21 20 500
1750 66 22 20 500
1250 66 23 20 500
1000 66 23 20 500
750 66 26 20 500
500 66 28 20 500
200 66 32 20 500
5000 33 2 x 20 15 400
3000 33 20 15 400
2000 33 21 15 400
1500 33 21 15 400
1000 35 22 15 400
750 33 23 15 400
500 33 26 15 400
300 33 28 15 400
250 33 28 15 400
200 33 30 15 400
500 22 22 10 150
250 22 26 10 250
500 11 20 08 200
250 11 23 08 200









112

CLEARANCE (MEANS MINIMUM DISTANCE)

Voltage
System
Ground Clearance
Country
/Rural Area
Road
Building Clearance
Across Along Verticale Horizontal
Distance of
Two Line
m.m. Fit. m.m. Fit. m.m. Fit. m.m. Fit. m.m. Fit. m.m. Fit.
Low and
Mediaum
4575 15 5795 19 5490 18 2440 8 1220 4 305 1
High 11 KV 4575 15 6100 20 5795 19 3660 12 1220 4 1220 4
High 33 KV 5185 17 6100 20 5795 19 3660 12 1830 6 1525 5
E.H.V 66 KV 5490 18 6100 20 6100 20 3965 13 2340 8 2440 8
E.H.V. 100 to
132 KV
6100 20 6710 22 6710 22 4575 15 3050 10 2754 9
E.H.V. 220
K.V.
7015 23 7625 25 7625 25 5490 18 3965 13 4575 15
E.H.V. 400 KV 8845 29 9455 31 9455 31 7320 24 5795 19 6100 20












113


CONDUCTOR CHARACTERISTICS (I.S. 398/1961)

Electrical Properties Mechanical Properties
Code
Name
Equivalance Appr. Curr.
Carrying
Capacity
Coper
Wire
S.W.G.
No.
Area of
Coper /
Alu.
Sq.inch
/
Sq.mm
Resis.
per
k.m. at
20 Deg.
C.
(Ohm)
At. 40
Deg. C.
At. 45
Deg. C.
No. of
Strand
s / dia.
of
Strand
in mm.
Dia.
mm.
Weight
of
Cond.
per km.
Tensile
Strenn
gth
(Kilo)
All Aluminium Conductor
Roz 8 0.02/20.
0
1.361 116 108 7/1.96 5.88 58 362
NAT 7 0.025/2
5.56
1.071 133 123 7/2.21 6.63 73 485
Airish 6 0.30 /
33.0
0.850 150 138 7/2.48 7.44 92 582
Pansi 4 0.040 /
42.0
0.677 178 165 7/2.78 8.34 116 730
Ant 3 0.05 /
52.00
0.544 204 189 7/3.10 9.30 144 892
Aster 2 0.065 /
66.96
0.423 239 198 7/3.51 10.53 184 1157
ALUMINIUM CONDUCTOR STIL INFORCED (A.C.S.R. CONDUCTOR)
Squiral
(0.02)
8 13/20.7 1.374 115 107 6+1/2.1
1
6.33 85 771
Visal
(0.03)
6 20/31.2 0.911 150 139 6+1/2.5
9
7.77 128 1136
Faret
(0.04)
4.5 24/41.8 0.679 181 168 6+1/3.0 9.00 171 1503
Mink
(0.06)
2 40/62.3 0.456 234 217 6+1/3.6
6
10.98 255 2107
Rakun
(0.075)
1 48/77.8
0
0.365 270 250 6+1/4.0
9
12.27 318 2746
Dog
(0.1)
2/0 65/103.
6
0.275 325 300 6+7/4.7
2
14.15 394 3299
Panther
(0.2)
--- 130/207
.0
0.137 520 482 30+7/3.
0
21.00 976 9127





114


CHAPTER-20
CAPACITOR


Necessity & Importance Of Power Capacitors :

Electric Power used by A.C. Motors is indicated in KVA . This power is numerically higher
than KW power. The ratio KW /KVA is called Power Factor and is denoted by
COS . COS is less than 1. KW (Active power)
1. In the rural areas, more power is used for running electric pump sets. The pump sets
are driven by A.C. Motors. The Power Factor of the A.C. Motors is low (0.7 to 0.8) and
is affecting the distribution transformer loading.
2. Low Power Factor Motors draw more Reactive power & the use higher electric currents.
Hence their total KVA power rating is higher. The effect of higher reactive power used
by electric motor is neutralised by using capacitors, thereby improving the power factor
of transformer.
3. Advantages of improving power factor by using capacitors :
i. Reduction in KVA demand on transformer.
ii. Transformer load current is reduced.
iii. Reduction in Power Loss.
iv. Generator efficiency increases, no abnormal rise in temperature.
v. Improvement in voltage to consumers and motors do not get overheated.

For improvement of power factor in the system, following plans have been
implemented by the company.

1. Connecting Capacitors of proper rating to A.C. Motors.
2. Connection switched capacitors Banks on low voltage side of distribution
transformers.
3. Providing 0.6 MVAR switched capacitor bank on 11KV line.
4. In the sub-station, connecting capacitors on 11KV as well as 132 KV Bus bar.





115

L.T.LOAD MANAGEMENT EQUIPMENT (LMS ) :
LMS is an automatic capacitor panel to be installed on low voltage side of distribution
transformer in rural areas.

LMS TECHNIQUE :
1. The capacitor banks in this automatic panel are switched on /off as per load
requirement , by measuring reactive power in electrical load. Due to this nearly correct
capacitive reactance as per load requirement is used.
2. For measuring reactive load , current and voltage is measured. Three CTs are
connected for measurement of current. Information about load current and voltage is
fed to the computing unit.
3. From this the computing unit determines reactive power of the load and brings in use
required capacitors. When reactive power is less lesser capacitors are used.



Transformer Capacity LMS Capacity Automatic Capacitor
Banks
Permanently
Connected capacitor
63KVA (27+1) KVAR Total 4 Nos.
3 , 6,9, & 9 KVAR
1KVAR
100 KVA (36 +2) KVAR Total 4 Nos.
3,6,9 & 18 KVAR
2 KVAR





116



















































117

LMS-MAIN COMPONENTS :

1. Main MCB . Isolator.
2. 3 CTs for measuring current.
3. Capacitor banks .
4. Thyristors for switching capacitors.
5. 1 MCB for each bank.
6. Computing unit.
7. LED Display and monitoring terminal board .

FUNCTIONS OF COMPUTING UNIT :

1. Continuous measurement of reactive power on load side.
2. Switching of required capacitor bank by thyristors.
3. Recording total KVAR supplied by LNS.
4. To activate LED and monitor by sending signals.

PROTECTIVE FUNCTIONS :

1. To switch off capacitor Bank on over voltage.
2. To switch off capacitor Bank below 200 Volts.
3. If the capacitor Bank fails to switch off on signal, to trip the MCB.

LED AND MONITOR TERMINAL :

LMS status is indicated by following LED display lamps:

1. Power ON .
2. Capacitor Bank on Four 1 for each bank.
3. Trip indicators Four 1 for each bank.
4. HV Condition.
5. LV Condition.

Also one monitor terminal is provided . From this terminal following information is
available via the printer :

1. Serial Nos. of LMS.
2. Date of obtaining information.
3. Load current, voltage & power factor records.
4. If Bank is on, transformer current and power factor (Improved- by
Computing Unit)
5. Total current in capacitor.
6. Voltage at Capacitor off condition.
7. Capacitance of each Bank.
8. Capacitive KVARH supplied.




118

One button is provided on this panel board. After connecting the printer, when this
button is pressed, the computing unit supplies all the above information to the printer and
print is obtained. Real time status is available. Record of capacitive reactive power supplied
is total of such power supplied.

Erection of LMS and commissioning :

1. Erection and use this work is done by staff working on site.
2. Precaution at the time 1. Correct phase sequence
of erection . 2. Connecting measuring CTs on load side.
3. Polarity and proper connection of CTs .


USE OF LMS :

After errection and commissioning of LMS , Capacitor Banks switching on and off is
automatically done .

Work to be done by employees of company .

1. If at our routine work site, if any help is required about LMS, they should inform
the location of LMS to Circle Office. They should also inform about the nature
of help required.

2. If transformer or cables are replaced , do as follows :

i) Reconnect the LMS on system.
ii) For any doubts inform and obtain help from nearest office or
Circle Office.

: 600 KVAR capacitors on 11KV Feeder :

These capacitors are installed normally on 11 KV feeders having load of 1200
KVA or above. They are installed at a distance about 2/3 of the length of the feeder from
33/11KV Sub-Station. Automatic equipment is switched on depending upon the load of the
feeder . When the reactive power load the feeder is more the capacitor bank neutralizes it .
This helps to reduce the load current on the feeder. Due to this transmission line loss is
reduced and voltage is improved.

11KV capacitor bank with circuit breakers installed in the sub-station is an expensive
matter and it is beneficial only for the transformer . It cannot help voltage regulation and
power loss on the feeder.

The Andrew- Yule Company in collaboration with Togami Electric have
manufactured 11 KV SF6 Gas filled capacitors switch. In this scheme Meter Relay acts as



119

automatic electronic control equipment . According to line current, the internal CT of meter
relay make the capacitor switch ON / OFF .

The important components equipments of this scheme are as follows :--

1. Capacitor switch :- This consist of two parts .

i. Gas Field switching part .
ii. Operating mechanism part.

The SF6 gas in the gas field unit acts as interrupting medium and also as insulation .

The operating mechanism consists of coils for closing and opening operation . Apart
from this , control circuit, mechanical indicator, auxiliary switches , manual operating handle
etc are also provided. For protection from bursting pressure relief equipment is provided.
The earth terminal duly marked is also provided .

Along with the switch 7 mtrs. Length of 2.5 Sq.mm 6 core cable and 2.5 Sq.mm 2
Core cable is connected. Ferrules bearing the letters A,B, C, D, E, F are provided on 6 core
cable. Also the 2 core cable is having ferrules G, H. Both the cables are connected to
operating / control box of the scheme . Thereby electrical operations of the switcth are
performed .

2. HT Capacitor Cell : - For this scheme 3 cells of 200 KVAR 11KV rating are
necessary.
3. Operating / Control Box : - With the help of this control box electrical operations
of the capacitor switch (manual/automatic) are performed.
4. Voltage transformer :- This is an important component of the scheme. The
primary of this voltage transformer is connected on 11KV line phase to phase
and the secondary winding is connected to P1 , P2 terminals in the operating
box. The voltage ratio of this transformer is 11 KV/220 Volts .


The equipments of the scheme are erected and connected as shown in the
diagram. Before that following checks should be carried out .

1. A) Test the capacitor cell with the help of Meggar and ensure that
insulation resistance is healthy.

B) Connect Supply of 230 volts to the 2 bushings of the capacitor Cell and
measure the current which should be as per the name plate.

C) Ensure that the bushing of the cells and their shapes are in good condition.





120

2. Voltage transformer :-

A) Measure the insulation resistance of this voltage transformer.
B) Connect 230 volts AC supply to the primary winding and verify the
secondary winding voltage which should be as per ratio.

3. Capacitor Switch :-

A) With the help of two manual operating handles, carryout closing and opening
operations of the capacitor switch many times and verify that it is in good
condition . Also ensure that the closing and opening operations are correctly
indicated by the mechanical indicator.

B) With the help of the Meggar, ensure the continuity on closing and opening.

C) Ensure that the insulators of the switch are in clean condition .

Push button electrical operation :-

After carrying out the connections of capacitor switch and operating box with the
help of 6 core and 2 core cables , do as follows :-

Connect 220 volts supply to P1 and P2 terminals . Ensure that the capacitor switch is
in OFF position. If not, make it OFF by pushing down the green handle.

Set the Auto / Manual Switch in the operating box on manual position and for closing
operation use the ON push button for switching on . After about 5 minutes time it will be
seen that the switch is ON. Verify this with the help of mechanical indicator. Afterwards
with the help of the OFF button, do the switch off operation and verify . With the help of
mechanical indictor check and ensure that the switch is OFF. After about 5 minutes duration
( after off operation ) carryout the closing operation ). In this way the closing and opening
operation should be verified .

Electrical Automatic Operation :

1. From the mechanical indicator verify and ensure at the switch is in OFF Position.
2. If not push the operating handle (Green ) slowly down.
3. Connect A.C. Supply to CT bushing and line side bushing.
4. Adjust the selector switch to auto position.
5. With the help of red button adjust the meter relay settings as required. The red
needle of meter relay shows high (ON) current setting.
6. With the help of green button, adjust the low current setting of the meter relay. The
green needle meter relay shows low current settings.
7. Connect 220 Volts A.C. supply to P1 & P2 terminals of operating box. Thereafter
wait for 5 minutes. (minimum).



121

8. When the line current will rise higher than high current settings, capacitor will close .
Verify this from the mechanical indicator.
9. When the line current will decrease to less than low current setting, capacitor switch
will open. Verify this from mechanical indicator.

Erection of Capacitor Switch :-

While lifting capacitor switch for transportation keep the switch in close position . For
lifting and transportation use only the carrying handle. Using proper lifting rope put the
capacitor switch on cross arm of single or double pole structure in horrible position. Keep
the manual operation switch nearer to the pole so as to operate from ground level with the
help of hook.

Connection :-

1. Main Circuit :- With the help of aluminum P.G. clamps, connect seven HV
terminals of the capacitor switch to line, capacitor side lead wire and CT main
lead wire firmly.
2. Control circuit :- While connecting capacitor switch and operating box with 6
core control cable, make sure that water does not enter into the switch.

Keep the control circuit at a safe distance high voltage circuit. 220 volts A.C. Supply
can be obtained from the nearest distribution transformer bushing (LT) or from the
transformer provided by the company.

Grounding Connection :- On both sides of the operating mechanism box (Line and
Capacitor side) grounding terminals are provided . Use 8 SWG G.I.Wire for grounding and
there should be two separate earthing pits for earthing . Grounding wire should not be
connected to earthing pit for L.A.

Maintenance :-Maintenance is to be decided on changing local conditions.
Generally maintenance may be done every one to two years. After maintenance, it is
necessary to take mechanism trials. Specially after storms or lightening strokes ,
maintenance is essential. The inspection and maintenance of the capacitor switch should
be frequency done by making supply off (i.e. discharging).

Meter Relay Setting Adjustment :-
Meter relay setting is entirely depending on system condition and consumer demand.
Therefore it will not be the same for every location.

Example : Suppose the average peak load of a system feeder is 100 AMPs during 6 in the
morning to 6 in the evening. Off the peak hours, this load current is less than 40 AMPs.
During the peak load hours the power factor reads 0.7 (Lagging). This power factor needs to
be improved. When the load on this feeder during off peak hours is less than 40 AMPs ,
power factor may become leading if the capacitors remain connected.



122


VNR-A on the meter relay setting panel should be adjusted as required. The red
needle (High) may be set to 90 AMPs and green needle (Low) set to 40 AMPs. Due to this
settings as soon as the load is 90 AMPs , capacitor switch will be on and when the load goes
below 40 AMPs , capacitor switch will be off. So that during peak hours power factor will be
improved and during low loads power factor shall not become leading.




123






















































124













































125


DISTRIBUTION TRANSFORMER MAINTENANCE SCHEDULE


S.No.


Duration

Maintenance Work to be done
1. Daily NIL
2. Monthly 1. Check the oil level and top up to correct level.
2. Rectify Oil leakages if any.
3. Tighten all the connection of Phase, Neutral, Earthing etc.
4. Cleaning the transformer tank from outside.
5. Silica Gel in the breather to be replaced if necessary.
Similarly check for oil in the breather and ensure air
passage.
6. Connect and tighten correct size fuse wire. Replace broken
fuse, base etc.
3. Three
months
1. Measure and note down a load current in all three phases
(at peak hrs).
2. If load current is unbalanced take action for balancing .
3. Measure & note down all phase to neutral voltages.
4. Measure & note down the voltage at the fag end of all
feeders.
4.



Six months 1. Measure and note down earth resistance.
2. Measure and note down meggar test result of transformer
and lightening arrestors.
3. If meggar value of LA is less replace it .
5. Annual 1. Obtain oil samples, take dielectric test and note down.
2. AB Switch alignment check & greasing and oiling to be
done.
3. Correct direction of arcing horns.
4. Maintenance of earthing rod and earthing pits.
6. 2 Years Acidity test of oil
7. 3 Years Filteration of oil .
8. 5 Years Overhauling of transformer in transformer work shop.







126



C.T.
MCCB
INCOMMING CABLE
L.T. C.T. OPERATED METER CONNECTION
LCD DISPLAY
Battery
Active
Function
Pulse/ KWH
Pulse/ KVARH
Mode

Reset
Name
Plate
Optical Port
Meter



127

Authority and Responsibility of Service

The Company has given authority to Lineman, Asstt.Lineman & Line Helpers as area
incharge for their respective working areas. Area incharge shall be responsible for both
technical and commercial side of working in his area. The details of area incharge and his
responsibilities are as follows :

1. Basic Information about working area .
a) Knowledge of Distribution transformers & recording their code numbers.
b) To prepare map of transformer Centre wise consumers and recording
register.
c) Obtaining list of consumers from the section office in his areas for giving
service to them.
d) Details of Consumer Category /connected load / current meter reading/
arrears/meter status from billing record etc. to be obtained consumerwise.
e) Transformer Centrewise consumers to be identified and then compare with
transformer centrewise maps on record.
f) Faulty / Non-Use metered consumers having to be visited for repairs and
inspection.

2. ROUTINE WORKS

a. Connecting energy meter to unmetered agricultural consumers as per M.S.E.D.C.L.
Scheme .
b. To connect meter on distribution transformer centres.
c. Visiting daily 10 consumers to check meter status and reading.
d. Visit each consumer at least once in 3 months.
e. While visiting consumers carry details of meter reading and tools for checking like
Meggar, Meter seals, etc. Due to such visit, area incharge can determine the
requirement of meters, Meter seals etc.
f. To update the DTC Map by recording the new service connections given.


3. REDUCTION IN DISTRIBUTION LOSSES :

a. As per identified list of DTCs , to take reading of Meters on DTCs & send it to
section incharge immediately.
b. To obtain details of DTC wise billed units from the section and to determine the
distribution loss for each DTCs. To take necessary action for limiting the loss to
single digit level.
c. To obtain consumer category wise consumption parameters from the billing section
and comparing the consumption of different categorywise consumers to identify low
consumption area.



128

d. To find out theft of electricity and supplier of hooks , inform the officers and take
immediate action for rectification. Such occurances should be recorded in the
registers.


4. RELATIONS WITH CONSUMERS :

a) To establish cordial relations with consumers and to help in solving their difficulties.
b) To contact consumers and to motivate them for payment of current bills and arrears
etc.
c) To educate the consumers in electrical safety and energy conservation measures

5. MAINTENANCE :

a) To maintain cleanliness at the location of DTC, HT/LT Consumer Poles by removing
heaps of clay ,growth of grass , bushes, trees etc.
b) To maintain the DTCs from point of view reducing period of interruption of electric
supply.
c) To ensure that timely preventive maintenance of DTCs is carriedout .
d) To identify low voltage problem areas and inform the same to superiors.

6. AUTHORITY OF AREA INCHARGE :

1) For sanctioning new service connections, area incharge (LM/ ALM,/ LH) shall be
consulted.
2) The work of meter replacement, shifting, shall be done in their consultation.
3) The development works like errection of new lines, new transformers etc. shall be
done in consultation with are incharge.
4) The meter reading sent by area incharge should l be compared with readings
recorded by the meter readers on route reading sheet. Any deviation observed shall
be brought to the notice of section incharge for taking necessary action.
5) Area incharge should conduct group discussions with consumers, once in three
months& for such group discussions , the section office should extend all possible
help.