You are on page 1of 17

1

Laboratoire de Transfert de Chaleur et de Masse


ECOLE POLYTECHNIQUE
FEDERALE DE LAUSANNE
Laboratoire de Transfert de Chaleur et de Masse
ECOLE POLYTECHNIQUE
FEDERALE DE LAUSANNE
Definition of static, momentum and frictional
two-phase pressure drops.
Homogeneous method for two-phase pressure
drops.
Separate flow methods for two-phase flow
pressure drops inside channels.
Two-phase pressure drops over tube bundles.
2
Laboratoire de Transfert de Chaleur et de Masse
ECOLE POLYTECHNIQUE
FEDERALE DE LAUSANNE
Laboratoire de Transfert de Chaleur et de Masse
ECOLE POLYTECHNIQUE
FEDERALE DE LAUSANNE
Accurate prediction of two-phasepressuredrops in direct-expansion and flooded evaporators, in
tube-sideand shell-sidecondensers, and in two-phasetransfer lines is of paramount importanceto
thedesign and optimization of refrigeration, air-conditioning and heat pump systems.

Taking direct-expansion evaporators as an example, the optimal use of the two-phase pressure
drop to obtain themaximumflow boiling heat transfer performanceis oneof theprimary design
goals. In these evaporators, typically a two-phase pressure drop equivalent to a loss of 1.4C
(2.5F) in saturation temperature from inlet to outlet is set as the design limit. Yet, pressure
drops predicted using leading methods differ by up to 100%.

Putting this into perspective, if an evaporator is inaccurately designed with a two-phase
pressure drop only one-half the real value, then the system efficiency will suffer accordingly
from the larger than expected fall in saturation temperature and pressure through the
evaporator. On the other hand, if the predicted pressure drop is too large by a factor of two,
then fewer tubes of longer length could have been utilized to obtain a more compact unit.
Hence, accurateprediction of two-phasepressuredrops is a key aspect in thefirst law and second
law optimization of thesesystems.
3
Laboratoire de Transfert de Chaleur et de Masse
ECOLE POLYTECHNIQUE
FEDERALE DE LAUSANNE
Thetotal pressuredrop of a fluid is dueto thevariation of potential energy of thefluid, kinetic
energy of thefluid and that dueto friction on thewalls of theflow channel. Thus, thetotal pressure
drop p
total
is thesumof thestatic pressuredrop (elevation head) p
static
, themomentumpressure
drop (acceleration) p
mom
, and thefrictional pressuredrop p
frict
:
frict mom static total
p p p p + + =
[13.1.1]
Thestatic pressuredrop for a homogeneous two-phasefluid is:
= sin H g p
H static
[13.1.2]
whereH is thevertical height, is theanglewith respect to thehorizontal, and thehomogeneous
density
H
is
( )
H G H L H
1 + =
[13.1.3]
and
L
and
G
aretheliquid and gas (or vapor) densities, respectively. For a horizontal flow where
=0 and H =0, then p
static
is equal to zero.
Laboratoire de Transfert de Chaleur et de Masse
ECOLE POLYTECHNIQUE
FEDERALE DE LAUSANNE
Thehomogeneous void fraction
H
is determined fromthequality x as
( )


+
=
L
G
L
G
H
x
x 1
u
u
1
1
[13.1.4]
whereu
G
/u
L
is thevelocity ratio, or slip ratio (S), and is equal to 1.0 for a homogeneous flow. The
momentumpressuregradient per unit length of thetubeis:
( )
dz
/ m d
dz
dp
H total
mom

&
[13.1.5]
For an adiabatic flow wherex =constant, (dp/dz)
mom
is equal to zero.
4
Laboratoire de Transfert de Chaleur et de Masse
ECOLE POLYTECHNIQUE
FEDERALE DE LAUSANNE
Themost problematic termis thefrictional pressuredrop, which can beexpressed as a function
of thetwo-phase friction factor f
tp
, and for a steady flow in a channel with a constant cross-
sectional area is:
H i
2
total tp
frict
d
m L 2
p

=
&
[13.1.6]
whereL is thelength of thechannel and d
i
is its internal diameter. Thefriction factor may be
expressed in terms of theReynolds number by theBlasius equation:
25 . 0
tp
Re
079 . 0
=
[13.1.7] and theReynolds number is
tp
i total
d m
Re

=
&
[13.1.8]
Theviscosity for calculating theReynolds number can bechosen as theviscosity of theliquid
phaseor as a quality averaged viscosity
tp
:
L G tp
) x 1 ( x + =
[13.1.9]
Laboratoire de Transfert de Chaleur et de Masse
ECOLE POLYTECHNIQUE
FEDERALE DE LAUSANNE
Example Calculation: Using thehomogeneous flow pressuredrop method, calculatethetwo-phase
pressuredrop for upflow in a vertical tubeof 10 mminternal diameter that is 2 mlong. Theflow is
adiabatic, themass flow rateis 0.02 kg/s and thevapor quality is 0.05. Thefluid is R-123 at a
saturation temperatureof 3C and saturation pressureof 0.37 bar, whosephysical properties are:
liquid density =1518 kg/m
3
, vapor density =2.60 kg/m
3
, liquid dynamic viscosity =0.0005856
kg/ms, vapor dynamic viscosity =0.0000126 kg/ms.
Solution: Thehomogeneous void fraction
H
is determined fromthequality x using [13.1.4] where
u
G
/u
L
=1:
( )
( )
( )
9685 . 0
1518
60 . 2
05 . 0
05 . 0 1
1 1
1
x
x 1
u
u
1
1
L
G
L
G
H
=


+
=

+
=
Thehomogeneous density
H
is obtained using [13.1.3]:
( ) ( ) ( )
3
H G H L H
m / kg 3 . 50 9685 . 0 60 . 2 9685 . 0 1 1518 1 = + = + =
5
Laboratoire de Transfert de Chaleur et de Masse
ECOLE POLYTECHNIQUE
FEDERALE DE LAUSANNE
The static pressure drop for a homogeneous two-phase fluid with H =2 mand =90 is
obtained using [13.1.2]:
( )( )
2
H static
m / N 987 90 sin 2 81 . 9 3 . 50 sin H g p = = =
Themomentumpressuredrop is p
mom
=0 sincethevapor quality is constant frominlet to outlet.
Theviscosity for calculating theReynolds number choosing thequality averaged viscosity
tp
: is
obtained with [13.1.9]:
( ) ( )( ) s m / kg 000557 . 0 0005856 . 0 05 . 0 1 0000126 . 0 05 . 0 ) x 1 ( x
L G tp
= + = + =
Themass velocity is calculated by dividing themass flow rateby thecross-sectional area of the
tubeand is 254.6 kg/m
2
s. TheReynolds number is then obtained with [13.1.8]:
( )
4571
000557 . 0
01 . 0 6 . 254 d m
Re
tp
i total
= =

=
&
Laboratoire de Transfert de Chaleur et de Masse
ECOLE POLYTECHNIQUE
FEDERALE DE LAUSANNE
Thefriction factor is obtained from[13.1.7]:
00961 . 0
4571
079 . 0
Re
079 . 0
25 . 0 25 . 0 tp
= = =
Thefrictional pressuredrop is then obtained with [13.1.6]:
( )( )( )
( )
2
2
tp i
2
total tp
frict
m / N 4953
3 . 50 01 . 0
6 . 254 2 00961 . 0 2
d
m L 2
p = =

=
&
Thus, thetotal pressuredrop is obtained with [13.1.1]:
( ) psi 86 . 0 kPa 94 . 5 m / N 5940 4953 0 987 p p p p
2
frict mom static total
= = + + = + + =
6
Laboratoire de Transfert de Chaleur et de Masse
ECOLE POLYTECHNIQUE
FEDERALE DE LAUSANNE
Thetwo-phasepressuredrops for flows insidetubes arethesumof threecontributions: thestatic
pressuredrop p
static
, themomentumpressuredrop p
mom
and thefrictional pressuredrop p
frict
as:
frict mom static total
p p p p + + =
[13.2.1]
Thestatic pressuredrop is given by
= sin H g p
tp static
[13.2.2]
For a horizontal tube, thereis no changein static head, i.e. =0 and H =0 so p
static
=0 while
sin is equal to 1.0 for a vertical tube. Themomentumpressuredrop reflects thechangein kinetic
energy of theflow and is for thepresent casegiven by:
( ) ( )


+


=
in
G
2
L
2
out
G
2
L
2
2
total mom
x
) 1 (
x 1 x
) 1 (
x 1
m p &
[13.2.3]
where
total
m&
is thetotal mass velocity of liquid plus vapor and x is thevapor quality.
Laboratoire de Transfert de Chaleur et de Masse
ECOLE POLYTECHNIQUE
FEDERALE DE LAUSANNE
Theseparated flow model considers thetwo phases to beartificially separated into two streams,
each flowing in its own pipe. Theareas of thetwo pipes areproportional to thevoid fraction .
It is recommended hereto usetheSteiner (1993) version of thedrift flux model of Rouhani and
Axelsson (1970) for horizontal flows:
( ) ( )
( ) ( ) [ ]
1
5 . 0
L
2
total
25 . 0
G L
L G G
m
g x 1 18 . 1 x 1 x
x 1 12 . 0 1
x

=
&
[13.2.4a]

For vertical flows, theRouhani and Axelsson (1970) expression can beused for void fractions
larger than 0.1:
( )
( ) ( ) [ ]
1
5 . 0
L
2
total
25 . 0
G L
L G
4 / 1
2
total
2
L i
G
m
g x 1 18 . 1 x 1 x
m
gd
x 1 2 . 0 1
x

=
& &
[13.2.4]
Thetwo-phasedensity is obtained from:
( ) + =
G L tp
1
[13.2.4c]

Themomentumpressuredrop depends on theinlet and outlet vapor qualities and void fractions.
7
Laboratoire de Transfert de Chaleur et de Masse
ECOLE POLYTECHNIQUE
FEDERALE DE LAUSANNE
Thecorrelation method of Friedel (1979) utilizes a two-phasemultiplier:
2
fr L frict
p p =
[13.2.5]
wherep
L
is calculated for theliquid-phaseflow as
) 2 / 1 ( m ) d / L ( 4 p
L
2
total i L L
= &
[13.2.6]
The liquid friction factor
L
and liquid Reynolds number (and vapor friction factor
G
and
vapor Reynolds number with thevapor viscosity) areobtained from
25 . 0
Re
079 . 0
=
[13.2.7]

=
i total
d m
Re
&
[13.2.8]
using theliquid dynamic viscosity
L
. His two-phasemultiplier is
035 . 0
L
045 . 0
H
2
fr
We Fr
FH 24 . 3
E+ =
[13.2.9]
Laboratoire de Transfert de Chaleur et de Masse
ECOLE POLYTECHNIQUE
FEDERALE DE LAUSANNE
Thedimensionless factors Fr
H
, E, F and H areas follows:
2
H i
2
total
H
gd
m
Fr

=
&
[13.2.10]
( )
L G
G L 2 2
x x 1 E


+ =
[13.2.11]
( )
224 . 0 78 . 0
x 1 x F =
[13.2.12]
7 . 0
L
G
19 . 0
L
G
91 . 0
G
L
1 H

=
[13.2.13]
Theliquid Weber We
L
is defined as:
H
i
2
total
L
d m
We

=
&
[13.2.14]
in which Friedel used thehomogeneous density
H
based on vapor quality:
1
L G
H
x 1 x

=
[13.2.15]
8
Laboratoire de Transfert de Chaleur et de Masse
ECOLE POLYTECHNIQUE
FEDERALE DE LAUSANNE
The method of Lockhart and Martinelli (1949) is theorginal method that predicted thetwo-
phase frictional pressure drop based on a two-phase multiplier for the liquid-phase, or the
vapor-phase, respectively, as:

L
2
Ltt frict
p p =
[13.2.16]
G
2
Gtt frict
p p =
[13.2.17]

whereEq. [13.2.6] is used for p
L
applying liquid fraction (1-x)
2
in theexpression and p
G
is
obtained from(corrected hereto includex
2
)

) 2 / 1 ( m x ) d / L ( 4 p
G
2
total
2
i G G
= &
[13.2.18]
Thesingle-phasefriction factors of theliquid L and thevapor G, arecalculated using Eqs.
[13.2.7] and [13.2.8] with their respective physical properties corrected to their respective
liquid (1-x) and vapor (x) fractions in Re. Their corresponding two-phasemultipliers are
4000 Re for ,
X
1
X
C
1
L
2
tt tt
2
Ltt
> + + =
[13.2.19]
4000 Re for , X CX 1
L
2
tt tt
2
Gtt
< + + =
[13.2.20]
wherethechoiceof expressions, liquid or vapor, depends on theReynolds number.
Laboratoire de Transfert de Chaleur et de Masse
ECOLE POLYTECHNIQUE
FEDERALE DE LAUSANNE
TheMartinelli parameter for both phases in theturbulent regimes X
tt
is defined as
1 . 0
G
L
5 . 0
L
G
9 . 0
tt
x
x 1
X


=
[13.2.21]
Thevalueof C in Eqs. [13.2.19] and [13.2.20] depends on theregimes of theliquid
and vapor. Theappropriatevalues to usearelisted in Table13.1. Thecorrelation of
Lockhart and Martinelli is applicableto thevapor quality rangeof 0 <x 1.
Table13.1 Values of C.
Liquid Gas C
Turbulent Turbulent 20
Laminar Turbulent 12
Turbulent Laminar 10
Laminar Laminar 5
9
Laboratoire de Transfert de Chaleur et de Masse
ECOLE POLYTECHNIQUE
FEDERALE DE LAUSANNE
Themethod of Grnnerud (1972) was developed specifically for refrigerants and is as follows:
L gd frict
p p =
[13.2.22]
and his two-phasemultiplier is

+ = 1
dz
dp
1
25 . 0
G
L
G
L
Fr
gd
[13.2.23]
where Eq. [13.2.6] is used for p
L
. His frictional pressure gradient depends on the Froude
number and is
( ) [ ]
5 . 0
Fr
10 8 . 1
Fr
Fr
x x 4 x
dz
dp
+ =

[13.2.24]
When applying this expression, if theliquid Froud number Fr
L
1, then thefriction factor
Fr
=
1.0, or if Fr
L
<1, then:
2
L
3 . 0
L Fr
Fr
1
ln 0055 . 0 Fr

+ =
[13.2.25] where 2
L i
2
total
L
gd
m
Fr

=
&
[13.2.26]
Laboratoire de Transfert de Chaleur et de Masse
ECOLE POLYTECHNIQUE
FEDERALE DE LAUSANNE
Mller-Steinhagen and Heck (1986) proposed a two-phase frictional pressure gradient
correlation that is an empirical interpolation between all liquid flow and all vapor flow:
( )
3 3 / 1
frict
Bx x 1 G
dz
dp
+ =

[13.2.42] and G is
( )x A B 2 A G + =
[13.2.43]
Thefactors A and B arethefrictional pressuregradients for all theflow liquid (dp/dz)
L
and all
theflow vapor (dp/dz)
G
, obtained respectively fromEqs. [13.2.28] and [13.2.29].
Thefrictional pressuregradients for theliquid and vapor phases are:
L i
2
total
L
L
d
m 2
dz
dp

&
[13.2.28]
G i
2
total
G
G
d
m 2
dz
dp

&
[13.2.29]
Thefriction factors areobtained with Eq. [13.2.7] using Eq. [13.2.8] and therespectivedynamic
viscosities of theliquid and thevapor for turbulent flows whilefor laminar flows (Re<2000):
Re
16
=
[13.2.30]
10
Laboratoire de Transfert de Chaleur et de Masse
ECOLE POLYTECHNIQUE
FEDERALE DE LAUSANNE
13.2.8 Recommended methods
Whalley (1980) made an extensive comparison between various published correlations, and the
HTFS database(which consisted of over 25,000 data points). Therecommendations hemadeare
as follows:
When (
L
/
G
) <1000 and mass velocities less than 2000 kg/m
2
s (1,471,584 lb/h ft
2
), the
Friedel (1979) correlation should beused.
When (
L
/
G
) >1000 and mass velocities greater than 100 kg/m
2
s (73,579 lb/h ft
2
), the
Chisolm(1973) correlation should beused.
When (
L
/
G
) >1000 and mass velocities less than 100 kg/m
2
s (73,579 lb/h ft
2
), the
Lockhart and Martinelli (1949) correlation should beused.
For most fluids, (
L
/
G
) <1000 and theFriedel correlation will bethepreferred method for
intubeflow. At high reduced pressures, thehomogeneous method presented earlier may be
preferable.
Laboratoire de Transfert de Chaleur et de Masse
ECOLE POLYTECHNIQUE
FEDERALE DE LAUSANNE
Tribbe and Mller-Steinhagen (2000) compared some of the leading two-phase frictional
pressure drop correlations to a large database including the following combinations: air-oil, air-
water, water-steamand several refrigerants. They found that statistically the method of Mller-
Steinhagen and Heck (1986) gavethebest and most reliableresults.

Ould Didi, Kattan and Thome (2001) compared the two-phase frictional pressure drop
correlations described in theprevious section to experimental pressuredrops obtained in 10.92 and
12.00 mm(0.430 and 0.472 in.) internal diameter tubes of 3.013 m(9.885 ft) length for R-134a,
R-123, R-402A, R-404A and R-502 over mass velocities from100 to 500 kg/m
2
s (73,579 to
367,896 lb/h ft
2
) and vapor qualities from0.04 to 0.99. Overall, they found theGrnnerud (1972)
and theMller-Steinhagen and Heck (1986) methods to beequally best whiletheFriedel (1979)
method was thethird best.
Ould Didi, Kattan and Thome (2001) also classified their data by flow pattern using theKattan,
Thomeand Favrat (1998) flow pattern map and thus obtained pressuredrop databases for Annular
flow, Intermittent flow and Stratified-Wavy flow. They found that the best method for Annular
flow was that of Mller-Steinhagen and Heck (1986), the best for Intermittent flow was that of
Grnnerud (1972), and thebest for Stratified-Wavy flow was that of Grnnerud (1972).
11
Laboratoire de Transfert de Chaleur et de Masse
ECOLE POLYTECHNIQUE
FEDERALE DE LAUSANNE
Figure13.1 depicts a comparison of fiveof theabovemethods to
someR-134a two-phasefrictional pressuredrop data.
0.0
1.0
2.0
3.0
4.0
5.0
6.0
7.0
8.0
0.00 0.20 0.40 0.60 0.80 1.00
Vapor Qual i ty
P
r
e
s
s
u
r
e

G
r
a
d
i
e
n
t


[
k
P
a
/
m
]
Experi mental Lockhart and Martinell i
Friedel Grnnerud
Chisholm Mll er-Stei nhagen and Heck
Laboratoire de Transfert de Chaleur et de Masse
ECOLE POLYTECHNIQUE
FEDERALE DE LAUSANNE
R-22 Two-Phase Pressure Drop Data
12
Laboratoire de Transfert de Chaleur et de Masse
ECOLE POLYTECHNIQUE
FEDERALE DE LAUSANNE
R-410A Two-Phase Flow Map (8mm Tube)
0
100
200
300
400
500
600
700
800
900
1000
1100
1200
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1
x [-]
G

[
k
g
/
m
2
s
]
I
MF
A
SW
S
Flow Pattern Map
(R410A,d=8mm)
Laboratoire de Transfert de Chaleur et de Masse
ECOLE POLYTECHNIQUE
FEDERALE DE LAUSANNE
Two-Phase Pressure Gradi ent
(R410A, G=500 kg/m
2
s, Tsat=5 C, q=06-10 kW/m
2
)
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
vapor qual i ty [%]

p
/
L

[
m
b
a
r
/
m
]
8mm 13mm
R-410A Two-Phase Pressure Drop Data
(8 mm tube vs. 13 mm tube at G=500)
13
Laboratoire de Transfert de Chaleur et de Masse
ECOLE POLYTECHNIQUE
FEDERALE DE LAUSANNE
Two-Phase Pressure Gradi ent
(R410A, G=300 kg/m
2
s, Tsat=5 C, q=06-10 kW/m
2
,d=8mm)
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
vapor qual i ty [%]

p
/
L

[
m
b
a
r
/
m
]
f r i ct i onal-di abat ic f r ict i onal-adi abat i c
R-410A Two-Phase Pressure Drop Data
(8 mm tube: diabatic vs. adiabatic)
Laboratoire de Transfert de Chaleur et de Masse
ECOLE POLYTECHNIQUE
FEDERALE DE LAUSANNE
Exercise 13.1: For a vertical tube of 16.0 mm internal diameter, determine the
total pressure drop from inlet to outlet if the tube is 2 m long and the flow is
upwards with the vapor quality changing from 0.0 to 0.2 (assume Zivi void
fraction model) using the Lockhart-Martinelli model with these properties:
Mass flow rate = 0.0402 kg/s; surface tension = 0.015 N/m;
Liquid density = 1300 kg/m
3
; vapor density = 20 kg/m
3
;
Liquid viscosity = 0.0002 Ns/m
2
; vapor viscosity = 0.00001 Ns/m
2
Exercise 13.2: For a vertical tube of 16.0 mm internal diameter, determine the
total pressure drop from inlet to outlet if the tube is 2 m long and the flow is
upwards with the vapor quality changing from 0.0 to 0.2 (assume Zivi void
fraction model) using the Friedel model with these properties:
Mass flow rate = 0.0402 kg/s; surface tension = 0.015 N/m;
Liquid density = 1300 kg/m
3
; vapor density = 20 kg/m
3
;
Liquid viscosity = 0.0002 Ns/m
2
; vapor viscosity = 0.00001 Ns/m
2
14
Laboratoire de Transfert de Chaleur et de Masse
ECOLE POLYTECHNIQUE
FEDERALE DE LAUSANNE
Exercise 13.3: For a vertical tube of 16.0 mm internal diameter, determine the
total pressure drop from inlet to outlet if the tube is 2 m long and the flow is
upwards with the vapor quality changing from 0.0 to 0.2 (assume Zivi void
fraction model) using the Grnnerud model with these properties:
Mass flow rate = 0.0402 kg/s; surface tension = 0.015 N/m;
Liquid density = 1300 kg/m
3
; vapor density = 20 kg/m
3
;
Liquid viscosity = 0.0002 Ns/m
2
; vapor viscosity = 0.00001 Ns/m
2
Exercise 13.4: For a vertical tube of 16.0 mm internal diameter, determine the
total pressure drop from inlet to outlet if the tube is 2 m long and the flow is
upwards with the vapor quality changing from 0.0 to 0.2 (assume Zivi void
fraction model) using the MullerSteinhagen-Heck model and these properties:
Mass flow rate = 0.0402 kg/s; surface tension = 0.015 N/m;
Liquid density = 1300 kg/m
3
; vapor density = 20 kg/m
3
;
Liquid viscosity = 0.0002 Ns/m
2
; vapor viscosity = 0.00001 Ns/m
2
Laboratoire de Transfert de Chaleur et de Masse
ECOLE POLYTECHNIQUE
FEDERALE DE LAUSANNE
13.3 Two-Phase Pressure Drops in Microfin Tubes
Thors and Bogart (1994) measured two-phase pressure drops for a 3.66 m(12 ft) long
horizontal test sections of 9.53 mm(3/8 in.) and 15.9 mm(5/8 in.) diameter tubes for several
microfin tubes in comparison to plain bore tubes for R-22 at a saturation temperature of
1.67C (35F) for evaporation froman inlet vapor quality of 10% to an outlet vapor quality of
80%.
Figure 13.2 depicts their comparison of two-phase pressure drops for the smaller tubes:
plain tube of 8.72 mm(0.343 in.) internal diameter, microfin tube of 8.87 mm(0.349 in.)
internal diameter with 60 fins of 18 helix angle and 0.203 mmheight (0.008 in.) and
microfin tube of 8.87 mm(0.349 in.) internal diameter with 72 fins of 0 helix angle and
0.203 mmheight (0.008 in.).
As can be noted, the pressure drops for the longitudinal micron fin tube are identical to
those of the plain tube, i.e. no pressure drop penalty, while those of the 18 microfintube are
only marginally higher at the higher mass velocities (by about 10-20%).
15
Laboratoire de Transfert de Chaleur et de Masse
ECOLE POLYTECHNIQUE
FEDERALE DE LAUSANNE

MASS FLUX (kg/s-m
2
)
FIGURE 6 9.53 mm Pressure drop results.
100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500
P
R
E
S
S
U
R
E

D
R
O
P

(
k
P
a
)
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
60 Ridge, 18 degree helix
72 Ridge, zero helix
Plain tube
Figure 13.2
Laboratoire de Transfert de Chaleur et de Masse
ECOLE POLYTECHNIQUE
FEDERALE DE LAUSANNE
13.3 Two-Phase Pressure Drops in Microfin Tubes
Thors and Bogart (1994) in Figure 13.3 have comparable results for a larger tube size. The
tests were run for the following tubes: plain tube of 14.86 mm(0.585 in.) internal diameter,
microfintube of 14.86 mm(0.585 in.) internal diameter with 60 fins of 27 helix angle and
0.305 mmheight (0.012 in.), microfintube of 14.86 mm(0.585 in.) internal diameter with 75
fins of 23 helix angle and 0.305 mmheight (0.012 in.) and corrugated tube of 14.10 mm
(0.555 in.) internal diameter with one start giving a helix angle of 78 and corrugation depth
of 1.041 mm(0.041 in.).
Here, the microfin tubes have the same pressure drop as the plain tube at low mass
velocities while they are up to 50% higher at the highest mass velocity.
The corrugated tube also begins at the low mass velocity with the same pressure drop as the
other tubes but then its pressure drop increases rapidly up to 200% higher than that of the
plain tube and up to 100% higher than the microfintubes.
16
Laboratoire de Transfert de Chaleur et de Masse
ECOLE POLYTECHNIQUE
FEDERALE DE LAUSANNE

MASS FLUX (kg/s-m
2
)
FIGURE 8 15.88 mm Pressure drop results.
50 75 100 125 150 175 200 225 250 275 300 325 350 375 400
P
R
E
S
S
U
R
E

D
R
O
P

(
k
P
a
)
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
60 Ridge, 27 degree helix
75 Ridge, 23 degree helix
Corrugated
Plain tube
Figure 13.3
Laboratoire de Transfert de Chaleur et de Masse
ECOLE POLYTECHNIQUE
FEDERALE DE LAUSANNE
13.4 Two-Phase Pressure Drops in Corrugated Tubes
For two-phase flows in corrugated tubes, the two-phase pressure drops are typically much
larger than those of plain tubes and microfintubes. For example, Figure 13.3 depicted some
experimental results of Bogart and Thors (1994) for R-22 compared to a plain tube and two
microfintubes.
Withers and Habdas (1974) have presented an earlier experimental study on a corrugated
tube for R-12, with similar pressure drop penalties.
No general method is available for predicting two-phase pressure drops in corrugated tubes.
There are numerous tube diameters, corrugation depths and corrugation pitches among the
tubes commercially available and there has apparently not been asystematic study to develop
such a method.
17
Laboratoire de Transfert de Chaleur et de Masse
ECOLE POLYTECHNIQUE
FEDERALE DE LAUSANNE
13.5 Two-Phase Pressure Drops for Twisted Tape Inserts in Plain Tubes
A twisted tape insert is a metal strip that is twisted into a helix before its insertion into a plain
tube. In order to install the twisted tape, its diameter must beslightly less than that of the tube,
accounting for the normal manufacturing tolerance of tube wall thickness and roundness.
Hence, twisted tapes are in rather poor contact with the tube wall. In fact, a large two-phase
pressure drop may drive the insert out of the tube if it is not firmly fixed at the entrance.
For two-phase flows in tubes with twisted tape inserts, the two-phase pressure drops are
typically much larger than those of plain tubes and microfintubes and similar to those of
corrugated tubes.
No general method is available for predicting two-phase pressure drops in tubes with twisted
tape inserts. As a rough approximation, the hydraulic diameter of one of the two flow channels
inside the tube, which is bisected by the tape, can be used in one of the plain tube two-phase
frictional pressure drop correlations, assuming one-half of the flow goes through this channel.
This typically results in two-phase pressure drops on the order of twice as large as in the same
tube without the tape.