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Advanced Traffic

Management Guide
www.hp.com/go/hpprocurve
Switch 2600 Series
Switch 2600-PWR Series
Switch 2800 Series
Switch 4100 Series
Switch 6108
HPProCurve
Switch2600Series
Switch2600-PWRSeries
Switch2800Series
Switch4100glSeries
Switch6108
AdvancedTrafficManagementGuide
October 2004
Copyright 2000-2004 Hewlett-Packard Development Company,
L.P. The information contained herein is subject to change with-
out notice.
PublicationNumber
5990-6023
October2004
ApplicableProducts
HPProCurveSwitch2626 (J4900A)
HPProCurveSwitch2626-PWR (J8164A)
HPProCurveSwitch2650 (J4899A)
HPProCurveSwitch2650-PWR (J8165A)
HPProCurveSwitch2824 (J4903A)
HPProCurveSwitch2848 (J4904A)
HPProCurveSwitch4104gl (J4887A)
HPProCurveSwitch4108gl (J4865A)
HPProCurveSwitch6108 (J4902A)
TrademarkCredits
Microsoft,Windows,andWindowsNTareUSregistered
trademarksofMicrosoftCorporation.
Disclaimer
HEWLETT-PACKARDCOMPANYMAKESNOWARRANTY
OFANYKINDWITHREGARDTOTHISMATERIAL,
INCLUDING,BUTNOTLIMITEDTO,THEIMPLIED
WARRANTIESOFMERCHANTABILITYANDFITNESS
FORAPARTICULARPURPOSE.Hewlett-Packardshallnot
beliableforerrorscontainedhereinorforincidentalor
consequentialdamagesinconnectionwiththefurnishing,
performance,oruseofthismaterial.
TheonlywarrantiesforHPproductsandservicesareset
forthintheexpresswarrantystatementsaccompanying
suchproductsandservices.Nothinghereinshouldbe
construedasconstitutinganadditionalwarranty.HPshall
notbeliablefortechnicaloreditorialerrorsoromissions
containedherein.
Hewlett-Packardassumesnoresponsibilityfortheuseor
reliabilityofitssoftwareonequipmentthatisnotfurnished
byHewlett-Packard.
Warranty
SeetheCustomerSupport/Warrantybookletincludedwith
theproduct.
Acopyofthespecificwarrantytermsapplicabletoyour
Hewlett-Packardproductsandreplacementpartscanbe
obtainedfromyourHPSalesandServiceOfficeor
authorizeddealer.
Hewlett-PackardCompany
8000FoothillsBoulevard,m/s5551
Roseville,California95747-5551
http://www.hp.com/go/hpprocurve
Contents
1 GettingStarted
Contents....................................................... 1-1
Overview ...................................................... 1-2
Conventions ................................................... 1-2
CommandSyntaxStatements ................................. 1-2
CommandPrompts .......................................... 1-3
ScreenSimulations .......................................... 1-3
Keys....................................................... 1-4
RelatedPublications ............................................ 1-4
GettingDocumentationFromtheWeb ............................. 1-6
SourcesforMore Information .................................... 1-7
NeedOnlyaQuickStart? ........................................ 1-8
IPAddressing ............................................... 1-8
ToSetUp andInstalltheSwitch inYour Network ................ 1-8
2 StaticVirtualLANs(VLANs)
Contents....................................................... 2-1
Overview ...................................................... 2-2
Port-BasedVirtualLANs(StaticVLANs)............................ 2-3
OverviewofUsingVLANs .................................... 2-6
VLANSupportandtheDefault VLAN .. ..................... 2-6
ThePrimaryVLAN ....................................... 2-6
Per-PortStaticVLANConfigurationOptions ................. 2-8
GeneralStepsforUsingVLANs ............................ 2-9
VLANOperatingNotes ................................... 2-9
MultipleVLANConsiderations ................................ 2-9
Single-ForwardingDatabaseOperation .................... 2-11
ExampleofanUnsupportedConfigurationand
HowToCorrectIt ...................................... 2-11
Multiple-ForwardingDatabaseOperation .................. 2-13
iii
Menu:ConfiguringVLANParameters .......................... 2-14
ToChangeVLANSupportSettings .... .................... 2-14
AddingorEditingVLANNames ........................... 2-16
AddingorChangingaVLAN PortAssignment ............... 2-17
CLI:ConfiguringVLANParameters ........................... 2-19
Web:ViewingandConfiguringVLANParameters ............... 2-25
802.1QVLANTagging ....................................... 2-26
TheSecureManagementVLAN ............................... 2-30
Preparation ............................................ 2-32
Configuration .......................................... 2-33
OperatingNotesforManagementVLANs ................... 2-33
Effectof VLANsonOtherSwitch Features ..................... 2-34
SpanningTreeOperationwithVLANs ..................... 2-34
IPInterfaces ........................................... 2-35
VLANMACAddresses ................................... 2-35
PortTrunks ............................................ 2-35
PortMonitoring ........................................ 2-36
VLANRestrictions . .... ... .................................. 2-36
JumboPacketSupportontheSeries2800Switches ............. 2-36
3 GVRP
Contents....................................................... 3-1
Overview ...................................................... 3-2
Introduction ................................................... 3-3
GeneralOperation . .......................................... 3-4
Per-PortOptionsforHandlingGVRPUnknownVLANs .......... 3-6
Per-PortOptionsforDynamicVLANAdvertisingandJoining ...... 3-8
GVRPandVLANAccessControl.............................. 3-10
Port-LeaveFromaDynamicVLAN .... .................... 3-10
Planning forGVRP Operation ... ... .......................... 3-11
ConfiguringGVRPOnaSwitch ............................... 3-11
Menu:ViewingandConfiguringGVRP . .................... 3-12
CLI:ViewingandConfiguring GVRP ... .................... 3-13
Web:ViewingandConfiguringGVRP ...................... 3-16
GVRPOperatingNotes ...................................... 3-17
iv
4 MultimediaTrafficControlwithIPMulticast(IGMP)
Contents....................................................... 4-1
Overview ...................................................... 4-2
GeneralOperationandFeatures .................................. 4-3
IGMPFeatures .............................................. 4-3
IGMPTerms ................................................ 4-4
IGMPOperatingFeatures..................................... 4-5
BasicOperation ......................................... 4-5
Enhancements .......................................... 4-5
CLI:ConfiguringandDisplayingIGMP ............................. 4-6
Web:EnablingorDisablingIGMP ................................ 4-11
HowIGMPOperates ........................................... 4-11
OperationWithorWithoutIPAddressing ...................... 4-13
AutomaticFast-LeaveIGMP ................................. 4-13
ForcedFast-LeaveIGMP .................................... 4-16
ConfigurationOptionsforForcedFast-Leave ............... 4-16
ListingtheForcedFast-LeaveConfiguration ................ 4-16
ConfiguringPer-PortForcedFast-LeaveIGMP.................. 4-18
UsingtheSwitchasQuerier ..................................... 4-19
QuerierOperation .......................................... 4-19
ExcludingWell-KnownorReservedMulticastAddresses
fromIPMulticastFiltering ...................................... 4-20
NumberofIPMulticastAddressesAllowed................. 4-21
5 Spanning-TreeOperation
Contents....................................................... 5-1
Overview ...................................................... 5-3
TheRSTP(802.1w)andSTP(802.1D)SpanningTreeOptions ......... 5-7
RSTP(802.1w) .............................................. 5-7
STP(802.1D) ............................................... 5-8
HowSTPandRSTPOperate .................................. 5-8
ConfiguringRapidReconfigurationSpanningTree(RSTP) ........... 5-11
Overview.................................................. 5-11
TransitioningfromSTPtoRSTP .............................. 5-12
v
ConfiguringRSTP .......................................... 5-13
OptimizingtheRSTPConfiguration ... .................... 5-13
CLI:ConfiguringRSTP .................................. 5-14
Menu:ConfiguringRSTP ................................. 5-20
Web:EnablingorDisablingRSTP ......................... 5-22
802.1DSpanning-TreeProtocol(STP) ............................. 5-23
Menu:Configuring802.1DSTP ............................... 5-23
CLI:Configuring802.1DSTP ................................. 5-26
STPFastMode............................................. 5-30
Fast-UplinkSpanningTreeProtocol(STP) . .................... 5-31
Terminology ........................................... 5-33
OperatingRulesforFastUplink .......................... 5-34
Menu:ViewingandConfiguringFast-UplinkSTP ............ 5-35
CLI:ViewingandConfiguringFast-UplinkSTP .............. 5-41
OperatingNotes ........................................ 5-44
Web:EnablingorDisablingSTP.................................. 5-45
802.1sMultipleSpanningTreeProtocol(MSTP)forthe
Series2600/2600-PWRand2800 Switches .......................... 5-46
MSTPStructure ............................................ 5-47
HowMSTPOperates........................................ 5-49
MSTRegions ........................................... 5-49
Regions,LegacySTPandRSTPSwitches,andthe
CommonSpanningTree(CST) ........................... 5-51
MSTPOperationwith802.1QVLANs ...................... 5-51
Terminology ............................................... 5-52
OperatingRules ............................................ 5-54
TransitioningfromSTPorRSTPto MSTP .. .................... 5-55
TipsforPlanninganMSTPApplication . ....................... 5-56
StepsforConfiguringMSTP ................................. 5-57
ConfiguringMSTPOperationModeandGlobalParameters....... 5-59
ConfiguringBasicPortConnectivityParameters
5-63
ConfiguringMSTInstanceParameters......................... 5-65
ConfiguringMSTInstancePer-PortParameters ................. 5-69
EnablingorDisablingSpanningTreeOperation................. 5-72
EnablinganEntireMSTRegionatOnceor
ExchangingOneRegionConfigurationforAnother.............. 5-72
vi
DisplayingMSTPStatisticsandConfiguration .................. 5-74
DisplayingMSTPStatistics ............................... 5-74
DisplayingtheMSTPConfiguration ....................... 5-77
OperatingNotes............................................ 5-81
Troubleshooting ................... ........................ 5-81
6 QualityofService(QoS):ManagingBandwidthMore
EffectivelyontheSeries2600/2600-PWRandSeries2800
Switches
Contents....................................................... 6-1
Introduction ................................................... 6-3
Terminology ................................................ 6-6
Overview................................................... 6-8
ClassifiersforPrioritizingOutboundPackets ................... 6-10
PacketClassifiersandEvaluationOrder ................... 6-11
PreparationforConfiguringQoS ......... ........................ 6-14
StepsforConfiguringQoSontheSwitch ................... 6-14
PlanningaQoSConfiguration .. .............................. 6-16
PrioritizingandMonitoringQoSConfigurationOptions ...... 6-16
QoSResourceUsageandMonitoring ...................... 6-16
Planning andMonitoringRuleUsage .. .................... 6-18
ManagingQoSResourceConsumption ..................... 6-18
TroubeshootingaShortageofPer-PortRuleResources....... 6-19
ExamplesofQoSResourceUsage......................... 6-21
UsingQoSClassifiersToConfigureQualityofServicefor
OutboundTraffic ................... ........................... 6-25
ViewingtheQoSConfiguration ............................... 6-25
NoOverride............................................ 6-26
QoSUDP/TCPPriority ...................................... 6-27
Assigning802.1pPriorityBasedonTCPorUDPPortNumber . 6-28
AssigningaDSCPPolicyBasedonTCPorUDPPortNumber . 6-29
QoSIP-DevicePriority ...................................... 6-33
AssigningaPriorityBasedonIPAddress................... 6-34
AssigningaDSCPPolicyBasedonIPAddress .............. 6-35
vii
QoSIPType-of-Service(ToS)PolicyandPriority ............... 6-39
Assigningan802.1pPrioritytoIPv4Packetsonthe
BasisoftheToSPrecedenceBits ......................... 6-40
Assigningan802.1pPrioritytoIPv4Packetsonthe
BasisofIncomingDSCP ................................. 6-41
AssigningaDSCPPolicyontheBasisofthe
DSCPinIPv4PacketsReceivedfromUpstreamDevices...... 6-45
DetailsofQoSIPType-of-Service . . ....................... 6-49
QoSVLAN-ID(VID)Priority ................................. 6-52
AssigningaPriorityBasedonVLAN-ID .................... 6-52
AssigningaDSCPPolicyBasedonVLAN-ID(VID)........... 6-54
QoSSource-PortPriority .................................... 6-58
AssigningaPriorityBasedonSource-Port.................. 6-58
AssigningaDSCPPolicyBasedontheSource-Port .......... 6-60
DifferentiatedServicesCodepoint(DSCP)Mapping ............. 6-64
DefaultPrioritySettingsforSelectedCodepoints............ 6-65
QuicklyListingNon-DefaultCodepointSettings ............. 6-66
NoteOn ChangingaPrioritySetting... . ....................... 6-67
ExampleofChangingthePrioritySettingonaPolicy
WhenOneorMoreClassifiersAreCurrentlyUsingthePolicy . 6-68
IPMulticast(IGMP) Interaction withQoS ......................... 6-71
QoSMessagesintheCLI ........................................ 6-71
QoSOperatingNotesandRestrictions ............................ 6-72
7 IPRoutingFeatures
Contents....................................................... 7-1
OverviewofIPRouting .......................................... 7-3
IPInterfaces ................................................ 7-3
IPTablesandCaches ........................................ 7-4
ARPCacheTable ........................................ 7-4
IPRouteTable .......................................... 7-5
IPForwardingCache ..................................... 7-5
IPGlobalParametersforRoutingSwitches ..................... 7-6
IPInterface ParametersforRoutingSwitches ................... 7-7
ConfiguringIP ParametersforRoutingSwitches .................... 7-8
ConfiguringIPAddresses..................................... 7-8
viii
ConfiguringARPParameters.................................. 7-8
HowARPWorks......................................... 7-8
ChangingtheARPAgingPeriod........................... 7-10
EnablingProxyARP .................................... 7-11
ConfiguringForwardingParameters .......................... 7-11
EnablingForwardingofDirectedBroadcasts ............... 7-12
ConfiguringICMP .......................................... 7-13
DisablingICMPMessages ................................ 7-13
DisablingRepliestoBroadcastPingRequests............... 7-13
DisablingICMPDestinationUnreachableMessages.......... 7-14
DisablingICMPRedirects ................................ 7-15
ConfiguringStaticIPRoutes..................................... 7-15
StaticRouteTypes ...................................... 7-15
StaticIPRouteParameters ............................... 7-16
StaticRouteStatesFollowVLAN(Interface)States .......... 7-16
ConfiguringaStaticIPRoute ............................. 7-16
ConfiguringtheDefaultRoute ............................ 7-17
ConfiguringaNullRoute ............................... 7-17
DisplayingStaticRouteInformation .......................... 7-18
ConfiguringIRDP .............................................. 7-20
EnablingIRDPGlobally ..................................... 7-21
EnablingIRDPonanIndividualVLANInterface ................ 7-21
DisplayingIRDPInformation.......... ....................... 7-23
ConfiguringDHCPRelay ........................................ 7-24
Overview.................................................. 7-24
DHCPPacketForwarding ................................... 7-24
UnicastForwarding ..................................... 7-24
BroadcastForwarding................................... 7-24
MinimumRequirementsforDHCPRelayOperation ............. 7-25
EnablingDHCPRelay ................................... 7-25
ConfiguringaHelperAddress ............................ 7-25
8 HPProCurveStackManagement
Contents....................................................... 8-1
Overview ...................................................... 8-3
Operation ...................................................... 8-4
WhichDevicesSupportStacking? ............................. 8-5
ComponentsofHPProCurveStackManagement ................ 8-6
ix
GeneralStackingOperation................................... 8-6
OperatingRulesforStacking .................................. 8-8
GeneralRules ........................................... 8-8
SpecificRules ........................................... 8-9
ConfiguringStackManagement .................................. 8-10
Overview ofConfiguringandBringingUp aStack ............... 8-10
GeneralStepsforCreating aStack .... .................... 8-12
UsingtheMenuInterfaceToViewStackStatusand
ConfigureStacking ......................................... 8-14
UsingtheMenuInterfaceToViewandConfigureaCommander
Switch ................................................ 8-14
UsingtheMenuToManage aCandidate Switch ............. 8-16
UsingtheCommanderToManageTheStack ................... 8-18
UsingtheCommanderToAccessMemberSwitchesfor
ConfigurationChangesandMonitoringTraffic .............. 8-24
ConvertingaCommanderorMembertoa
MemberofAnotherStack ................................ 8-25
MonitoringStackStatus ............. ........................ 8-26
UsingtheCLIToViewStackStatusandConfigureStacking ...... 8-30
UsingtheCLIToViewStackStatus ....................... 8-32
UsingtheCLIToConfigureaCommanderSwitch ........... 8-34
AddingtoaStackorMovingSwitchesBetweenStacks ....... 8-36
UsingtheCLIToRemoveaMemberfrom aStack ........... 8-41
UsingtheCLIToAccessMemberSwitchesforConfiguration
ChangesandTrafficMonitoring........................... 8-43
SNMPCommunityOperationinaStack ....................... 8-44
UsingtheCLIToDisableorRe-Enable Stacking ................ 8-45
TransmissionInterval ............... ........................ 8-45
StackingOperationwithMultipleVLANsConfigured ............ 8-45
Web:ViewingandConfiguringStacking ....................... 8-46
StatusMessages............................................ 8-47
Index
x
1
GettingStarted
Contents
Overview ...................................................... 1-2
Conventions ................................................... 1-2
CommandSyntaxStatements ................................. 1-2
CommandPrompts .......................................... 1-3
ScreenSimulations .......................................... 1-3
Keys....................................................... 1-4
RelatedPublications ............................................ 1-4
GettingDocumentationFromtheWeb ............................. 1-6
SourcesforMore Information .................................... 1-7
NeedOnlyaQuickStart? ........................................ 1-8
IPAddressing ............................................... 1-8
ToSetUp andInstalltheSwitch inYour Network ................ 1-8
1-1
Getting Started
Overview
Overview
ThisAdvancedTrafficManagementGuideisintendedforusewiththe
followingswitches:
HPProCurveSwitch2626 HPProCurveSwitch2650
HPProCurveSwitch2626-PWR HPProCurveSwitch2650-PWR
HPProCurveSwitch2824 HPProCurveSwitch2848
HPProCurveSwitch4104gl HPProCurveSwitch4108gl
HPProCurveSwitch6108
Thisguidedescribeshowtoconfigureandusetheadvancedtrafficmanage-
mentfeaturescoveredinthefollowingchapters.TheProductDocumentation
CD-ROMshippedwiththeswitchincludesacopyofthisguide.Youcanalso
downloadthelatestversionofthisguidefromtheHPProCurvewebsite.
(RefertoGettingDocumentationFromtheWebonpage1-6.)
Forinformationonotherproductdocumentationavailablefortheabove-
listedswitches,refertoRelatedPublicationsonpage1-4.
Conventions
Thisguideusesthefollowingconventionsforcommandsyntaxanddisplayed
information.
CommandSyntaxStatements
Syntax: aaaport-accessauthenticator<port-list>
[control<authorized|auto|unauthorized>]
Verticalbars(|)separatealternative,mutuallyexclusiveelements.
Squarebrackets([])indicateoptionalelements.
Braces(<>)encloserequiredelements.
Braceswithinsquarebrackets([<>])indicatearequiredelementwithin
anoptionalchoice.
BoldfaceindicatesuseofaCLIcommand,partofaCLIcommandsyntax,
orotherdisplayedelementingeneraltext.Forexample:
Usethecopy tftp commandtodownloadthekeyfromaTFTPserver.
Italicsindicatevariablesforwhichyoumustsupplyavaluewhenexecut-
ingthecommand.Forexample,inthiscommandsyntax,youmustprovide
oneormoreportnumbers:
Syntax: aaaport-accessauthenticator<port-list >
1-2
Getting Started
Conventions
CommandPrompts
Inthedefaultconfiguration,theswitchmodelnamedisplaysintheCLI
prompt,forexample:
HP ProCurve Switch 2824#
Tosimplifyrecognition,thisguideusesHPswitchtorepresentcommand
promptsforallmodels.Forexample:
HPswitch#
(YoucanusethehostnamecommandtochangethetextintheCLIprompt.)
ScreenSimulations
DisplayedText. Figurescontainingsimulatedscreentextandcommand
outputlooklikethis:
HPswitch# show version
Image stamp: /sw/code/build/info
Apr 1 2004 15:03:18
G.07.53
520
Boot Image: Primary
HPswitch#
Figure 1-1. Example of a Figure Showing a Simulated Screen
Insomecases,briefcommand-outputsequencesappearwithoutfigureiden-
tification.Forexample:
HPswitch(config)# clear public-key
HPswitch(config)# show ip client-public-key
show_client_public_key: cannot stat keyfile
PortNumberingConventions. HPProCurvestackableswitchesdesignate
individualportswithsequentialnumbers(1,2,3,etc.)HPProCurvechassis
switchesdesignateindividualportswithaletter/numbercombinationtoshow
theslotinwhichtheportisfoundandthesequentialnumbertheporthasin
thatslot(A1,A2,B1,B2,etc.)Examplesthatincludeportnumberinginforma-
tionoftenincludeonlyoneoftheseportnumberingconventions.Unless
otherwisenoted,youcanassumethattheexampleappliestoyourswitch,
regardlessofitsportnumberingconvention.
1-3
Getting Started
RelatedPublications
Keys
Simulationsof actualkeysuseabold,sans-seriftypefacewithsquarebrackets.
Forexample,theTabkeyappearsas[Tab],andtheYkeyappearsas[Y].
RelatedPublications
SoftwareReleaseNotes. ReleasenotesarepostedontheHPProcurve
websiteandprovideinformationonnewsoftwareupdates:
Newfeaturesandhowtoconfigureandusethem
Softwaremanagement,includingdownloadingsoftwaretotheswitch
Softwarefixesaddressedincurrentandpreviousreleases
Toviewanddownloadacopyofthelatestreleasenotesforyourswitch,see
GettingDocumentationFromtheWebonpage1-6.
ProductNotesandSoftwareUpdateInformation. TheprintedReadMe
Firstshippedwithyourswitchprovidesproductnotes,andotherinformation.
Forthelatestversion,refertoGettingDocumentationFromtheWebon
page1-6.
InstallationandGettingStartedGuide. UsetheInstallationandGet-
tingStartedGuideshippedwithyourswitchtoprepareforandperformthe
physicalinstallation.Thisguidealsostepsyouthroughconnectingtheswitch
toyournetworkandassigningIPaddressing,aswellasdescribingtheLED
indicationsforcorrectoperationandtroubleanalysis.APDFversionofthis
guideisalsoprovidedontheProductDocumentationCD-ROMshippedwith
theswitch.AndyoucandownloadacopyfromtheHPProcurvewebsite.(See
GettingDocumentationFromtheWebonpage1-6.)
ManagementandConfigurationGuide. UsetheManagementandCon-
figurationGuideforinformationon:
Usingthecommandline(CLI),Menuinterface,andwebbrowserinterface
Learninghowmemoryoperatesintheswitch
IPaddressing
Timeprotocols
Portconfigurationoptions
Interactionwithnetworkmanagementapplications
Filetransfers,includingoperationsystems,configurationfiles,anddiag-
nosticdatafiles
Monitoringandtroubleshootingswitchsoftwareoperation
MACaddressing
Daylighttimerules
1-4
Getting Started
RelatedPublications
AccessSecurityGuide. UsetheAccessSecurityGuidetolearnhowtouse
andconfigurethefollowingaccesssecurityfeaturesavailableintheswitch:
UsernameandPasswordSecurity Port-BasedAccessControl
TACACS+Authentication
(802.1X)
Web-BasedandMAC-based
RADIUSAuthenticationand
authentication
Accounting
PortSecurityUsingAuthorized
SecureShell(SSH)Encryption
MACAddresses
SecureSocketLayer(SSL)
AuthorizedIPManagers
HPprovidesPDFversionsoftheswitchdocumentationontheProduct
DocumentationCD-ROMshippedwiththeswitch.Youcanalsodownloadthe
latestversionofanyHPProCurveswitchmanual(PDFformat)fromtheHP
ProCurvewebsite.(RefertoGettingDocumentationFromtheWebon
page1-6.)
1-5
Getting Started
GettingDocumentationFromtheWeb
GettingDocumentationFromtheWeb
1. GototheHPProCurvewebsiteat
http://www.hp.com/go/hpprocurve
2. Clickontechnical support.
3. ClickonProduct manuals (all).
4. Clickontheproductforwhichyouwanttoviewordownloadamanual.
2
3
4
Figure 1-2. Example of How To Locate Product Manuals on the HP ProCurve Website
1-6
Getting Started
SourcesforMoreInformation
SourcesforMoreInformation
Ifyouneedinformationonspecificparametersinthemenuinterface,
refertotheonlinehelpprovidedintheinterface.Forexample:
OnlineHelp
forMenu
Figure 1-3.Example of How To Display Online Help for the Menu Interface
IfyouneedinformationonaspecificcommandintheCLI,typethe
commandnamefollowedbyhelp.Forexample:
Figure 1-4.Example of How To Display Help for a CLI Command
IfyouneedinformationonspecificfeaturesintheHPWebBrowser
Interface(hereafterreferredtoasthewebbrowserinterface),usethe
onlinehelpavailableforthewebbrowserinterface.Formoreinformation
onwebbrowserHelp,refertoOnlineHelpfortheHPWebBrowser
InterfaceinthechaptertitledUsingtheHPWebBrowserInterfacein
theManagementandConfigurationGuideforyourswitch.
1-7
Getting Started
NeedOnlyaQuickStart?
IfyouneedfurtherinformationonHewlett-Packardswitchtechnology,
visittheHPProCurvewebsiteat:
http://www.hp.com/go/hpprocurve
NeedOnlyaQuickStart?
IPAddressing
IfyoujustwanttogivetheswitchanIPaddresssothatitcancommunicate
onyournetwork,orifyouarenotusingVLANs,HPrecommendsthatyouuse
theSwitchSetupscreentoquicklyconfigureIPaddressing.Todoso,doone
ofthefollowing:
EntersetupattheCLIManagerlevelprompt.
HPswitch# setup
IntheMainMenuoftheMenuinterface,select
8. Run Setup
FormoreonusingtheSwitchSetupscreen,seetheInstallationandGetting
StartedGuideyoureceivedwiththeswitch.
ToSetUpandInstalltheSwitchinYourNetwork
I mp o r t a n t ! UsetheHPProcurveInstallationandGettingStartedGuide(shippedwith
theswitch)forthefollowing:
Notes,cautions,andwarningsrelatedtoinstallingandusingtheswitch
anditsrelatedmodules
Instructionsforphysicallyinstallingtheswitchinyournetwork
QuicklyassigninganIPaddressandsubnetmask,setaManagerpass-
word,and(optionally)configureotherbasicfeatures.
InterpretingLEDbehavior.
ForthelatestversionoftheInstallationandGettingStartedGuideforyour
switch,refertoGettingDocumentationFromtheWebonpage1-6.
1-8
2
StaticVirtualLANs(VLANs)
Contents
Overview ...................................................... 2-2
Port-BasedVirtualLANs(StaticVLANs)............................ 2-3
OverviewofUsingVLANs .................................... 2-6
VLANSupportandtheDefault VLAN .. ..................... 2-6
ThePrimaryVLAN ....................................... 2-6
Per-PortStaticVLANConfigurationOptions ................. 2-8
GeneralStepsforUsingVLANs ............................ 2-9
VLANOperatingNotes ................................... 2-9
MultipleVLANConsiderations ................................ 2-9
Single-ForwardingDatabaseOperation .................... 2-11
ExampleofanUnsupportedConfigurationand
HowToCorrectIt ...................................... 2-11
Multiple-ForwardingDatabaseOperation .................. 2-13
Menu:ConfiguringVLANParameters .......................... 2-14
ToChangeVLANSupportSettings .... .................... 2-14
AddingorEditingVLANNames ........................... 2-16
AddingorChangingaVLAN PortAssignment ............... 2-17
CLI:ConfiguringVLANParameters ........................... 2-19
Web:ViewingandConfiguringVLANParameters ............... 2-25
802.1QVLANTagging ....................................... 2-26
TheSecureManagementVLAN ............................... 2-30
Preparation ............................................ 2-32
Configuration .......................................... 2-33
OperatingNotesforManagementVLANs ................... 2-33
Effectof VLANsonOtherSwitch Features ..................... 2-34
SpanningTreeOperationwithVLANs ..................... 2-34
IPInterfaces ........................................... 2-35
VLANMACAddresses ................................... 2-35
PortTrunks ............................................ 2-35
PortMonitoring ........................................ 2-36
VLANRestrictions . .... ... .................................. 2-36
JumboPacketSupportontheSeries2800Switches ............. 2-36
2-1
Static Virtual LANs (VLANs)
Overview
Overview
Thischapterdescribeshowtoconfigureandusestatic,port-basedVLANson
theswitchescoveredbythismanual.
Forgeneralinformationonhowtousetheswitchsbuilt-ininterfaces,referto
thesechaptersintheManagementandConfigurationGuideforyourswitch:
Chapter3,UsingtheMenuInterface
Chapter4,UsingtheCommandLineInterface(CLI)
Chapter5,UsingtheHPWebBrowserInterface
Chapter6,SwitchMemoryandConfiguration
2-2
Static Virtual LANs (VLANs)
Port-BasedVirtualLANs(StaticVLANs)
Port-BasedVirtualLANs(StaticVLANs)
VLAN Features
Feature Default Menu CLI Web
viewexistingVLANs n/a page2-14 page2-20 page2-25
thru2-19
configuringstatic
VLANs
defaultVLANwith
VID=1
page2-14
thru2-19
page2-19 page2-25
configuringdynamic
VLANs
disabled SeethechapteronGVRPinthis
manual.
AVLANisagroupofportsdesignatedbytheswitchasbelongingtothesame
broadcastdomain.(Thatis,allportscarryingtrafficforaparticularsubnet
addresswouldnormallybelongtothesameVLAN.)
Not e ThischapterdescribesstaticVLANs,whichareVLANsyoumanuallyconfig-
urewithaname,VLANID(VID),andportassignments.(Forinformationon
dynamicVLANs,seechapter3,GVRP.)
UsingaVLAN,youcangroupusersbylogicalfunctioninsteadofphysical
location.Thishelpstocontrolbandwidthusagebyallowingyoutogrouphigh-
bandwidthusersonlow-trafficsegmentsandtoorganizeusersfromdifferent
LANsegmentsaccordingtotheirneedforcommonresources.
Bydefault,802.1QVLANsupportisenabledforeightVLANS.Thetablebelow
showsthemaximumnumberofVLANsyoucanconfigureoneachswitch
model:
Table 2-1.VLAN Maximums
Switch Model Maximum Supported VLANs
Series2600Switches Upto253
Series2600-PWRSwitches Upto253
Series4100glSwitches Upto30
Switch6108 Upto30
Series2800Switches Upto256
2-3
Static Virtual LANs (VLANs)
Port-BasedVirtualLANs(StaticVLANs)
(802.1Qcompatibilityenablesyoutoassigneachswitchporttomultiple
VLANs,ifneeded,andtheport-basednatureoftheconfigurationallows
interoperationwitholderswitchesthatrequireaseparateportforeach
VLAN.)
GeneralUseandOperation. Port-basedVLANsaretypicallyusedto
reducebroadcasttrafficandtoincreasesecurity.Agroupofnetworkusers
assignedtoaVLANformsabroadcastdomainthatisseparatefromother
VLANsthatmaybeconfiguredonaswitch.Onagivenswitch,packetsare
forwardedonlybetweenportsthatbelongtothesameVLAN.Thus,allports
carryingtrafficforaparticularsubnetaddressshouldbeconfiguredtothe
sameVLAN.Cross-domainbroadcasttrafficintheswitchiseliminatedand
bandwidthissavedbynotallowingpacketstofloodoutallports.Separate
VLANsontheswitchcancommunicatewitheachotherthrougheitherIP
staticroutingconfiguredontheswitch,orthroughanexternalrouter.
Forexample,referringtofigure2-1,ifportsA1throughA4belongtoVLAN_1
andportsA5throughA8belongtoVLAN_2,trafficfromend-nodestationson
portsA2throughA4isrestrictedtoonlyVLAN_1,whiletrafficfromportsA5
throughA7isrestrictedtoonlyVLAN_2.FornodesonVLAN_1tocommuni-
catewithVLAN_2,theirtrafficmustgothroughanexternalrouterviaports
A1andA8.
External
Router
VLAN_2
VLAN_1
PortA1
PortA8
PortA2
PortA3
PortA4
PortA5
PortA6
PortA7
SwitchwithTwo
VLANsConfigured
Figure 2-1. Example of Routing Between VLANs via an External Router
Overlapping(Tagged)VLANs. Aportontheswitchcanbeamemberof
morethanoneVLANifthedevicetowhichitisconnectedcomplieswiththe
802.1QVLANstandard.Forexample, aportconnectedtoacentralserverusing
anetworkinterfacecard(NIC)thatcomplieswiththe802.1Qstandardcanbe
amemberofmultipleVLANs,allowingmembersofmultipleVLANstousethe
server.AlthoughtheseVLANscannotcommunicatewitheachotherthrough
2-4
Static Virtual LANs (VLANs)
Port-BasedVirtualLANs(StaticVLANs)
theserver,theycanallaccesstheserveroverthesameconnectionfromthe
switch.WhereVLANsoverlapinthisway,VLANtagsareusedtodistinguish
betweentrafficfromdifferentVLANs.
HP ProCurve Switch
Figure 2-2. Example of Overlapping VLANs Using the Same Server
Similarly,using802.1Q-compliantswitches,youcanconnectmultipleVLANs
throughasingleswitch-to-switchlink.
HP
ProCurve
Switch
HP
ProCurve
Switch
Figure 2-3. Example of Connecting Multiple VLANs Through the Same Link
IntroducingTaggedVLANTechnologyintoNetworksRunningLegacy
(Untagged)VLANs. Youcanintroduce802.1Q-compliantdevicesintonet-
worksthathavebuiltuntaggedVLANsbasedonearlierVLANtechnology.The
fundamentalruleisthatlegacy/untaggedVLANsrequireaseparatelinkfor
eachVLAN,while802.1Q,ortaggedVLANscancombine severalVLANsinone
link.Thismeansthatonthe802.1Q-compliantdevice,separateports(config-
uredasuntagged)mustbeusedtoconnectseparateVLANstonon-802.1Q
devices.
2-5
Static Virtual LANs (VLANs)
Port-BasedVirtualLANs(StaticVLANs)
HP
ProCurve
Switch
HP
ProCurve
Switch
Untagged VLAN Links
Tagged VLAN
Link
Figure 2-4. Example of Tagged and Untagged VLAN Technology in the Same
Network
FormoreinformationonVLANs,referto:
OverviewofUsingVLANs(page2-6)
Menu:ConfiguringVLANParameters(page2-14)
CLI:ConfiguringVLANParameters(page2-14)
Web:ViewingandConfiguringVLANParameters(page2-25)
VLANTaggingInformation(page2-26)
EffectofVLANsonOtherSwitchFeatures(page2-34)
VLANRestrictions(page2-36)
OverviewofUsingVLANs
VLANSupportandtheDefaultVLAN
Inthefactorydefaultconfiguration,allportsontheswitchbelongtothe
defaultVLAN(namedDEFAULT_VLAN).Thisplacesallportsintheswitch
intoonephysicalbroadcastdomain.Inthefactory-defaultstate,thedefault
VLANistheprimaryVLAN.
Youcanpartitiontheswitchintomultiplevirtualbroadcastdomainsby adding
oneormoreadditionalVLANsandmovingportsfromthedefaultVLANtothe
newVLANs.YoucanchangethenameofthedefaultVLAN,butyoucannot
changethedefaultVLANsVID(whichisalways1).Althoughyoucanremove
allportsfromthedefaultVLAN,thisVLANisalwayspresent;thatis,you
cannotdeleteitfromtheswitch.
ThePrimaryVLAN
Becausecertainfeaturesandmanagementfunctions,suchassingleIP-
addressstacking,runononlyoneVLANintheswitch,andbecauseDHCPand
Bootpcanrunper-VLAN,thereisaneedfora dedicatedVLANtomanagethese
2-6
Static Virtual LANs (VLANs)
Port-BasedVirtualLANs(StaticVLANs)
featuresandensurethatmultipleinstancesofDHCPorBootpondifferent
VLANsdonotresultinconflictingconfigurationvaluesfortheswitch.The
primaryVLANistheVLANtheswitchusestorunandmanagethesefeatures
anddata.Inthefactory-defaultconfiguration,theswitchdesignatesthe
defaultVLAN(DEFAULT_VLAN)astheprimaryVLAN.However,toprovide
morecontrolinyournetwork,youcandesignateanotherVLANasprimary.
Tosummarize,designatinganon-defaultVLANasprimarymeansthat:
ThestackingfeaturerunsontheswitchsdesignatedprimaryVLAN
insteadofthedefaultVLAN
TheswitchreadsDHCPresponsesontheprimaryVLANinsteadofonthe
defaultVLAN.(ThisincludessuchDHCP-resolvedparametersasthe
TimePserveraddress,DefaultTTL,andIPaddressingincludingthe
GatewayIPaddresswhentheswitchconfigurationspecifiesDHCPas
thesourceforthesevalues.)
ThedefaultVLANcontinuestooperateasastandardVLAN(except,as
notedabove,youcannotdeleteitorchangeitsVID).
AnyportsnotspecificallyassignedtoanotherVLANwillremainassigned
totheDefaultVLAN,regardlessofwhetheritistheprimaryVLAN.
CandidatesforprimaryVLANincludeanystaticVLANcurrentlyconfigured
ontheswitch.(AdynamicGVRP-learnedVLANthathasnotbeencon-
vertedtoastaticVLANcannotbetheprimaryVLAN.)Todisplaythecurrent
primaryVLAN,usetheCLIshow vlancommand.
Not e Ifyouconfigureanon-defaultVLANastheprimaryVLAN,youcannotdelete
thatVLANunlessyoufirstselectadifferentVLANtoactasprimary.
Ifyoumanuallyconfigureagatewayontheswitch,itwillignoreanygateway
addressreceivedviaDHCPorBootp.
2-7
Static Virtual LANs (VLANs)
Port-BasedVirtualLANs(StaticVLANs)
Per-PortStaticVLANConfigurationOptions
Thefollowingfigureandtableshowtheoptionsyouhaveforassigning
individualportstoastaticVLAN.NotethatGVRP,ifconfigured,affectsthese
optionsandVLANbehaviorontheswitch.Thedisplaybelowshowstheper-
portVLANconfigurationoptions.Table2-2brieflydescribestheseoptions.
Example of Per-Port
VLAN Configuration
with GVRP Disabled
(the default)
Example of Per-Port
VLAN Configuration
with GVRP Enabled
EnablingGVRPcausesNotodisplayasAuto.
Figure 2-1. Comparing Per-Port VLAN Options With and Without GVRP
Table 2-2. Per-Port VLAN Configuration Options
Parameter Effect on Port Participation in Designated VLAN
Tagged AllowstheporttojoinmultipleVLANs.
Untagged AllowsVLANconnectiontoadevicethatisconfiguredforanuntagged
VLANinsteadofataggedVLAN.Theswitchallowsnomorethanone
untaggedVLANassignmentperport.
No No:AppearswhentheswitchisnotGVRP-enabled;preventstheportfrom
- or - joiningthatVLAN.
Auto
Auto:AppearswhenGVRPisenabledontheswitch;allowstheportto
dynamicallyjoinanyadvertisedVLANthathasthesameVID
Forbid PreventstheportfromjoiningtheVLAN,regardlessofwhetherGVRPis
enabledontheswitch.
2-8
Static Virtual LANs (VLANs)
Port-BasedVirtualLANs(StaticVLANs)
GeneralStepsforUsingVLANs
1. PlanyourVLANstrategyandcreateamapofthelogicaltopologythatwill
resultfromconfiguringVLANs.Includeconsiderationfortheinteraction
betweenVLANsandotherfeaturessuchasSpanningTreeProtocol,load
balancing,andIGMP.(RefertoEffectofVLANsonOtherSwitchFea-
turesonpage2-34.)If youplanonusingdynamicVLANs,includetheport
configurationplanningnecessarytosupportthisfeature.(Seechapter3,
GVRP.)
Bydefault,VLANsupportisenabledandtheswitchisconfiguredforeight
VLANs.
2. ConfigureatleastoneVLANinadditiontothedefaultVLAN.
3. AssignthedesiredswitchportstothenewVLAN(s).
4. IfyouaremanagingVLANswithSNMPinanIPnetwork,eachVLANmust
haveanIPaddress.RefertothechapteronIPaddressingintheManage-
mentandConfigurationGuide.
VLANOperatingNotes
IfyouareusingDHCP/Bootptoacquiretheswitchsconfiguration,packet
time-to-live,andTimePinformation,youmustdesignatetheVLANon
whichDHCPisconfiguredforthispurposeastheprimaryVLAN.(Inthe
factory-defaultconfiguration,theDEFAULT_VLANistheprimaryVLAN.)
IGMP,andsomeotherfeaturesoperateonaperVLANbasis.Thismeans
youmustconfiguresuchfeaturesseparatelyforeachVLANinwhichyou
wantthemtooperate.
YoucanrenamethedefaultVLAN,butyoucannotchangeitsVID(1)or
deleteitfromtheswitch.
AnyportsnotspecificallyassignedtoanotherVLANwillremainassigned
totheDEFAULT_VLAN.
TodeleteaVLANfromtheswitch,youmustfirstremovefromthatVLAN
anyportsassignedtoit.
Changingthenumber ofVLANssupportedontheswitchrequiresareboot.
OtherVLANconfigurationchangesaredynamic.
MultipleVLANConsiderations
Switchesuse aforwardingdatabasetomaintainawarenessofwhichexternal
devicesarelocatedonwhichVLANs.Someswitches,suchasthosecovered
bythisguide,haveamultiple-forwardingdatabase,whichmeanstheswitch
allowsmultipledatabaseentriesofthesameMACaddress,witheachentry
2-9
Static Virtual LANs (VLANs)
Port-BasedVirtualLANs(StaticVLANs)
showingthe(different)sourceVLANandsourceport. Other switchmodels
haveasingle-forwardingdatabase,whichmeanstheyallowonlyonedata-
baseentryofauniqueMACaddress,alongwiththesourceVLANandsource
portonwhichitisfound(seeTable2-6).NotallVLANsonaswitchcovered
bythisguideusethesameMACaddress(seeVLANMACAddressesonpage
2-35).Connectingmultiple-forwardingdatabaseswitch toasingle-forwarding
databaseswitchwheremultipleVLANsexistimposessomecablingandport
VLANassignmentrestrictions.Table2-5illustratesthefunctionaldifference
betweenthetwodatabasetypes.
Table 2-5. Example of Forwarding Database Content
Multiple-Forwarding Database Single-Forwarding Database
MAC Address Destination
VLAN ID
Destination
Port
MAC Address Destination
VLAN ID
Destination
Port
0004ea-84d9f4 1 A5 0004ea-84d9f4 100 A9
0004ea-84d9f4 22 A12 0060b0-880af9 105 A10
0004ea-84d9f4 44 A20 0060b0-880a81 107 A17
0060b0-880a81 33 A20
Thisdatabaseallowsmultipledestinations Thisdatabaseallowsonlyonedestination
forthesameMACaddress.Iftheswitch foraMACaddress.Iftheswitchdetectsa
detectsanewdestinationforanexisting newdestinationforanexistingMACentry,
MACentry, itjustaddsanewinstanceofthat itreplacestheexistingMACinstancewith
MACtothetable. anewinstanceshowingthenew
destination.
Table2-6liststhedatabasestructureofcurrentHPProCurveswitchmodels.
Table 2-6. Forwarding Database Structure for Managed HP ProCurve Switches
Multiple-Forwarding Databases* Single-Forwarding Database*
Switch6108 Switch1600M/2400M/2424M
Series5300xlswitches Switch4000M/8000M
Series4100glswitches Series2500switches
Series3400clswitches Switch800T
Series2800switches Switch2000
Series2600/2600-PWRswitches
*Todeterminewhetherother vendorsdevicesusesingle-forwarding
ormultiple-forwardingdatabasearchitectures,refertothe
documentationprovidedforthosedevices.
2-10
Static Virtual LANs (VLANs)
Port-BasedVirtualLANs(StaticVLANs)
Single-ForwardingDatabaseOperation
WhenapacketarriveswithadestinationMACaddressthatmatchesaMAC
addressintheswitchsforwardingtable,theswitchtriestosendthepacket
totheportlistedforthatMACaddress.But,ifthedestinationportisina
differentVLANthantheVLANonwhichthepacketwasreceived, theswitch
dropsthepacket.Thisisnotaproblemforaswitchwithamultiple-forwarding
database(refertotable2-6,above)becausetheswitchallowsmultiple
instancesofagivenMACaddress;oneforeachvaliddestination.However,a
switchwithasingle-forwardingdatabaseallowsonlyoneinstanceofagiven
MACaddress.If(1)youconnectthetwotypesofswitchesthroughmultiple
portsortrunksbelongingtodifferentVLANs,and(2)enableroutingonthe
switchhavingthemultiple-forwardingdatabase;then,ontheswitchhaving
thesingle-forwardingdatabase,theportandVLANrecorditmaintainsforthe
connectedmultiple-forwarding-databaseswitchcanfrequentlychange.This
causespoorperformanceandtheappearanceofanintermittentorbroken
connection.
ExampleofanUnsupportedConfigurationandHowTo
CorrectIt
TheProblem. Infigure2-2,theMACaddresstableforSwitch8000Mwill
sometimesrecordthemultiple-forwardingdatabaseswitchasaccessedon
portA1(VLAN1),andothertimesasaccessedonportB1(VLAN2):
Switch 8000M
VLAN1 VLAN2
Multiple-Forwarding
Database Switch
Routing Enabled
(SameMACaddressforall
VLANs.)
VLAN1 VLAN2
Thisswitchhasmultiple
forwardingdatabases.
Thisswitchhasasingle
forwardingdatabase.
PC A PC B
A1 B1
C1 D1
Figure 2-2. Example of Invalid Configuration for Single-Forwarding to Multiple-
Forwarding Database Devices in a Multiple VLAN Environment
Infigure2-2,PCAsendsanIPpackettoPCB.
2-11
Static Virtual LANs (VLANs)
Port-BasedVirtualLANs(StaticVLANs)
1. ThepacketentersVLAN1intheSwitch8000withthemultiple-forwarding
databaseswitchMACaddressinthedestinationfield.Becausethe8000M
hasnotyetlearnedthisMACaddress,itdoesnotfindtheaddressinits
addresstable,andfloodsthepacketoutallports,includingtheVLAN1
link(portA1)tothemultiple-forwardingdatabaseswitch.Themultiple-
forwardingdatabaseswitchthenroutesthepacketthroughtheVLAN2
linktothe8000M,whichforwardsthepacketontoPCB.Becausethe
8000Mreceivedthepacketfromthemultiple-forwardingdatabaseswitch
onVLAN2(portB1),the8000Mssingleforwardingdatabaserecords
themultiple-forwardingdatabaseswitchasbeingonportB1(VLAN2).
2. PCAnowsendsasecondpackettoPCB.Thepacketagainenters
VLAN1 intheSwitch 8000 withthemultiple-forwardingdatabase switchs
MACaddressinthedestinationfield.However,thistimetheSwitch
8000Mssingleforwardingdatabaseindicatesthatthemultiple-forward-
ingdatabaseswitchisonportB1(VLAN2),andthe8000Mdropsthe
packetinsteadofforwardingit.
3. Later,themultiple-forwardingdatabaseswitchtransmitsapackettothe
8000MthroughtheVLAN1link,andthe8000Mupdatesitsaddresstable
toindicatethatthemultiple-forwardingdatabaseswitchisonportA1
(VLAN1)insteadofportB1(VLAN2).Thus,the8000Msinformationon
thelocationofthemultiple-forwardingdatabaseswitchchangesover
time.Forthisreason,the8000Mdiscardssomepacketsdirectedthrough
itforthemultiple-forwardingdatabaseswitch,resultinginpoorperfor-
manceandtheappearanceofanintermittentorbrokenlink.
TheSolution. Toavoidtheprecedingproblem,useonlyonecableorport
trunkbetweenthesingle-forwardingandmultiple-forwardingdatabase
devices,andconfigurethelinkwithmultiple,taggedVLANs.
Switch 8000M
VLAN1 VLAN2
Multiple-Forwarding
Database Switch
(Routing Enabled)
VLAN1
VLAN2
Thisswitchhasmultiple
forwardingdatabases.
Thisswitchhasasingle
forwardingdatabase.
PC A PC B
VLAN
1& 2
VLAN
1&2
A1
C1
Figure 2-3. Example of a Solution for Single-Forwarding to Multiple-Forwarding
Database Devices in a Multiple VLAN Environment
2-12
Static Virtual LANs (VLANs)
Port-BasedVirtualLANs(StaticVLANs)
Now,the8000Mforwardingdatabasealwaysliststhemultiple-forwarding
databaseswitchMACaddressonportA1,andthe8000Mwillsendtrafficto
eitherVLANonthemultiple-forwardingdatabaseswitch.
Toincreasethenetworkbandwidthoftheconnectionbetweenthedevices,
you canuseatrunkofmultiplephysicallinksratherthanasinglephysicallink.
Multiple-ForwardingDatabaseOperation
Ifyouwanttoconnectaswitchcoveredbythisguidetoanotherswitchthat
hasa multiple-forwardingdatabase,youcanuseeitherorbothofthefollowing
connectionoptions:
AseparateportorporttrunkinterfaceforeachVLAN.Thisresultsina
forwardingdatabasehavingmultipleinstancesofthesameMACaddress
withdifferentVLANIDsandportnumbers.(Seetable2-5.)Theswitches
coveredbythisguidethatusethesameMACaddressonallVLAN
interfacescausenoproblems.
Thesameportorporttrunkinterfaceformultiple(tagged)VLANs.This
resultsinaforwardingdatabasehavingmultipleinstancesofthesame
MACaddresswithdifferentVLANIDs,butthesameportnumber.
AllowingmultipleentriesofthesameMACaddressondifferentVLANs
enablestopologiessuchasthefollowing:
4108gl Switch
VLAN1 VLAN2
Multiple-Forwarding
Database Switch
VLAN1 VLAN2 Bothswitcheshave
multipleforwarding
databases.
Figure 2-4. Example of a Valid Topology for Devices Having Multiple-Forwarding
Databases in a Multiple VLAN Environment
2-13
Static Virtual LANs (VLANs)
Port-BasedVirtualLANs(StaticVLANs)
Menu:ConfiguringVLANParameters
Inthefactorydefaultstate,supportis enabledforuptoeightVLANs.(Youcan
changetheswitchVLANconfigurationtosupportadditionalVLANs.Referto
table2-1onpage2-3.)Also,allportsontheswitchbelongtothedefaultVLAN
(DEFAULT_VLAN)andareinthesamebroadcast/multicastdomain.(The
defaultVLANisalsothedefaultprimaryVLANseeThePrimaryVLANon
page2-6.)InadditiontothedefaultVLAN,youcanconfigureupto29other
staticVLANsbychangingtheMaximumVLANsparameter,addingnew
VLANnamesandVIDs,andthenassigningoneormoreportstoeachVLAN.
NotethateachportcanbeassignedtomultipleVLANsbyusingVLANtagging.
(See802.1QVLANTaggingonpage2-26.)
ToChangeVLANSupportSettings
Thissectiondescribes:
ChangingthemaximumnumberofVLANstosupport
ChangingtheprimaryVLANselection(SeeChangingthePrimaryVLAN
onpage2-22.)
1. FromtheMainMenuselect:
2. Switch Configuration
8. VLAN Menu . . .
1. VLAN Support
Youwillthenseethefollowingscreen:
Figure 2-7. The Default VLAN Support Screen
2. Press[E](forEdit),thendooneormoreofthefollowing:
TochangethemaximumnumberofVLANs,typethenewnumber.(For
themaximumnumberofVLANsallowed,refertotable2-1onpage2-3.)
2-14
Static Virtual LANs (VLANs)
Port-BasedVirtualLANs(StaticVLANs)
TodesignateadifferentVLANastheprimaryVLAN,selectthePrimary
VLANfieldandusethespacebartoselectfromtheexistingoptions.
ToenableordisabledynamicVLANs,selecttheGVRP Enabledfieldand
usetheSpacebartotogglebetweenoptions.(ForGVRPinformation,see
chapter3,GVRP.)
Not e Foroptimalswitchmemoryutilization,setthenumberofVLANsatthe
numberyouwilllikelybeusingorafewmore.IfyouneedmoreVLANslater,
youcanincreasethisnumber,butaswitchrebootwillberequiredatthattime.
3. Press[Enter]andthen[S] tosavetheVLANsupportconfigurationandreturn
totheVLANMenuscreen.
IfyouchangedthevalueforMaximum VLANs to support,youwillseean
asterisknexttotheVLAN Support option(seebelow).
Anasteriskindicates
youmustrebootthe
switchtoimplement
thenewMaximum
VLANssetting.
Figure 2-8. VLAN Menu Screen Indicating the Need To Reboot the Switch
IfyouchangedtheVLANSupportoption,youmustrebootthe
switchbeforetheMaximumVLANschangecantakeeffect.You
cangoontoconfigureotherVLANparametersfirst,butremem-
bertoreboottheswitchwhenyouarefinished.
IfyoudidnotchangetheVLANSupportoption,arebootisnot
necessary.
4. Press[0]toreturntotheMainMenu.
2-15
Static Virtual LANs (VLANs)
Port-BasedVirtualLANs(StaticVLANs)
AddingorEditingVLANNames
Use thisprocedureto addanewVLANortoeditthenameofan existing VLAN.
1. FromtheMainMenuselect:
2. Switch Configuration
8. VLAN Menu . . .
2. VLAN Names
IfmultipleVLANsarenotyetconfiguredyouwillseeascreensimilarto
figure2-9:
DefaultVLAN
andVLANID
Figure 2-9. The Default VLAN Names Screen
2. Press[A](forAdd).YouwillthenbepromptedforanewVLANnameand
VLANID:
802.1Q VLAN ID : 1
Name : _
3. TypeinaVID(VLANIDnumber).Thiscanbeanynumberfrom2to4094
thatisnotalreadybeingusedbyanotherVLAN.(Theswitchreserves1
forthedefaultVLAN.)
RememberthataVLANmusthavethesameVIDineveryswitchinwhich
youconfigurethatsameVLAN.(GVRPdynamicallyextendsVLANswith
correctVIDnumberingtootherswitches.Seechapter3,GVRP.)
4. Press[v]tomovethecursortotheName lineandtypetheVLANname(up
to12characters,withnospaces)ofanewVLANthatyouwanttoadd,
thenpress[Enter].
(AvoidthesecharactersinVLANnames:@, #, $, ^, &, *, (,and ).)
5. Press[S](forSave).YouwillthenseetheVLANNamesscreenwiththe
newVLANlisted.
2-16
Static Virtual LANs (VLANs)
Port-BasedVirtualLANs(StaticVLANs)
ExampleofaNew
VLANandID
Figure 2-10. Example of VLAN Names Screen with a New VLAN Added
6. Repeatsteps2through5toaddmoreVLANs.
RememberthatyoucanaddVLANsuntilyoureachthenumberspecified
intheMaximum VLANs to supportfieldontheVLANSupportscreen(see
figure2-7onpage2-14).ThisincludesanyVLANsaddeddynamicallydue
toGVRPoperation.
7. ReturntotheVLANMenutoassignportstothenewVLAN(s)asdescribed
inthenextsection,AddingorChangingaVLANPortAssignment.
AddingorChangingaVLANPortAssignment
UsethisproceduretoaddportstoaVLANortochangetheVLANassign-
ment(s)foranyport.(PortsnotspecificallyassignedtoaVLANareautomat-
icallyinthedefaultVLAN.)
1. FromtheMainMenuselect:
2. Switch Configuration
8. VLAN Menu . . .
3. VLAN Port Assignment
YouwillthenseeaVLANPortAssignmentscreensimilartothefollowing:
2-17
Static Virtual LANs (VLANs)
Port-BasedVirtualLANs(StaticVLANs)
Default: Inthisexample,
theVLAN-22hasbeen
defined,butnoports
haveyetbeenassigned
toit.(Nomeansthe
portisnotassignedto
thatVLAN.)
Using GVRP? Ifyouplan
onusingGVRP,any
portsyoudontwantto
joinshouldbechanged
toForbid.
Aportcanbeassigned
toseveralVLANs,but
onlyoneofthose
assignmentscanbe
Untagged.
Figure 2-11. Example of VLAN Port Assignment Screen
2. TochangeaportsVLANassignment(s):
a. Press[E](forEdit).
b. UsethearrowkeystoselectaVLANassignmentyouwanttochange.
c. PresstheSpacebartomakeyourassignmentselection(No,Tagged,
Untagged,orForbid).
Not e ForGVRPOperation:IfyouenableGVRPontheswitch,No
convertstoAuto,whichallowstheVLANtodynamicallyjoinan
advertisedVLANthathasthesameVID.SeePer-PortOptionsfor
DynamicVLANAdvertisingandJoiningonpage3-8.
UntaggedVLANs:OnlyoneuntaggedVLANisallowedperport.Also,
theremustbeatleastoneVLANassignedtoeachport.Inthefactory
defaultconfiguration,allportsareassignedtothedefaultVLAN
(DEFAULT_VLAN).
Forexample,ifyouwantportsA4andA5tobelongtoboth
DEFAULT_VLANandVLAN-22,andportsA6andA7tobelongonlyto
VLAN-22,youwouldusethesettingsinfigurepage2-19.(Thisexample
assumesthedefaultGVRPsettingdisabledandthatyoudonotplan
toenableGVRPlater.)
2-18
Static Virtual LANs (VLANs)
Port-BasedVirtualLANs(StaticVLANs)
PortsA4andA5are
assignedtoboth
VLANs.
PortsA6andA7are
assignedonlyto
VLAN-22.
Allotherportsare
assignedonlytothe
DefaultVLAN.
Figure 2-12. Example of VLAN Assignments for Specific Ports
ForinformationonVLANtags(UntaggedandTagged),referto
802.1QVLANTaggingonpage2-26.
d. IfyouarefinishedassigningportstoVLANs,press[Enter]andthen[S]
(forSave)toactivatethechangesyou'vemadeandtoreturntothe
Configurationmenu.(TheconsolethenreturnstotheVLANmenu.)
3. ReturntotheMainmenu.
CLI:ConfiguringVLANParameters
Inthefactorydefaultstate,allportsontheswitchbelongtothedefaultVLAN
(DEFAULT_VLAN)andareinthesamebroadcast/multicastdomain.(The
defaultVLANisalsothedefaultprimaryVLANseeThePrimaryVLANon
page2-6.)YoucanconfigureadditionalstaticVLANsbyaddingnewVLAN
names, andthenassigningoneormore portstoeachVLAN.(Forthemaximum
numberofVLANs,refertotable2-1onpage2-3.)Notethateachportcanbe
assignedtomultipleVLANsbyusingVLANtagging.(See802.1QVLAN
Taggingonpage2-26.)
2-19
Static Virtual LANs (VLANs)
Port-BasedVirtualLANs(StaticVLANs)
VLAN Commands Used in this Section
showvlans
showvlan<vlan-id>
max-vlans
primary-vlan<vlan-id>
[no]vlan<vlan-id>
name<vlan-name>
[no]tagged<port-list>
[no]untagged<port-list>
[no]forbid
auto<port-list>
static-vlan<vlan-id>
below
page2-21
page2-22
page2-22
page2-23
page2-24
page2-24
page2-24
page2-24
page2-24(AvailableifGVRPenabled.)
page2-23(AvailableifGVRPenabled.)
DisplayingtheSwitchsVLANConfiguration. Thenextcommandlists
theVLANscurrentlyrunningintheswitch,withVID,VLANname,andVLAN
status.DynamicVLANsappearonlyiftheswitchisrunningwithGVRP
enabledandoneormoreportshasdynamicallyjoinedanadvertisedVLAN.
(Inthedefaultconfiguration,GVRPisdisabled.(Seechapter3,GVRP.)
Syntax: showvlan
WhenGVRPisdisabled
(thedefault),Dynamic
VLANsdonotexiston
theswitchanddonot
appearinthislisting.
(Seechapter3,
GVRP.)
Figure 2-13. Example of Show VLAN Listing (GVRP Enabled)
2-20
Static Virtual LANs (VLANs)
Port-BasedVirtualLANs(StaticVLANs)
DisplayingtheConfigurationforaParticularVLAN. Thiscommand
usestheVIDtoidentifyanddisplaythedataforaspecificstaticordynamic
VLAN.
Syntax: showvlan<vlan-id>
Figure 2-14. Example of Show VLAN for a Specific Static VLAN
Show VLANliststhis
datawhenGVRPis
enabledandatleast
oneportontheswitch
hasdynamically
joinedthedesignated
VLAN.
Figure 2-15. Example of Show VLAN for a Specific Dynamic VLAN
2-21
Static Virtual LANs (VLANs)
Port-BasedVirtualLANs(StaticVLANs)
ChangingtheNumberofVLANsAllowedontheSwitch. Bydefault,
theswitchallowsamaximumof8VLANs.Youcanspecifyanyvaluefrom1
totheupperlimitfortheswitch.(Refertotable2-1onpage2-3.)IfGVRPis
enabled,thissettingincludesanydynamicVLANsontheswitch.Aspartof
implementinganewvalue,youmustexecuteawritememorycommand(to
savethenewvaluetothestartup-configfile)andthenreboottheswitch.
Syntax: max-vlans
<1..30>(Series4100andSwitch6108)
<1..253>(Series2600,2600PWR)
<1..256>(Series2800)
Forexample,toreconfiguretheswitchtoallow10VLANs:
Notethatyoucan
executethese
threestepsat
anothertime.
Figure 2-16. Example of Command Sequence for Changing the Number of VLANs
ChangingthePrimaryVLAN. Inthefactory-defaultconfiguration,the
defaultVLAN(DEFAULT_VLAN)istheprimaryVLAN.However,youcan
designateanystaticVLANontheswitchastheprimaryVLAN.(Formoreon
theprimaryVLAN,seeThePrimaryVLANonpage2-6.)Toviewtheavailable
VLANsandtheirrespectiveVIDs,useshow vlan.
Syntax: primary-vlan<vlan-id>
Forexample,tomakeVLAN22theprimaryVLAN:
HPswitch(config)# primary-vlan 22
2-22
Static Virtual LANs (VLANs)
Port-BasedVirtualLANs(StaticVLANs)
CreatingaNewStaticVLAN
ChangingtheVLANContextLevel.
Withthiscommand,enteringanewVIDcreatesanewstaticVLAN.Entering
theVIDornameofanexistingstaticVLANplacesyouinthecontextlevelfor
thatVLAN.
Syntax: vlan<vlan-id>[name<name-str>]
CreatesanewstaticVLANifaVLANwiththatVIDdoesnot
alreadyexist,andplacesyouinthatVLANscontextlevel.If
youdonotuse thenameoption,theswitchusesVLANand
thenewVIDtoautomaticallynametheVLAN.IftheVLAN
alreadyexists,theswitchplacesyouinthecontextlevelfor
thatVLAN.
vlan<vlan-name>
PlacesyouinthecontextlevelforthatstaticVLAN.
Forexample,tocreateanewstaticVLANwithaVIDof100:
CreatingthenewVLAN.
Showingtheresult.
Figure 2-17. Example of Creating a New Static VLAN
TogotoadifferentVLANcontextlevel,suchastothedefaultVLAN:
HPswitch(vlan-100)# vlan default_vlan
HPswitch(vlan-1) _
ConvertingaDynamicVLANtoaStaticVLAN. IfGVRPisrunningon
theswitchandaportdynamicallyjoinsaVLAN,youcanusethenext
commandtoconvertthedynamicVLANtoastaticVLAN.(ForGVRPand
dynamicVLANoperation,seechapter3,GVRP.)Thisisnecessaryifyou
2-23
Static Virtual LANs (VLANs)
Port-BasedVirtualLANs(StaticVLANs)
wanttomaketheVLANpermanent.AfteryouconvertadynamicVLANto
static,youmustconfiguretheswitchsper-portparticipationintheVLANin
thesamewaythatyouwouldforanystaticVLAN.
Syntax: static-vlan<vlan-id> (Useshow vlan tolistcurrentVIDs.)
Forexample,supposeadynamicVLANwithaVIDof125existsontheswitch.
ThefollowingcommandconvertstheVLANtoastaticVLAN.
HPswitch(config)# static-vlan 125
ConfiguringStaticVLANNameandPer-PortSettings. Thevlan <vlan-
id>command,usedwiththeoptionslistedbelow,changesthenameofan
existingstaticVLANandchangestheper-portVLANmembershipsettings.
Not e Youcanusetheseoptionsfromtheconfigurationlevelbybeginningthe
commandwithvlan <vlan-id>,orfromthecontextlevelofthespecificVLAN.
Syntax: name<vlan-name>
ChangesthenameoftheexistingstaticVLAN.(Avoid
spacesandthefollowingcharactersinthe<vlan-name>
entry:2, #,$, ^,&, *, (,and ).)
[no]tagged<port-list>
Configurestheindicatedport(s)asTagged forthespecified
VLAN.Thenoversionsetstheport(s)toeitherNo or(if
GVRPisenabled)toAuto.
[no]untagged<port-list>
Configurestheindicatedport(s)asUntagged forthe
specifiedVLAN.Thenoversionsetstheport(s)toeither
No or(ifGVRPisenabled)toAuto.
[no]forbid<port-list>
Configurestheindicatedport(s)asforbiddento
participateinthedesignatedVLAN.Thenoversionsets
theport(s)toeitherNo or(ifGVRPisenabled)toAuto.
auto<port-list>
AvailableifGVRPisenabledontheswitch.Returnsthe
per-portsettingsforthespecifiedVLANtoAutooperation.
NotethatAutoisthedefaultper-portsettingforastatic
VLANifGVRPisrunningontheswitch.(Forinformation
ondynamicVLANandGVRPoperation,see
chapter3,GVRP.)
2-24
Static Virtual LANs (VLANs)
Port-BasedVirtualLANs(StaticVLANs)
Forexample,ifyouhaveaVLANnamedVLAN100withaVIDof100,andall
portsaresettoNoforthisVLAN.TochangetheVLANnametoBlue_Team
andsetports1-5toTagged,youcoulddosowiththesecommands:
HPswitch(config)# vlan 100 name Blue_Team
HPswitch(config)# vlan 100 tagged 1-5
Tomovetothevlan100contextlevelandexecutethesamecommands:
HPswitch(config)# vlan 100
HPswitch(vlan-100)# name Blue_Team
HPswitch(vlan-100)# tagged 1-5
Similarly,tochangethetaggedportsintheaboveexamplestoNo(orAuto,if
GVRPisenabled),youcoulduseeitherofthefollowingcommands.
Attheconfiglevel,use:
HPswitch(config)# no vlan 100 tagged 1-5
- or-
AttheVLAN100contextlevel,use:
HPswitch(vlan-100)# no tagged 1-5
Not e YoucannotusethesecommandswithdynamicVLANs.Attemptingtodoso
resultsinthemessageVLAN already exists.andnochangeoccurs.
Web:ViewingandConfiguringVLANParameters
Inthewebbrowserinterfaceyoucandothefollowing:
AddVLANs
RenameVLANs
RemoveVLANs
ConfigureGVRPmode
SelectanewPrimaryVLAN
ToconfigurestaticVLANportparameters,youwillneedtousethemenu
interface(availablebyTelnetfromthewebbrowserinterface)ortheCLI.
1. ClickontheConfigurationtab.
2. ClickonVLAN Configuration.
3. ClickonAdd/Remove VLANs.
Forweb-basedHelponhowtousethewebbrowserinterfacescreen,clickon
the[?]buttonprovidedonthewebbrowserscreen.
2-25
Static Virtual LANs (VLANs)
Port-BasedVirtualLANs(StaticVLANs)
802.1QVLANTagging
VLANtaggingenablestrafficfrommorethanoneVLANtousethesameport.
(EvenwhentwoormoreVLANsusethesameporttheyremainasseparate
domainsandcannotreceivetrafficfromeachotherwithoutgoingthroughan
externalrouter.)Asmentionedearlier,atagissimplyauniqueVLAN
identificationnumber(VLANID,orVID)assignedtoaVLANatthetimethat
youconfiguretheVLANnameintheswitch.Thetagcanbeanynumberfrom
1to4094thatis notalreadyassignedtoaVLAN.Whenyousubsequentlyassign
aporttoagivenVLAN,youmustimplementtheVLANtag(VID)iftheport
willcarrytrafficformorethanoneVLAN.Otherwise,theportVLANassign-
mentcanremainuntaggedbecausethetagisnotneeded.Onagivenswitch,
thismeansyoushouldusetheUntaggeddesignationforaportVLAN
assignmentwheretheportisconnectedtonon802.1Q-compliantdeviceoris
assignedtoonlyoneVLAN.UsetheTaggeddesignationwhentheportis
assignedtomorethanoneVLANortheportisconnectedtoadevicethatdoes
complywiththe802.1Qstandard.
Forexample,ifportA7onan802.1Q-compliantswitchisassignedtoonlythe
RedVLAN,theassignmentcanremainuntaggedbecausetheportwill
forwardtrafficonlyfortheRedVLAN.However,ifboththeRedandGreen
VLANsareassignedtoportA7,thenatleastoneofthoseVLANassignments
mustbetaggedsothatRedVLANtrafficcanbedistinguishedfromGreen
VLANtraffic.Thefollowingillustrationshowsthisconcept:
Blue
Server
White
Server
Green
Server
Red
Server
Red
VLAN
Blue
VLAN
White
VLAN
Green
VLAN
Green
VLAN
Red
VLAN
Switch
"X"
5 6
7
4
1
3
2
Switch
"Y"
5
4
1
3
2
Red VLAN: Untagged
Green VLAN: Tagged
Ports1-6:Untagged
Port7:RedVLANUntagged
GreenVLANTagged
Ports1-4:Untagged
Port5:RedVLANUntagged
GreenVLANTagged
Figure 2-18. Example of Tagged and Untagged VLAN Port Assignments
2-26
Static Virtual LANs (VLANs)
Port-BasedVirtualLANs(StaticVLANs)
InswitchX:
VLANsassignedtoportsX1-X6canallbeuntaggedbecausethereis
onlyoneVLANassignmentperport.RedVLANtrafficwillgooutonly
theRedports;GreenVLANtrafficwillgooutonlytheGreenports,
andsoon.Devicesconnectedtotheseportsdonothavetobe802.1Q-
compliant.
However,becauseboththeRedVLANandtheGreenVLANare
assignedtoportX7,atleastoneoftheVLANsmustbetaggedforthis
port.
InswitchY:
VLANsassignedtoportsY1- Y4canallbeuntaggedbecausethereis
onlyoneVLANassignmentperport.Devicesconnectedtotheseports
donothavetobe802.1Q-compliant.
BecauseboththeRedVLANandtheGreenVLANareassignedtoport
Y5,atleastoneoftheVLANsmustbetaggedforthisport.
Inbothswitches:Theportsonthelinkbetweenthetwoswitchesmustbe
configuredthesame.As showninfigure2-18(above),theRedVLANmust
beuntaggedonportX7andY5andtheGreenVLANmustbetaggedon
portX7andY5,orvice-versa.
Not e Each802.1Q-compliantVLANmusthaveitsownuniqueVIDnumber,andthat
VLANmustbegiventhesameVIDineverydeviceinwhichitisconfigured.
Thatis,iftheRedVLANhasaVIDof10inswitchX,then10mustalsobeused
fortheRedVIDinswitchY.
VIDNumbers
Figure 2-19. Example of VLAN ID Numbers Assigned in the VLAN Names Screen
2-27
Static Virtual LANs (VLANs)
Port-BasedVirtualLANs(StaticVLANs)
VLANtagginggivesyouseveraloptions:
SincethepurposeofVLANtaggingistoallowmultipleVLANsonthesame
port,anyportthathasonlyoneVLANassignedtoitcanbeconfiguredas
Untagged(thedefault).
AnyportthathastwoormoreVLANsassignedtoitcanhaveoneVLAN
assignmentforthatportasUntagged.AllotherVLANsassignedtothe
sameportmustbeconfiguredasTagged.(Therecanbenomorethan
oneUntaggedVLANonaport.)
Ifallendnodesonaportcomplywiththe802.1Qstandardandare
configuredtousethecorrectVID,then,youcanconfigureallVLAN
assignmentsonaportasTaggedifdoingsomakesiteasiertomanage
yourVLANassignments,orforsecurityreasons.
Forexample,inthefollowingnetwork,switchesXandYandserversS1and
S2are802.1Q-compliant.(ServerS3couldalsobe802.1Q-compliant,butit
makesnodifferenceforthisexample.)
Red VLAN: Untagged
Red VLAN: Untagged Red VLAN: Untagged
Green VLAN: Tagged
Green VLAN: Tagged Green VLAN: Tagged
Green VLAN only
Server
S1
Server
S2
Server
S3
Green
VLAN
Green
VLAN
Red
VLAN
Red
VLAN
Switch
"X"
X1
X2
X3 X4
Switch
"Y"
Y1
Y4
Y2 Y5
Y3
Figure 2-20. Example of Networked 802.1Q-Compliant Devices with Multiple
VLANs on Some Ports
2-28
Static Virtual LANs (VLANs)
Port-BasedVirtualLANs(StaticVLANs)
TheVLANsassignedtoportsX3,X4,Y2,Y3,andY4canallbeuntagged
becausethereisonlyoneVLANassignedperport.PortX1hasmultipleVLANs
assigned,whichmeansthatoneVLANassignedtothisportcanbeuntagged
andanyothersmustbetagged.ThesameappliestoportsX2,Y1,andY5.
Switch X Switch Y
Port Red VLAN Green VLAN Port Red VLAN Green VLAN
X1 Untagged Tagged Y1 Untagged Tagged
X2 Untagged Tagged Y2 No* Untagged
X3 No* Untagged Y3 No* Untagged
X4 Untagged No* Y4 Untagged No*
Y5 Untagged Tagged
*NomeanstheportisnotamemberofthatVLAN.Forexample,portX3isnot
amemberoftheRedVLANanddoesnotcarryRedVLANtraffic.Also,ifGVRP
wereenabled,AutowouldappearinsteadofNo.
Not e VLANconfigurationsonportsconnectedbythesamelinkmustmatch.
BecauseportsX2andY5areoppositeendsofthesamepoint-to-pointconnec-
tion,bothportsmusthavethesameVLANconfiguration;thatis,bothports
configuretheRedVLANasUntaggedandtheGreenVLANasTagged.
Tosummarize:
VLANs Per
Port
Tagging Scheme
1 UntaggedorTagged.Ifthedeviceconnectedtotheportis802.1Q-compliant,
thentherecommendedchoiceisTagged.
2orMore 1VLANUntagged;allothersTagged
or
AllVLANsTagged
AgivenVLANmusthavethesameVIDonany802.1Q-compliantdeviceinwhichtheVLANis
configured.
Theportsconnectingtwo802.1QdevicesshouldhaveidenticalVLANconfigurations,as
shownforportsX2andY5,above.
2-29
Static Virtual LANs (VLANs)
Port-BasedVirtualLANs(StaticVLANs)
TheSecureManagementVLAN
ConfiguresasecureManagementVLANbycreatinganisolatednetworkfor
managingtheHPProCurveswitchesthatsupportthisfeature.AsofJune1,
2003,includestheseHPProCurveswitchmodels:
Series2600switches
Series2600-PWRswitches
Series2800switches
Series3400clswitches
Series4100glswitches
Series5300xlswitches
Switch6108
AccesstothisVLAN,andtotheswitchsmanagementfunctions(Menu,CLI,
andwebbrowserinterface)isavailableonlythroughportsconfiguredas
members.
MultipleportsontheswitchcanbelongtotheManagementVLAN.This
allowsconnectionsformultiplemanagementstationsyouwanttohave
accesstotheManagementVLAN,whileatthesametimeallowingMan-
agementVLANlinksbetweenswitchesconfiguredforthesameManage-
mentVLAN.
OnlytrafficfromtheManagementVLANcanmanagetheswitch,which
meansthatonlytheworkstationsandPCsconnectedtoportsbelonging
totheManagementVLANcanmanageandreconfiguretheswitch.
Figure2-21illustratesuseoftheManagementVLANfeaturetosupportman-
agementaccessbyagroupofmanagementworkstations.
2-30
2-31
Static Virtual LANs (VLANs)
Port-BasedVirtualLANs(StaticVLANs)
Figure 2-21. mple of Potential Security Breaches
Infigure2-22,Workstation1hasmanagementaccesstoallthreeswitches
throughtheManagementVLAN,whilethePCsdonot.Thisisbecauseconfig-
uringaswitchtorecognizeaManagementVLANautomaticallyexcludes
attemptstosendmanagementtrafficfromanyotherVLAN.

LinkswithPortsBelongingtotheManagementVLANandotherVLANs
LinksBetweenPortsonaHubandPortsbelongingtotheManagementVLAN
LinksNotBelongingtotheManagementVLAN
LinkstoOtherDevices
HubY
SwitchA
HubX
SwitchB
Server
SwitchC
ManagementWorkstations
SwitchesA,B,and
Careconnectedby
portsbelongingtothe
managementVLAN.
HubXisconnected
toaswitchportthat
belongstothe
managementVLAN.As
aresult,thedevices
connectedtoHubXare
includedinthe
managementVLAN.
Otherdevices
connectedtothe
switchesthroughports
thatarenotinthe
managementVLANare
excludedfrom
managementtraffic.
Switch
A
3
PortA1
PortA3
PortA6
PortA7
4
1
Switch
B
PortB2
PortB4
PortB5
PortB9
Switch
C
PortC2
PortC3
PortC6
PortC8
Server
Server
Server
2
Links with Ports
Configured as Members of
the Management VLAN
and other VLANs
Links Not Belonging to the
Management VLAN
System
Management
Workstation
Marketing
Shipping
SystemServer
(onthe
DEFAULT_VLAN)
Exa
Static Virtual LANs (VLANs)
Port-BasedVirtualLANs(StaticVLANs)
Figure 2-22. Example of Management VLAN Control in a LAN
Table 2-3. VLAN Membership in Figure 2-22
Switch A1 A3 A6 A7 B2 B4 B5 B9 C2 C3 C6 C8
ManagementVLAN(VID=7) Y N Y N Y N
Marketing VLAN(VID = 12) N N N Y Y
ShippingDept.VLAN(VID=20) N Y N N N
DEFAULT-VLAN(VID=1) Y Y Y Y
N Y Y N N N
N N N N N N Y
Y N N N N N N
Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y
Preparation
1. DetermineaVIDandVLANnamesuitableforyourManagementVLAN.
2. DeterminetheIPaddressingfortheManagementVLAN(DHCP/Bootpor
Manual.
3. PlanyourManagementVLANtopologytouseHPProCurveswitchesthat
supportthisfeature.(Seethelistonpage2-30.)Theportsbelongingtothe
ManagementVLANshouldbeonlythefollowing:
Portstowhichyouwillconnectauthorizedmanagementstations
(suchasPortA7infigure2-22.)
PortsononeswitchthatyouwillusetoextendtheManagementVLAN
toportsonotherHPProCurveswitches(suchasportsA1andB2or
B4andC2infigure2-22onpage2-32.).
HubsdedicatedtoconnectingmanagementstationstotheManagementVLAN
canalsobeincludedintheabovetopology.Notethatanydeviceconnected
toahubintheManagementVLANwillalsohaveManagementVLANaccess.
4. ConfiguretheManagementVLANontheselectedswitchports.
5. TestthemanagementVLANfromallofthemanagementstationsautho-
rizedtousetheManagementVLAN,includinganySNMP-basednetwork
managementstations.EnsurethatyouincludetestinganyManagement
VLANlinksbetweenswitches.
Not e IfyouconfigureaManagementVLANonaswitchby usingaTelnetconnection
throughaportthatisnotintheManagementVLAN,thenyouwilllose
managementcontactwiththeswitchifyoulogoffyourTelnetconnectionor
executewrite memoryandreboottheswitch.
2-32
Static Virtual LANs (VLANs)
Port-BasedVirtualLANs(StaticVLANs)
Configuration
Syntax: [no]management-vlan< vlan-id |vlan-name>
Default: Disabled
ToconfirmtheManagementVLANconfiguration,usethe
show running-configcommand.
Forexample,supposeyouhavealreadyconfiguredaVLANnamedMy_VLAN
withaVIDof100.Nowyouwanttoconfiguretheswitchtodothefollowing:
UseMy_VLAN asaManagementVLAN(tagged,inthiscase)toconnect
portA1onswitchAtoamanagementstation.(Themanagementstation
includesanetworkinterfacecardwith802.1QtaggedVLANcapability.)
UseportA2toextendtheManagementVLANtoportB1(whichisalready
configuredasataggedmemberofMy_VLAN)onanadjacentswitch.
HPProCurve
Switch
B
HPProCurve
Switch
A
A1 B1
A2
Figure 2-23. Illustration of Configuration Example
HPswitch (config)# management-vlan 100
HPswitch (config)# vlan 100 tagged a1
HPswitch (config)# vlan 100 tagged a2
DeletingtheManagementVLAN. YoucandisabletheSecureManage-
mentfeaturewithoutdeletingtheVLANitself.Forexample,eitherofthe
followingcommandsdisablestheSecureManagementfeatureintheabove
example:
HPswitch (config)# no management-vlan 100
HPswitch (config)# no management-vlan my_vlan
OperatingNotesforManagementVLANs
OnlyoneManagement-VLANcanbeactiveintheswitch.IfoneManage-
ment-VLANVIDissavedinthestartup-configfileandyouconfigurea
differentVIDintherunning-configfile,theswitch usestherunning-config
versionuntilyoueitherusethewrite-memory commandorrebootthe
switch.
2-33
Static Virtual LANs (VLANs)
Port-BasedVirtualLANs(StaticVLANs)
DuringaTelnetsessiontotheswitch,ifyouconfiguretheManagement-
VLANtoaVIDthatexcludestheportthroughwhichyouareconnected
totheswitch,youwillcontinuetohaveaccessonlyuntilyouterminate
thesessionbyloggingoutorrebootingtheswitch.
Duringawebbrowsersessiontotheswitch,ifyouconfiguretheManage-
ment-VLANtoaVIDthatexcludestheportthroughwhichyouare
connectedtotheswitch,youwillcontinuetohaveaccessonlyuntilyou
closethebrowsersessionorrebootingtheswitch.
Not e TheManagement-VLANfeaturedoesnotcontrolmanagementaccessthrough
adirectconnectiontotheswitchsserialport.
EnablingSpanningTreewheretherearemultiplelinksusingseparate
VLANs,includingtheManagementVLAN,betweenapairofswitches,
SpanningTreewillforcetheblockingofoneormorelinks.Thismay
includethelinkcarryingtheManagementVLAN,whichwillcauselossof
managementaccesstosomedevices.
VLAN20(ManagementVLAN)
VLAN1
VLAN40
Switch
1
Switch
2
EventhoughtheportsontheManagementVLANlinkbetweenSwitch1andSwitch2donotbelong
totheotherVLANsconnectingthetwoswitches,enablingSpanningTreewillblockoneofthetwo
links.ThisisbecauseSpanningTreeoperatesper-switchandnotper-VLAN.
VLAN1
VLAN40
VLAN20Only
(ManagementVLAN)
Blocked
Figure 2-24. Example of Inadvertently Blocking a Management VLAN Link by
Implementing Spanning Tree
EffectofVLANsonOtherSwitchFeatures
SpanningTreeOperationwithVLANs
Becausetheswitchfollowsthe802.1QVLANrecommendationtousesingle-
instancespanningtree,SpanningTreeoperatesacrossallportsontheswitch
(regardlessofVLANassignments)insteadofonaper-VLANbasis.Thismeans
thatifredundantphysicallinksexistbetweentheswitchandanother802.1Q
device,allbutonelinkwillbeblocked,regardlessofwhethertheredundant
2-34
Static Virtual LANs (VLANs)
Port-BasedVirtualLANs(StaticVLANs)
linksareinseparateVLANs.However,youcanuseporttrunkingtoprevent
SpanningTreefromunnecessarilyblockingports(andtoimproveoverall
networkperformance).RefertoRSTPandSTPOperationwith802.1Q
VLANsonpage5-9.
NotethatSpanningTreeoperatesdifferentlyindifferentdevices.Forexample,
inthe(obsolete,non-802.1Q)HPSwitch2000andtheHPSwitch800T,Span-
ningTreeoperatesonaper-VLANbasis,allowingredundantphysicallinksas
longastheyareinseparateVLANs.
IPInterfaces
Thereisaone-to-onerelationshipbetweenaVLANandanIPnetworkinter-
face.SincetheVLANisdefinedbyagroupofports,thestate(up/down)of
thoseportsdeterminesthestateoftheIPnetworkinterfaceassociatedwith
thatVLAN.WhenaVLANcomesupbecauseoneormoreofitsportsisup,the
IPinterfaceforthatVLANisalsoactivated.Likewise,whenaVLANis
deactivatedbecauseallofitsportsaredown,thecorrespondingIPinterface
isalsodeactivated.
VLANMACAddresses
SomeswitchmodelsusethesameMACaddressesforallconfiguredVLANs,
whileotherswitchmodelsuseadifferentMACaddressforeachconfigured
VLAN.
One (Same) MAC Address for all VLANs Different MAC Address for Each VLAN
2600 3400cl 4100gl
2600-PWR 5300 6108
2800
Youcansendan802.2testpackettothisMACaddresstoverifyconnectivity
totheswitch.Likewise,youcanassignanIPaddresstotheVLANinterface,
andwhenyouPingthataddress,ARPwillresolvetheIPaddresstothisMAC
address.TheswitchallowsoneVLANMACaddressperpossibleVLAN.(Refer
totable2-1onpage2-3forthemaximumnumberofVLANsallowedonyour
switch).
PortTrunks
Whenassigningaporttrunktoa VLAN,all portsinthetrunkareautomatically
assignedtothesameVLAN.Youcannotsplittrunkmembersacrossmultiple
VLANs.Also,aporttrunkistagged,untagged,orexcludedfromaVLANinthe
samewayasforindividual,untrunkedports.
2-35
Static Virtual LANs (VLANs)
Port-BasedVirtualLANs(StaticVLANs)
PortMonitoring
Ifyoudesignateaportontheswitchfornetworkmonitoring,thisportwill
appearinthePortVLANAssignmentscreenandcanbeconfiguredasa
memberofanyVLAN.Forinformationonhowbroadcast,multicast,and
unicastpacketsaretaggedinsideandoutsideoftheVLANtowhichthe
monitorportisassigned,seetheappendixontroubleshootingintheManage-
mentandConfigurationGuide.
VLANRestrictions
AportmustbeamemberofatleastoneVLAN.Inthefactorydefault
configuration,allportsareassignedtothedefaultVLAN
(DEFAULT_VLAN;VID=1).
AportcanbeassignedtoseveralVLANs,butonlyoneofthoseassign-
mentscanbeuntagged.(TheUntaggeddesignationenablesVLANoper-
ationwithnon802.1Q-compliantdevices.)
AnexternalroutermustbeusedtocommunicatebetweentaggedVLANs
ontheswitch.
BeforeyoucandeleteaVLAN,youmustfirstre-assignallportsinthe
VLANtoanotherVLAN.
JumboPacketSupportontheSeries2800Switches
JumbopacketsupportforSeries2800switchesisenabledper-VLANand
appliestoallportsbelongingtotheVLAN.Formoreinformation,refertothe
chaptertitledPortStatusandBasicConfigurationintheManagementand
ConfigurationGuideforyourswitch.(Jumbopacketsupportisnotavailable
ontheSeries2600,2600-PWR,4100glor6108Switches.)
2-36
3
GVRP
Contents
Overview ...................................................... 3-2
Introduction ................................................... 3-3
GeneralOperation . .......................................... 3-4
Per-PortOptionsforHandlingGVRPUnknownVLANs .......... 3-6
Per-PortOptionsforDynamicVLANAdvertisingandJoining ...... 3-8
GVRPandVLANAccessControl.............................. 3-10
Port-LeaveFromaDynamicVLAN .... .................... 3-10
Planning forGVRP Operation ... ... .......................... 3-11
ConfiguringGVRPOnaSwitch ............................... 3-11
Menu:ViewingandConfiguringGVRP . .................... 3-12
CLI:ViewingandConfiguring GVRP ... .................... 3-13
Web:ViewingandConfiguringGVRP ...................... 3-16
GVRPOperatingNotes ...................................... 3-17
3-1
GVRP
Overview
Overview
ThischapterdescribesGVRPandhowtoconfigureitwiththeswitchsbuilt-
ininterfaces,andassumesanunderstandingofVLANs,whicharedescribed
inChapter2,StaticVirtualLANs(VLANs).
Forgeneralinformationonhowtousetheswitchsbuilt-ininterfaces,referto
thesechaptersintheManagementandConfigurationGuideforyourswitch:
Chapter3,UsingtheMenuInterface
Chapter4,UsingtheCommandLineInterface(CLI)
Chapter5,UsingtheHPWebBrowserInterface
Chapter6,SwitchMemoryandConfiguration
3-2
GVRP
Introduction
Introduction
Feature Default Menu CLI Web
viewGVRPconfiguration n/a page3-12 page3-13 page3-16
liststaticanddynamicVLANs n/a page3-15 page3-16
onaGVRP-enabledswitch
enableordisableGVRP disabled page3-12 page3-14 page3-16
enableordisableGVRPon enabled page3-12 page3-14
individualports
controlhowindividualports
willhandleadvertisementsfor
newVLANs
Learn page3-12 page3-14 page3-16
convertadynamicVLANtoa
staticVLAN
n/a page3-16
configurestaticVLANs DEFAULT_VLAN
(VID=1)
page2-14 page2-19 page2-25
GVRPGARPVLANRegistrationProtocolisanapplicationoftheGeneric
AttributeRegistrationProtocolGARP.GVRPisdefinedintheIEEE802.1Q
standard,andGARPisdefinedintheIEEE802.1D-1998standard.
Not e TounderstandanduseGVRPyoumusthaveaworkingknowledgeof802.1Q
VLANtagging.(SeePort-BasedVirtualLANs(StaticVLANs)onpage2-3.)
GVRPusesGVRPBridgeProtocolDataUnits(GVRPBPDUs)toadver-
tisestaticVLANs.Inthismanual,aGVRPBPDUistermedanadvertisement.
Advertisementsaresentoutboundfromportsonaswitchtothedevices
directlyconnectedtothoseports.
GVRPenablestheswitchtodynamicallycreate802.1Q-compliantVLANson
linkswithotherdevicesrunningGVRP.Thisenablestheswitchtoautomati-
callycreateVLANlinksbetweenGVRP-awaredevices.(AGVRPlinkcan
includeintermediatedevicesthatarenotGVRP-aware.)Thisoperation
reducesthechancesforerrorsinVLANconfigurationbyautomaticallypro-
vidingVLANID(VID)consistencyacrossthenetwork.Thatis,youcanuse
GVRPtopropagateVLANstootherGVRP-awaredevicesinsteadofmanually
havingtosetupVLANsacrossyournetwork.Aftertheswitchcreatesa
dynamicVLAN,youcanoptionallyusetheCLIstatic <vlan-id>commandto
convertittoastaticVLANorallowittocontinueasadynamicVLANforas
longasneeded.YoucanalsouseGVRPtodynamicallyenableportmember-
shipinstaticVLANsconfiguredonaswitch.
3-3
GVRP
Introduction
GeneralOperation
WhenGVRPisenabledonaswitch,theVIDforanystaticVLANsconfigured
ontheswitchisadvertised(usingBPDUsBridgeProtocolDataUnits)out
allports,regardlessofwhetheraportisuporassignedtoanyparticular VLAN.
AGVRP-awareportonanotherdevicethatreceivestheadvertisementsover
alinkcandynamicallyjointheadvertisedVLAN.
AdynamicVLAN(thatis,aVLANlearnedthroughGVRP)istaggedontheport
onwhichitwaslearned.Also,aGVRP-enabledportcanforwardanadvertise-
mentforaVLANitlearnedaboutfromotherportsonthesameswitch(internal
source),buttheforwardingportwillnotitselfjointhatVLANuntilanadver-
tisementforthatVLANisreceivedthroughalinkfromanotherdevice(exter-
nalsource)onthatspecificport
Operating Note:WhenaGVRP-awareportonaswitchlearnsaVIDthroughGVRPfromanotherdevice,theswitchbegins
advertisingthatVIDoutallofitsportsexcepttheportonwhichtheVIDwaslearned.
Port6isstaticallyconfigured
Coreswitchwithstatic
VLANs(VID=1,2,&3).Port2
isamemberofVIDs1,2,&3.
1. Port2advertisesVIDs1,2,
&3.
2.Port1receivesadvertise-
mentofVIDs1,2,&3AND
becomesamemberofVIDs
1,2,&3.
3.Port3advertisesVIDs1,2,
&3,butport3isNOTa
memberofVIDs1,2,&3at
thispoint.
4.Port4receivesadvertise-
mentofVIDs1,2,&3AND
becomesamemberofVIDs
1,2,&3.
5. Port5advertisesVIDs1,2,
&3,butport5isNOTa
memberofVIDs1,2,&3at
thispoint.
tobeamemberofVID3.
1
4
6
5
3
Switch 1
GVRPOn
2
Switch 2
GVRPOn
Switch 3
GVRPOn
StaticVLANcon-
figuredEndDevice
(NICorswitch)with
GVRPOn
11.Port2receives 9.Port3receivesadvertise- 7.Port5receivesadvertise-
advertisementofVID3.(Port mentofVID3ANDbecomes mentofVID3ANDbecomes
2isalreadystatically amemberofVID3.(Stillnot amemberofVID3.(Stillnot
configuredforVID3.) amemberofVIDs1&2.) amemberofVIDs1&2.)
10. Port1advertisesVID3. 8.Port4advertisesVID3.
6.Port6advertisesVID3.
Figure 3-1. Example of Forwarding Advertisements and Dynamic Joining
3-4
GVRP
Introduction
NotethatifastaticVLANisconfiguredonatleastoneportofaswitch,and
thatport hasestablishedalinkwith anotherdevice,thenallotherportsofthat
switchwillsendadvertisementsforthatVLAN.
Forexample,inthefollowingfigure,TaggedVLANportsonswitchAand
switchCadvertiseVLANs22and33toportsonotherGVRP-enabled
switchesthatcandynamicallyjointheVLANs.
SwitchA
GVRPOn
SwitchB
(NoGVRP)
SwitchC
GVRPOn
SwitchD
GVRPOn
Tagged
VLAN22
Tagged
VLAN22
SwitchE
GVRPOn
Tagged
VLAN33
SwitchC:
Port5dynamicallyjoinsVLAN22.
Ports11and12belongtoTaggedVLAN33.
SwitchE:
Port2dynamicallyjoinsVLANs22and33.
Port7dynamicallyjoinsVLANs33and22.
SwitchD:
Port3dynamicallyjoinsVLANs22and33.
Port6dynamicallyjoinsVLAN22and33.
1 5
12
11
2
7
3
6
Figure 3-2. Example of GVRP Operation
Not e AportcanlearnofadynamicVLANthroughdevicesthatarenotawareof
GVRP(SwitchB, above). VLANsmustbedisabledinGVRP-unawaredevices
toallowtaggedpacketstopassthrough.
AGVRP-awareportreceivingadvertisementshastheseoptions:
IfthereisnotalreadyastaticVLANwiththeadvertisedVIDonthe
receivingport,thendynamicallycreatetheVLANandbecomeamember.
3-5
GVRP
Introduction
IftheswitchalreadyhasastaticVLANassignmentwiththesameVIDas
intheadvertisement,andtheportisconfiguredtoAutoforthatVLAN,
thentheportwilldynamicallyjointheVLANandbeginmovingthat
VLANstraffic.(FormoredetailonAuto,seePer-PortOptionsfor
DynamicVLANAdvertisingandJoiningonpage3-8.)
IgnoretheadvertisementforthatVID.
DontparticipateinthatVLAN.
NotealsothataportbelongingtoaTaggedorUntaggedstaticVLANhasthese
configurableoptions:
SendVLANadvertisements,andalsoreceiveadvertisementsforVLANs
onotherportsanddynamicallyjointhoseVLANs.
SendVLANadvertisements,butignoreadvertisementsreceivedfrom
otherports.
AvoidGVRPparticipationbynotsendingadvertisementsanddropping
anyadvertisementsreceivedfromotherdevices.
IPAddressing. AdynamicVLANdoesnothaveanIPaddress,andmoves
trafficonthebasisofportmembershipinVLANs.However,afterGVRP
createsadynamicVLAN,youcanconvertittoastaticVLAN.Notethatitis
thennecessarytoassignportstotheVLANinthesamewaythatyouwould
forastaticVLANthatyoucreatedmanually. Inthestaticstateyoucan
configureIPaddressingontheVLANandaccessitinthesamewaythatyou
wouldanyotherstatic(manuallycreated)VLAN.
Per-PortOptionsforHandlingGVRPUnknown
VLANs
AnunknownVLANisaVLANthattheswitchlearnsofbyreceivingan
advertisementforthatVLANonaportthatisnotalreadyamemberofthat
VLAN.IftheportisconfiguredtolearnunknownVLANs,thentheVLANis
dynamicallycreatedandtheportbecomesataggedmemberoftheVLAN.For
example,supposethatinfigure3-2(page3-5),port1onswitchAiscon-
nectedtoport5onswitchC.BecauseswitchAhasVLAN22statically
configured,whileswitchCdoesnothavethisVLANstaticallyconfigured
(anddoesnotForbidVLAN22onport5),VLAN22ishandledasan
UnknownVLANonport5inswitchC.Conversely,if VLAN22wasstatically
configuredonswitchC,butport5wasnotamember,port5wouldbecomea
memberwhenadvertisementsforVLAN22werereceivedfromswitchA.
WhenyouenableGVRPonaswitch,youhavetheper-portjoin-requestoptions
listedintable3-1,below.
3-6
GVRP
Introduction
Table 3-1. Options for Handling Unknown VLAN Advertisements:
UnknownVLAN
Mode
Operation
Learn EnablestheporttobecomeamemberofanyunknownVLANforwhichit
(theDefault) receivesanadvertisement.AllowstheporttoadvertiseotherVLANsthat
haveatleastoneotherportonthesameswitchasamember.
Block PreventstheportfromjoininganynewdynamicVLANsforwhichitreceives
anadvertisement.
AllowstheporttoadvertiseotherVLANsthathaveatleastoneotherport
asamember.
Disable CausestheporttoignoreanddropallGVRPadvertisementsitreceivesand
alsopreventstheportfromsendinganyGVRPadvertisements.
TheCLIshow gvrpcommandandthemenuinterfaceVLANSupportscreen
showaswitchscurrentGVRPconfiguration,includingtheUnknownVLAN
settings.
GVRPEnabled
(RequiredforUnknown
VLANoperation.)
UnknownVLANSettings
Default:Learn
Figure 3-3. Example of GVRP Unknown VLAN Settings
3-7
GVRP
Introduction
Per-PortOptionsforDynamicVLANAdvertisingand
Joining
InitiatingAdvertisements. Asdescribedintheprecedingsection,to
enabledynamicjoins,GVRPmustbeenabledandaportmustbeconfigured
toLearn(thedefault).However,tosendadvertisementsinyournetwork,one
ormorestatic(Tagged,Untagged,orAuto)VLANsmustbeconfiguredonone
ormoreswitches(withGVRPenabled),dependingonyourtopology.
EnablingaPortforDynamicJoins. Youcanconfigureaporttodynami-
callyjoinastaticVLAN.Thejoinwillthenoccurifthatportsubsequently
receivesanadvertisementforthestaticVLAN.(ThisisdonebyusingtheAuto
andLearnoptionsdescribedintable3-2,below.
ParametersforControllingVLANPropagationBehavior. Youcancon-
figureanindividualporttoactivelyorpassivelyparticipateindynamicVLAN
propagationortoignoredynamicVLAN(GVRP)operation.Theseoptionsare
controlledbytheGVRPUnknownVLANandthestaticVLANconfiguration
parameters,asdescribedinthefollowingtable:
3-8
GVRP
Introduction
Table 3-2. Controlling VLAN Behavior on Ports with Static VLANs
Per-Port
Unknown
VLAN
(GVRP)
Configuration
Static VLAN OptionsPer VLAN Specified on Each Port
1
Port Activity:
Tagged or Untagged (Per VLAN)
2
Port Activity:
Auto
2
(Per VLAN)
Port Activity: Forbid (Per VLAN)
2
Learn
(theDefault)
Theport:
BelongstospecifiedVLAN.
AdvertisesspecifiedVLAN.
Canbecomeamemberof
dynamicVLANsforwhichit
receivesadvertisements.
AdvertisesdynamicVLANs
thathaveatleastoneother
port(onthesameswitch)asa
member.
Theport:
Willbecomeamemberof
specifiedVLANifitreceives
advertisementsforspecified
VLANfromanotherdevice.
WilladvertisespecifiedVLAN.
Canbecomeamemberof
other,dynamicVLANsfor
whichitreceives
advertisements.
WilladvertiseadynamicVLAN
thathasatleastoneotherport
(onthesameswitch)asa
member.
Theport:
1. Willnotbecomeamemberof
thespecifiedVLAN.
1. Willnotadvertisespecified
VLAN.
1. Canbecomeamemberof
otherdynamicVLANsfor
whichitreceives
advertisements.
1. WilladvertiseadynamicVLAN
thathasatleastoneotherport
onthesameswitchasa
member.
Block Theport:
BelongstothespecifiedVLAN.
AdvertisesthisVLAN.
Willnotbecomeamemberof
newdynamicVLANsforwhich
itreceivesadvertisements.
WilladvertisedynamicVLANs
thathaveatleastoneother
portasamember.
Theport:
Willbecomeamemberof
specifiedVLANifitreceives
advertisementsforthisVLAN.
WilladvertisethisVLAN.
Willnotbecomeamemberof
newdynamicVLANsforwhich
itreceivesadvertisements.
WilladvertisedynamicVLANs
thathaveatleastoneother
port(onthesameswitch)asa
member.
Theport:
Willnotbecomeamemberof
thespecifiedVLAN.
WillnotadvertisethisVLAN.
Willnotbecomeamemberof
dynamicVLANsforwhichit
receivesadvertisements.
WilladvertisedynamicVLANs
thathaveatleastoneother
port(onthesameswitch)asa
member.
Disable Theport:
Isamemberofthespecified
VLAN.
WillignoreGVRPPDUs.
Willnotjoinanyadvertised
VLANs.
WillnotadvertiseVLANs.
Theport:
Willnotbecomeamemberof
thespecifiedVLAN.
WillignoreGVRPPDUs.
Willnotjoinanydynamic
VLANs.
WillnotadvertiseVLANs.
Theport:
Willnotbecomeamemberof
thisVLAN.
WillignoreGVRPPDUs.
Willnotjoinanydynamic
VLANs.
WillnotadvertiseVLANs.
1
EachportontheswitchmustbeaTaggedorUntaggedmemberofatleastoneVLAN.Thus,anyportconfiguredfor
GVRPtoLearnorBlockwillgenerateandforwardadvertisementsforstaticVLAN(s)configuredontheswitchandalso
fordynamicVLANstheswitchlearnsonotherports.
2
Toconfiguretagging,Auto,orForbid,seeConfiguringStaticVLANNameandPer-PortSettingsonpage2-24(forthe
CLI)orAddingorChangingaVLANPortAssignmentonpage2-17(forthemenu).
3-9
GVRP
Introduction
Astheprecedingtableindicates,whenyouenableGVRP,aportthathasa
TaggedorUntaggedstaticVLANhastheoptionforbothgeneratingadvertise-
mentsanddynamicallyjoiningotherVLANs.
Not e Intable3-2,above,theUnknownVLANparametersareconfiguredonaper-
portbasisusingtheCLI.TheTagged,Untagged,Auto,andForbidoptionsare
configuredperstaticVLANoneveryport,usingeitherthemenuinterfaceor
theCLI.
BecausedynamicVLANsoperateasTaggedVLANs,andbecauseataggedport
ononedevicecannotcommunicatewithanuntaggedportonanotherdevice,
HPrecommendsthatyouuseTaggedVLANsforthestaticVLANsyouwilluse
togenerateadvertisements.
GVRPandVLANAccessControl
WhenyouenableGVRPonaswitch,thedefaultGVRPparametersettings
allowalloftheswitchsportstotransmitandreceivedynamicVLANadver-
tisements(GVRPadvertisements)andtodynamicallyjoinVLANs.Thetwo
precedingsectionsdescribetheper-portfeaturesyoucanusetocontroland
limitVLANpropagation.Tosummarize,youcan:
Allowaporttoadvertiseand/orjoindynamicVLANs(Learnmodethe
default).
AllowaporttosendVLANadvertisements,butnotreceivethemfrom
otherdevices;thatis,theportcannotdynamicallyjoinaVLANbutother
devicescandynamicallyjointheVLANsitadvertises(Blockmode).
PreventaportfromparticipatinginGVRPoperation(Disablemode).
Port-LeaveFromaDynamicVLAN
AdynamicVLANcontinuestoexistonaportforaslongastheportcontinues
toreceiveadvertisementsofthatVLANfromanotherdeviceconnected tothat
portoruntilyou:
ConverttheVLANtoastaticVLAN(SeeConvertingaDynamicVLANto
aStaticVLANonpage2-23.)
ReconfiguretheporttoBlockorDisable
DisableGVRP
Reboottheswitch
Thetime-to-livefordynamicVLANsis10seconds.Thatis,ifaporthasnot
receivedanadvertisementforanexistingdynamicVLANduringthelast10
seconds,theportremovesitselffromthatdynamicVLAN.
3-10
GVRP
Introduction
PlanningforGVRPOperation
ThesestepsoutlinetheprocedureforsettingupdynamicVLANsforaseg-
ment.
1. DeterminetheVLANtopologyyouwantforeachsegment(broadcast
domain)onyournetwork.
2. DeterminetheVLANsthatmustbestaticandtheVLANsthatcanbe
dynamicallypropagated.
3. Determinethedeviceordevicesonwhichyoumustmanuallycreatestatic
VLANsinordertopropagateVLANsthroughoutthesegment.
4. Determinesecurityboundariesandhowtheindividualportsintheseg-
mentwillhandledynamicVLANadvertisements.(Seetable3-1onpage
3-7andtable3-2onpage3-9.)
5. EnableGVRPonalldevicesyouwanttousewithdynamicVLANsand
configuretheappropriateUnknownVLANparameter(Learn,Block,or
Disable)foreachport.
6. ConfigurethestaticVLANsontheswitch(es)wheretheyareneeded,
alongwiththeper-VLANparameters(Tagged,Untagged,Auto,andForbid
seetable3-2onpage3-9)oneachport.
7. DynamicVLANswillthenappearautomatically,accordingtotheconfig-
urationoptionsyouhavechosen.
8. ConvertdynamicVLANstostaticVLANswhereyouwantdynamicVLANs
tobecomepermanent.
ConfiguringGVRPOnaSwitch
Theproceduresinthissectiondescribehowto:
ViewtheGVRPconfigurationonaswitch
EnableanddisableGVRPonaswitch
Specifyhowindividualportswillhandleadvertisements
TovieworconfigurestaticVLANsforGVRPoperation,refertoPer-PortStatic
VLANConfigurationOptionsonpage2-8.
3-11
GVRP
Introduction
Menu:ViewingandConfiguringGVRP
1. FromtheMainMenu,select:
2. Switch Configuration . . .
8. VLAN Menu . . .
1. VLAN Support
Figure 3-4. The VLAN Support Screen (Default Configuration)
2. DothefollowingtoenableGVRPanddisplaytheUnknownVLANfields:
a. Press[E](forEdit).
b. Use[v]tomovethecursortotheGVRP Enabledfield.
c. PresstheSpacebartoselectYes.
d. Press[v]againtodisplaytheUnknown VLANfields.
TheUnknownVLAN
fieldsenableyouto
configureeachportto:
Learn- Dynamically
joinanyadvertised
VLANandadvertise
allVLANslearned
throughotherports.
Block- Donot
dynamicallyjoinany
VLAN,butstill
advertiseallVLANs
learnedthroughother
ports.
Disable- Ignoreand
dropallincoming
advertisementsand
donottransmitany
advertisements.
Figure 3-5. Example Showing Default Settings for Handling Advertisements
3-12
GVRP
Introduction
3. Usethearrowkeystoselecttheportyouwant,andtheSpacebartoselect
UnknownVLANoptionforanyportsyouwanttochange.
4. Whenyoufinishmakingconfigurationchanges,press[Enter],then[S](for
Save)tosaveyourchangestotheStartup-Configfile.
CLI:ViewingandConfiguringGVRP
GVRP Commands Used in This Section
showgvrp below
gvrp page3-14
unknown-vlans page3-14
DisplayingtheSwitchsCurrentGVRPConfiguration. Thiscommand
showswhetherGVRPisdisabled,alongwiththecurrentsettingsforthe
maximumnumberofVLANsandthecurrentPrimaryVLAN.(Formoreonthe
lasttwoparameters,seePort-BasedVirtualLANs(StaticVLANs)onpage
2-3.)
Syntax: showgvrp Showsthecurrentsettings.
Figure 3-6. Example of Show GVRP Listing with GVRP Disabled
3-13
GVRP
Introduction
Thisexampleincludes
non-defaultsettingsfor
theUnknownVLANfield
forsomeports.
Figure 3-7. Example of Show GVRP Listing with GVRP Enabled
EnablingandDisablingGVRPontheSwitch. Thiscommandenables
GVRPontheswitch.
Syntax: gvrp
ThisexampleenablesGVRP:
HPswitch(config)# gvrp
ThisexampledisablesGVRPoperationontheswitch:
HPswitch(config)# no gvrp
EnablingandDisablingGVRPOnIndividualPorts. WhenGVRPis
enabledontheswitch,usetheunknown-vlans commandtochangethe
UnknownVLANfieldforoneormoreports.Youcanusethiscommandat
eithertheManagerlevelortheinterfacecontextlevelforthedesiredport(s).
Syntax: interface<port-list>unknown-vlans<learn|block|disable>
ChangestheUnknownVLANfieldsettingforthespecified
port(s).
Forexample,tochangeandviewtheconfigurationforportsA1-A2toBlock:
3-14
GVRP
Introduction
Figure 3-8. Example of Preventing Specific Ports from Joining Dynamic VLANs
DisplayingtheStaticandDynamicVLANsActiveontheSwitch. The
show vlans commandlistsallVLANspresentintheswitch.
Syntax: showvlans
Forexample, inthefollowingillustration,switchBhasonestaticVLAN(the
defaultVLAN),withGVRPenabledandport1configuredtoLearnfor
UnknownVLANs.SwitchAhasGVRPenabledandhasthreestaticVLANs:
thedefaultVLAN,VLAN-222,andVLAN-333.Inthisscenario,switchBwill
dynamicallyjoinVLAN-222andVLAN-333:
Switch A
GVRPenabled.
3StaticVLANs:
DEFAULT_VLAN
VLAN-222
VLAN-333
Switch B
GVRPenabled.
1StaticVLANs:
DEFAULT_VLAN
Port1:Setto
LearnMode
Figure 3-9. Example of Switches Operating with GVRP Enabled
The show vlanscommandliststhedynamic(andstatic)VLANsinswitchB
afterithaslearnedandjoinedVLAN-222andVLAN-333.
3-15
GVRP
Introduction
DynamicVLANs
Learnedfrom
SwitchA
throughPort1
Figure 3-10. Example of Listing Showing Dynamic VLANs
ConvertingaDynamicVLANtoaStaticVLAN. Ifaportontheswitch
hasjoinedadynamicVLAN,youcanusethefollowingcommandtoconvert
thatdynamicVLANtoastaticVLAN:
Syntax: static<dynamic-vlan-id>
Forexample,toconvertdynamicVLAN333(fromthepreviousexample)toa
staticVLAN:
HPswitch(config)# static 333
WhenyouconvertadynamicVLANtoastaticVLAN,allportsontheswitch
areassignedtotheVLANinAutomode.
Web:ViewingandConfiguringGVRP
Toview,enable,disable,orreconfigureGVRP:
1. ClickontheConfigurationtab.
2. ClickonVLAN Configurationanddothefollowing:
ToenableordisableGVRP,clickonGVRP Enabled.
TochangetheUnknownVLANfieldforanyport:
i. ClickonGVRP Securityandmakethedesiredchanges.
ii. ClickonApply tosaveandimplementyourchangestothe
UnknownVLANfields.
Forweb-basedHelponhowtousethewebbrowserinterfacescreen,clickon
the[?]buttonprovidedonthewebbrowserscreen.
3-16
GVRP
Introduction
GVRPOperatingNotes
AdynamicVLANmustbeconvertedtoastaticVLANbeforeitcanhave
anIPaddress.
ThetotalnumberofVLANsontheswitch(staticanddynamiccombined)
cannotexceedthecurrentMaximumVLANssetting.Forexample,inthe
factorydefaultstate,theswitchsupportseightVLANs.Thus,inacase
wherefourstaticVLANsareconfiguredontheswitch,theswitchcan
acceptuptofouradditionalVLANsinanycombinationofstaticand
dynamic.AnyadditionalVLANsadvertisedtotheswitch willnotbeadded
unlessyoufirstincreasetheMaximumVLANssetting.IntheMenuinter-
face,clickon2. Switch Configuration ... | 8. VLAN Menu | 1. VLAN Support.Inthe
globalconfigleveloftheCLI,usemax-vlans.
ConvertingadynamicVLANtoastaticVLANandthenexecutingthewrite
memorycommandsavestheVLANinthestartup-configfileandmakesit
apermanentpartoftheswitchsVLANconfiguration.
Withinthesamebroadcastdomain,adynamicVLANcanpassthrougha
devicethatisnotGVRP-aware.Thisisbecauseahuboraswitchthatis
notGVRP-warewillfloodtheGVRP(multicast)advertisementpackets
outallports.
GVRPassignsdynamicVLANsasTaggedVLANs.ToconfiguretheVLAN
asUntagged,youmustfirstconvertittoastaticVLAN.
RebootingaswitchonwhichadynamicVLANexistsdeletesthatVLAN.
However,thedynamicVLANre-appearsaftertherebootifGVRPis
enabledandtheswitchagainreceivesadvertisementsforthatVLAN
throughaportconfiguredtoadddynamicVLANs.
ByreceivingadvertisementsfromotherdevicesrunningGVRP,theswitch
learnsofstaticVLANsonthoseotherdevicesanddynamically(automat-
ically)createstaggedVLANsonthelinkstotheadvertisingdevices.
Similarly,theswitchadvertisesitsstaticVLANstootherGVRP-aware
devices,aswellasthedynamicVLANstheswitchhaslearned.
AGVRP-enabledswitchdoesnotadvertiseanyGVRP-learnedVLANsout
oftheport(s)onwhichitoriginallylearnedofthoseVLANs.
3-17
GVRP
Introduction
Thispageisintentionallyunused.
3-18
4
MultimediaTrafficControlwithIPMulticast
(IGMP)
Contents
Overview ...................................................... 4-2
GeneralOperationandFeatures .................................. 4-3
IGMPFeatures .............................................. 4-3
IGMPTerms ................................................ 4-4
IGMPOperatingFeatures..................................... 4-5
BasicOperation ......................................... 4-5
Enhancements .......................................... 4-5
CLI:ConfiguringandDisplayingIGMP ............................. 4-6
Web:EnablingorDisablingIGMP ................................ 4-11
HowIGMPOperates ........................................... 4-11
OperationWithorWithoutIPAddressing ...................... 4-13
AutomaticFast-LeaveIGMP ................................. 4-13
ForcedFast-LeaveIGMP .................................... 4-16
ConfigurationOptionsforForcedFast-Leave ............... 4-16
ListingtheForcedFast-LeaveConfiguration ................ 4-16
ConfiguringPer-PortForcedFast-LeaveIGMP.................. 4-18
UsingtheSwitchasQuerier ..................................... 4-19
QuerierOperation .......................................... 4-19
ExcludingWell-KnownorReservedMulticastAddresses
fromIPMulticastFiltering ...................................... 4-20
NumberofIPMulticastAddressesAllowed................. 4-21
4-1
Multimedia Traffic Control with IP Multicast (IGMP)
Overview
Overview
Thischapterdescribesthefollowingfeaturesandhowtoconfigurethemwith
theswitchsbuilt-ininterfaces:
MultimediaTrafficControlwithIPMulticast(IGMP):Usetheswitchto
reduceunnecessarybandwidthusageonaper-portbasisbyconfiguring
IGMPcontrols.
ForthelatestinformationonIGMP,seethesoftwarereleasenotespostedon
theSupportwebsiteathttp://www.hp.com/go/hpprocurve.
Forgeneralinformationonhowtousetheswitchsbuilt-ininterfaces,referto
thesechaptersintheManagementandConfigurationGuideforyourswitch:
Chapter3,UsingtheMenuInterface
Chapter4,UsingtheCommandLineInterface(CLI)
Chapter5,UsingtheHPWebBrowserInterface
AppendixC,SwitchMemoryandConfiguration
4-2
Multimedia Traffic Control with IP Multicast (IGMP)
GeneralOperationandFeatures
GeneralOperationandFeatures
IGMPFeatures
Feature Default Menu CLI Web
viewigmpconfiguration n/a page4-6
showigmpstatusformulticast n/a Yes
groupsusedbytheselected
VLAN
enablingordisablingIGMP
(RequiresVLANIDContext)
disabled page4-8 page4-11
per-portpacketcontrol auto page4-9
IGMPtrafficpriority normal page4-10
querier enabled page4-10
fast-leave disabled page4-14
InanetworkwhereIPmulticasttrafficistransmittedforvariousmultimedia
applications,youcanusetheswitchtoreduceunnecessarybandwidthusage
onaper-portbasisbyconfiguringIGMP(InternetGroupManagementProto-
colcontrols).Inthefactorydefaultstate(IGMPdisabled),theswitchsimply
floodsallIPmulticasttrafficitreceivesonagivenVLANthroughallportson
thatVLAN(excepttheportonwhichitreceivedthetraffic).Thiscanresult
insignificantandunnecessarybandwidthusageinnetworkswhereIPmulti-
casttrafficisafactor.EnablingIGMPallowstheportstodetectIGMPqueries
andreportpacketsandmanageIPmulticasttrafficthroughtheswitch.
IGMPisusefulinmultimediaapplicationssuchasLANTV,desktopconfer-
encing,andcollaborativecomputing,wherethereismultipointcommunica-
tion;thatis,communicationfromonetomanyhosts,orcommunication
originatingfrommanyhostsanddestinedformanyotherhosts.Insuch
multipointapplications,IGMPwillbeconfiguredonthehosts,andmulticast
trafficwillbegeneratedbyoneormoreservers(insideoroutsideofthelocal
network).Switchesinthenetwork(thatsupportIGMP)canthenbeconfig-
uredtodirectthemulticasttraffictoonlytheportswhereneeded.Ifmultiple
VLANsareconfigured,youcanconfigureIGMPonaper-VLANbasis.
4-3
Multimedia Traffic Control with IP Multicast (IGMP)
GeneralOperationandFeatures
EnablingIGMPallowsdetectionofIGMPqueriesandreportpacketsinorder
tomanageIPmulticasttrafficthroughtheswitch.Ifnootherquerieris
detected,theswitchwillthenalsofunctionasthequerier.(Ifyouneedto
disablethequerierfeature,youcandosothroughtheIGMPconfiguration
MIB.RefertoChangingtheQuerierConfigurationSettingonpage4-10.)
Not e IGMPconfigurationontheswitchoperatesattheVLANcontextlevel.Ifyou
arenotusingVLANs,thenconfigureIGMPinVLAN1(thedefaultVLAN)
context.
IGMPTerms
IGMPDevice:AswitchorrouterrunningIGMPtrafficcontrol
features.
IGMPHost:Anend-nodedevicerunninganIGMP(multipoint,or
multicastcommunication)application.
Querier:ArequiredIGMPdevicethatfacilitatestheIGMPprotocol
andtrafficflowonagivenLAN.Thisdevicetrackswhichportsare
connectedtodevices(IGMPclients)thatbelongtospecificmulticast
groups,andtriggersupdatesofthisinformation.Aquerierusesdata
receivedfromthequeriestodeterminewhethertoforwardorblock
multicasttrafficonspecificports.WhentheswitchhasanIPaddress
onagivenVLAN,itautomaticallyoperatesasaQuerierforthat VLAN
ifitdoesnotdetectamulticastrouteroranotherswitchfunctioning
asaQuerier.Whenenabled(thedefaultstate),theswitchsquerier
functioneliminatestheneedforamulticastrouter.Inmostcases,HP
recommendsthatyouleavethisparameterinthedefaultenabled
stateevenifyouhaveamulticastrouterperformingthequerier
functioninyourmulticastgroup.Formoreinformation,seeHow
IGMPOperatesonpage4-11.
4-4
Multimedia Traffic Control with IP Multicast (IGMP)
GeneralOperationandFeatures
IGMPOperatingFeatures
BasicOperation
Inthefactorydefaultconfiguration,IGMPisdisabled.IfmultipleVLANsare
notconfigured,youmustconfigureIGMPonthedefaultVLAN
(DEFAULT_VLAN;VID=1).IfmultipleVLANsareconfigured,youmust
configureIGMPonaper-VLANbasisforeveryVLANwherethisfeatureis
desired.
Enhancements
WiththeCLI,youcanconfiguretheseadditionaloptions:
ForwardwithHighPriority.Disablingthisparameter(thedefault)
causestheswitchorVLANtoprocessIPmulticasttraffic,alongwithother
traffic,intheorderreceived(usually,normalpriority).Enablingthis
parametercausestheswitchorVLANtogiveahigherprioritytoIP
multicasttrafficthantoothertraffic.
Auto/Blocked/Forward:Youcanusetheconsoletoconfigureindividual
portstoanyofthefollowingstates:
Auto(thedefault):CausestheswitchtointerpretIGMPpacketsand
tofilterIPmulticasttrafficbasedon theIGMPpacketinformationfor
portsbelongingtoamulticastgroup.ThismeansthatIGMPtraffic
willbeforwardedonaspecificportonlyifanIGMPhostormulticast
routerisconnectedtotheport.
Blocked:CausestheswitchtodropallIGMPtransmissionsreceived
fromaspecificportandtoblockalloutgoingIPMulticastpacketsfor
thatport.ThishastheeffectofpreventingIGMPtrafficfrommoving
throughspecificports.
Forward:CausestheswitchtoforwardallIGMPandIPmulticast
transmissionsthroughtheport.
OperationWithorWithoutIPAddressing:Thisfeaturehelpsto
conserveIPaddressesbyenablingIGMPtorunonVLANsthat donothave
anIPaddress.SeeOperationWithorWithoutIPAddressingonpage
4-13.
QuerierCapability:TheswitchperformsthisfunctionforIGMPon
VLANshavinganIPaddresswhenthereisnootherdeviceintheVLAN
actingasquerier.SeeQuerierOperationonpage4-19.
4-5
Multimedia Traffic Control with IP Multicast (IGMP)
CLI:ConfiguringandDisplayingIGMP
Not e s WheneverIGMPisenabled,theswitchgeneratesanEventLogmessage
indicatingwhetherquerierfunctionalityisenabled.
IPmulticasttrafficgroupsareidentifiedbyIPaddressesintherangeof
224.0.0.0to239.255.255.255.Also,incomingIGMPpacketsintendedfor
reserved,orwell-knownmulticastaddressesautomaticallyfloodthroughall
ports(excepttheportonwhichthepacketsenteredtheswitch).Formoreon
thistopic,seeExcludingWell-KnownorReservedMulticastAddressesfrom
IPMulticastFilteringonpage4-20.
Formoreinformation,refertoHowIGMPOperatesonpage4-11.
CLI:ConfiguringandDisplayingIGMP
IGMP Commands Used in This Section
showipigmpconfiguration
config
vid[config]
group<ipaddress>
ipigmp
high-priority-forward
auto<[ethernet]<port-list>
blocked<[ethernet]<port-list>
forward<[ethernet]<port-list>
querier
showipigmp
page4-7
page4-8
page4-10
page4-9
page4-9
page4-9
page4-10
Seetheappendixonmonitoringandanalyzingswitch
operationintheManagement and Configuration
Guide.
4-6
Multimedia Traffic Control with IP Multicast (IGMP)
CLI:ConfiguringandDisplayingIGMP
ViewingtheCurrentIGMPConfiguration. ThiscommandliststheIGMP
configurationforallVLANsconfiguredontheswitchorforaspecificVLAN.
Syntax: showip igmpconfig
IGMPconfigurationforallVLANsontheswitch.
showip igmp<vid>config
IGMPconfigurationforaspecificVLANontheswitch,
includingper-portdata.
showip igmpgroup<ip-address>
Liststheportsonwhichthespecifiedmulticastgroup
IPaddressisregistered.
(ForIGMPoperatingstatus,seetheappendixonmonitoringandanalyzing
switchoperationintheManagementand ConfigurationGuide.)
Forexample,supposeyouhavethefollowingVLANandIGMPconfigurations
ontheswitch:
VLAN ID VLAN Name IGMP
Enabled
Forward with
High Priority
Querier
1 DEFAULT_VLAN Yes No No
22 VLAN-2 Yes Yes Yes
33 VLAN-3 No No No
YoucouldusetheCLItodisplaythisdataasfollows:
Figure 4-1. Example Listing of IGMP Configuration for All VLANs in the Switch
Thefollowingversionoftheshow ip igmp commandincludestheVLANID(vid)
designation,andcombinestheabovedatawiththeIGMPper-portconfigura-
tion:
4-7
Multimedia Traffic Control with IP Multicast (IGMP)
CLI:ConfiguringandDisplayingIGMP
IGMPConfiguration
fortheSelected
VLAN
IGMPConfiguration
OntheIndividual
PortsintheVLAN
Figure 4-2. Example Listing of IGMP Configuration for A Specific VLAN
EnablingorDisablingIGMPonaVLAN. YoucanenableIGMPona
VLAN,alongwiththelast-savedordefaultIGMPconfiguration(whichever
wasmostrecentlyset),oryoucandisableIGMPonaselectedVLAN.Note
thatthiscommandmustbeexecutedinaVLANcontext.
Syntax: [no] ip igmp
Forexample,herearemethodstoenableanddisableIGMPonthedefault
VLAN(VID=1).
HPswitch(config)# vlan 1 ip igmp
EnablesIGMPonVLAN1.
HPswitch(vlan-1)# ip igmp
Sameasabove.
HPswitch(config)# no vlan 1 ip igmp
DisablesIGMPonVLAN1.
Not e IfyoudisableIGMPonaVLANandthenlaterre-enableIGMPonthatVLAN,
theswitchrestoresthe last-savedIGMPconfigurationforthatVLAN.Formore
onhowswitchmemoryoperates,seethechapteronswitchmemoryand
configurationintheManagementandConfigurationGuide.
4-8
Multimedia Traffic Control with IP Multicast (IGMP)
CLI:ConfiguringandDisplayingIGMP
Youcanalsocombinetheip igmpcommandwithotherIGMP-relatedcom-
mands,asdescribedinthefollowingsections.
ConfiguringPer-PortIGMPPacketControl. Usethiscommandinthe
VLANcontexttospecifyhoweachportshouldhandleIGMPtraffic.
Syntax: vlan < vid > ip igmp
[ auto <port-list> | blocked <port-list> | forward <port-list> ]
Syntax: vlan < vid > ip igmp
EnablesIGMPonthespecifiedVLAN.InaVLANcontext,
useonlyip igmp withouttheVLANspecifier.
auto<port-list >(Defaultoperation)
Filtermulticasttrafficonthespecifiedports.Forward
IGMP traffictohostsontheportsthatbelongtothe
multicastgroupforwhichthetrafficisintended.(Also
forwardanymulticasttrafficthroughanyoftheseports
that isconnected to amulticastrouter.)Thisis the default
IGMPportconfiguration.
blocked<port-list>
Dropallmulticasttrafficreceivedfromdevicesonthe
specifiedports,andpreventanyoutgoingmulticast
trafficfrommovingthroughtheseports.
forward<port-list>
Forwardallmulticasttrafficthroughthespecifiedport.
Forexample,supposeyouwantedtoconfigureIGMPasfollowsforVLAN1
onportsA1-A6:
PortsA1-A2:Auto
PortsA3-A4:Forward
PortsA5-A6:Block
Dependingontheprivilegelevel,youcoulduseoneofthefollowingcom-
mandstoconfigureIGMPonVLAN1withtheabovesettings:
HPswitch(config)# vlan 1
HPswitch(vlan-1)# ip igmp auto a1,a2
HPswitch(vlan-1)# forward a3,a4
HPswitch(vlan-1)# blocked a5,a6
4-9
Multimedia Traffic Control with IP Multicast (IGMP)
CLI:ConfiguringandDisplayingIGMP
ThefollowingcommanddisplaystheVLANandper-portconfigurationresult-
ingfromtheabovecommands.
HPswitch> show ip igmp 1 config
ConfiguringIGMPTrafficPriority. Thiscommandallowsyoutopriori-
tizeIGMPtrafficaseitherhighornormal(thedefault).
Syntax: [no]vlan<vid>ipigmphigh-priority-forward
Assignshigh prioritytoIGMPtraffic.Thenoform
returnsahigh-prioritysettingto(thedefault)normal
priority.(Theswitchservicesthetrafficatitsinbound
priority.)
HPswitch(config)# vlan 1 ip igmp high-priority-forward
ThisexampleconfigureshighpriorityforIGMPtrafficon
VLAN1.
HPswitch(vlan-1)# ip igmp high-priority-forward
Sameasabovecommand,butintheVLAN1context
level.
HPswitch(vlan 1)# no ip igmp high-priority-forward
ReturnsIGMPtraffictonormalpriority.
HPswitch> show ip igmp config
Showcommandtodisplayresultsofabovehigh-priority
commands.
ConfiguringtheQuerierFunction. Initsdefaultconfiguration,theswitch
iscapableofoperatingasanIGMPquerier.Thiscommandletsyoudisableor
re-enablethisfunction.
Syntax: [no] vlan <vid> ip igmp querier
Disablesorre-enablestheabilityfortheswitchtobecome
querier,ifnecessary,onthespecifiedVLAN.Thedefault
queriercapabilityisenabled.
HPswitch(config)# no vlan 1 ip igmp querier
DisablesthequerierfunctiononVLAN1.
HPswitch> show ip igmp config
Thisistheshowcommandusedtodisplayresultsofthe
abovequeriercommand.
4-10
Multimedia Traffic Control with IP Multicast (IGMP)
Web:EnablingorDisablingIGMP
Web:EnablingorDisablingIGMP
InthewebbrowserinterfaceyoucanenableordisableIGMPonaper-VLAN
basis.ToconfigureotherIGMPfeatures,telnettotheswitchconsoleanduse
theCLI.
ToEnableorDisableIGMP
1. ClickontheConfigurationtab.
2. ClickontheDevice Featuresbutton.
3. IfmorethanoneVLANisconfigured,usetheVLANpull-downmenuto
selecttheVLANonwhichyouwanttoenableordisableIGMP.
4. UsetheMulticastFiltering(IGMP)menutoenableordisableIGMP.
5. ClickonApply Changesbuttontoimplementtheconfigurationchange.
Forweb-basedhelponhowtousethewebbrowserinterfacescreen,clickon
the?buttonprovidedonthewebbrowserscreen.
HowIGMPOperates
TheInternetGroupManagementProtocol(IGMP)isaninternalprotocolof
theInternetProtocol(IP)suite.IPmanagesmulticasttrafficbyusing
switches,multicastrouters,andhoststhatsupportIGMP.(InHewlett-Pack-
ardsimplementationofIGMP,amulticastrouterisnotnecessaryaslongas
aswitchisconfiguredtosupportIGMPwiththequerierfeatureenabled.)Aset
ofhosts,routers,and/orswitchesthatsendorreceivemulticastdatastreams
toorfromthesamesource(s)istermedamulticastgroup,andalldevicesin
thegroupusethesamemulticastgroupaddress.Themulticastgrouprunning
version2ofIGMPusesthreefundamentaltypesofmessagestocommunicate:
Query:Amessagesentfromthequerier(multicastrouterorswitch)
askingforaresponsefromeachhostbelongingtothemulticastgroup.If
amulticastroutersupportingIGMPisnotpresent,thentheswitchmust
assumethisfunctioninordertoelicitgroupmembershipinformation
fromthehostsonthenetwork.(Ifyouneedtodisablethequerierfeature,
youcandosothroughtheCLI,usingtheIGMPconfigurationMIB.See
ConfiguringtheQuerierFunctiononpage4-10.)
4-11
Multimedia Traffic Control with IP Multicast (IGMP)
HowIGMPOperates
Report(Join):Amessagesentbyahosttothequeriertoindicatethat
thehostwantstobeorisamemberofagivengroupindicatedinthereport
message.
LeaveGroup:Amessagesentbyahosttothequeriertoindicatethatthe
hosthasceasedtobeamemberofaspecificmulticastgroup.
No t e o n I GMP WhentheswitchreceivesanIGMPv3Join,itacceptsthehostrequestand
v er s i on 3
beginstoforwardingtheIGMPtraffic.Thismeansportsthathavenotjoined
s u p p o r t
thegroupandarenotconnectedtoroutersortheIGMPQuerierwillnot
receivethegroup'smulticasttraffic.
TheswitchdoesnotsupporttheIGMPv3ExcludeSourceorInclude
SourceoptionsintheJoinReports.Rather,thegroupissimplyjoinedfrom
allsources.
Theswitchdoesnotsupportbecomingaversion3Querier.Itwillbecomea
version2QuerierintheabsenceofanyotherQuerieronthenetwork.
AnIPmulticastpacketincludesthemulticastgroup(address)towhichthe
packetbelongs.WhenanIGMPclientconnectedtoaswitchportneedsto
receivemulticasttrafficfromaspecificgroup,itjoinsthegroupbysending
anIGMPreport(joinrequest)tothenetwork.(Themulticastgroupspecified
inthejoinrequestisdeterminedbytherequestingapplicationrunningonthe
IGMPclient.)WhenanetworkingdevicewithIGMPenabledreceivesthejoin
requestforaspecificgroup,itforwardsanyIPmulticasttrafficitreceivesfor
thatgroupthroughtheportonwhichthejoinrequestwasreceived.Whenthe
clientisreadytoleavethemulticastgroup,itsendsaLeaveGroupmessage
tothenetworkandceasestobeagroupmember.Whentheleaverequestis
detected,theappropriateIGMPdevicewillceasetransmittingtrafficforthe
designatedmulticastgroupthroughtheportonwhichtheleaverequestwas
received(aslongastherearenoothercurrentmembersofthatgrouponthe
affectedport).
Thus,IGMPidentifiesmembersofamulticastgroup(withinasubnet)and
allowsIGMP-configuredhosts(androuters)tojoinorleavemulticastgroups.
IGMPData. Todisplaydatashowingactivegroupaddresses,reports,que-
ries,querieraccessport,andactivegroupaddressdata(port,type,and
access),seetheappendixonmonitoringandanalyzingswitchoperationin
theManagementandConfigurationGuide.
4-12
Multimedia Traffic Control with IP Multicast (IGMP)
HowIGMPOperates
OperationWithorWithoutIPAddressing
Youcan configureIGMPonVLANsthat donot haveIPaddressing.Thebenefit
ofIGMPwithoutIPaddressingisareductioninthenumberofIPaddresses
youhavetouseandconfigure.Thiscanbesignificantinanetworkwithalarge
numberofVLANs.ThelimitationonIGMPwithoutIPaddressingisthatthe
switchcannotbecomeQuerieronanyVLANsforwhichithasnoIPaddress
sothenetworkadministratormustensurethatanotherIGMPdevicewillact
asQuerier.ItisalsoadvisabletohaveanadditionalIGMPdeviceavailableas
abackupQuerier.Seethefollowingtable.
Table 4-1.Comparison of IGMP Operation With and Without IP Addressing
IGMP Function Available With IP Addressing
Configured on the VLAN
Available
Without IP
Addressing?
Operating Differences
Without an IP Address
Forwardmulticastgrouptraffictoanyporton Yes None
theVLANthathasreceivedajoinrequestfor
thatmulticastgroup.
Forwardjoinrequests(reports)totheQuerier. Yes None
ConfigureindividualportsintheVLANtoAuto Yes None
(thedefault)/Blocked,or Forward.
ConfigureIGMPtrafficforwardingtonormalor Yes None
high-priorityforwarding.
Age-OutIGMP group addresses when the last
IGMP client onaportintheVLANleavesthe
group.
Yes Requires that another IGMP device in the VLAN has an IP
address and can operate as Querier. This can be a
multicast router or another switch configured for IGMP
operation. (HP recommends that the VLAN also include a
device operating as a backup Querier in case the device
operating as the primary Querier fails for any reason.
SupportFast-LeaveIGMP(below)andForced
Fast-LeaveIGMP(page4-13).
Yes
SupportautomaticQuerierelection. No Querieroperationnotavailable.
OperateastheQuerier. No Querieroperationnotavailable.
AvailableasabackupQuerier. No Querieroperationnotavailable.
AutomaticFast-LeaveIGMP
IGMPOperationPresentsaDelayedLeaveProblem.Wheremultiple
IGMPclientsareconnectedtothesameportonanIGMPdevice(switchor
router),ifonlyoneIGMPclientjoinsagivenmulticastgroup,thenlatersends
aLeaveGroupmessageandceasestobelongtothatgroup,theIGMPdevice
retainsthatIGMPclientinitsIGMPtableandcontinuesforwardingIGMP
4-13
Multimedia Traffic Control with IP Multicast (IGMP)
HowIGMPOperates
traffictotheIGMPclientuntiltheQueriertriggersconfirmationthatnoother
groupmembersexistonthesameport.Thismeansthattheswitchcontinues
totransmitunnecessarymulticasttrafficthroughtheportuntiltheQuerier
renewsthemulticastgroupstatus.
Fast-LeaveIGMP. Dependingontheswitchmodel,Fast-Leaveisenabled
ordisabledinthedefaultconfiguration.
Table 4-3.IGMP: Data-Driven and Non-Data Driven Behavior
Switch Model or
Series
Data-
Driven
IGMP
Included?
IGMP Fast-
Leave Setting
Default IGMP Behavior
Switch5300XL Yes Always Dropsunjoinedmulticasttrafficexceptfor
Switch2800 Enabled always-forwardedtraffictowardtheQuerieror
Switch2500
multicastrouters,andoutofIGMP-forward
ports.Selectivelyforwardsjoinedmulticast
traffic.
Switch2600 No Disabledin IGMPFast-Leavedisabledinthedefault
Switch2600- theDefault configuration.Floodsunjoinedmulticasttraffic
PWR Configuration toallports.Selectivelyforwardsjoined
Switch4100GL multicasttraffic.
Switch6108
OnswitchesthatdonotsupportData-DrivenIGMP,unregisteredmulticast
groupsarefloodedtotheVLANratherthanpruned.Inthisscenario,Fast-
LeaveIGMPcanactuallyincreasetheproblemofmulticastfloodingby
removingtheIGMPgroupfilterbeforetheQuerierhasrecognizedtheIGMP
Leave.TheQuerierwillcontinuetotransmitthemulticastgroupduringthis
shorttime,andbecausethegroupisnolongerregisteredtheswitchwillthen
floodthemulticastgrouptoallports.
On HPProCurveswitches thatdosupportData-DrivenIGMP(SmartIGMP),
whenunregisteredmulticastsarereceivedtheswitchautomaticallyfilters
(drops)them.Thus,thesoonertheIGMPLeaveisprocessed,thesoonerthis
multicasttrafficstopsflowing.
Becauseofthemulticastfloodingproblemmentionedabove,theIGMP
FastLeavefeatureisdisabledbydefaultonallHPProCurveswitchesthatdo
notsupportData-DrivenIGMP.(Seetable4-3,above.)Thefeaturecanbe
enabledontheseswitchesviaanSNMPsetofthisobject:
hpSwitchIgmpPortForceLeaveState.<vid>.<port number >
However,thisisnotrecommendedasthiswillincreasetheamountofmulti-
castfloodingduringtheperiodbetweentheclient'sIGMPLeaveandthe
4-14
Multimedia Traffic Control with IP Multicast (IGMP)
HowIGMPOperates
Querier'sprocessingofthatLeave.Formoreonthistopic,refertoForced
Fast-LeaveIGMPonpage4-16.
AutomaticFast-LeaveOperation.Ifaswitchportis:
a. Connectedtoonlyoneendnode
b. Theendnodecurrentlybelongstoamulticastgroup;i.e.isanIGMP
client
c. Theendnodesubsequentlyleavesthemulticastgroup
ThentheswitchdoesnotneedtowaitfortheQuerierstatusupdateinterval,
butinsteadimmediatelyremovestheIGMPclientfromitsIGMPtableand
ceasestransmittingIGMPtraffictotheclient.(Iftheswitchdetectsmultiple
endnodesontheport,automaticFast-Leavedoesnotactivateregardlessof
whetheroneormoreoftheseendnodesareIGMPclients.)
Inthenextfigure,automaticFast-LeaveoperatesontheswitchportsforIGMP
clients3Aand5A,butnotontheswitchportforIGMPclients7Aand7B,
Server7C,andprinter7D.
Routing
Switch
Actingas
Querier HP ProCurve Switch
with Automatic
Fast-Leave
Server
7C
Switch7X
3A 5A
7A
Fast-Leave IGMP
automatically operates
on the ports connected
to IGMP clients 3A and
5A, but does not
operate on the port
connected to Switch 7X
Fast-LeaveIGMPdoes
notactivateonthisport.
Fast-LeaveIGMP
activatesonthese
twoports.
A1 A3 A4 A6
Printer
7D
7B
Figure 4-4. Example of Automatic Fast-Leave IGMP Criteria
Whenclient3ArunningIGMPisreadytoleavethemulticastgroup,it
transmitsaLeave Groupmessage.Becausetheswitchknowsthatthereisonly
oneendnodeonportA3,itremovestheclientfromitsIGMPtableandhalts
multicasttraffic(forthatgroup)toportA3.IftheswitchisnottheQuerier,it
doesnotwaitfortheactualQueriertoverifythattherearenoothergroup
membersonportA3.IftheswitchitselfistheQuerier,itdoesnotqueryport
A3forthepresenceofothergroupmembers.
NotethatFast-Leaveoperationdoesnotdistinguishbetweenendnodeson
thesameportthatbelongtodifferentVLANs.Thus,forexample,evenifallof
thedevicesonportA6infigure4-4belongtodifferentVLANs,Fast-Leavedoes
notoperateonportA6.
4-15
Multimedia Traffic Control with IP Multicast (IGMP)
HowIGMPOperates
ForcedFast-LeaveIGMP
ForcedFast-LeaveIGMPspeedsuptheprocessofblockingunnecessaryIGMP
traffictoaswitchportthatisconnectedtomultipleendnodes.(Thisfeature
doesnotactivateonportswheretheswitchdetectsonlyoneendnode).For
example,infigure4-4,evenifyouconfiguredForcedFast-Leaveonallports
intheswitch,thefeaturewouldactivateonlyonportA6(whichhasmultiple
endnodes)whenaLeaveGrouprequestarrivedonthatport.
WhenaporthavingmultipleendnodesreceivesaLeaveGrouprequestfrom
oneendnode foragivenmulticastgroupX,ForcedFast-Leaveactivatesand
waitsasmallamountoftimetoreceiveajoinrequestfromanyothergroup
Xmemberonthatport.Iftheportdoesnotreceiveajoinrequestforthat
groupwithintheforced-leaveinterval,theswitchthenblocksanyfurther
groupXtraffictotheport.
ConfigurationOptionsforForcedFast-Leave
No t e o n VL AN
Nu mb e r s :
Feature Default Settings Function
IntheHPProCurveswitchescoveredinthisguide,thewalkmibandsetmib
commandsuseaninternalVLANnumber(andnottheVLANID,orVID)to
displayorchange manyper-vlanfeatures,suchastheForcedFast-Leavestate.
BecausetheinternalVLANnumberforthedefaultVLANisalways1(regard-
lessofwhetherVLANsareenabledontheswitch),andbecauseadiscussion
ofinternalVLANnumbersformultipleVLANsisbeyondthescopeofthis
manual,thissectionconcentratesonexamplesthatusethedefaultVLAN.
ListingtheForcedFast-LeaveConfiguration
TheForcedFast-LeaveconfigurationdataisavailableintheswitchsMIB
(ManagementInformationBase),andincludes thestate(enabledordisabled)
foreachportandtheForced-LeaveIntervalforallportsontheswitch.
ToListtheForcedFast-LeaveStateforallPortsintheSwitch. In
theCLI,usethewalkmibcommand,asshownbelow.
ForcedFast- 2 1(enabled) Usesthesetmibcommandtoenableordisable
Leavestate (disabled)
2(disabled)
ForcedFast-Leaveonindividualports.When
enabledonaport,ForcedFast-Leaveoperatesonly
ifthe switch detects multiple end nodes (and at
least one IGMP client) on that port.
4-16
Multimedia Traffic Control with IP Multicast (IGMP)
HowIGMPOperates
1. Entereitherofthefollowingwalkmibcommandoptions:
walkmib hpSwitchIgmpPortForcedLeaveState
-OR
walkmib 1.3.6.1.4.1.11.2.14.11.5.1.7.1.15.3.1.5
TheresultingdisplayliststheForcedFast-Leavestateforallportsinthe
switch,byVLAN.(AportbelongingtomorethanoneVLANwillbelisted
onceforeachVLAN,andifmultipleVLANsarenotconfigured,allports
willbelistedasmembersofthedefaultVLAN.)Thefollowingcommand
producesalistingsuchasthatshowninfigure4-5:
The2attheendofaport
listingshowsthatForced
Fast-Leaveisdisabledon
thecorrespondingport.
The1attheendofaport
listingshowsthatForced
Fast-Leaveisenabledon
thecorrespondingport.
Ports 1-6: 6-Port109/1000TModuleinSlotA
InternalVLANNumberfortheDefaultVLAN
Note: InternalVLANnumbersreflectthesequence
inwhichVLANsarecreated,andarenotrelatedto
theuniqueVIDassignedtoeachVLAN.(Seethe
NoteonVLANNumbersonpage4-16.)
SequentialPort
Numbers
Figure 4-5. Example of a Forced Fast-Leave Listing where all Ports are Members of the Default VLAN
ToListtheForcedFast-LeaveStateforaSinglePort.(SeetheNote
onVLANNumbersonpage4-16.)
Gototheswitchscommandpromptandusethegetmib command,asshown
below.
Syntax:
getmib hpSwitchIgmpPortForcedLeaveState.<vlan number><.portnumber>
-OR
getmib 1.3.6.1.4.1.11.2.14.11.5.1.7.1.15.3.1.5.<vlan number><.portnumber>
Forexample,thefollowingcommandtolistthestateforportA6(which,
inthiscase,belongstothedefaultVLAN)producestheindicatedlisting:
4-17
Multimedia Traffic Control with IP Multicast (IGMP)
HowIGMPOperates
The2showsthatFastForced-Leave
isdisabledontheselectedport.
The6 specifiesportA6.
The1indicatesthedefaultVLAN.
(SeetheNoteonVLANNumbers
onpage4-16.)
Figure 4-6. Example Listing the Forced Fast-Leave State for a Single Port on the Default
VLAN
ConfiguringPer-PortForcedFast-LeaveIGMP
Inthefactory-defaultconfiguration,ForcedFast-Leaveisdisabledforallports
ontheswitch.Toenable(ordisable)thisfeatureonindividualports,usethe
switchssetmibcommand,asshownbelow.
ConfiguringPer-PortForcedFast-LeaveIGMPonPorts.Thisproce-
dureenablesordisablesForcedFast-LeaveonportsinagivenVLAN.(Seethe
NoteonVLANNumbersonpage4-16.)
Syntax:
setmib hpSwitchIgmpPortForcedLeaveState.< vlan number ><.port number>
-i<1|2>
-OR
setmib 1.3.6.1.4.1.11.2.14.11.5.1.7.1.15.3.1.5.< vlan number ><.portnumber>-i
<1|2>
where:
1 =ForcedFast-Leaveenabled
2 =ForcedFast-Leavedisabled
Forexample,supposethatyourswitchhasasix-portgigabitmodulein
slotA,andportC1isamemberofthedefaultVLAN.Inthiscase,theport
numberis49(IntheMIB,slotA=ports1-24;slotB=ports25-48;slot
C=ports49-72,andsoon.)ToenableForcedFast-LeaveonC6(53),you
wouldexecutethefollowingcommandandseetheindicatedresult:
4-18
Multimedia Traffic Control with IP Multicast (IGMP)
UsingtheSwitchasQuerier
VerifiesForcedFast-Leaveenabled.
49indicatesportC1.
1indicatesthedefaultVLAN.(See
thenoteonpage4-16.)
Figure 4-7. Example of Changing the Forced Fast-Leave Configuration on Port 49
UsingtheSwitchasQuerier
QuerierOperation
ThefunctionoftheIGMPQuerieristopollotherIGMP-enableddevicesinan
IGMP-enabledVLANtoelicitgroupmembershipinformation.Theswitch
performsthisfunctionifthereisnootherdeviceintheVLAN,suchasa
multicastrouter,toactasQuerier.Althoughtheswitchautomaticallyceases
QuerieroperationinanIGMP-enabledVLANifitdetectsanotherQuerieron
theVLAN,youcanalsousetheCommandPrompttodisabletheQuerier
capabilityforthatVLAN.
Not e AQuerieris requiredforproperIGMPoperation.Forthisreason,ifyoudisable
theQuerierfunctiononaswitch,ensurethatthereisanIGMPQuerier(and,
preferably,abackupQuerier)availableonthesameVLAN.
IftheswitchbecomestheQuerierforaparticularVLAN(forexample,the
DEFAULT_VLAN),thensubsequentlydetectsqueriestransmittedfrom
anotherdeviceonthesameVLAN,theswitchceasestooperateastheQuerier
forthatVLAN.Ifthisoccurs,theswitchEventLoglistsapairofmessages
similartothese:
I 01/15/01 09:01:13 igmp: DEFAULT_VLAN: Other Querier detected
I 01/15/01 09:01:13 igmp: DEFAULT_VLAN: This switch is no longer
Querier
4-19
Multimedia Traffic Control with IP Multicast (IGMP)
ExcludingWell-KnownorReservedMulticastAddressesfromIPMulticastFiltering
Intheabovescenario,iftheotherdeviceceasestooperateasaQuerieronthe
defaultVLAN,thentheswitchdetectsthischangeandcanbecometheQuerier
aslongasitisnotpre-emptedbysomeotherIGMPQuerierontheVLAN.In
thiscase,theswitchEventLoglistsmessagessimilartothefollowingto
indicatethattheswitchhasbecometheQuerierontheVLAN:
I 01/15/01 09:21:55 igmp: DEFAULT_VLAN: Querier Election in
process
I 01/15/01 09:22:00 igmp: DEFAULT_VLAN: This switch has been
elected as Querier
ExcludingWell-KnownorReserved
MulticastAddressesfromIPMulticast
Filtering
EachmulticasthostgroupisidentifiedbyasingleIPaddressintherangeof
224.0.0.0through239.255.255.255.Specificgroupsofconsecutiveaddresses
inthisrangearetermedwell-knownaddressesandarereservedforpre-
definedhostgroups.IGMPdoesnotfiltertheseaddresses,soanypacketsthe
switchreceivesforsuchaddressesarefloodedoutallportsassignedtothe
VLANonwhichtheywerereceived(excepttheportonwhichthepackets
enteredtheVLAN).
Thefollowingtableliststhe32well-knownaddressgroups(8192total
addresses)thatIGMPdoesnotfilterontheswitchescoveredinthisguide,as
wellasonthe1600M,2400M,2424M,2650M,4000M,6108M,8000M,andSwitch
2500Seriesdevices.
Table 4-2.IP Multicast Address Groups Excluded from IGMP Filtering
Groups of Consecutive Addresses in
the Range of 224.0.0.X to 239.0.0.X*
Groups of Consecutive Addresses in
the Range of 224.128.0.X to 239.128.0.X*
224.0.0.x 232.0.0.x
225.0.0.x 233.0.0.x
226.0.0.x 234.0.0.x
227.0.0.x 235.0.0.x
228.0.0.x 236.0.0.x
229.0.0.x 237.0.0.x
230.0.0.x 238.0.0.x
231.0.0.x 239.0.0.x
224.128.0.x 232.128.0.x
225.128.0.x 233.128.0.x
226.128.0.x 234.128.0.x
227.128.0.x 235.128.0.x
228.128.0.x 236.128.0.x
229.128.0.x 237.128.0.x
230.128.0.x 238.128.0.x
231.128.0.x 239.128.0.x
*Xisanyvaluefrom0to255.
4-20
Multimedia Traffic Control with IP Multicast (IGMP)
ExcludingWell-KnownorReservedMulticastAddressesfromIPMulticastFiltering
No t e s : IPMulticastFilters. ThisoperationappliestotheHPProCurveSwitch
1600M,2400M,2424M,4000M,and8000M,butnottotheSwitch2500,
2600,2600-PWR,2800,4100,and5300SeriesdevicesortheSwitch6108
(whichdonothavestaticmulticasttraffic/securityfilters).
IPmulticastaddressesoccurintherangefrom224.0.0.0through
239.255.255.255(whichcorrespondstotheEthernetmulticastaddressrange
of01005e-000000through01005e-7fffff).WhereaswitchhasastaticTraffic/
SecurityfilterconfiguredwithaMulticastfiltertypeandaMulticast
Addressinthisrange,theswitchwillusethestaticfilterunlessIGMPlearns
ofamulticastgroupdestinationinthisrange.Inthiscase,IGMPdynamically
takesoverthefilteringfunctionforthemulticastdestinationaddress(es)for
aslongastheIGMPgroupisactive.IftheIGMPgroupsubsequentlydeacti-
vates,theswitchreturnsfilteringcontroltothestaticfilter.
ReservedAddressesExcludedfromIPMulticast(IGMP)Filtering.
TraffictoIPmulticastgroupsin theIPaddressrangeof224.0.0.0to224.0.0.255
willalwaysbefloodedbecauseaddressesinthisrangearewellknownor
reservedaddresses.Thus,ifIPMulticastisenabledandthereisanIP
multicastgroupwithinthereservedaddressrange,traffictothatgroupwill
befloodedinsteadoffilteredbytheswitch.
NumberofIPMulticastAddressesAllowed
MulticastfiltersandIGMPfilters(addresses)togethercantotalupto255in
theswitch.IfmultipleVLANsareconfigured,theneachfilteriscountedonce
perVLANinwhichitisused.
4-21
Multimedia Traffic Control with IP Multicast (IGMP)
ExcludingWell-KnownorReservedMulticastAddressesfromIPMulticastFiltering
Thispageisintentionallyunused.
4-22
5
Spanning-TreeOperation
Contents
Overview ...................................................... 5-3
TheRSTP(802.1w)andSTP(802.1D)SpanningTreeOptions ......... 5-7
RSTP(802.1w) .............................................. 5-7
STP(802.1D) ............................................... 5-8
HowSTPandRSTPOperate .................................. 5-8
ConfiguringRapidReconfigurationSpanningTree(RSTP) ........... 5-11
Overview.................................................. 5-11
TransitioningfromSTPtoRSTP .............................. 5-12
ConfiguringRSTP .......................................... 5-13
OptimizingtheRSTPConfiguration ... .................... 5-13
CLI:ConfiguringRSTP .................................. 5-14
Menu:ConfiguringRSTP ................................. 5-20
Web:EnablingorDisablingRSTP ......................... 5-22
802.1DSpanning-TreeProtocol(STP) ............................. 5-23
Menu:Configuring802.1DSTP ............................... 5-23
CLI:Configuring802.1DSTP ................................. 5-26
STPFastMode............................................. 5-30
Fast-UplinkSpanningTreeProtocol(STP) . .................... 5-31
Terminology ........................................... 5-33
OperatingRulesforFastUplink .......................... 5-34
Menu:ViewingandConfiguringFast-UplinkSTP ............ 5-35
CLI:ViewingandConfiguringFast-UplinkSTP .............. 5-41
OperatingNotes ........................................ 5-44
Web:EnablingorDisablingSTP.................................. 5-45
802.1sMultipleSpanningTreeProtocol(MSTP)forthe
Series2600/2600-PWRand2800 Switches .......................... 5-46
MSTPStructure ............................................ 5-47
5-1
Spanning-Tree Operation
Contents
HowMSTPOperates........................................ 5-49
MSTRegions ........................................... 5-49
Regions,LegacySTPandRSTPSwitches,andthe
CommonSpanningTree(CST) ........................... 5-51
MSTPOperationwith802.1QVLANs ...................... 5-51
Terminology ............................................... 5-52
OperatingRules ............................................ 5-54
TransitioningfromSTPorRSTPto MSTP .. .................... 5-55
TipsforPlanninganMSTPApplication . ....................... 5-56
StepsforConfiguringMSTP ................................. 5-57
ConfiguringMSTPOperationModeandGlobalParameters....... 5-59
ConfiguringBasicPortConnectivityParameters
5-63
ConfiguringMSTInstanceParameters......................... 5-65
ConfiguringMSTInstancePer-PortParameters ................. 5-69
EnablingorDisablingSpanningTreeOperation................. 5-72
EnablinganEntireMSTRegionatOnceor
ExchangingOneRegionConfigurationforAnother.............. 5-72
DisplayingMSTPStatisticsandConfiguration .................. 5-74
DisplayingMSTPStatistics ............................... 5-74
DisplayingtheMSTPConfiguration ....................... 5-77
OperatingNotes............................................ 5-81
Troubleshooting ................... ........................ 5-81
5-2
Spanning-Tree Operation
Overview
Overview
Thischapter describestheoperationof theSpanningTreeProtocol(STP)and
howtoconfigureitwiththeswitchesbuilt-ininterfaces.ThesupportofSTP
intheswitchescoveredinthisguidediffers,dependingontheswitchin
question.Table5-1belowshowstheSTPsupportprovidedbyeachswitch.
Table 5-1. STP Support
Spanning Tree Protocol 2600 2600-PWR 2800 4100gl 6108
802.1D Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
802.1w Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
802.1s Yes Yes Yes
Table 5-2. 802.1D STP Features
802.1D Spanning Tree
Protocol
Default Menu CLI Web
ViewingtheSTP n/a page5-23 page5-14
Configuration
Enable/DisableSTP Disabled page5-23 page5-27 page5-45
ReconfiguringGeneral priority:32768 page5-23 page5-28
Operation maxage:20s
hellotime:2s
fwd.delay:15s
ReconfiguringPer-PortSTP pathcost:var page5-23 page5-29
priority:128
mode:norm
Table 5-3. 802.1w RSTP Features
802.1w Spanning Tree
Protocol
Default Menu CLI Web
ViewingtheRSTP/STP
Configuration
n/a page5-20 page5-14
Enable/DisableRSTP/STP
(RSTPisselectedasthe
defaultprotocol.)
Disabled page5-20 page5-15 page5-22
5-3
Spanning-Tree Operation
Overview
802.1w Spanning Tree
Protocol
Default Menu CLI Web
ReconfiguringWhole-
SwitchValues
ReconfiguringPer-Port
Values
ProtocolVersion:RSTP
ForceVersion:
RSTP-operation
SwitchPriority:8
HelloTime:2s
MaxAge:20s
ForwardDelay:15s
PathCost:
Dependsonport
type
Priority:8
EdgePort:Yes
Point-to-point:
Force-true
MCheck:Yes
page5-20 page5-16
page5-20 page5-18
Table 5-4. 802.1s Features
802.1s Spanning Tree
Protocol
Default Menu CLI Web
ViewingtheMSTPStatus
andConfiguration
Enable/DisableMSTPand
ConfigureGlobal
Parameters
ConfiguringBasicPort
ConnectivityParameters
ConfiguringMSTPInstance
Parameters
ConfiguringMSTPInstance
Per-PortParameters
Enabling/DisablingMSTP
SpanningTreeOperation
EnablinganEntireMST
RegionatOnce
n/a page5-74
Disabled page5-59
edge-port:No page5-63
mcheck:Yes and
hello-time:2 following
path-cost:auto
point-to-pointMAC:Force-True
priority:128(multiplier:8)
instance(MSTPI):none page5-65
priority:32768(multiplier:8)
Auto page5-69
Disabled page5-72
n/a page5-72
5-4
Spanning-Tree Operation
Overview
Withoutspanningtree,havingmorethanoneactivepathbetweenapairof
nodescausesloopsinthenetwork,whichcanresultinduplicationofmes-
sages,leadingtoabroadcaststormthatcanbringdownthenetwork.
Single-Instancespanningtreeoperation(802.1DSTPand802.1wRSTP)
ensuresthatonlyoneactivepathatatimeexistsbetweenanytwonodesina
physicalnetwork.Innetworkswherethereismorethanonephysical,active
pathbetweenanytwonodes,enablingsingle-instancespanningtreeensures
oneactivepathbetweensuchnodesbyblockingallredundantpaths.
Multiple-Instancespanningtreeoperation(802.1s)ensuresthatonlyone
activepathexistsbetweenanytwonodesinaspanning-treeinstance.A
spanning-treeinstancecomprisesauniquesetofVLANs,andbelongstoa
specificspanning-treeregion.Aregioncancomprisemultiplespanning-tree
instances(eachwithadifferentsetofVLANs),andallowsoneactivepath
amongregionsinanetwork.ApplyingVLANtaggingtotheportsinamultiple-
instancespanning-treenetworkenablesblockingofredundantlinksinone
instancewhileallowingforwardingoverthesamelinksfornon-redundantuse
byanotherinstance.Forexample,supposeyouhavethreeswitchesinaregion
configuredwithVLANsgroupedintotwoinstances,asfollows:
VLANs Instance 1 Instance 2
10,11,12 Yes No
20,21,22 No Yes
5-5
Spanning-Tree Operation
Overview
ThelogicalandphysicaltopologiesresultingfromtheseVLAN/Instance
groupingsresultinblockingondifferentlinksfordifferentVLANs:
SwitchC
Instance1
VLANs:10,11,12
SwitchA
Root for Instance 1
VLANs:10,11,12
SwitchB
Instance1
VLANs:10,11,12
SwitchC
Instance2
VLANs:20,21,22
SwitchA
Instance2
VLANs:20,21,22
SwitchB
Root for Instance 2
VLANs:20,21,22
SwitchC
SwitchA
Root for Instance 1
SwitchB
Root for Instance 2
PathblockedforVLANsininstance1.
PathblockedforVLANsininstance2.
RegionA:LogicalTopology
PathblockedforVLANsininstance1.
PathblockedforVLANsininstance2. RegionA:PhysicalTopology
Figure 5-1. Example of a Multiple Spanning-Tree Application
Not e f or 802. 1D Youshouldenablespanningtreeoperationinanyswitchthatispartofa
and 802. 1w redundantphysicallink(looptopology).(HPrecommendsthatyoudosoon
Spanni ng- Tr ee allswitchesbelongingtoalooptopology.)Thistopiciscoveredinmoredetail
Oper at i on underHowSTPandRSTPOperateonpage5-8.
5-6
Spanning-Tree Operation
TheRSTP(802.1w)andSTP(802.1D)SpanningTreeOptions
AsrecommendedintheIEEE802.1QVLANstandard,theswitchescovered
bythisguideusesingle-instanceSTPfor802.1Dand802.1wspanning-tree
operation.(Inthiscase,theswitchgeneratesuntaggedBridgeProtocolData
UnitsBPDUs.)Thisimplementationcreatesasinglespanningtreetomake
suretherearenonetworkloopsassociatedwithanyoftheconnectionstothe
switch,regardlessofwhethermultipleVLANsareconfiguredontheswitch.
Thus,whenusing802.1Dor802.1wspanningtree,theseswitchesdonot
distinguishbetween VLANswhenidentifyingredundantphysicallinks.Inthis
case,ifVLANsareconfiguredontheswitch,seeSTPOperationwith802.1Q
VLANsonpageRSTPandSTPOperationwith802.1QVLANsonpage5-9.
TheRSTP(802.1w)andSTP(802.1D)
SpanningTreeOptions
Ca u t i o n Spanningtreeinterpretsaswitchmeshasasinglelink.Becausetheswitch
automaticallygivesfasterlinksahigherpriority,thedefaultSTPorRSTP
parametersettingsareusuallyadequateforspanningtreeoperation.Also,
becauseincorrectSTPorRSTPsettingscanadverselyaffectnetworkperfor-
mance,youshouldnotmakechangesunlessyouhaveastrongunderstanding
ofhowspanningtreeoperates.
Inameshenvironment,thedefaultRSTPtimersettings(Hello Timeand
Forward Delay)areusuallyadequateforRSTPoperation.Becauseapacket
crossingameshmaytraverseseverallinkswithinthemesh,usingsmaller-
than-defaultsettingsfortheRSTPHello TimeandForward Delaytimerscan
causeunnecessarytopologychangesandend-nodeconnectivityproblems.
FormoreonSTPandRSTP,seetheIEEE802.1Dand802.1wstandards.
RSTP(802.1w)
TheIEEE802.1Dversionofspanningtree(STP)cantakeafairlylongtimeto
resolveallthepossiblepathsandtoselectthemostefficientpaththroughthe
network.TheIEEE802.1wRapidReconfigurationSpanningTree(RSTP)
significantlyreducestheamountoftimeittakestoestablishthenetworkpath.
Theresultisreducednetworkdowntimeandimprovednetworkrobustness.
5-7
Spanning-Tree Operation
TheRSTP(802.1w)andSTP(802.1D)SpanningTreeOptions
Inadditiontofasternetworkreconfiguration,RSTPalsoimplementsgreater
rangesforportpathcoststoaccommodatethehigherandhigherconnection
speedsthatarebeingimplemented.
RSTPisdesignedtobecompatiblewithIEEE802.1DSTP,andHPrecom-
mendsthatyouemployitinyournetwork.Formoreinformation,referto
TransitioningfromSTPtoRSTPonpage5-12.
STP(802.1D)
TheIEEE802.1Dversionofspanningtreehasbeeninwideuseandcancoexist
inanetworkinwhichRSTP(802.1w)hasbeenintroduced.Ifyournetwork
currentlyuses802.1DSTPandyouarenotyetreadytoimplementRSTP,you
canapplySTPtotheswitchuntilsuchtimeasyouarereadytomoveahead
withRSTP.STPontheswitchescoveredbythisguideoffersthefullrangeof
STPfeaturesfoundinearlierproductreleases,including:
STPFastModeforOvercomingServerAccessFailures:Ifanend
nodeisconfiguredtoautomaticallyaccessaserver,thedurationofthe
STPstartupsequencecanresultinaserveraccessfailure.Onports
wherethisisaproblem,configuringSTPFastModecaneliminatethe
failure.For moreinformation,seeSTPFastModeonpage5-30.Thenext
sectionsdescribehowtoconfigureSTPontheswitch.Formoreinforma-
tiononSTPoperation,seeHowSTPandRSTPOperateonpage5-8.
Fast-UplinkSTPforImprovingtheRecovery(Convergence)Time
inWiringClosetSwitcheswithRedundantUplinks:Thismeansthat
aswitchhavingredundantlinkstowardtherootdevicecandecreasethe
convergence timetoanewuplinkporttoaslittleastenseconds.Formore
information,refertoFast-UplinkSpanningTreeProtocol(STP)onpage
5-31.
HowSTPandRSTPOperate
Theswitchautomaticallysensesportidentityandtype,andautomatically
definesspanning-treeparametersforeachtype,aswellasparametersthat
applyacrosstheswitch.Youcanusethedefaultvaluesfortheseparameters,
oradjustthemasneeded.
Whileallowingonlyoneactivepaththroughanetworkatanytime,spanning
treeretainsanyredundantphysicalpathtoserveasabackup(blocked)path
incasetheexistingactivepath fails.Thus,ifanactivepath fails,spanningtree
automaticallyactivates(unblocks)anavailablebackuptoserveasthenew
activepathforaslongastheoriginalactivepathisdown.Forexample:
5-8
Spanning-Tree Operation
TheRSTP(802.1w)andSTP(802.1D)SpanningTreeOptions
node
A
switchA
node
B
switchD switchB switchC
1
pathcost:
100
3
pathcost:100
4
pathcost:200
ActivepathfromnodeAtonodeB:1>3
Backup(redundant)pathfromnodeAtonodeB:4>2>3
2
pathcost:100
Figure 5-2. General Example of Redundant Paths Between Two Nodes
Inthefactorydefaultconfiguration,spanningtreeoperationisoff.Ifaredun-
dantlink(loop)existsbetweennodesinyournetwork,youshouldenablethe
spanningtreeoperationofyourchoice.
Not e Spanningtreeretainsitscurrentparametersettingswhendisabled.Thus,if
youdisablespanningtree,thenlaterre-enableit,theparametersettingswill
bethesameasbeforespanningtreewasdisabled.
RSTPandSTPOperationwith802.1QVLANs. Asrecommendedinthe
IEEE802.1QVLANstandard,when802.1Dor802.1wspanningtreeisenabled
ontheswitch,asinglespanningtreeisconfiguredforallportsacrossthe
switch,includingthoseinseparateVLANs.Thismeansthatifredundant
physicallinksexistinseparateVLANs,spanningtreewillblockallbutoneof
thoselinks.However,ifyouneedtousespanningtreeontheswitchinaVLAN
environmentwithredundantphysicallinks,youcanpreventblockedredun-
dantlinksbyusingaporttrunk.Thefollowingexampleshowshowyoucan
useaporttrunkwith802.1Q(tagged)VLANsandspanningtreewithout
unnecessarilyblockinganylinksorlosinganybandwidth.
5-9
Spanning-Tree Operation
TheRSTP(802.1w)andSTP(802.1D)SpanningTreeOptions
Problem:
STPenabledwith2
separate(non-trunked)
linksblocksaVLANlink.
Solution:
STPenabledwith
onetrunkedlink.
Nodes1and2cannot
communicatebecause
STPisblockingthelink.
Nodes1and2cancommunicatebecauseSTP
seesthetrunkasasinglelinkand802.1Q(tagged)
VLANsenabletheuseofone(trunked)linkfor
bothVLANs.
Figure 5-3. Example of Using a Trunked Link with STP and VLANs
5-10
Spanning-Tree Operation
ConfiguringRapidReconfigurationSpanningTree(RSTP)
ConfiguringRapidReconfiguration
SpanningTree(RSTP)
ThissectiondescribestheoperationoftheIEEE802.1wRapidSpanningTree
Protocol(RSTP).
Overview
RSTP Feature Default Menu CLI Web
ViewingtheRSTP/STPconfiguration n/a
enable/disableRSTP/STP disabled
(RSTPisselectedasthedefaultprotocol)
reconfiguringwhole-switchvalues ProtocolVersion: RSTP
page5-20 page5-14 n/a
page5-20 page5-15 page5-22
page5-20 page5-16 n/a
page5-20 page5-18 n/a
ForceVersion:
SwitchPriority:
HelloTime:
MaxAge:
ForwardDelay:
PathCost:
Priority:
EdgePort:
Point-to-point:
MCheck:
RSTP-operation
8
2 s
20s
15s
depends on port
type
8
Yes
Force-true
Yes
reconfiguringper-portvalues
Asindicatedinthemanual,thespanningtreeprotocolisusedtoensurethat
onlyoneactivepathatatimeexistsbetweenanytwoendnodesinthenetwork
inwhichyourswitchisinstalled.Multiplepathscausealoopinthenetwork
overwhichbroadcastandmulticastmessagesarerepeatedcontinuously,
whichfloodsthenetworkwithtrafficcreatingabroadcaststorm.
Innetworkswherethereismorethanonephysicalpathbetweenanytwo
nodes,enablingspanningtreeensuresasingleactivepathbetweentwosuch
nodesbyselectingtheonemostefficientpathandblockingtheotherredun-
dantpaths.Ifaswitchorbridgeinthepathbecomesdisables,spanningtree
activatesthenecessaryblockedsegmentstocreatethenextmostefficient
path.
5-11
Spanning-Tree Operation
ConfiguringRapidReconfigurationSpanningTree(RSTP)
TransitioningfromSTPtoRSTP
IEEE802.1wRSTPisdesignedtobecompatiblewithIEEE802.1DSTP.Even
ifalltheotherdevicesinyournetworkareusingSTP,youcanenableRSTP
onyourswitch,andevenusingthedefaultconfigurationvalues,yourswitch
willinteroperateeffectivelywiththeSTPdevices.Ifanyoftheswitchports
areconnectedtoswitchesorbridgesonyournetworkthatdonotsupport
RSTP,RSTPcanstillbeusedonthisswitch.RSTPautomaticallydetectswhen
theswitchportsareconnectedtonon-RSTPdevicesinthespanningtreeand
communicateswiththosedevicesusing802.1DSTPBPDUpackets.
BecauseRSTPissomuchmoreefficientatestablishingthenetworkpath,
though,thatitishighlyrecommendedthatallyournetworkdevicesbe
updatedtosupportRSTP.RSTPoffersconvergencetimesoflessthanone
secondunderoptimalcircumstances.TomakethebestuseofRSTPand
achievethefastestpossibleconvergencetimes,though,therearesome
changesthatyoushouldmaketotheRSTPdefaultconfiguration.SeeOpti-
mizingtheRSTPConfigurationbelow,formoreinformationonthese
changes.
Not e Undersomecircumstances,itispossiblefortherapidstatetransitions
employedbyRSTPtoresultinanincreaseintheratesofframeduplication
andmisorderingintheswitchedLAN.InordertoallowRSTPswitchesto
supportapplicationsandprotocolsthatmaybesensitivetoframeduplication
andmisordering,settingtheForceProtocolVersionparametertostp-compat
ibleallowsRSTPtobeoperatedwiththerapidtransitionsdisabled.Thevalue
ofthisparameterappliestoallportsontheswitch.Seetheinformationon
Force Versiononpage5-16.
Asindicatedabove,oneofthebenefitsofRSTPistheimplementationofa
largerrangeofportpathcosts,whichaccommodateshighernetworkspeeds.
Newdefaultvalueshavealsobeenimplementedforthepathcostsassociated
withthedifferentnetworkspeeds.Thiscancreatesomeincompatibility
betweendevicesrunningtheolder802.1DSTPandyourswitchrunningRSTP.
PleaseseetheNoteonPathCostonpage5-19formoreinformationon
adjustingtothisincompatibility.
5-12
Spanning-Tree Operation
ConfiguringRapidReconfigurationSpanningTree(RSTP)
ConfiguringRSTP
ThedefaultswitchconfigurationhasspanningtreedisabledwithRSTPasthe
selectedprotocol.Thatis,whenspanningtreeisenabled,RSTPistheversion
ofspanningtreethatisenabled,bydefault.
OptimizingtheRSTPConfiguration
TooptimizetheRSTPconfigurationonyourswitch,followthesesteps(note
thatfortheMenumethod,allofthesestepscanbeperformedatthesame
timebymakingallthenecessaryeditsontheSpanningTreeOperation
screenandthensavingtheconfigurationchanges):
1. SettheswitchtosupportRSTP(RSTPisthedefault):
CLI:spanning-treeprotocol-versionrstp
Menu:MainMenu>2.SwitchConfiguration>4.SpanningTree
Operation>selectProtocolVersion:RSTP
2. Setthepoint-to-point-macvaluetofalseonallportsthatareconnected
tosharedLANsegments(thatis,toconnectionstohubs):
CLI:spanning-tree[ethernet]<port-list >point-to-point-macforce-false
Menu:MainMenu>2.SwitchConfiguration>4.SpanningTree
Operation>foreachappropriateport,selectPoint-to-Point:Force-False
3. Settheedge-portvaluetofalseforallportsconnectedtootherswitches,
bridges,andhubs:
CLI:nospanning-tree[ethernet]<port-list >edge-port
Menu:MainMenu>2.SwitchConfiguration>4.SpanningTree
Operation>foreachappropriateport,selectEdge:No
4. Setthemcheckvaluetofalseforallportsthatareconnectedtodevices
thatareknowntoberunningIEEE802.1Dspanningtree:
CLI:nospanning-tree[ethernet]<port-list >mcheck
Menu:MainMenu>2.SwitchConfiguration>4.SpanningTree
Operation>foreachappropriateport,selectMCheck:No
5. EnableRSTPSpanningTree:
CLI:spanning-tree
Menu:MainMenu>2.SwitchConfiguration>4.SpanningTree
Operation>select
STPEnabled:Yes
5-13
Spanning-Tree Operation
ConfiguringRapidReconfigurationSpanningTree(RSTP)
CLI:ConfiguringRSTP
Spanning Tree Commands in This Section STP RSTP Page for RSTP Use
showspanning-treeconfig Y Y
spanning-tree Y Y
protocol-version<rstp|stp> Y Y
force-version N Y
<rstp-operation|stp-compatible>
forward-delay<4- 30>
hello-time<1-10>
maximum-age<6- 40>
priority<0-15|0-65535>
<[ethernet]port-list>
path-cost<1- 200000000>
priority<0-15|0- 65535>
edge-port
point-to-point-mac
mcheck
mode<norm|fast>
showspanning-tree
Y Y
Y Y
Y Y
Y Y
Y Y
Y Y
Y Y
N Y
N Y
N Y
Y N
Belowonthispage
page5-15
page5-16
page5-16
page5-16
page5-16
page5-16
page5-16
page5-18
page5-18
page5-18
page5-18
page5-18
page5-18
Referto802.1DSpanning-
TreeProtocol(STP)onpage
5-23.
ThiscommandlistsadditionalRSTP/STP/
MSTPmonitoringdatathatisnotcoveredin
thissection.Refertothesectiontitled
SpanningTreeProtocolInformationinthe
MonitoringandAnalyzing Switch
Operation appendix of the Management and
Configuration Guideforyourswitch.
ViewingtheCurrentSpanningTreeConfiguration. Usethiscommand
todisplaythecurrentspanningtreeconfiguration.
Syntax: showspanning-treeconfiguration
Liststheswitchsfullspanningtreeconfiguration,
includingwhole-switchandper-portsettings,regardless
ofwhetherspanningtreeisdisabled.
(Default:n/a;AbbreviatedCommand:sho span config)
Inthedefaultconfiguration,theoutputfromthiscommandappearssimilarto
thefollowing:
5-14
Spanning-Tree Operation
ConfiguringRapidReconfigurationSpanningTree(RSTP)
Figure 5-4. Example of the Spanning Tree Configuration Display
EnablingorDisablingRSTP. Issuingthecommandtoenablespanning
treeontheswitchimplements,bydefault,theRSTPversionofspanningtree
forallphysicalportsontheswitch.Disablingspanningtreeremovesprotec-
tionagainstredundantnetworkpaths.
Syntax: [no]spanning-tree
Abbreviation: [no]span
Thiscommandenablesspanningtreewiththecurrentparametersettingsor
disablesspanningtree,usingthenooption,withoutlosingthemost-recently
configuredparametersettings.
EnablingSTPInsteadofRSTP. Ifyoudecide,forwhateverreason,that
youwouldprefertoruntheIEEE802.1D(STP)versionofspanningtree,then
issuethefollowingcommand:
Syntax: spanning-treeprotocol-versionstp
Abbreviation: spanprotstp
FortheSTPversionofspanningtree,therestoftheinformationinthissectiondoesnotapply.Refer
to802.1DSpanning-TreeProtocol(STP)onpage5-23formoreinformationontheSTPversionand
itsparameters.
5-15
Spanning-Tree Operation
ConfiguringRapidReconfigurationSpanningTree(RSTP)
ReconfiguringWhole-SwitchSpanningTreeValues. Youcanconfigure
oneormoreofthefollowingparameters,whichaffectthespanningtree
operationofthewholeswitch:
Table 5-1. Whole-Switch RSTP Parameters
Parameter Default Description
protocol-version RSTP Identifieswhichofthespanningtreeprotocolswillbeusedwhenspanningtree
isenabledontheswitch.
force-version rstp-operation Setsthespanningtreecompatibilitymode.Evenifrstp-operationisselected
though,iftheswitchdetectsSTPBPDUpacketsonaport,itwillcommunicate
totheattacheddeviceusingSTPBPDUpackets.
Iferrorsareencountered,asdescribedintheNoteonpage12,theForce-
Versionvaluecanbesettostp-compatible,whichforcestheswitchto
communicateoutallportsusingoperationsthatarecompatiblewithIEEE802.1D
STP.
priority 32768 SpecifiestheprotocolvalueusedalongwiththeswitchMACaddressto
(8asastepvalue) determinewhichdeviceinthespanningtreeistheroot.Thelowerthepriority
value,thehigherthepriority.
ThevalueyouenterhaschangedfromtheSTPvalue.Therangeis0- 61440,but
forRSTPthevalueisenteredasamultiple(astep)of4096.Youenteravaluein
therange0- 15.Thedefaultvalueof32768isderivedbythedefaultsettingof8.
DisplayingtheRSTPconfiguration(show spanning-tree config)shows8,but
displayingtheRSTPoperation(show spanning-tree)shows32768.
*maximum-age 20seconds Setsthemaximumageofreceivedspanningtreeinformationbeforeitis
discarded.Therangeis6to40seconds.
*hello-time 2seconds Setsthetimebetweentransmissionofspanningtreemessages.Usedonlywhen
thisswitchistheroot.Therangeis1to10seconds.
*forward-delay 15seconds Setsthetimetheswitchwaitsbetweentransitioningportsfromlisteningto
learningandfromlearningtoforwardingstates.Therangeis4to30seconds.
*TheseparametersarethesameforRSTPastheyareforSTP.Theswitchusesitsownmaximum-age,hello-time,and
forward-delaysettingsonlyifitisoperatingastherootdeviceinthespanningtree.Ifanotherdeviceistherootdevice,
thentheswitchusestheotherdevicessettingsfortheseparameters.
5-16
Spanning-Tree Operation
ConfiguringRapidReconfigurationSpanningTree(RSTP)
Not e Executingthespanning-treecommandaloneenablesspanningtree.Executing
thecommandwithoneormoreofthewhole-switchRSTPparametersshown
inthetableonthepreviouspage,orwithanyoftheper-portRSTPparameters
showninthetableonpage18,doesnotenablespanningtree.Itonlyconfigures
thespanningtreeparameters,regardlessofwhetherspanningtreeisactually
running(enabled)ontheswitch.
Usingthisfacility,youcancompletelyconfigurespanningtreethewayyou
wantandthenenableit.Thismethodminimizestheimpactonthenetwork
operation.
Syntax:
spanning-tree
protocol-version<rstp|stp>
force-version<rstp-operation|stp-compatible>
priority<0-15>
maximum-age<6-40seconds>
hello-time<1-10seconds>
forward-delay<4-30seconds>
Defaults:Seethetableonthepreviouspage.
Abbreviations:
span
prot<rstp|stp>
forc<rstp|stp>
pri<0-15>
max<6-40>
hello<1-10>
forw<4-30>
Multipleparameterscanbeincludedonthesamecommandline.Forexample,
toconfigureamaximum-ageof30secondsandahello-timeof3seconds,you
wouldissuethefollowingcommand:
HPswitch (config)# span max 30 hello 3
5-17
Spanning-Tree Operation
ConfiguringRapidReconfigurationSpanningTree(RSTP)
ReconfiguringPer-PortSpanningTreeValues. Youcanconfigureoneor
moreofthefollowingparameters,whichaffectthespanningtreeoperation
ofthespecifiedportsonly:
Table 5-2. Per-Port RSTP Parameters
Parameter Default Description
edge-port Yes Identifiesportsthatareconnectedtoendnodes.Duringspanningtree
establishment,theseportstransitionimmediatelytotheForwardingstate.
Inthisway,theportsoperateverysimilarlytoportsthatareconfiguredinfast
modeundertheSTPimplementationinpreviousHPswitchsoftware.
Disablethisfeatureonallswitchportsthatareconnectedtoanotherswitch,or
bridge,orhub.Usethenooptiononthespanningtreecommandtodisable
edge-port.ThisoptionisavailableonlywithRSTPorMSTPoperation.(Notethat
whenMSTPisenabled,theedge-portdefaultsettingisdisabled.)
mcheck Yes PortswithmchecksettotrueareforcedtosendoutRSTPBPDUsfor3seconds.
ThisallowsforswitchesthatarerunningRSTPtoestablishtheirconnection
quicklyandforswitchesrunning802.1DSTPtobeidentified.
Ifthewhole-switchparameterForce-Versionissettostp-compatible,the
mchecksettingisignoredandSTPBPDUsaresentoutallports.
Disablethisfeatureonallportsthatareknowntobeconnectedtodevicesthat
arerunning802.1DSTP.Usethenooptiononthespanningtreecommandto
disablemcheck.ThisoptionisavailableonlywithRSTPorMSTPoperation.
path-cost 10Mbps2000000 Assignsanindividualportcostthattheswitchusestodeterminewhichports
100Mbps200000
aretheforwardingports.Therangeis1to200,000,000orauto.
1Gbps20000
Bydefault,thisparameterisautomaticallydeterminedbytheporttype,asshown
bythedifferentdefaultvalues.Ifyouhavepreviouslyconfiguredaspecificvalue
forthisparameter,youcanissuethecommandwiththeautooptiontorestore
theautomaticsettingfeature.
PleaseseetheNoteonPathCostonpage5-19forinformationoncompatibility
withdevicesrunning802.1DSTPforthepathcostvalues.
point-to- force-true Thisparameterisusedtotelltheportifitisconnectedtoapoint-to-pointlink,
point-mac suchastoanotherswitchorbridgeortoanendnode(force-true).
Thisparametershouldbesettoforce-false forallportsthatareconnectedtoa
hub,whichisasharedLANsegment.
Youcanalsosetthisparametertoauto andtheswitchwillautomaticallysetthe
force-falsevalueonallportsthatitdetectsarenotrunningatfullduplex.All
connectionstohubsarenotfullduplex.Thiscommandisavailableonlywith
RSTPoperation.
priority 128 ThisparameterisusedbyRSTPtodeterminetheport(s)touseforforwarding.
(8asastepvalue) Theportwiththelowestnumberhasthehighestpriority.
Therangeis0to240,butyouconfigurethevaluebyenteringamultipleof16.
Youenteravalueintherange0-15.Thedefaultvalueof128isderivedbythe
defaultsettingof8.
DisplayingtheRSTPconfiguration(show spanning-tree config)shows8,but
displayingtheRSTPoperation(show spanning-tree)shows128.
5-18
Spanning-Tree Operation
ConfiguringRapidReconfigurationSpanningTree(RSTP)
Syntax:
spanning-tree[ethernet]<port-list >
path-cost<1-200000000>
point-to-point-mac<force-true|force-false|auto>
priority<0-15>
[no]spanning-tree[ethernet]<port-list >
edge-port
mcheck
Defaults:seethetableonthepreviouspage.
Abbreviations:
span<port-list >
path<1-200000000>
force<force-t|force-f|auto>
pri<0-15>
[no]span<port-list>
edge
mch
Note on Path Cost RSTPandMSTPimplementagreaterrange ofpathcostsandnewdefaultpath
costvaluestoaccountforhighernetworkspeeds.Thesevaluesaredifferent
thanthevaluesdefinedby802.1DSTPasshownbelow.
Port Type 802.1D STP Path Cost RSTP and MSTP Path Cost
10Mbps 100 2000000
100Mbps 10 200000
1Gbps 5 20000
Because the maximumvalueforthepathcostallowedby802.1DSTPis 65535,
devicesrunningthatversionofspanningtreecannotbeconfiguredtomatch
thevaluesdefinedby RSTPandMSTP,atleastfor10Mbpsand100 Mbpsports.
InLANswherethereisamixofdevicesrunning802.1DSTP,RSTP,and/or
MSTP,youshouldreconfigurethedevicessothepathcostsmatchforports
withthesamenetworkspeeds.
5-19
Spanning-Tree Operation
ConfiguringRapidReconfigurationSpanningTree(RSTP)
Menu:ConfiguringRSTP
1. FromtheconsoleCLIprompt,enterthemenucommand.
HPProcurveSwitch#menu
2. FromtheswitchconsoleMainMenu,select
2. Switch Configuration
4. Spanning Tree Operation
3. Press[E](forEdit)tohighlighttheProtocol Versionparameterfield.
4. PresstheSpacebartoselecttheversionofspanningtreeyouwishtorun:
RSTPorSTP.
Note:Ifyouchangetheprotocol version,youwillhavetoreboottheswitch
forthechangetotakeeffect.Seestep9andstep10.
5. Pressthe[Tab]ordownarrowkeytogototheSTP Enabledfield.Notethat
whenyoudothis,theremainingfieldsonthescreenwillthenbeappro-
priatefortheversionofspanningtreethatwasselectedinstep3.The
screenimagebelowisforRSTP.
6. PresstheSpacebartoselectYestoenablespanningtree.
5-20
Spanning-Tree Operation
ConfiguringRapidReconfigurationSpanningTree(RSTP)
Figure 5-5. Example of the RSTP Configuration Screen
7. Pressthe[Tab]keyorusethearrowkeystogotothenextparameteryou
wanttochange,thentypein thenewvalueorpresstheSpacebartoselect
avalue.(Togethelponthisscreen,press[Enter]toselecttheActions >
line,thenpress[H],forHelp,todisplaytheonlinehelp.)
8. Repeatstep6foreachadditionalparameteryouwanttochange.
PleaseseeOptimizingtheRSTPConfigurationonpage5-13forrecom-
mendationsonconfiguringRSTPtomakeitoperatethemostefficiently.
9. Whenyouarefinishededitingparameters,press[Enter]toreturntothe
Actions >lineandpress[S] tosavethecurrentlydisplayedspanningtree
settingsandreturntotheMainMenu.
10. IfyouhavechangedtheProtocolVersion,instep1,reboottheswitchnow
byselecting
6. Reboot Switch
5-21
Spanning-Tree Operation
ConfiguringRapidReconfigurationSpanningTree(RSTP)
Web:EnablingorDisablingRSTP
Inthewebbrowserinterface,youcanenableordisablespanningtreeonthe
switch.IfthedefaultconfigurationisineffectsuchthatRSTPistheselected
protocolversion,enablingspanningtreethroughthewebbrowserinterface
willenableRSTPwithitscurrentconfiguration.Toconfiguretheotherspan-
ningtreefeatures,telnettotheswitchconsoleandusetheCLIormenu.
Toenableordisablespanningtreeusingthewebbrowserinterface:
1. ClickontheConfigurationtab.
2. Clickon[Device Features].
3. Enableordisablespanningtree.
4. Clickon[Apply Changes]toimplementtheconfigurationchange.
5-22
Spanning-Tree Operation
802.1DSpanning-TreeProtocol(STP)
802.1DSpanning-TreeProtocol(STP)
Menu:Configuring802.1DSTP
1. FromtheMainMenu,select:
2. Switch Configuration
4. Spanning Tree Operation
Usethisfieldtoselectthe802.1DversionofSTP.
Figure 5-6. The Default Spanning Tree Operation Screen
2. Press[E](forEdit)tohighlighttheProtocol Versionfield.Inthedefault
configurationthisfieldissettoRSTP.
3. PresstheSpacebaroncetochangethefieldtoSTP.Thischangesthe
ProtocolVersionselectiontothe802.1DSpanningTreeProtocol.
4. Press[v]tohighlighttheSTP Enabledfield.
5. PresstheSpacebartoselectYes.(Yes inthisfieldmeanstoenable
spanning-treeoperation.)
5-23
Spanning-Tree Operation
802.1DSpanning-TreeProtocol(STP)
Usethisfieldtoenablespanningtree.
Read-OnlyFields
Figure 5-7. Enabling Spanning-Tree Operation
6. IftheremainingSTPparametersettingsareadequateforyournetwork,
gotostep10.
7. Use[Tab]orthearrowkeystoselectthenextparameteryouwantto
change,thentypeinthenewvalueorpresstheSpaceBartoselectavalue.
(IfyouneedinformationonSTPparameters,press[Enter]toselectthe
Actionsline,thenpressHtogethelp.)
8. Repeatstep7foreachadditionalparameteryouwanttochange.
Note:ForinformationontheMode parameter,seeSTPFastModeon
page5-30.
9. Whenyouarefinishededitingparameters,press[Enter]toreturntothe
Actions line.
10. Press[S]tosavethecurrentlydisplayedSTPparametersettings.Youwill
thenseetheSwitchConfigurationMenuwithanasterisk(*)atthe
Spanning Tree Operationline,indicatingthatyoumustreboottheswitch
beforetheProtocolVersionchange(step5)takeseffect.
5-24
Spanning-Tree Operation
802.1DSpanning-TreeProtocol(STP)
Figure 5-8. The Configuration Menu Indicating a Reboot Is Needed to Implement a
Configuration Change
11. Press[0]toreturntotheMainmenu.
Figure 5-9. The Main Menu Indicating a Reboot Is Needed To Implement a
Configuration Change
12. Press[6]toreboottheswitch.ThisimplementstheProtocolVersion
change(steps2and3onpage5-23).
5-25
Spanning-Tree Operation
802.1DSpanning-TreeProtocol(STP)
CLI:Configuring802.1DSTP
STP Commands Used in This Section
showspanning-treeconfig
spanning-tree
protocol-version
forward-delay< 4- 30>
hello-time<1-10>
maximum-age< 6- 40>
priority< 0-65535>
ethernet< port-list >
path-cost< 1- 65535>
priority< 0-255>
mode< norm|fast>
Below
page5-27
page5-28
page5-28
page5-28
page5-28
page5-29
page5-29
page5-29
page5-29
ViewingtheCurrentSTPConfiguration.
Syntax: showspanning-treeconfig
RegardlessofwhetherSTPisdisabled(thedefault),this
commandliststheswitchsfullSTPconfiguration,including
generalsettingsandportsettings.
Whentheswitchisconfiguredfor802.1DSTP,thiscommanddisplaysinfor-
mationsimilartothefollowing:
CommandListingwhen
STPistheProtocolVersion
(Seealsopage5-14)
Figure 5-10. Example of the Default STP Configuration Listing with 802.1D STP
Configured at the Protocol Version
5-26
Spanning-Tree Operation
802.1DSpanning-TreeProtocol(STP)
ConfiguringtheSwitchToUsethe802.1DSpanningTreeProtocol
(STP). Inthedefaultconfiguration,theswitchissettoRSTP(thatis,802.1w
RapidSpanningTree),and spanningtreeoperationisdisabled.Toreconfigure
theswitchto802.1Dspanningtree,youmust:
1. Changethespanningtreeprotocolversiontostp.
2. Usewrite memorytosavethechangetothestartup-configuration.
3. Reboottheswitch.
4. Ifyouhavenotpreviouslyenabledspanning-treeoperationontheswitch,
usethespanning-treecommandagaintoenableSTPoperation.
Syntax: spanning-treeprotocol-versionstp
writememory
boot
Forexample:
Figure 5-11. Steps for Changing Spanning-Tree Operation to the 802.1D Protocol
Enabling(orDisabling)SpanningTreeOperationontheSwitch.
Syntax: [no]spanning-tree
Thiscommandenables(ordisables)spanningtreeoperation
foreitherspanningtreeversionSTP/802.1DorRSTP/802.1w
(thedefault).(Default:Disabled.)
Beforeusingthiscommand,ensurethattheversionof
spanningtreeyouwanttouseisactiveontheswitch.(Seethe
precedingtopic,ConfiguringtheSwitchToUsethe802.1D
SpanningTreeProtocol(STP)onpage5-27.)
Forexample:
HPswitch spanning-tree
5-27
Spanning-Tree Operation
802.1DSpanning-TreeProtocol(STP)
EnablingSTPimplementsthespanningtreeprotocolforallphysicalportson
theswitch,regardlessofwhethermultipleVLANsareconfigured.Disabling
STPremovesprotectionagainstredundantloopsthatcansignificantlyslow
orhaltanetwork.
ThiscommandenablesSTPwiththecurrentparametersettingsordisables
STPwithoutlosingthemost-recentlyconfiguredparametersettings.(Tolearn
howtheswitchhandlesparameterchanges,howtotestchangeswithout
losingtheprevioussettings,andhowtoreplaceprevioussettingswithnew
settings,refertothechaptertitledSwitchMemoryandConfigurationinthe
ManagementandConfigurationGuideforyourswitch.)WhenenablingSTP,
youcanalsoinclude the STPgeneralandper-portparametersdescribedinthe
nexttwosections.Whenyouusethenoformofthecommand,youcando
soonlytodisableSTP.(STPparametersettingsarenotchangedwhenyou
disableSTP.)
Ca u t i o n BecauseincorrectSTPsettingscanadverselyaffectnetworkperformance,
HPrecommendsthatyouusethedefaultSTPparametersettings.Youshould
notchangethesesettingsunlessyouhaveastrongunderstandingofhowSTP
operates.FormoreonSTP,seetheIEEE802.1Dstandard.
ReconfiguringGeneralSTPOperationontheSwitch. Youcanconfig-
ureoneormoreofthefollowingparameters:
Table 5-3. General STP Operating Parameters
Name Default Range Function
priority 32768 0-65535 Specifiesthepriorityvalueusedalongwiththe
switchMACaddresstodeterminewhichdeviceis
root.Thelowerapriorityvalue,thehigherthe
priority.
*maximum-age 20seconds 6-40 Maximumreceivedmessageagetheswitch
seconds allowsforSTPinformationbeforediscardingthe
message.
*hello-time 2seconds 1-10 Timebetweenmessagestransmittedwhenthe
switchistheroot.
*forward-delay 15seconds 4-30
seconds
Timetheswitchwaitsbeforetransitioningfromthe
listeningtothelearningstate,andbetweenthe
learningstatetotheforwardingstate.
*Theswitchusesitsownmaximum-age,hello-time,andforward-delaysettingsonlyifitis
operatingastherootdevice.Ifanotherdeviceis operatingastherootdevice,thentheswitch
usestheotherdevicessettingsfortheseparameters.
5-28
Spanning-Tree Operation
802.1DSpanning-TreeProtocol(STP)
Not e Executingspanning-tree aloneenablesSTP.Executingspanning-treewithone
ormoreoftheaboveSTPOperatingParametersdoesnotenable STP.It only
configurestheSTPparameters(regardlessofwhetherSTPisactuallyrunning
(enabled)ontheswitch).
Syntax: spanning-tree
priority<0-65355>
maximum-age<6-40seconds>
hello-time<1-10seconds>
forward-delay<4-30seconds>
Default: Refertotable5-3,above.
Forexample,toconfigureamaximum-ageof30secondsandahello-timeof3
secondsforSTP:
HPswitch(config)# spanning-tree maximum-age 30 hello-time 3
ReconfiguringPer-PortSTPOperationontheSwitch.
Syntax: spanning-tree<port-list > path-cost< 1-65535>priority< 0-255> mode
< norm|fast>
EnablesSTP(ifnotalreadyenabled)andconfigurestheper-
portparameterslistedintable5-4.
Table 5-4. Per-Port STP Parameters
Name Default Range Function
path-cost Ethernet:100 1-65535 Assignsanindividualportcostthattheswitchuses
10/100Tx:10
100Fx:10
Gigabit:5
todeterminewhichportsaretheforwardingports.
priority 128 0-255 UsedbySTPtodeterminetheport(s)tousefor
forwarding.Theportwiththelowestnumberhas
thehighestpriority.
mode norm norm Specifieswhetheraportprogressesthroughthe
- or - listening,learning,andforwarding(orblocking)
fast states(normmode)ortransitionsdirectlytothe
- or - forwardingstate(fastmode).
uplink
ForinformationonwhentouseFastmode,see
STPFastModeonpage5-30.)
ForinformationonUplinkmode,seeFast-
UplinkSpanningTreeProtocol(STP)onpage
5-31
5-29
Spanning-Tree Operation
802.1DSpanning-TreeProtocol(STP)
YoucanalsoincludeSTPgeneralparametersinthiscommand.SeeRecon-
figuringGeneralSTPOperationontheSwitchonpage5-28.
Forexample,thefollowingconfiguresportsC5andC6toapathcostof15,a
priorityof100,andfastmode:
HPswitch(config)# spanning-tree c5-c6 path-cost 15 priority 100 mode fas
STPFastMode
ForstandardSTPoperation,whenanetworkconnectionisestablishedona
devicethatisrunningSTP,theportusedfortheconnectiongoesthrougha
sequenceofstates(ListeningandLearning)beforegettingtoitsfinalstate
(ForwardingorBlocking,asdeterminedbytheSTPnegotiation).This
sequencetakestwotimestheforwarddelayvalueconfiguredfortheswitch.
Thedefaultis15secondsonHPswitches,pertheIEEE802.1Dstandard
recommendation,resultinginatotalSTPnegotiationtimeof30seconds.Each
switchportgoesthroughthisstart-upsequencewheneverthenetworkcon-
nectionisestablishedontheport.This includes,forexample,whentheswitch
orconnecteddeviceispoweredup,orthenetworkcableisconnected.
AproblemcanarisefromthislongSTPstart-upsequencebecausesomeend
nodesareconfiguredtoautomaticallytrytoaccessanetworkserverwhen-
evertheendnodedetectsanetworkconnection.Typicalserveraccess
includestoNovellservers,DHCPservers,andXterminalservers.Iftheserver
accessisattemptedduringthetimethattheswitchportisnegotiatingitsSTP
state,theserveraccesswillfail.Toprovidesupportforthisend nodebehavior,
theswitchescoveredbythismanualofferaconfigurationmode,calledFast
Mode,that causestheswitchporttoskipthestandardSTPstart-upsequence
andputtheportdirectlyintotheForwardingstate,thusallowingtheserver
accessrequesttobeforwardedwhentheendnodeneedsit.
Ifyouencounterendnodesthatrepeatedlyindicateserveraccessfailurewhen
attemptingtobringuptheirnetworkconnection,andyouhaveenabledSTP
ontheswitch,trychangingtheconfigurationoftheswitchportsassociated
withthoseendnodestoSTPFastMode.
Ca u t i o n TheFastModeconfigurationshouldbeusedonlyonswitchportsconnected
toendnodes.ChangingtheModetoFastonportsconnectedtohubs,switches,
orroutersmaycauseloopsinyournetworkthatSTPmaynotbeableto
immediatelydetect,inallcases.Thiswillcausetemporaryloopsinyour
network.Afterthefaststart-upsequence,though,theswitchportsoperate
accordingtotheSTPstandard,andwilladjusttheirstatetoeliminatecontinu-
ingnetworkloops.
5-30
Spanning-Tree Operation
802.1DSpanning-TreeProtocol(STP)
ToEnableorDisableFastModeforaSwitchPort: Youcanuseeither
theCLIorthemenuinterfacetotogglebetweenSTPFastmodeandSTP
Normalmode.(Tousethemenuinterface,seeMenu:Configuring802.1D
STPonpage5-23.)
Syntax: spanning-tree< port-list >mode<fast|norm>
Forexample,toconfigureFastmodeforportsC1-C3andC5:
HPswitch(config)# spanning-tree c1-c3,c5 mode fast
Fast-UplinkSpanningTreeProtocol(STP)
Fast-UplinkSTPisanoptionaddedtotheswitchs802.1DSTPtoimprovethe
recovery(convergence)timeinwiringclosetswitcheswithredundant
uplinks.Specifically,aswitchhavingredundantlinkstowardtherootdevice
candecreasetheconvergencetime(orfailover)toanewuplink(STProot)
porttoaslittle astenseconds.Torealizethisperformance,theswitchmustbe:
Usedasawiringclosetswitch(alsotermedanedgeswitchoraleaf
switch).
Configuredforfast-uplinkSTPmodeontwoormoreportsintendedfor
redundancyinthedirectionoftherootswitch,sothatatanytimeonly
oneoftheredundantportsisexpectedtobeintheforwardingstate.
Not e Fast-UplinkSTPoperatesonlywith802.1DSTPandisnotavailablewiththe
RapidSTP(802.1w)feature(page5-11).
5-31
Spanning-Tree Operation
802.1DSpanning-TreeProtocol(STP)
Ca u t i o n Ingeneral,fast-uplinkspanningtreeontheswitchisusefulwhenrunningSTP
inatieredtopologythathaswell-definededgeswitches.Also,ensurethatan
interiorswitchisusedfortherootswitchandforanylogicalbackuproot
switches.YoucanaccomplishthisbyusingtheSpanningTreePriority(some-
timestermedbridgepriority)settingsthatdefinetheprimarySTProotswitch
andatleastonefailoverrootswitch(intheeventthattheprimaryrootswitch
fails).InappropriateuseofFast-UplinkSTPcancauseintermittentloopsina
networktopology.Forthisreason,theFast-UplinkSTPfeatureshouldbeused
onlybyexperiencednetworkadministratorswhohaveastrong understanding
oftheIEEE802.1DstandardandSTPinteractionsandoperation.Ifyouwant
tolearnmoreaboutSTPoperation,youmayfindithelpfultoreferto
publicationssuchas:
Perlman,Radia,Interconnections:Bridges,Routers,Switches,and
InternetworkingProtocols(secondedition),Addison-WesleyProfes-
sionalComputingSeries,October1999
Not e Whenproperlyimplemented,fast-uplinkSTPoffersamethodforachieving
fasterfailovertimesthanstandardSTP,andisintendedforthispurposefor
instanceswhere802.1DSTPhasbeenchosenover802.1wRSTP.
Tousefast-uplinkSTP,configurefast-uplink(Mode=Uplink)onlyonthe
switchsupstreamports;(thatis,twoormoreportsformingagroupof
redundantlinksinthedirectionoftheSTProotswitch).Iftheactivelinkin
thisgroupgoesdown,fast-uplinkSTPselectsadifferentupstreamportasthe
rootportandresumesmovingtrafficinaslittleastenseconds.Thedevice(s)
ontheotherendofthelinksmustberunningSTP.However,becausefast
uplinkshouldbeconfiguredonlyontheswitchsuplinkports,thedevice(s)
ontheotherendofthelinkscanbeeitherHPdevicesoranothervendors
devices,regardlessofwhethertheysupportfastuplink.Forexample:
STPisrunningonbothswitches.
PortAandportBarebothconfiguredfor
fast-uplinkSTP(Mode=Uplink).
STPRoot
Switch
2600,2600-
PWR,or
2800Switch
(Wiring
Closetor
Edge
Switch)
LAN
STPBlocking
PortAistheSTProotport.
B
PortBprovidesabackupredundantlink.
thatbecomesthenewSTProotport
(uplinkport)ifthelinkthroughportA
C
A
D
E
Figure 5-12. Example of How To Implement Fast-Uplink STP
5-32
Spanning-Tree Operation
802.1DSpanning-TreeProtocol(STP)
Terminology
Term Definition
downlinkport Aswitchportthatislinkedtoaportonanotherswitch(ortoanendnode)thatissequentially
(downstreamport)
furtherawayfromtheSTProotdevice.Forexample,portCinfigure5-12,above,isa
downlinkport.
edgeswitch Forthepurposesoffast-uplinkSTP,thisisaswitchthathasnootherswitchesconnectedto
itsdownlinkports.Anedgeswitchissequentiallyfurtherfromtherootdevicethanother
switchestowhichitisconnected.Alsotermedwiring closet switchorleaf switch.For
example,switch4infigure5-13(page33)isanedgeswitch.
interiorswitch InanSTPenvironment,aswitchthatissequentiallyclosertotheSTProotdevicethanone
ormoreotherswitchestowhichitisconnected.Forexample,switches1,2,and3in
figure5-13(page33)areinteriorswitches.
single-instancespanning Asinglespanning-treeensuringthattherearenologicalnetworkloopsassociatedwithany
oftheconnectionstotheswitch,regardlessofwhetherthereareanyVLANsconfiguredon
theswitch.Formoreinformation,seeSpanningTreeProtocol(STP)inchapter9,
ConfiguringAdvancedFeatures,intheManagementandConfigurationGuideforyour
switch.
tree
uplinkport
(upstreamport)
AswitchportlinkedtoaportonanotherswitchthatissequentiallyclosertotheSTProot
device.Forexample,portsAandBinfigure5-12onpage32areuplinkports.
wiringclosetswitch Anothertermforanedgeorleafswitch.
Whensingle-instancespanningtree(STP)isrunninginanetworkanda
forwardingportgoesdown,ablockedporttypicallyrequiresaperiodof
(2x(forward delay)+linkdowndetection)
totransitiontoforwarding.Inanormalspanningtreeenvironment,this
transitionisusually30seconds(withtheForward Delayparametersettoits
defaultof15seconds).However,byusingthefast-uplinkspanningtree
feature,aportonaswitchusedasanedgeswitchcanmakethistransitionin
aslittleastenseconds.(InanSTPenvironment,anedgeswitchisaswitch
thatisconnectedonlytoswitchesthatareclosertotheSTProotswitchthan
theedgeswitchitself,asshownbyswitch4infigure5-13,below.)
Switch4
(4108-Edge)
Switch3
Switch1
(Root)
Switch2
Port3
Port5
LinkblockedbySTP:
1
6
8
LAN
Figure 5-13. Example of an Edge Switch in a Topology Configured for STP Fast Uplink
5-33
Spanning-Tree Operation
802.1DSpanning-TreeProtocol(STP)
Infigure5-13,STPisenabledandinitsdefaultconfigurationonallswitches,
unlessotherwiseindicatedintable5-5,below:
Table 5-5. STP Parameter Settings for Figure 5-13
STP Parameter Switch 1 Switch 2 Switch 3 Switch 4
SwitchPriority 0
1
1
2
32,768(default) 32,768(default)
(Fast)Uplink No No No Ports3&5
1
ThissettingensuresthatSwitch1willbetheprimaryrootswitchforSTPinfigure5-13.
2
ThissettingensuresthatSwitch2willbethebackuprootswitchforSTPinfigure5-13.
Withtheabove-indicatedtopologyandconfiguration:
Scenario1:Ifthelinkbetweenswitches4and2goesdown,thenthe
linkbetweenswitches4and3willbeginforwardinginaslittleasten
seconds.
Scenario2:IfSwitch1fails,then:
Switch2becomestherootswitch.
ThelinkbetweenSwitch3andSwitch2beginsforwarding.
ThelinkbetweenSwitch2andtheLANbeginsforwarding.
OperatingRulesforFastUplink
Aswitchwithportsconfiguredforfastuplinkmustbeanedgeswitchand
noteitheraninteriorswitchortheSTProotswitch.
Configurefast-uplinkononlytheedgeswitchportsusedforproviding
redundantSTPuplinkconnectionsinanetwork.(ConfiguringFast-Uplink
STPonportsininteriorswitchescancreatenetworkperformanceprob-
lems.)Thatis,aportconfiguredforSTPuplinkshouldnotbeconnected
toaswitchthatissequentiallyfurtherawayfromtheSTProotdevice.For
example,switch4infigure5-13(page5-33)isanedgeswitch.
Configurefastuplinkonagroup(twoormore)ofredundantedge-switch
uplinkportswhereonlyoneportinthegroupisexpectedtobeinthe
forwardingstateatanygiventime.
5-34
Spanning-Tree Operation
802.1DSpanning-TreeProtocol(STP)
Edgeswitchescannotbedirectlylinkedtogetherusingfast-uplinkports.
Forexample,theconnectionbetweenswitches4and5infigure5-14is
notallowedforfast-uplinkoperation.
Switch4
(5304-Edge)
Switch3
Switch1
(Root)
Switch2
LinkblockedbySTP:
LAN
Switch5
(5304-Edge)
Theports
thatmakeup
thislink
cannotbe
configured
asfast-
uplinkports.
Figure 5-14. Example of a Disallowed Connection Between Edge Switches
Applyfast-uplinkonlyon theuplinkportsofanedgeswitch.Forexample,
onswitch4(anedgeswitch)infigure5-14above,onlytheports
connectingswitch4toswitches2and3areupstreamportsthat
wouldusefastuplink.Notealsothatfastuplinkshouldnot beconfigured
onbothendsofapoint-to-pointlink,butonlyon theuplinkport ofanedge
switch.
Ensurethattheswitchyouintendasabackuprootdevicewillinfact
becometherootiftheprimaryrootfails,andthatnoportsonthebackup
rootdeviceareconfiguredforfast-uplinkoperation.Forexample,ifthe
STP Priorityisthesameonallswitchesdefault:32768thentheswitch
withthelowestMACaddresswillbecometherootswitch.Ifthatswitch
fails,thentheswitchwiththenext-lowestMACaddresswillbecomethe
rootswitch.Thus,youcanuseSTP Priority tocontrolwhichswitchSTP
selectsastherootswitchandwhichswitchwillbecometherootifthe
firstswitchfails.
Fast-UplinkSTPrequiresaminimumoftwouplinkports.
Menu:ViewingandConfiguringFast-UplinkSTP
YoucanusethemenutoquicklydisplaytheentireSTPconfigurationandto
makeanySTPconfigurationchanges.
5-35
Spanning-Tree Operation
802.1DSpanning-TreeProtocol(STP)
ToViewand/orConfigureFast-UplinkSTP. Thisprocedureusesthe
SpanningTreeOperationscreentoenableSTPandtosettheModeforfast-
uplinkSTPoperation.
1. FromtheMainMenuselect:
2. Switch Configuration
4. Spanning Tree Operation
2. InthedefaultSTPconfiguration,RSTPistheselectedprotocolversion.
Ifthisisthecaseonyourswitch,youmustchangetheProtocolVersion
toSTPinordertouseFast-UplinkSTP:
IftheProtocol VersionissettoRSTP(thedefault,asshowninthis
example,gotostep3.
IftheProtocol VersionissettoSTP,therestofthescreenwillappear
asshowninfigure5-17.Inthiscase,gotostep4onpage5-38.
Figure 5-15. The Default STP Screen With the Protocol Version Field Set to RSTP
5-36
Spanning-Tree Operation
802.1DSpanning-TreeProtocol(STP)
3. IftheProtocolVersionissettoRSTP(asshowninfigure5-15),dothe
following:
a. Press[E](Edit)tomovethecursortotheProtocol Versionfield.
b. PresstheSpacebaroncetochangetheProtocol Version fieldtoSTP.
c. Press[Enter]toreturntothecommandline.
d. Press[S](forSave)tosavethechangeandexitfromtheSpanningTree
Operationscreen.youwillthenseeascreenwiththefollowing:
Theasteriskindicates
thatyoumustrebootthe
switchtoimplementthe
configurationchange
fromRSTPtoSTP.
Figure 5-16. Changing from RSTP to STP Requires a System Reboot
e. Press[0](zero)toreturntotheMainMenu,then[6]torebootthe
switch.
f. Afteryoureboottheswitch,enterthemenucommandattheCLIto
returntotheMainMenu,thenselect:
2. Switch Configuration
4. Spanning Tree Operation
YouwillthenseetheSpanningTreescreenwithSTP(802.1D)selected
intheProtocol Versionfield(figure5-17).
5-37
Spanning-Tree Operation
802.1DSpanning-TreeProtocol(STP)
Inthisexample,ports2and3have
alreadybeenconfiguredasaport
trunk(Trk1),whichappearsattheend
oftheportlisting.
Allports(andthetrunk)areintheir
defaultSTPconfiguration.
Note: Intheactualmenuscreen,you
mustscrollthecursordowntheport
listtoviewthetrunkconfiguration
(portsA2andA3).
Figure 5-17. The Spanning Tree Operation Screen
4. Ontheportsand/ortrunksyouwanttouseforredundantfastuplink
connections,changethemodetoUplink.Inthisexample,portA1andTrk1
(usingportsA2andA3)providetheredundantuplinksforSTP:
a. Press[E](forEdit),thenenableSTPontheswitchbyusingtheSpace
bartoselectYesintheSpanningTreeEnabledfield.
b. Use[Tab]tomovetotheModefieldforportA1.
c. UsetheSpacebartoselectUplinkasthemodeforportA1.
d. Use[v]tomovetotheModefieldforTrk1.
e. UsetheSpacebartoselectUplinkastheModeforTrk1.
f. Press[Enter]toreturnthecursortotheActionsline.
5-38
Spanning-Tree Operation
802.1DSpanning-TreeProtocol(STP)
STPisenabled.
PortA1andTrk1are
nowconfiguredfor
fast-uplinkSTP.
Figure 5-18. Example of STP Enabled with Two Redundant Links Configured for
Fast-Uplink STP
5. Press[S](forSave)tosavetheconfigurationchangestoflash(non-volatile)
memory.
ToViewFast-UplinkSTPStatus. Continuingfromfigures5-17and5-18 in
theprecedingprocedure,thistaskusesthesamescreenthatyouwoulduse
toviewSTPstatusforotheroperatingmodes.
1. FromtheMainMenu,select:
1. Status and Counters
7. Spanning Tree Information
5-39
Spanning-Tree Operation
802.1DSpanning-TreeProtocol(STP)
Indicateswhichuplinkisthe
activepathtotheSTProotdevice.
Note:Aswitchusingfast-uplink
STPmustneverbetheSTProot
device.
Figure 5-19. Example of STP Status with Trk1 (Trunk 1) as the Path to the STP Root
Device
2. Press[S](forShow ports)todisplaythestatusofindividualports.
LinkstoPCor
Workstation
EndNodes
Redundant
STPLinkin
(Fast)Uplink
Mode
Redundant
STPLinkin
(Fast)Uplink
Mode
Figure 5-20. Example of STP Port Status with Two Redundant STP Links
5-40
Spanning-Tree Operation
802.1DSpanning-TreeProtocol(STP)
Infigure5-20:
PortA1andTrk1(trunk1;formedfromports2and3)areredundant
fast-uplinkSTPlinks,withtrunk1forwarding(theactivelink)and
portA1blocking(thebackuplink).(Toviewtheconfigurationforport
A1andTrk1,seefigure5-18onpage5-39.)
Ifthelinkprovidedbytrunk1fails(onbothports),thenportA1begins
forwardinginfast-uplinkSTPmode.
PortsA5,A6,andA24areconnectedtoendnodesanddonotform
redundantlinks.
CLI:ViewingandConfiguringFast-UplinkSTP
UsingtheCLItoViewFast-UplinkSTP. Youcanviewfast-uplinkSTP
usingthesameshowcommandsthatyouwoulduseforstandardSTPopera-
tion:
Syntax: showspanning-tree
ListsSTPstatus.
Syntax: showspanning-treeconfig
ListsSTPconfigurationfortheswitchandforindividual
ports.
Forexample,figures5-21and5-22illustrateapossibletopology,STPstatus
listing,andSTPconfigurationforaswitchwith:
STPenabledandtheswitchoperatingasanEdgeswitch
PortA1andtrunk1(Trk1)configuredforfast-uplinkSTPoperation
SeveralotherportsconnectedtoPCorworkstationendnodes
2600,2600
PWR,or
2800switch
Operating
asanEdge
Switch
Interior
Switch
withSTP
Enabled
STP
Root
Device
Port
Trunk
STP
Block
LAN
Figure 5-21. Example Topology for the Listing Shown in Figure 5-22
5-41
Spanning-Tree Operation
802.1DSpanning-TreeProtocol(STP)
IndicatesthatTrk1(Trunk1)
providesthecurrentlyactivepath
totheSTProotdevice.
RedundantSTPlinkintheBlocking
state.
LinkstoPCorWorkstationEnd
Nodes
RedundantSTPlinkinthe
Forwardingstate.(SeetheRoot
Portfield,above.Thisisthe
currentlyactivepathtotheSTP
rootdevice.)
Figure 5-22. Example of a Show Spanning-Tree Listing for the Topology Shown in Figure 5-21-
5-42
Spanning-Tree Operation
802.1DSpanning-TreeProtocol(STP)
Fast-Uplink
STP
Configured
onPort1and
Trunk1(Trk1)
STPEnabled
onthe
Switch
Figure 5-23. Example of a Configuration Supporting the STP Topology Shown in
Figure 5-21
UsingtheCLIToConfigureFast-UplinkSTP. ThisexampleusestheCLI
toconfiguretheswitchforthefast-uplinkoperationshowninfigures5-21,5-
22,and5-23.(TheexampleassumesthatportsA2andA3arealreadyconfig-
uredasmembersoftheporttrunkTrk1,andallotherSTPparametersare
leftintheirdefaultstate.)
NotethatthedefaultSTPProtocolVersionisRSTP(RapidSTP,or802.1w).
Thus,iftheswitchissettotheSTPdefault,youmustchangeittotheSTP
(802.1D)ProtocolVersionbeforeyoucanconfigureFast-Uplink.Forexample:
5-43
Spanning-Tree Operation
802.1DSpanning-TreeProtocol(STP)
ListsSTP
configuration.
Showsthedefault
STPprotocol
1. Changes the Spanning-Tree
protocol to STP (required for
Fast-Uplink).
2. Saves the change to the
startup-configuration
3. Reboots the switch. (Required
for this configuration
Figure 5-24. Example of Changing the STP Configuration from the Default RSTP (802.1w) to STP (802.1D)
Syntax: spanning-tree<port/trunk-list >modeuplink
EnablesSTPontheswitchandconfiguresfast-uplinkSTPon
thedesignatedinterfaces(portortrunk).
Forexample:
HPswitch(config)# spanning-tree e A1,trk1 mode uplink
OperatingNotes
EffectofRebootsonFast-UplinkSTPOperation. Whenconfigured,
fast-uplinkSTPoperatesonthedesignatedportsinarunningswitch.How-
ever,iftheswitchexperiencesareboot,thefast-uplinkports(Mode=Uplink)
usethelongerforwardingdelayusedbyportsonstandard802.1DSTP(non
fast-uplink).Thispreventstemporaryloopsthatcouldotherwiseresultwhile
theswitchisdeterminingtheSTPstatusforallports.Thatis,onports
configuredforfast-uplinkSTP,thefirstSTPstatetransitionafterareboot
takesthesameamountoftimeasforredundantportsthatarenotconfigured
forfast-uplinkSTP.
UsingFastUplinkwithPortTrunks. Touseaporttrunkforfast-uplink
STP,configureitinthesamewaythatyouwouldanindividualportforthe
samepurpose.Aporttrunkconfiguredforfastuplinkoperatesinthesame
wayasanindividual,non-trunkedportoperates;thatis,asalogicalport.
5-44
Spanning-Tree Operation
Web:EnablingorDisablingSTP
Not e Whenyouaddaporttoatrunk,theporttakesontheSTPmodeconfigured
forthe trunk,regardlessofwhichSTPmodewasconfiguredontheportbefore
itwasaddedtothetrunk.Thus,allportsbelongingtoatrunkconfiguredwith
UplinkintheSTPModefieldwilloperateinthefast-uplinkmode.(Ifyouremove
aportfromatrunk,theportrevertstotheSTPModesettingithadbeforeyou
addedtheporttothetrunk.
Tousefastuplinkoveratrunk,youmust:
1. Createthetrunk.
2. Configurethetrunkforfastuplinkinthesamewaythatyouwould
configureanindividualportforfastuplink.
Whenyoufirstcreateaporttrunk,itsSTPModesettingwillbeNorm,regardless
ofwhetheroneormoreportsinthetrunkaresettofast uplink(Mode=Uplink).
YoumuststillspecificallyconfigurethetrunkMode settingtoUplink.Similarly,
ifyoueliminateatrunk,theModesettingontheindividualportsinthetrunk
willreturntotheirprevioussettings.
ForTroubleshootingInformationonFastUplink. Refertothesection
titledSpanning-TreeProtocol(STP)andFast-UplinkProblemsinappendix
C,TroubleshootingintheManagementandConfigurationGuideforyour
switch.)
Web:EnablingorDisablingSTP
InthewebbrowserinterfaceyoucanenableordisableSTPontheswitch.To
configureotherSTPfeatures,telnettotheswitchconsoleandusetheCLI.
ToenableordisableSTPontheswitch:
1. ClickontheConfigurationtab
2. Clickon[Device Features].
3. EnableordisableSTP.
4. Clickon[Apply Changes]toimplementtheconfigurationchange.
Forweb-basedhelponhowtousethewebbrowserinterfacescreen,clickon
the[?]buttonprovidedonthewebbrowserscreen.
5-45
Spanning-Tree Operation
802.1sMultipleSpanningTreeProtocol(MSTP)fortheSeries2600/2600-PWRand2800Switches
802.1sMultipleSpanningTreeProtocol
(MSTP)fortheSeries2600/2600-PWR
and2800Switches
The802.1Dand802.1wspanningtreeprotocolsoperatewithoutregardtoa
networksVLANconfiguration,andmaintainonecommonspanningtree
throughoutabridgednetwork.Thus,theseprotocolsmaponeloop-free,
logicaltopologyonagivenphysicaltopology.The802.1sMultipleSpanning
Treeprotocol(MSTP)usesVLANstocreatemultiplespanningtreesina
network,whichsignificantlyimprovesnetworkresourceutilizationwhile
maintainingaloop-freeenvironment.
Whiletheper-VLANspanningtreeapproachadoptedbysomevendorsover-
comesthenetworkutilizationproblemsinherentinusingSTPorRSTP,using
aper-VLANtechnologywithmultipleVLANscanoverloadtheswitchsCPU.
MSTPontheswitchescoveredbythisguidecomplieswiththeIEEE802.1s
standard,andextendsSTPandRSTPfunctionalitytomapmultipleindepen-
dentspanningtreeinstancesontoaphysicaltopology.WithMSTP,each
spanningtreeinstancecanincludeoneormoreVLANsandappliesaseparate,
per-instanceforwardingtopology.Thus,whereaportbelongstomultiple
VLANs,itmaybedynamicallyblockedinonespanningtreeinstance,but
forwardinginanotherinstance.Thisachievesload-balancingacrossthenet-
workwhilekeepingtheswitchsCPUloadatamoderatelevel(byaggregating
multipleVLANsinasinglespanningtreeinstance).Like RSTP,MSTPprovides
faulttolerancethroughrapid,automaticreconfigurationifthereisafailurein
anetworksphysicaltopology.
Ca u t i o n Spanningtreeinterpretsaswitchmeshasasinglelink.Becausetheswitch
automaticallygivesfasterlinksahigherpriority,thedefaultMSTPparameter
settingsareusuallyadequateforspanningtreeoperation.Also,because
incorrectMSTPsettingscanadverselyaffectnetworkperformance,you
shouldnotchangetheMSTPsettingsfromtheirdefaultvaluesunlessyouhave
astrongunderstandingofhowspanningtreeoperates.
Inameshenvironment,thedefaultMSTPtimersettings(Hello Timeand
Forward Delay)areusuallyadequateforMSTPoperation.Becauseapacket
crossingameshmaytraverseseverallinkswithinthemesh,usingsmaller-
than-defaultsettingsfortheMSTPHello TimeandForward Delaytimerscan
causeunnecessarytopologychangesandend-nodeconnectivityproblems.
5-46
Spanning-Tree Operation
802.1sMultipleSpanningTreeProtocol(MSTP)fortheSeries2600/2600-PWRand2800Switches
ForMSTPinformationbeyondwhatisprovidedinthismanual,refertothe
IEEE802.1sstandard.
MSTPStructure
MSTPmapsactive,separatepathsthroughseparatespanningtreeinstances
andbetweenMSTregions.EachMSTregioncomprisesoneormoreMSTP
switches.NotethatMSTPrecognizesanSTPorRSTPLANasadistinct
spanning-treeregion.
IST
Instance
MSTI
(Optional)
MSTI
(Optional) IST
Instance
MSTI
(Optional)
MSTI
(Optional)
MSTI
(Optional)
Switch
RunningSTP
Switch
RunningSTP
Switch
RunningSTP
Switch
RunningRSTP
Switch
RunningRSTP
Switch
RunningRSTP
CommonSpanningTree(CST)
MSTRegion
MSTRegion
CommonandInternalSpanningTree(CIST)
Figure 5-25. Example of MSTP Network with Legacy STP and RSTP Devices
Connected
CommonandInternalSpanningTree(CIST):TheCISTidentifiesthe
regionsinanetworkandadministerstheCISTrootbridgeforthenetwork,
therootbridgeforeachregion,andtherootbridgeforeachspanning-tree
instanceineachregion.
5-47
Spanning-Tree Operation
802.1sMultipleSpanningTreeProtocol(MSTP)fortheSeries2600/2600-PWRand2800Switches
CommonSpanningTree(CST):TheCSTadministerstheconnectivity
amongtheMSTregions,STPLANs,andRSTPLANsinabridgednetwork.
MSTRegion:AnMSTregioncomprisestheVLANsconfiguredonphysically
connectedMSTPswitches.Allswitchesinagivenregionmustbeconfigured
withthesameVLANsandMultipleSpanningTreeInstances(MSTIs).
InternalSpanningTree(IST):TheISTadministersthetopologywithina
givenMSTregion.WhenyouconfigureaswitchforMSTPoperation,the
switchautomaticallyincludesallofthestaticVLANsconfiguredontheswitch
inasingle,activespanningtreetopology(instance)withintheIST.Thisis
termedtheISTinstance.AnyVLANsyousubsequentlyconfigureonthe
switchareaddedtothisISTinstance.Tocreateseparateforwardingpaths
withinaregion,groupspecificVLANsintodifferentMultipleSpanningTree
Instances(MSTIs).(RefertoMultipleSpanningTreeInstance,below.)
TypesofMultipleSpanningTreeInstances:Amultiplespanningtree
networkcomprisesseparatespanning-treeinstancesexistinginanMST
region.(Therecanbemultipleregionsinanetwork.)Eachinstancedefinesa
singleforwardingtopologyforanexclusivesetofVLANs.Bycontrast,anSTP
orRSTPnetworkhasonlyonespanningtreeinstancefortheentirenetwork,
andincludesallVLANsinthenetwork.(AnSTPorRSTPnetworkoperatesas
asingle-instancenetwork.)AregioncanincludetwotypesofSTPinstances:
InternalSpanning-TreeInstance(ISTInstance):Thisisthedefault
spanningtreeinstanceinanyMSTregion.Itprovidestherootswitchfor
theregionandcomprisesallVLANsconfiguredontheswitchesinthe
regionthatarenotspecificallyassignedtoMultipleSpanningTree
Instances(MSTIs,describedbelow).AllVLANsintheISTinstanceofa
regionarepartofthesame,singlespanningtreetopology,whichallows
onlyoneforwardingpathbetweenanytwonodesbelongingtoanyofthe
VLANsincludedintheISTinstance.All switchesintheregionmustbelong
tothesetofVLANsthatcomprisetheISTinstance.Notethattheswitch
automaticallyplacesdynamicVLANs(resultingfromGVRPoperation)in
theISTinstance.DynamicVLANscannotexistinanMSTI(described
below).
MSTI(MultipleSpanningTreeInstance):Thistypeofconfigurable
spanningtreeinstancecomprisesallstaticVLANsyouspecificallyassign
toit,andmustincludeatleastoneVLAN.TheVLAN(s)youassigntoan
MSTImustinitiallyexistintheISTinstanceofthesameMSTregion.When
youassignastaticVLANtoanMSTI,theswitchremovestheVLANfrom
theISTinstance.(Thus,youcanassignaVLANtoonlyoneMSTIinagiven
region.)AllVLANsinanMSTIoperateaspartofthesamesinglespanning
treetopology.(TheswitchdoesnotallowdynamicVLANsinanMSTI.)
5-48
Spanning-Tree Operation
802.1sMultipleSpanningTreeProtocol(MSTP)fortheSeries2600/2600-PWRand2800Switches
Ca u t i o n WhenyouenableMSTPontheswitch,thedefaultMSTPspanningtree
configurationsettingscomplywiththevaluesrecommendedintheIEEE
802.1sMultipleSpanningTreeProtocol(MSTP)standard.Notethatinappro-
priatechangestothesesettingscanresultinseverelydegradednetwork
performance.Forthisreason,HPstronglyrecommendsthatchangingthese
defaultsettingsbereservedonlyforexperiencednetworkadministrators
whohaveastrongunderstandingoftheIEEE802.1D/w/sstandardsand
operation.
HowMSTPOperates
Inthefactorydefaultconfiguration,spanningtreeoperationisoff.Also,the
switchretainsitscurrentlyconfiguredspanningtreeparametersettingswhen
disabled.Thus,ifyoudisablespanningtree,thenlaterre-enableit,theparam-
etersettingswillbethesameasbeforespanningtreewasdisabled.Theswitch
alsoincludesaPendingfeaturethatenablesyoutoexchangeMSTPconfig-
urationswithasinglecommand.(RefertoEnablinganEntireMSTRegionat
OnceorExchangingOneRegionConfigurationforAnotheronpage5-72.)
Not e Theswitchautomaticallysensesportidentityandtype,andautomatically
definesspanning-treeparametersforeachtype,aswellasparametersthat
applyacrosstheswitch.Althoughtheseparameterscanbeadjusted,HP
stronglyrecommendsleavingthesesettingsintheirdefaultconfigurations
unlesstheproposedchangeshavebeensuppliedbyanexperiencednetwork
administratorwhohasastrongunderstandingoftheIEEE802.1D/w/s
standardsandoperation.
MSTRegions
AllMSTPswitchesinagivenregionmustbeconfiguredwiththesameVLANs.
Also,eachMSTPswitchwithinthesameregionmusthavethesameVLAN-to-
instanceassignments.(AVLANcanbelongtoonlyoneinstancewithinany
region.)Withinaregion:
AlloftheVLANsbelongingtoagiveninstancecomposeasingle,active
spanning-treetopologyforthatinstance.
Eachinstanceoperatesindependentlyofotherregions.
Betweenregionsthereisasingle,activespanning-treetopology.
5-49
Spanning-Tree Operation
802.1sMultipleSpanningTreeProtocol(MSTP)fortheSeries2600/2600-PWRand2800Switches
HowSeparateInstancesAffectMSTPOperation. Assigningdifferent
groupsofVLANstodifferentinstancesensuresthatthoseVLANgroupsuse
independentforwardingpaths.Forexample,infigure5-26eachinstancehas
adifferentforwardingpath.
RegionX
Switch 1
IST Root
VLANMemberships:
ISTInstance:VLANs1,2
MSTIA:4,5
MSTIB:7,9
Switch 2
MSTI A Root
VLANMemberships:
ISTInstance:VLANs1,2
MSTIA:4,5
MSTIB:7,9
Switch 3
MSTI B Root
VLANMemberships:
ISTInstance:VLANs1,2
MSTIA:4,5
MSTIB:7,9
PaththroughISTInstance
toOtherRegions
Blocksredundant
linkforMSTIB.
Blocksredundant
linkforMSTIA.
Blocksredundant
linkforISTinstance.
Figure 5-26. Active Topologies Built by Three Independent MST Instances
Whileallowingonlyoneactivepaththroughagiveninstance,MSTPretains
anyredundantphysicalpathsintheinstancetoserveasbackups(blocked)
pathsincasetheexistingactivepathfails.Thus,ifanactive pathinaninstance
fails,MSTPautomaticallyactivates(unblocks)anavailablebackuptoserve
asthenewactivepaththroughtheinstanceforaslongastheoriginalactive
pathisdown.Notealsothatagivenportmaysimultaneouslyoperatein
differentstates(forwardingorblocking)fordifferentspanning-treeinstances
withinthesameregion.ThisdependsontheVLANmembershipstowhichthe
portisassigned.Forexample,ifaportbelongstoVLAN1intheISTinstance
ofaregionandalsobelongstoVLAN4inMSTIxinthesameregion,theport
mayapplydifferentstatestotrafficforthesetwodifferentinstances.
5-50
Spanning-Tree Operation
802.1sMultipleSpanningTreeProtocol(MSTP)fortheSeries2600/2600-PWRand2800Switches
Withinaregion,trafficroutedbetweenVLANsinseparateinstancescantake
onlyonephysicalpath.ToensurethattrafficinallVLANswithinaregioncan
travelbetweenregions,alloftheboundaryportsforeachregionshouldbelong
toallVLANsconfiguredintheregion.Otherwise,trafficfromsomeareas
withinaregioncouldbeblockedfrommovingtootherregions.
AllMSTPswitches(aswellasSTPandRSTPswitches)inanetworkuse
BPDUs(BridgeProtocolDataUnits)toexchangeinformationfromwhichto
buildmultiple,activetopologiesintheindividualinstanceswithinaregion
andbetweenregions.Fromthisinformation:
TheMSTPswitchesineachLANsegmentdetermineadesignatedbridge
anddesignatedportortrunkforthesegment.
TheMSTPswitchesbelongingtoaparticularinstancedeterminetheroot
bridgeandrootportortrunkfortheinstance.
FortheISTinstancewithinaregion,theMSTPswitcheslinkingthat
regiontootherregions(ortoSTPorRSTPswitches)determinetheIST
rootbridgeandISTrootportortrunkfortheregion.(ForanyMultiple
Spanning-TreeinstanceMSTIinaregion,theregionalrootmaybea
differentswitchthatisnotnecessarilyconnectedtoanotherregion.)
TheMSTPswitchesblockredundantlinkswithineachLANsegment,
acrossallinstances,andbetweenregions,topreventanytrafficloops.
Asaresult,eachindividualinstance(spanningtree)withinaregiondeter-
minesitsregionalrootbridge,designatedbridges,anddesignatedportsor
trunks.
Regions,LegacySTPandRSTPSwitches,andtheCommon
SpanningTree(CST)
TheISTinstanceandanyMSTinstancesinaregionexistonlywithinthat
region.Wherea linkcrossesaboundarybetweenregions(orbetweenaregion
andalegacySTPorRSTPswitch),trafficisforwardedorblockedasdeter-
minedbytheCommonSpanningTree(CST).TheCSTensuresthatthereis
onlyoneactivepathbetweenanytworegions,orbetweenaregionanda
switchrunningSTPandRSTP.(Refertofigure5-25onpage47.)
MSTPOperationwith802.1QVLANs
Asindicatedintheprecedingsections,withinagivenMSTinstance,asingle
spanningtreeisconfiguredforallVLANsincludedinthatinstance.This means
thatifredundantphysicallinksexistinseparateVLANswithinthesame
instance,MSTPblocksallbutoneofthoselinks.However,youcanprevent
thebandwidthlosscausedbyblockedredundantlinksfordifferentVLANsin
5-51
Spanning-Tree Operation
802.1sMultipleSpanningTreeProtocol(MSTP)fortheSeries2600/2600-PWRand2800Switches
aninstancebyusingaporttrunk.Thefollowingexampleshowshowyoucan
useaporttrunkwith802.1Q(tagged)VLANsandMSTPwithoutunnecessarily
blockinganylinksorlosinganybandwidth.
Problem:
AnMSTinstancewithtwo
separate(non-trunked)
linksblocksaVLANlink.
Solution:
Configureonetrunked
linkforthetwoVLAN
memberships.
Nodes1and2cannot
communicatebecause
MSTPisblockingthelink.
Nodes1and2cancommunicatebecausethe
MSTinstanceseesthetrunkasasinglelinkand
802.1Q(tagged)VLANsenabletheuseofone
(trunked)linkforbothVLANs.
Figure 5-27. Example of Using a Trunked Link To Support Multiple VLAN
Connectivity within the Same MST Instance
Not e AllswitchesinaregionshouldbeconfiguredwiththeVLANsusedinthat
region,andallportslinkingMSTPswitchestogethershouldbemembersof
allVLANsintheregion.Otherwise,thepathtotherootforagivenVLANwill
bebrokenifMSTPselectsaspanningtreethroughalinkthatdoesnotinclude
thatVLAN.
Terminology
Bridge:SeeMSTPBridge.
CommonandInternalSpanningTree(CIST):ComprisesallLANs,STP,
andRSTPbridgesandMSTPregionsinanetwork.TheCISTautomatically
determinestheMSTregionsinanetworkanddefinestherootbridge(switch)
5-52
Spanning-Tree Operation
802.1sMultipleSpanningTreeProtocol(MSTP)fortheSeries2600/2600-PWRand2800Switches
anddesignatedportforeachregion.TheCISTincludestheCommonSpanning
Tree(CST),theInternalSpanningTree(IST)withineachregion,andany
multiplespanning-treeinstances(MSTIs)inaregion.
CommonSpanningTree(CST):Referstothesingleforwardingpaththe
switchcalculatesforSTP(802.1D)andRSTP(802.1w)topologies,andfor
inter-regionalpathsinMSTP(802.1s)topologies.Notethatallthreetypesof
spanningtreecaninteroperateinthesamenetwork.Also,theMSTPswitch
interpretsadevicerunning802.1DSTPor802.1wRSTPasaseparateregion.
(Refertofigure5-25onpage47.)
InternalSpanningTree(IST):ComprisesallVLANswithinaregionthat
arenotassignedtoamultiplespanning-treeinstanceconfiguredwithinthe
region.All MSTswitchesinaregionshouldbelongtotheIST.Inagivenregion
X,theISTrootswitchistheregionalrootswitchandprovidesinformation
onregionXtootherregions.
MSTP(MultipleSpanningTreeProtocol):AnetworksupportingMSTP
allowsmultiplespanningtreeinstanceswithinconfiguredregions,anda
singlespanningtreeamongregions,STPbridges,andRSTPbridges.
MSTPBPDU(MSTPBridgeProtocolDataUnit):TheseBPDUscarry
region-specificinformation,suchastheregionidentifier(regionnameand
revisionnumber).IfaswitchreceivesanMSTPBPDUwitharegionidentifier
thatdiffersfromitsown,thentheportonwhichthatBPDUwasreceivedis
ontheboundaryoftheregioninwhichtheswitchresides.
MSTPBridge:Inthismanual,anMSTPbridgeisaSeries2600,2600-PWR,or
2800Switch(oranother802.1s-compatibledevice)configuredforMSTP
operation.
MSTRegion:AnMSTregionformsamultiplespanningtreedomainandisa
componentofasinglespanning-treedomainwithinanetwork.Forswitches
internaltotheMSTregion:
AllswitcheshaveidenticalMSTconfigurationidentifiers(regionname
andrevisionnumber).
AllswitcheshaveidenticalVLANassignmentstotheregionsISTand
(optional)MSTinstances.
Oneswitchfunctionsasthedesignatedbridge(ISTroot)fortheregion.
Noswitchhasapoint-to-pointconnectiontoabridgingdevicethatcannot
processRSTPBPDUs.
5-53
Spanning-Tree Operation
802.1sMultipleSpanningTreeProtocol(MSTP)fortheSeries2600/2600-PWRand2800Switches
OperatingRules
AllswitchesinaregionmustbeconfiguredwiththesamesetofVLANs,
aswellasthesameMSTconfigurationnameandMSTconfiguration
number.
Withinaregion,aVLANcanbeallocatedtoeitherasingleMSTIortothe
regionsISTinstance.
Allswitchesinaregionmusthave thesameVID-to-MSTinstanceandVID-
to-ISTinstanceassignments.
ThereisonerootMSTswitchperconfiguredMSTinstance.
Withinanyregion,therootswitchfortheISTinstanceisalsotheroot
switchfortheregion.BecauseboundaryportsprovidetheVLANconnec-
tivitybetweenregions,allboundaryportsonaregion'srootswitchshould
beconfiguredasmembersofallstaticVLANsdefinedintheregion.
ThereisonerootswitchfortheCommonandInternalSpanningTree
(CIST).Notethattheper-porthello-time parameterassignmentsonthe
CISTrootswitchpropagatetotheportsondownstreamswitchesinthe
networkandoverridethehello-timeconfiguredonthedownstreamswitch
ports.
WheremultipleMSTregionsexistinanetwork,thereisonlyoneactive,
physicalcommunicationpathbetweenanytworegions,orbetweenan
MSTregionandanSTPorRSTPswitch.MSTPblocksanyotherphysical
pathsaslongasthecurrentlyactivepathremainsinservice.
Withinanetwork,anMSTregionappearsasavirtual RSTPbridgetoother
spanningtreeentities(otherMSTregions,andanyswitchesrunning
802.1Dor802.1wspanning-treeprotocols).
WithinanMSTI,thereisonespanningtree(onephysical,communication
path)betweenanytwonodes.Thatis,withinanMSTI,thereisone
instanceofspanningtree,regardlessofhowmanyVLANsbelongtothe
MSTI.WithinanISTinstance,thereisalsoonespanningtreeacrossall
VLANsbelongingtotheISTinstance.
AnMSTIcomprisesauniquesetofVLANsandformsasinglespanning-
treeinstancewithintheregiontowhichitbelongs.
CommunicationbetweenMSTregionsusesasinglespanningtree.
IfaportonaswitchconfiguredforMSTPreceivesalegacy(STP/802.1D
orRSTP/802.1w)BPDU,itautomaticallyoperatesasalegacyport.Inthis
case,theMSTPswitchinteroperateswiththeconnectedSTPorRSTP
switchasaseparateMSTregion.
WithinanMSTregion,thereisonelogicalforwardingtopologyper
instance,andeachinstancecomprisesauniquesetofVLANs.Where
multiplepathsexistbetweenapairofnodesusingVLANsbelongingto
5-54
Spanning-Tree Operation
802.1sMultipleSpanningTreeProtocol(MSTP)fortheSeries2600/2600-PWRand2800Switches
thesameinstance,allbutoneofthosepathswillbeblockedforthat
instance.However,iftherearedifferentpathsindifferentinstances,all
suchpathsareavailablefortraffic.Separateforwardingpathsexist
throughseparatespanningtreeinstances.
Aportcanhavedifferentstates(forwardingorblocking)fordifferent
instances(whichrepresentdifferentforwardingpaths).
MSTPinterpretsaswitchmeshasasinglelink.
AdynamicVLANlearnedbyGVRPwillalwaysbeplacedintheIST
instanceandcannotbemovedtoanyconfiguredMSTinstance.
TransitioningfromSTPorRSTPtoMSTP
IEEE802.1sMSTPincludesRSTPfunctionalityandisdesignedtobecompat-
iblewithbothIEEE802.1Dand802.1wspanning-treeprotocols.Evenifallthe
otherdevicesinyournetworkareusingSTP,youcanenableMSTPonthe
switchescoveredbythisguidethatsupportit(seeTable5-1onpage5-3).Also,
usingthedefaultconfigurationvalues,your2600,2600-PWR,and2800
switcheswillinteroperateeffectivelywithSTPandRSTPdevices.MSTP
automaticallydetectswhentheswitchportsareconnectedtonon-MSTP
devicesinthespanningtreeandcommunicateswiththosedevicesusing
802.1Dor802.1wSTPBPDUpackets,asappropriate.
BecauseMSTPissoefficientatestablishingthenetworkpath,HPhighly
recommendsthatyouupdateallofyourswitchestosupport802.1s/MSTP.
(Forswitchesthatdonotsupport802.1s/MSTP,HPrecommendsthatyou
update toRSTPtobenefit fromtheconvergencetimesoflessthan onesecond
underoptimalcircumstances.)TomakethebestuseofMSTPandachievethe
fastestpossibleconvergencetimes,therearesomechangesthatyoushould
maketotheMSTPdefaultconfiguration.
Not e Undersomecircumstances,itispossiblefortherapidstatetransitions
employedbyMSTPandRSTPtoresultinanincreaseintheratesofframe
duplicationandmisorderingintheswitched LAN. Inorder toallowMSTPand
RSTPswitchestosupportapplicationsandprotocolsthatmaybesensitiveto
frameduplicationandmisordering,settingtheForceProtocolVersionparam-
etertoSTP-compatibleallowsMSTPandRSTPtooperatewiththerapid
transitionsdisabled.Thevalueofthisparameterappliestoallportsonthe
switch.Seeinformationonforce versiononpage5-16.
Asindicatedabove,oneofthebenefitsofMSTPandRSTPistheimplemen-
tationofalargerrangeofportpathcosts,whichaccommodateshigher
networkspeeds.Newdefaultvalueshavealsobeenimplementedforthepath
costsassociatedwiththedifferentnetworkspeeds.Thiscancreatesome
5-55
Spanning-Tree Operation
802.1sMultipleSpanningTreeProtocol(MSTP)fortheSeries2600/2600-PWRand2800Switches
incompatibilitybetweendevicesrunningtheolder802.1DSTPandyour
switchrunningMSTPorRSTP.PleaseseetheNoteonPathCostonpage
5-19formoreinformationonadjustingtothisincompatibility.
TipsforPlanninganMSTPApplication
EnsurethattheVLANconfigurationinyournetworksupportsallofthe
forwardingpathsnecessaryforthedesiredconnectivity.Allportscon-
nectingoneswitchtoanotherwithinaregionandoneswitchtoanother
betweenregionsshouldbeconfiguredasmembersofallVLANsconfig-
uredintheregion.
Allportsortrunksconnectingoneswitchtoanotherwithinaregion
shouldbeconfiguredasmembersofallVLANsintheregion.Otherwise,
someVLANscouldbeblockedfromaccesstothespanning-treerootfor
aninstanceorfortheregion.
PlanindividualregionsbasedonVLANgroupings.Thatis,planonall
MSTPswitchesinagivenregionsupportingthesamesetofVLANs.Within
eachregion,determinetheVLANmembershipforeachspanning-tree
instance.(EachinstancerepresentsasingleforwardingpathforallVLANs
inthatinstance.)
Thereisonelogicalspanning-treepaththroughthefollowing:
Anyinter-regionallinks
AnyISTorMSTinstancewithinaregion
Anylegacy(802.1Dor802.1w)switchorgroupofswitches.(Where
multiplepathsexistbetweenanMSTregionandalegacyswitch,
expecttheCSTtoblockallbutonesuchpath.)
Determinetherootbridgeandrootportforeachinstance.
DeterminethedesignatedbridgeanddesignatedportforeachLANseg-
ment.
DeterminewhichVLANstoassigntoeachinstance,anduseporttrunks
with802.1QVLANtaggingwhere separate linksforseparateVLANswould
resultinablockedlinkpreventingcommunicationbetweennodesonthe
sameVLAN.(RefertoMSTPOperationwith802.1QVLANsonpage
5-51.)
Identifytheedgeportsconnectedtoendnodesandenabletheedge-port
settingfortheseports.Leavetheedge-portsettingdisabledforports
connectedtoanotherswitch,abridge,orahub.
5-56
Spanning-Tree Operation
802.1sMultipleSpanningTreeProtocol(MSTP)fortheSeries2600/2600-PWRand2800Switches
No t e o n MST P UndersomecircumstancestherapidstatetransitionsemployedbyMSTP(and
Ra p i d St a t e RSTP)canincreasetheratesofframeduplicationandmisorderinginthe
Tr a n s i t i o n s switchedLAN.ToallowMSTPswitches tosupportapplicationsandprotocols
thatmaybesensitivetoframeduplicationandmisordering,settingtheForce
ProtocolVersion(force-version)parametertostp-compatibleallowsMSTPto
operatewithrapidtransitionsdisabled.Thevalueofthisparameterappliesto
allportsontheswitch.Seetheinformationonforce-versiononpage62.
StepsforConfiguringMSTP
ThissectionoutlinesthegeneralstepsforconfiguringMSTPoperationin your
network,andassumesyouhavealreadyplannedandconfiguredtheVLANs
youwantMSTPtouse.TheactualMSTPparameterdescriptionsareinthe
followingsections.
Not e TheswitchsupportsMSTPconfigurationthroughtheCLI.Afteryouspecify
MSTPandreboottheswitchasdescribedabove,theswitchremovesthe
Spanning TreeoptionfromtheMenuinterface.Ifyoulaterreconfigurethe
switchtouseSTPorRSTP,theswitchreturnstheSpanning Treeoptiontothe
Menuinterface.
Thissectionassumesthatyouhavealready
1. ConfiguredtheMSTPoperationmode.ThisspecifiesMSTPasthespan-
ningtreeoperatingmode.ChangingthecurrentMSTPoperationmode
requiresyoutosavethechangeandreboottoactivatetheselection.
spanning-tree protocol-version < stp | rstp | mstp >
2. ConfigureMSTPglobalparameters.Thisstepinvolvesconfiguringthe
following:
RequiredparametersforMSTregionidentity:
RegionName:spanning-tree config-name
RegionRevisionNumber:spanning-tree config revision
OptionalMSTPparameterchangesforregionsettings:
HPrecommendsthatyouleavetheseparametersattheirdefault
settingsformostnetworks.RefertotheCautiononpage49.
ThemaximumnumberofhopsbeforetheMSTPBPDUisdis-
carded(default:20)
spanning-tree max-hops
5-57
Spanning-Tree Operation
802.1sMultipleSpanningTreeProtocol(MSTP)fortheSeries2600/2600-PWRand2800Switches
Force-Versionoperation
spanning-tree force-version
Forward Delay
spanning-tree forward-delay
HelloTime(usediftheswitchoperatesastherootdevice.)
spanning-tree hello-time
MaximumagetoallowforSTPpacketsbeforediscarding
spanning-tree max-age
Devicespanning-treepriority.Specifiesthepriorityvalueused
alongwiththeswitchMACaddresstodeterminewhichdeviceis
root.Thelowerapriorityvalue,thehigherthepriority.
spanning-tree priority
3. ConfigureMSTinstances.
ConfigureoneinstanceforeachVLANgroupthatyouwanttooperate
asanactivetopologywithintheregiontowhichtheswitchbelongs.
Whenyoucreatetheinstance,youmustincludeaminimumofone
VID.YoucanaddmoreVIDslaterifdesired.
spanning-tree instance < 1 - 16 > vlan < vid >
TomoveaVLANfromoneinstancetoanother,firstuseno spanning-
tree instance < n > vlan < vid >tounmaptheVLANfromthecurrent
instance,thenaddtheVLANtotheotherinstance.(WhiletheVLAN
isunmappedfromanMSTI,itisassociatedwiththeregionsIST
instance.)
Configurethepriorityforeachinstance.
spanning-tree instance
4. ConfigureMSTinstanceportparameters.Enableedge-portforports
connectedtoendnodes(page63),butleaveitdisabled(thedefault)for
connectionstoanotherswitch,abridge,orahub.Setthepathcostvalue
fortheport(s)usedbyaspecificMSTinstance.Leavingthissettingatthe
defaultautoallowstheswitchtocalculatethepath-costfromthelink
speed.
spanning-tree instance < 1 - 16 | ist > [ E ] port-list < port-list >
5. Enablespanning-treeoperationontheswitch.
spanning-tree
5-58
Spanning-Tree Operation
802.1sMultipleSpanningTreeProtocol(MSTP)fortheSeries2600/2600-PWRand2800Switches
ConfiguringMSTPOperationModeandGlobal
Parameters
Command Page
spanning-treeprotocol-versionmstp page
5-60
spanning-treeconfig-name< ascii-string> page
5-60
spanning-treeconfig-revision<revision-number > page
5-61
spanning-treemax-hops<hop-count > page
5-61
spanning-treeforce-version page
<stp-compatible|rstp-operation|mstp-operation> 5-62
spanning-treehello-time<1..10> page
5-62
Thecommandsinthissectionapplyontheswitchlevel,anddonotaffect
individualportconfigurations.
5-59
Spanning-Tree Operation
802.1sMultipleSpanningTreeProtocol(MSTP)fortheSeries2600/2600-PWRand2800Switches
Syntax: spanning-tree-protocol-versionmstp
Changesthecurrentspanning-treeprotocolontheswitchto
802.1sMultipleSpanningTree.Mustbefollowedbywrite mem
andreboottoactivatethechange.Afterrebooting,theswitch
is readytooperateasanMSTPbridge.Notethatthiscommand
doesnotenablespanning-treeoperation.Toactivatethe
configuredspanning-treeoperationontheswitch,execute
spanning-tree.
Note:Whenyouactivatespanning-treeoperationorchange
thespanning-treeconfigurationwhilespanningtreeis
enabled,theswitchmustrecalculatethenetworkpathsit
uses.Tominimizetrafficdelayswhilethisconvergenceoccurs,
HPrecommendsthatyounotactivatespanningtreeoperation
untilyouhavefinishedconfiguringalldevicesinyour
network.RefertoEnablinganEntireMSTRegionatOnceor
ExchangingOneRegionConfigurationforAnotheronpage
5-72.
Not e Thefollowingcommandsareavailableonlywhentheswitchisconfiguredfor
MSTPprotocoloperation.
Syntax: [no]spanning-treeconfig-name<ascii-string>
ThiscommandresetstheconfigurationnameoftheMST
regioninwhichtheswitchresides.Thisnamecanincludeup
to32nonblankcharactersandiscase-sensitive.Onall
switcheswithinagivenMSTregion,theconfigurationnames
mustbeidentical. Thus,ifyouwantmorethanoneMSTP
switchinthesameMSTregion,youmustconfigurethe
identicalregionnameonallsuchswitches.Ifyouretainthe
defaultconfigurationnameonaswitch,itcannotexistinthe
sameMSTregionwithanotherswitch.(DefaultName:Atext
stringusingthehexadecimalrepresentationoftheswitchs
MACaddress)
Thenoformofthecommandoverwritesthecurrently
configurednamewiththedefaultname.
Note:Thisoptionisavailableonlywhentheswitchis
configuredforMSTPoperation.Also,thereisnodefined
limitonthenumberofregionsyoucanconfigure.
5-60
Spanning-Tree Operation
802.1sMultipleSpanningTreeProtocol(MSTP)fortheSeries2600/2600-PWRand2800Switches
Syntax: spanning-treeconfig-revision<revision-number>
Thiscommandconfigurestherevisionnumberyoudesignate
fortheMSTregioninwhichyouwanttheswitchtoreside.
Thissettingmustbethesameforallswitchesresidinginthe
sameregion.Usethissettingtodifferentiatebetweenregion
configurationsinsituationssuchasthefollowing:
Changingconfigurationsettingswithinaregionwhereyou
wanttotracktheconfigurationversionsyouuse
Creatinganewregionfromasubsetofswitchesinacurrent
regionandwanttomaintainthesameregionname.
Usingthepending optiontomaintaintwodifferent
configurationoptionsforthesamephysicalregion.
NotethatthissettingmustbethesameforallMSTPswitches
inthesameMSTregion.(Range:0 - 65535;Default:0)
Note:Thisoptionisavailableonlywhentheswitchis
configuredforMSTPoperation.
Syntax: spanning-treemax-hops< hop-count >
ThiscommandresetsthenumberofhopsallowedforBPDUs
inanMSTregion.WhenanMSTPswitchreceivesaBPDU,it
decrementsthehop-countsettingtheBPDUcarries.Ifthehop-
countreacheszero,thereceivingswitchdropstheBPDU.Note
thattheswitchdoesnotchangethemessage-ageand
maximum-agedatacarriedintheBPDUasitmovesthrough
theMSTregionandispropagatedtootherregions.(Range:1
- 40;Default:20)
5-61
Spanning-Tree Operation
802.1sMultipleSpanningTreeProtocol(MSTP)fortheSeries2600/2600-PWRand2800Switches
Syntax: spanning-treeforce-version<stp-compatible|rstp-operation|mstp-
operation>
Setsthespanning-treecompatibilitymode.Whentheswitch
isconfiguredwithMSTPmode,thiscommandforcesthe
switchtoemulatebehaviorofearlierversionsofspanningtree
protocolorreturntoMSTPbehavior.Thecommandisuseful
intestordebugapplications,andremovestheneedto
reconfiguretheswitchfortemporarychangesinspanning-
treeoperation.
stp-compatible:Theswitchapplies802.1DSTPoperationonall
ports.
rstp-operation: Theswitchapplies802.1woperationonallports
exceptthoseportswhereitdetectsasystemusing802.1D
SpanningTree.
mstp-operation: Theswitchapplies802.1sMSTPoperationon
allportswherecompatibilitywith802.1Dor802.1wspanning
tree protocolsisnotrequired.
Thiscommandisavailablewhentheprotocolversionissetto
mstp(see'protocol-version'later).
Notethatevenwhenmstp-operationisselected,iftheswitch
detectsan802.1DBPDUoran802.1wBPDUonaport,it
communicateswiththedevicelinkedtothatportusingSTP
orRSTPBPDUpackets.Also,iferrorsareencounteredas
describedintheNoteonMSTPRapidStateTransitionson
page57,settingforce-versiontostp-compatibleforcestheMSTP
switchtocommunicateoutallportsusingoperationsthatare
compatiblewithIEEE802.1DSTP.
Syntax: spanning-treehello-time<1..10>
IfMSTPisrunningandtheswitchisoperatingastheCIST
rootforyournetwork,thiscommandspecifiesthetimein
secondsbetweentransmissionsofBPDUsforallportsonthe
switchconfiguredwithUse Global(thedefault).This
parameterappliesinMSTP,RSTPandSTPmodes.During
MSTPoperation,youcanoverridethisglobalsettingonaper-
portbasiswiththiscommand:spanning-tree < port-list > hello-
time < 1..10 >(page63).(Default:2.)
5-62
Spanning-Tree Operation
802.1sMultipleSpanningTreeProtocol(MSTP)fortheSeries2600/2600-PWRand2800Switches
ConfiguringBasicPortConnectivityParameters
Command Page
spanning-tree<port-list>
edge-port below
spanning-treemcheck below
hello-time<global|1..10> 64
spanning-treepath-cost<auto|200000000> page
5-66
spanning-treepoint-to-point-mac<force-true|force-false|auto> page
5-68
spanning-treepriority page
5-68
Thebasicportconnectivityparametersaffectspanning-treelinksattheglobal
level.Inmostcases,HPrecommendsthatyouusethe defaultsettingsforthese
parametersandapplychangesonaper-portbasisonlywhereanondefault
settingisclearlyindicatedbythecircumstancesofindividuallinks.
Syntax: [no]spanning-tree< port-list ><edge-port|mcheck>
[edge-port]
Enableedge-portonportsconnectedtoendnodes.During
spanningtreeestablishment,portswithedge-portenabled
transitionimmediatelytotheforwardingstate.Disable
thisfeatureonanyswitchportthatisconnectedtoanother
switch,bridge,orhub.(Default:No -disabled)
Theno spanning-tree < port-list > edge-port]command
disablesedge-portoperationonthespecifiedports.
5-63
Spanning-Tree Operation
802.1sMultipleSpanningTreeProtocol(MSTP)fortheSeries2600/2600-PWRand2800Switches
[mcheck]
ForcesaporttosendRSTPBPDUsfor3seconds.This
allowsforanotherswitchconnectedtotheportand
runningRSTPtoestablishitsconnectionquicklyandfor
identifyingswitchesrunning802.1DSTP.Ifthewhole-
switchforce-versionparameterissettostp-compatible,
theswitchignoresthemchecksettingandsends802.1D
STPBPDUsoutallports.Disablethisfeatureonallports
thatareknowntobeconnectedtodevicesthatarerunning
802.1DSTP.(Default:Yes -enabled)
Theno spanning-tree< port-list > mcheck]commanddisables
mcheck.
Syntax: spanning-tree< port-list ><hello-time|path-cost| point-to-point-mac|
priority>
[hello-time<global|1-10>
WhentheswitchistheCISTroot,thisparameterspecifies
theinterval(inseconds)betweenperiodicBPDU
transmissionsbythedesignatedports.Thisintervalalso
appliestoallportsinallswitchesdownstreamfromeach
portinthe<port-list>.Asettingofglobal indicatesthatthe
portsin<port-list>ontheCISTrootareusingthevalueset
bytheglobalspanning-treehello-timevalue(page62).
WhenagivenswitchXisnottheCISTroot,theper-port
hello-timeforallactiveportsonswitchXispropagated
fromtheCISTroot,andisthesameasthehello-timeinuse
ontheCISTrootportinthecurrentlyactivepathfrom
switchXtotheCISTroot.(Thatis,whenswitchXis
nottheCISTroot,thentheupstreamCISTrootsporthello-
timesettingoverridesthehello-timesettingconfiguredon
switchX.(DefaultPer-Portsetting:Use Global.Default
GlobalHello-Time:2.)
[path-cost<auto|1..200000000>]
5-64
Spanning-Tree Operation
802.1sMultipleSpanningTreeProtocol(MSTP)fortheSeries2600/2600-PWRand2800Switches
Assignsanindividualportcostthattheswitchusesto
determinewhichportsareforwardingportsinagiven
spanningtree.Inthedefaultconfiguration(auto)the
switchdeterminesaportspathcostbytheportstype:
10Mbps:2000000
100Mbps:200000
1Gbps:20000
RefertoNoteonPathCostonpage5-19forinformation
oncompatibilitywithdevicesrunning802.1DSTPforthe
pathcostvalues(Default:Auto.).
point-to-point-mac<force-true|force-false|auto>
Thisparameterinformstheswitchofthetypeofdeviceto
whichaspecificportconnects.
Force-True (default):Indicatesapoint-to-pointlinktoa
devicesuchasaswitch,bridge,orend-node.
Force-False:Indicatesaconnectiontoahub(whichisa
sharedLANsegment).
Auto: CausestheswitchtosetForce-Falseontheportifit
isnotrunningatfullduplex.(Connectionstohubsare
half-duplex.)
priority<0..15>
MSTPusesthisparametertodeterminetheport(s)touse
forforwarding.Theportwiththelowestprioritynumber
hasthehighestpriority.Therangeis0to240,andis
configuredbyspecifyingamultiplierintherangeof0-
15.Forexample,toenterapriorityof64youwould
configurePrioritywithamultiplierof 4;thatis,(4x16
=64).Thus,thedisplayeddefaultsettingof128isderived
fromthedefaultmultiplierof8.Whenyouusetheshow
spanning-treecommandoptions,thePriorityappearsas
theresultofthemultiplierx16,andnotthemultiplier
itself.(Default:128;configuredmultiplier=8).
ConfiguringMSTInstanceParameters
Command Page
spanning-treeinstance<1..16>vlan<vid>[ vid..vid ] page
nospanning-treeinstance<1..16> 5-63
5-65
Spanning-Tree Operation
802.1sMultipleSpanningTreeProtocol(MSTP)fortheSeries2600/2600-PWRand2800Switches
Command Page
spanning-treeinstance<1..16>priority<0..15>
5-66
page
spanning-treepriority<0..15> page
5-66
Syntax: spanning-treeinstance<1..16>vlan<vid[vid..vid ]>
nospanning-treeinstance<1..16>
ConfiguringMSTPontheswitchautomaticallyconfiguresthe
ISTinstanceandplacesallstaticallyconfiguredVLANsonthe
switchintotheISTinstance.Thiscommandcreatesanew
MSTinstance(MSTI)andmovestheVLANsyouspecifyfrom
theISTtotheMSTI. AtleastoneVLANmustbemappedtoa
MSTIwhenyoucreateit.(AVLANcannotbemappedtomore
thanoneinstanceatatime.)Youcancreateupto16MSTIs
inaregion.Usethenoformof thecommandtoremoveaVLAN
fromanMSTI.(RemovingaVLANfromanMSTIreturnsthe
VLANtotheISTinstance,whereitcaneitherremainorbere-
assignedtoanotherMSTIconfiguredintheregion.)
ThenoformofthecommanddeletesthespecifiedMSTIand
returnsallVLANassignmentstotheregionsISTinstance.
Syntax: spanning-treeinstance<1..16>priority<0..15>
5-66
Spanning-Tree Operation
802.1sMultipleSpanningTreeProtocol(MSTP)fortheSeries2600/2600-PWRand2800Switches
Thiscommandsetstheswitch(bridge)priorityforthedesig-
natedinstance.Thispriorityiscomparedwiththepriorities
ofotherswitchesinthesameinstancetodeterminetheroot
switchfortheinstance.Thelowerthepriorityvalue,thehigher
thepriority.(Ifthereisonlyoneswitchintheinstance,then
thatswitchistherootswitchfortheinstance.)Therootbridge
inagiveninstanceprovidesthepathtoconnectedinstances
inotherregionsthatshareoneormoreofthesameVLAN(s).
(TrafficinVLANsassignedtoanumberedSTPinstanceina
givenregionmovestootherregionsthroughtherootswitch
forthatinstance.)
ThepriorityrangeforanMSTPswitchis0-61440.However,
thiscommandspecifiestheinstancepriorityasamultiplier
(0- 15)of4096.Thatis,whenyouspecifyaninstancepri-
orityvalueof0- 15,theactualpriorityassignedtotheswitch
forthespecifiedMSTinstanceis:
(instance-priority-value)x4096
Forexample,ifyouconfigure5asthepriorityforMST
Instance1onagivenMSTPswitch,thenthe Switch Priority
settingis20,480forthatinstanceinthatswitch.
Note:IfmultipleswitchesinthesameMSTinstancehavethe
sameprioritysetting,thentheswitchwiththelowestMAC
addressbecomestherootswitchforthatinstance.
5-67
Spanning-Tree Operation
802.1sMultipleSpanningTreeProtocol(MSTP)fortheSeries2600/2600-PWRand2800Switches
Syntax: spanning-treepriority<0..15>
Thiscommandsetstheswitch(bridge)priorityforthe
designatedregioninwhichtheswitchresides.Theswitch
comparesthisprioritywiththeprioritiesofotherswitchesin
thesameregiontodeterminetherootswitchfortheregion.
Thelowerthepriorityvalue,thehigherthepriority.(Ifthere
isonlyoneswitchintheregion,thenthatswitchistheroot
switchfortheregion.)Therootbridgeinaregionprovidesthe
pathtoconnectedregionsforthetrafficinVLANsassignedto
theregionsISTinstance.(TrafficinVLANsassignedtoa
numberedSTPinstanceinagivenregionmovestoother
regionsthroughtherootswitchforthatinstance.)
ThepriorityrangeforanMSTPswitchis0-61440.However,
thiscommandspecifiesthepriorityasamultiplier(0-15)
of4096.Thatis,whenyouspecifyapriorityvalueof0-15,
theactualpriorityassignedtotheswitchis:
(priority-value)x4096
Forexample,ifyouconfigure2asthepriorityonagiven
MSTPswitch,thenthe Switch Prioritysettingis8,192.
Note:IfmultipleswitchesinthesameMSTregionhavethe
sameprioritysetting,thentheswitchwiththelowestMAC
addressbecomestherootswitchforthatregion.
5-68
Spanning-Tree Operation
802.1sMultipleSpanningTreeProtocol(MSTP)fortheSeries2600/2600-PWRand2800Switches
ConfiguringMSTInstancePer-PortParameters
Command Page
spanning-treeinstance<1..16><port-list>path-cost
<auto|1..200000000>
page
5-69
spanning-treeinstance<1..16><port-list >priority<priority-multiplier> page
5-70
spanning-tree<port-list >priority<priority-multiplier > page
5-71
Syntax:- spanning-treeinstance<1..16>[e]<port-list>path-cost<auto|
1..200000000>
Thiscommandassignsanindividualportcostforthe
specifiedMSTinstance.(Foragivenport,thepathcostsetting
canbedifferentfordifferentMSTinstancestowhichtheport
maybelong.)Theswitchusesthepathcosttodeterminewhich
portsaretheforwardingportsinthe instance;thatiswhich
linkstousefortheactivetopologyoftheinstanceandwhich
portstoblock. Thesettingsareeitherauto orinarangefrom
1to200,000,000.Withtheautosetting,theswitchcalculates
thepathcostfromthelinkspeed:
10Mbps2000000
100Mbps200000
1Gbps20000
(Default:Auto)
5-69
Spanning-Tree Operation
802.1sMultipleSpanningTreeProtocol(MSTP)fortheSeries2600/2600-PWRand2800Switches
Syntax: spanning-treeinstance<1..16>[e]<port-list>priority<priority-multiplier>
Thiscommandsetsthepriorityforthespecifiedport(s)inthe
specifiedMSTinstance. (Foragivenport,theprioritysetting
canbedifferentfordifferentMSTinstancestowhichtheport
maybelong.)ThepriorityrangeforaportinagivenMST
instanceis0-255.However,thiscommandspecifiesthe
priorityasamultiplier(0- 15)of16.Thatis,whenyou
specifyaprioritymultiplierof 0- 15,theactualpriority
assignedtotheswitchis:
(priority-multiplier)x16
Forexample,ifyouconfigure2astheprioritymultiplieron
agivenportinanMSTinstance,thentheactual Prioritysetting
is32.Thus,afteryouspecifytheportprioritymultiplierin
aninstance,theswitchdisplaystheactualportpriority(and
notthemultiplier)intheshow spanning-tree instance < 1..16 >
orshow spanning-tree < port-list > instance < 1..16 >displays.
Youcanviewtheactualmultipliersettingforportsinthe
specifiedinstancebyexecutingshow running andlookingfor
anentryinthisformat:
spanning-treeinstance<1..15><port-list >priority<priority-
multiplier>
Forexample,configuringportA2withaprioritymultiplier
of3in instance1,resultsinthislineintheshow running
output:
spanning-tree instance 1 A2 priority 3
5-70
Spanning-Tree Operation
802.1sMultipleSpanningTreeProtocol(MSTP)fortheSeries2600/2600-PWRand2800Switches
Syntax: spanning-tree[e]<port-list>priority<priority-multiplier >
Thiscommandsetsthepriorityforthespecifiedport(s)for
theIST(thatis,Instance0)oftheregioninwhichtheswitch
resides.Thispriorityiscomparedwiththeprioritiesofother
portsintheISTtodeterminewhichportistherootportforthe
ISTinstance.Thelowerthepriorityvalue,thehigherthe
priority.TheISTrootport(ortrunk)inaregionprovidesthe
pathtoconnectedregionsforthetrafficinVLANsassignedto
theregionsISTinstance.
ThepriorityrangeforaportinagivenMSTinstanceis0-240.
However,thiscommandspecifiesthepriorityasamultiplier
(0-15)of16.Thatis,whenyouspecifyaprioritymultiplier
of 0-15,theactualpriorityassignedtotheswitchis:
(priority-multiplier)x16
Forexample,configuring5astheprioritymultiplierona
givenportintheISTinstanceforaregioncreatesanactual
Prioritysettingof80.Thus,afteryouspecifytheportpriority
multiplierfortheISTinstance,theswitchdisplaystheactual
portpriority(andnotthemultiplier)intheshow spanning-tree
instance istorshow spanning-tree < port-list > instance ist
displays.Youcanviewtheactualmultipliersettingforports
intheISTinstancebyexecutingshow running andlookingfor
anentryinthisformat:
spanning-tree<port-list>priority<priority-multiplier>
Forexample,configuringportA2withaprioritymultiplier
of2intheISTinstance,resultsinthislineintheshow
runningoutput:
spanning-tree A2 priority 2
5-71
Spanning-Tree Operation
802.1sMultipleSpanningTreeProtocol(MSTP)fortheSeries2600/2600-PWRand2800Switches
EnablingorDisablingSpanningTreeOperation
Thiscommandenablesordisablesspanningtreeoperationforanyspanning
treeprotocolenabledontheswitch.Beforeusingthiscommandtoenable
spanningtree,ensurethattheversionyouwanttouseisactiveontheswitch.
Syntax: [no]spanning-tree
EnablingspanningtreewithMSTPconfiguredimplements
MSTPforallphysicalportsontheswitch,accordingtothe
VLANgroupingsfortheISTinstanceandanyotherconfigured
instances.DisablingMSTPremovesprotectionagainst
redundantloopsthatcansignificantlysloworhaltanetwork.
Thiscommandsimplyturnsspanningtreeonoroff.Itdoes
notchangetheexistingspanningtreeconfiguration.
EnablinganEntireMSTRegionatOnceorExchanging
OneRegionConfigurationforAnother
Command Page
spanning-treepending<apply|config-name|config-revision|instance|reset> page
5-73
ThisoperationexchangesthecurrentlyactiveMSTPconfigurationwiththe
currentlypendingMSTPconfiguration.Itenablesyoutoimplementanew
MSTPconfigurationwithminimalnetworkdisruptionortoexchangeMSTP
configurationsfortestingortroubleshootingpurposes.
WhenyouconfigureorreconfigureMSTP,theswitchre-calculatesthecorre-
spondingnetworkpaths.Thiscanhavearippleeffectthroughoutyournet-
workasadjacentMSTPswitchesrecalculatenetworkpathstosupportthe
configurationchangesinvokedinasingleswitch.AlthoughMSTPemploys
RSTPoperation,theconvergencetimeforimplementingMSTPchangescan
bedisruptivetoyournetwork.However,byusingthespanning-treepending
feature,youcansetupanMSTPontheswitchandtheninvokeallinstances
ofthenewconfigurationatthesametime,insteadofoneatatime.
ToCreateaPendingMSTPConfiguration. Thisprocedurecreatesa
pendingMSTPconfigurationandexchangesitwiththeactiveMSTPconfigu-
ration.
5-72
Spanning-Tree Operation
802.1sMultipleSpanningTreeProtocol(MSTP)fortheSeries2600/2600-PWRand2800Switches
1. ConfiguretheVLANsyouwantincludedinanyinstancesinthenew
region.Whenyoucreatethependingregion,allVLANsconfiguredonthe
switchwillbeassignedtothependingISTinstanceunlessassignedto
other,pendingMSTinstances.
2. ConfigureMSTPasthespanning-treeprotocol,thenexecutewrite mem
andreboot.(ThependingoptionisavailableonlywithMSTPenabled.)
3. Configurethependingregionnametoassigntotheswitch.
4. Configurethependingconfig-revisionnumberfortheregionname.
5. IfyouwantanMSTinstanceotherthantheISTinstance,configurethe
instancenumberandassigntheappropriateVLANs(VIDs).(Thepending
commandcreatestheregionsISTinstanceautomatically.)
6. Repeatstep5foreachadditionalMSTinstanceyouwanttoconfigure.
7. Usetheshow spanning-tree pending commandtoreviewyourpending
configuration(page80).
8. Usethespanning-tree pending apply commandtoexchangethecurrently
activeMSTPconfigurationwiththependingMSTPconfiguration.
Syntax: spanning-treepending<apply|config-name|config-revision|instance|reset>
apply
ExchangesthecurrentlyactiveMSTPconfigurationwith
thependingMSTPconfiguration.
config-name
SpecifiesthependingMSTregionname.Mustbethesame
forallMSTPswitchesintheregion.(Default:Theswitchs
MACaddress.)
config-revision
SpecifiesthependingMSTregionconfigurationrevision
number.MustbethesameforallMSTPswitchesinthe
region.(Default:0).
instance<1..16 >vlan[<vid |vid-range>
Createsthependinginstanceandassignsoneormore
VLANstotheinstance.
reset
CopiestheswitchscurrentlyactiveMSTPconfiguration
tothependingconfiguration.Thisisusefulwhenyou
wanttoexperimentwiththecurrentMSTPconfiguration
whilemaintaininganunchangedversion.
5-73
Spanning-Tree Operation
802.1sMultipleSpanningTreeProtocol(MSTP)fortheSeries2600/2600-PWRand2800Switches
9. ToviewthecurrentpendingMSTPconfiguration,usetheshow spanning-
tree pendingcommand(pagepage5-80).
DisplayingMSTPStatisticsandConfiguration
Command Page
MSTPStatistics:
showspanning-tree[<port-list>] below
showspanning-treeinstance<ist|1..16> 76
MSTPConfiguration
showspanning-tree[ port-list]config 77
showspanning-tree[port-list]configinstance<ist|1..16> 78
showspanning-treemst-config 79
showspanning-treepending<<instance|ist>|mst-config> page
5-80
DisplayingMSTPStatistics
DisplayingSwitchStatisticsfortheCommonSpanningTree. This
commanddisplaystheMSTPstatisticsfortheconnectionsbetweenMST
regionsinanetwork.
Syntax: showspanning-tree
Thiscommanddisplaystheswitchsglobalandregional
spanning-treestatus,plustheper-portspanning-tree
operationattheregionallevel.Notethatvaluesforthe
followingparametersappearonlyforportsconnectedtoactive
devices:Designated Bridge,Hello Time, PtP,andEdge.
Syntax: showspanning-tree<port-list>
Thiscommanddisplaysthespanning-treestatusforthe
designatedport(s).Youcanlistdataforaseriesofportsand
porttrunksbyspecifyingthefirstandlastportortrunkof any
consecutiveseriesofportsandtrunks.Forexample,todisplay
dataforportA20-A24andtrk1,youwouldusethiscommand:
show spanning-tree a20-trk1
5-74
Spanning-Tree Operation
802.1sMultipleSpanningTreeProtocol(MSTP)fortheSeries2600/2600-PWRand2800Switches
SwitchsSpanningTreeConfiguration
andIdentityofVLANsConfiguredinthe
SwitchfortheISTInstance
ListstheswitchsMSTProotdatafor
connectivitywithotherregionsandSTP
orRSTPdevices.
InternalSpanningTreeData(IST
Instance)fortheregioninwhichthe
SwitchOperates
ForEdge,No(edge-portoperationdisabled)indicates
theportisconfiguredforconnectingtoaLAN
segmentthatincludesabridgeorswitch.Yes
indicatestheportisconfiguredforahost(endnode)
link.Refertotheedge-port descriptionunder
Configuring Basic Port Connectivity
Parameters on page 5-63.
Yesmeanstheswitchisoperatingthe
portasifitisconnectedtoswitch,bridge,
orendnode(butnotahub).
Identifiestheoverallspanning-treeroot
forthenetwork.
Identifiesthespanning-treerootforthe
ISTInstancefortheregion.
Figure 5-28. Example of Common Spanning Tree Status on an MSTP Switch
5-75
Spanning-Tree Operation
802.1sMultipleSpanningTreeProtocol(MSTP)fortheSeries2600/2600-PWRand2800Switches
DisplayingSwitchStatisticsforaSpecificMSTInstance.
Syntax: showspanning-treeinstance<ist|1..16>
ThiscommanddisplaystheMSTPstatisticsforeithertheIST
instanceoranumberedMSTinstancerunningontheswitch.
Figure 5-29. Example of MSTP Statistics for a Specific Instance on an MSTP Switch
5-76
Spanning-Tree Operation
802.1sMultipleSpanningTreeProtocol(MSTP)fortheSeries2600/2600-PWRand2800Switches
DisplayingtheMSTPConfiguration
DisplayingtheGlobalMSTPConfiguration. Thiscommanddisplaysthe
switchsbasicandMSTregionspanning-treeconfiguration,includingbasic
portconnectivitysettings.
Syntax: showspanning-treeconfig
Theupperpartofthisoutputshowstheswitchsglobal
spanning-treeconfigurationthatappliestotheMSTregion.
Theportlistingshowsthespanning-treeportparameter
settingsforthespanning-treeregionoperation(configuredby
thespanning-tree < port-list > command).Forinformationon
theseparameters,refertoConfiguring Basic Port Connectivity
Parameters on page 5-63.
Syntax: showspanning-tree<port-list>config
Thiscommandshowsthesamedataastheabovecommand,
butliststhespanning-treeportparametersettingsforonlythe
specifiedport(s)and/ortrunk(s).Youcanlistdataforaseries
ofportsandporttrunksbyspecifyingthefirstandlastport
ortrunkofanyconsecutiveseriesofportsandtrunks.For
example,todisplaydataforportA20-A24andtrk1,usethis
command:show spanning-tree a20-trk1 config
GlobalHelloTime
Per-PortHelloTime
(OverridesGlobalHello-
Timeonindividualports.)
Per-PortPriority
GlobalPriority
Figure 5-30. Example of Displaying the Switchs Global Spanning-Tree Configuration
5-77
Spanning-Tree Operation
802.1sMultipleSpanningTreeProtocol(MSTP)fortheSeries2600/2600-PWRand2800Switches
DisplayingPer-InstanceMSTPConfigurations. Thesecommandsdis-
playstheper-instanceportconfigurationandcurrentstate,alongwith
instanceidentifiersandregionalrootdata.
Syntax: showspanning-treeconfiginstance<ist|1..16>
Theupperpartofthisoutputshowstheinstancedataforthe
specifiedinstance.Thelowerpartoftheoutputliststhe
spanning-treeportsettingsforthespecifiedinstance.
Syntax: showspanning-tree<port-list>configinstance<ist|1..16>
Thiscommandshowsthesamedataastheabovecommand,
butliststhespanning-treeportparametersettingsforonlythe
specifiedport(s)and/ortrunk(s).Youcanlistdataforaseries
ofportsandporttrunksbyspecifyingthefirstandlastport
ortrunkofanyconsecutiveseriesofportsandtrunks.For
example,todisplaydataforportA20-A24andtrk1,usethis
command:
show spanning-tree a20-trk1 config instance 1
Instance-SpecificData
PortSettingsforthe
specifiedinstance.
Figure 5-31. Example of the Configuration Listing for a Specific Instance
5-78
Spanning-Tree Operation
802.1sMultipleSpanningTreeProtocol(MSTP)fortheSeries2600/2600-PWRand2800Switches
DisplayingtheRegion-LevelConfigurationinBrief. Thiscommand
outputisusefulforquicklyverifyingtheallocationofVLANsintheswitchs
MSTPconfigurationandforviewingtheconfiguredregionidentifiers.
Syntax: showspanning-treemst-config
Thiscommanddisplaystheswitchsregionalconfiguration.
Note: TheswitchcomputestheMSTP Configuration Digest from
theVIDtoMSTIconfigurationmappingsontheswitchitself.
Asrequiredbythe802.1sstandard,allMSTPswitches within
thesameregionmusthavethesameVIDtoMSTIassignments,
andanygivenVIDcanbeassignedtoeithertheISToroneof
theMSTIswithintheregion.Thus,theMSTPConfiguration
DigestmustbeidenticalforallMSTPswitchesintendedto
belongtothesameregion.WhencomparingtwoMSTP
switches,iftheirDigestidentifiersdonotmatch,thenthey
cannotbemembersofthesameregion.
RefertotheNote,above.
Figure 5-32. Example of a Region-Level Configuration Display
5-79
Spanning-Tree Operation
802.1sMultipleSpanningTreeProtocol(MSTP)fortheSeries2600/2600-PWRand2800Switches
DisplayingthePendingMSTPConfiguration. Thiscommanddisplays
theMSTPconfigurationtheswitchwillimplementifyouexecutethespan-
ning-treependingapplycommand(RefertoEnablinganEntireMSTRegion
atOnceorExchangingOneRegionConfigurationforAnotheronpage5-72.)
Syntax: showspanning-treepending<instance|mst-config>
instance<1..16|ist>
Listsregion,instanceI.D.andVLANinformationforthe
specified,pendinginstance.
mst-config
Listsregion,ISTinstanceVLAN(s), numberedinstances,
andassignedVLANinformationforthependingMSTP
configuration.
Figure 5-33. Example of Displaying a Pending Configuration
5-80
Spanning-Tree Operation
802.1sMultipleSpanningTreeProtocol(MSTP)fortheSeries2600/2600-PWRand2800Switches
OperatingNotes
SNMPMIBSupportforMSTP. MSTPisasupersetoftheSTP/802.1Dand
RSTP/802.1wprotocolsandusestheMIBobjectsdefinedforthesetwo
protocols.Also,asofDecember,2003,therehasbeennoformalMIBdefinition
publishedfor802.1sMSTPmanagedobjects.
Troubleshooting
DuplicatepacketsonaVLAN,orpacketsnotarrivingonaLANatall.
TheallocationofVLANstoMSTIsmaynotbeidenticalamongallswitchesin
aregion.
ASwitchIntendedToOperateWithinaRegionDoesNotReceive
TrafficfromOtherSwitchesintheRegion. AnMSTPswitchintended
foraparticularregionmaynothavethesameconfigurationnameorregion
revisionnumberastheotherswitchesintendedforthesameregion.TheMSTP
ConfigurationNameandMSTPConfigurationRevisionnumbermustbeiden-
ticalonallMSTPswitchesintendedforthesameregion.Anotherpossibility
isthatthesetofVLANsconfiguredontheswitchmaynotmatchthesetof
VLANsconfiguredonotherswitchesintheintendedregion.
5-81
Spanning-Tree Operation
802.1sMultipleSpanningTreeProtocol(MSTP)fortheSeries2600/2600-PWRand2800Switches
Thispageisintentionallyunused.
5-82
6
QualityofService(QoS):Managing
BandwidthMoreEffectivelyontheSeries
2600/2600-PWRandSeries2800Switches
Contents
Introduction ................................................... 6-3
Terminology ................................................ 6-6
Overview................................................... 6-8
ClassifiersforPrioritizingOutboundPackets ................... 6-10
PacketClassifiersandEvaluationOrder ................... 6-11
PreparationforConfiguringQoS ......... ........................ 6-14
StepsforConfiguringQoSontheSwitch ................... 6-14
PlanningaQoSConfiguration .. .............................. 6-16
PrioritizingandMonitoringQoSConfigurationOptions ...... 6-16
QoSResourceUsageandMonitoring ...................... 6-16
Planning andMonitoringRuleUsage .. .................... 6-18
ManagingQoSResourceConsumption ..................... 6-18
TroubeshootingaShortageofPer-PortRuleResources....... 6-19
ExamplesofQoSResourceUsage......................... 6-21
UsingQoSClassifiersToConfigureQualityofServicefor
OutboundTraffic ................... ........................... 6-25
ViewingtheQoSConfiguration ............................... 6-25
NoOverride............................................ 6-26
QoSUDP/TCPPriority ...................................... 6-27
Assigning802.1pPriorityBasedonTCPorUDPPortNumber . 6-28
AssigningaDSCPPolicyBasedonTCPorUDPPortNumber . 6-29
QoSIP-DevicePriority ...................................... 6-33
AssigningaPriorityBasedonIPAddress................... 6-34
AssigningaDSCPPolicyBasedonIPAddress .............. 6-35
6-1
Quality of Service (QoS): Managing Bandwidth More Effectively on the Series 2600/2600-PWR and Series 2800 Switches
QoSIPType-of-Service(ToS)PolicyandPriority ............... 6-39
Assigningan802.1pPrioritytoIPv4Packetsonthe
BasisoftheToSPrecedenceBits ......................... 6-40
Assigningan802.1pPrioritytoIPv4Packetsonthe
BasisofIncomingDSCP ................................. 6-41
AssigningaDSCPPolicyontheBasisofthe
DSCPinIPv4PacketsReceivedfromUpstreamDevices...... 6-45
DetailsofQoSIPType-of-Service . . ....................... 6-49
QoSVLAN-ID(VID)Priority ................................. 6-52
AssigningaPriorityBasedonVLAN-ID .................... 6-52
AssigningaDSCPPolicyBasedonVLAN-ID(VID)........... 6-54
QoSSource-PortPriority .................................... 6-58
AssigningaPriorityBasedonSource-Port.................. 6-58
AssigningaDSCPPolicyBasedontheSource-Port .......... 6-60
DifferentiatedServicesCodepoint(DSCP)Mapping ............. 6-64
DefaultPrioritySettingsforSelectedCodepoints............ 6-65
QuicklyListingNon-DefaultCodepointSettings ............. 6-66
NoteOn ChangingaPrioritySetting... . ....................... 6-67
ExampleofChangingthePrioritySettingonaPolicy
WhenOneorMoreClassifiersAreCurrentlyUsingthePolicy . 6-68
IPMulticast(IGMP) Interaction withQoS ......................... 6-71
QoSMessagesintheCLI ........................................ 6-71
QoSOperatingNotesandRestrictions ............................ 6-72
6-2
Quality of Service (QoS): Managing Bandwidth More Effectively on the Series 2600/2600-PWR and Series 2800 Switches
Introduction
Introduction
TheQoSfeaturesdescribedinthischapterapplytotheSeries2600/2600-
PWRandSeries2800switches.
QoS Feature Default Menu CLI Web
UDP/TCPPriority Disabled page6-27 RefertotheOnlineHelp.
IP-DevicePriority Disabled page6-33
IPType-of-ServicePriority Disabled page6-39
VLAN-IDPriority Disabled page6-52
Source-PortPriority Disabled page6-58
DSCPPolicyTable Various page6-64
Asthetermsuggests,networkpolicyreferstothenetwork-widecontrolsyou
canimplementto:
Ensureuniformandefficienttraffichandlingthroughoutyournetwork,
whilekeepingthemostimportanttrafficmovingatanacceptablespeed,
regardlessofcurrentbandwidthusage.
Exercisecontrolovertheprioritysettingsofinboundtrafficarrivingin
andtravellingthroughyournetwork.
Addingbandwidthisoften agoodidea,butitisnotalwaysfeasibleanddoes
notcompletelyeliminatethepotentialfornetworkcongestion.Therewill
alwaysbepointsinthenetworkwheremultipletrafficstreamsmergeorwhere
networklinkswillchange speedandcapacity.Theimpactandnumberofthese
congestionpointswillincreaseovertimeasmoreapplicationsanddevices
areaddedtothenetwork.
When(notif)networkcongestionoccurs,itisimportanttomovetrafficon
thebasisofrelativeimportance.However,withoutQualityofService(QoS)
prioritization,lessimportanttrafficcanconsumenetworkbandwidthand
slowdownorhalt thedeliveryofmoreimportanttraffic.Thatis,withoutQoS,
mosttrafficreceivedbytheswitchisforwardedwiththesamepriorityithad
uponenteringtheswitch.Inmanycases,suchtrafficisnormalpriorityand
competesforbandwidthwithallothernormal-prioritytraffic,regardlessof
itsrelativeimportancetoyourorganizationsmission.
ThissectiongivesanoverviewofQoSoperationandbenefits,anddescribes
howtoconfigureQoSintheconsoleinterface.
6-3
Quality of Service (QoS): Managing Bandwidth More Effectively on the Series 2600/2600-PWR and Series 2800 Switches
QualityofServiceisageneraltermforclassifyingandprioritizingtraffic
throughoutanetwork.Thatis,QoSenablesyoutoestablishanend-to-end
trafficprioritypolicytoimprovecontrolandthroughputofimportantdata.
Youcanmanageavailablebandwidthsothatthemostimportanttrafficgoes
first.Forexample,youcanuseQualityofServiceto:
Upgradeordowngradetrafficfromvariousservers.
ControlthepriorityoftrafficfromdedicatedVLANsorapplications.
Changetheprioritiesoftrafficfromvarioussegmentsofyournetworkas
yourbusinessneedschange.
Setprioritypoliciesinedgeswitchesinyournetworktoenabletraffic-
handlingrulesacrossthenetwork.
Honor New Priority EdgeSwitch
Classifyinboundtraffic
ontheseClass-of-
Service(CoS)types:
IP-device(address)
VLAN-ID(VID).
Source-Port
Apply802.1ppriorityto
selectedoutbound
trafficontaggedVLANs.
Downstream
Switch
TaggedVLANsonsome
orallinboundand
outboundports.
Classifyinboundtraffic
onCoStypes.
Changepriorityon
selectedCoStype(s).
Forwardwith802.1p
priority.
Downstream
Switch
TaggedVLANsonat
leastsomeinbound
ports.
Trafficarriveswiththe
prioritysetintheVLAN
tag.Carrypriority
downstreamontagged
VLANs.
Downstream
Switch
TaggedVLANson
inboundandoutbound
ports.
Trafficarriveswith
prioritysetbyedge
switch
Forwardwith802.1p
priority.
Set Priority
Honor Priority
Change Priority
Figure 6-1. Example of 802.1p Priority Based on CoS (Class-of-Service) Types and Use of VLAN Tags
EdgeSwitch
Classifyinboundtraffic
onIP-device(address)
andVLAN-ID(VID).
ApplyDSCPmarkersto
selectedtraffic.
Downstream
Switch
ClassifyonToSDiffServ
andOtherCoS
ApplynewDSCPmarkers
toselectedtraffic.
Downstream
Switch
ClassifyonToSDiffserv
Downstream
Switch
TrafficarriveswithDSCP
markerssetbyedge
switch
ClassifyonToSDiffServ. Set Policy
Honor Policy
Change Policy
Honor New Policy
Figure 6-2. Example Application of Differentiated Services Codepoint (DSCP) Policies
Attheedgeswitch,QoSclassifiescertaintraffictypesandinsomecases
appliesaDSCPpolicy.Atthenexthop(downstreamswitch)QoShonorsthe
policiesestablishedattheedgeswitch.Furtherdownstream,anotherswitch
mayreclassifysometrafficbyapplyingnewpolicies,andyetotherdown-
streamswitchescanbeconfiguredtohonorthenewpolicies.
6-4
Quality of Service (QoS): Managing Bandwidth More Effectively on the Series 2600/2600-PWR and Series 2800 Switches
Introduction
QoSisimplementedintheformofrulesorpoliciesthatareconfiguredonthe
switch.WhileyoucanuseQoStoprioritizeonlytheoutboundtrafficwhileit
ismovingthroughtheswitch,youderivethemaximumbenefitbyusingQoS
inan802.1QVLANenvironment(with802.1pprioritytags)orinanuntagged
VLANenvironment(withDSCPpolicies)whereQoScansetprioritiesthat
downstreamdevicescansupportwithoutre-classifyingthetraffic.
Byprioritizingtraffic,QoSsupportstrafficgrowthonthenetworkwhile
optimizingtheuseofexistingresourcesanddelayingtheneedforfurther
investmentsinequipmentandservices.Thatis,QoSenablesyouto:
Specifywhichtraffichashigherorlowerpriority,regardlessofcurrent
networkbandwidthortherelativeprioritysettingofthetrafficwhenitis
receivedontheswitch.
Change(upgradeordowngrade)thepriorityofoutboundtraffic.
Overrideillegalpacketprioritiessetbyupstreamdevicesorapplications
thatuse802.1QVLANtaggingwith802.1pprioritytags.
Avoidor delaytheneedto addhigher-costNICs(networkinterfacecards)
toimplementprioritizing.(Instead,controlprioritythroughnetwork
policy.)
QoSontheswitchescoveredbythisguidesupportsthesetypesoftraffic
marking:
802.1pprioritization:Controlstheoutboundportqueuepriorityfor
trafficleavingtheswitch,and(iftraffic exitsthroughaVLAN-taggedport)
sendstheprioritysettingwiththeindividualpacketstothedownstream
devices.
IPType-of-Service(ToS):Enablestheswitchtoset,change,andhonor
prioritizationpoliciesbyusingtheDifferentiatedServices(diffserv)bits
intheToSbyteofIPv4packetheaders.
6-5
Quality of Service (QoS): Managing Bandwidth More Effectively on the Series 2600/2600-PWR and Series 2800 Switches
Terminology
Term Use in This Document
802.1ppriority AtrafficprioritysettingcarriedbyaVLAN-taggedpacketmovingfromonedevicetoanotherthrough
portsthataretaggedmembersoftheVLANtowhichthepacketbelongs.Thissettingcanbefrom0-
7.Theswitchhandlesanoutboundpacketonthebasisofits802.1ppriority.However,ifthepacket
leavestheswitchthroughaVLANonwhichtheportisanuntaggedmember,thispriorityisdropped,
andthepacketarrivesatthenext,downstreamdevicewithoutan802.1ppriorityassignment.
802.1Qfield Afour-bytefieldthatispresentintheheaderofEthernetpacketsenteringorleavingtheswitchthrough
aportthatisataggedmemberofaVLAN.Thisfieldincludesan802.1pprioritysetting,aVLANtag,or
IDnumber(VID),andotherdata.Apacketenteringorleavingtheswitchthroughaportthatisan
untaggedmemberoftheoutboundVLANdoesnothavethisfieldinitsheaderandthusdoesnotcarry
aVIDoran802.1ppriority.Seealso802.1ppriority.
codepoint RefertoDSCP,below.
downstream Adevicelinkeddirectlyorindirectlytoanoutboundswitchport.Thatis,theswitchsendstrafficto
device downstreamdevices.
DSCP Differentiated Services Codepoint.(Alsotermedcodepoint.)ADSCPiscomprisedoftheuppersixbits
oftheToS(Type-of-Service)byteinIPpackets.Thereare64possiblecodepoints.InthedefaultQoS
configurationfortheswitchescoveredinthischapter,onecodepoint(101110)issetforExpedited
Forwarding.Allothercodepointsareunused(andlistedwithNo-overrideforapriority).
DSCPpolicy ADSCPconfiguredwithaspecific802.1ppriority(0- 7).(Default:No-override).UsingaDSCPpolicy,
youcanconfiguretheswitchtoassignprioritytoIPpackets.Thatis,foranIPpacketidentifiedbythe
specifiedclassifier,youcanassignanewDSCPandan802.1ppriority(0-7).FormoreonDSCP,refer
toDetailsofQoSIPType-of-Serviceonpage6-49.FortheDSCPmap,seefigure6-24onpage6-50.
edgeswitch IntheQoScontext,thisisaswitchthatreceivestrafficfromtheedgeoftheLANorfromoutsidethe
LANandforwardsittodeviceswithintheLAN.Typically,anedgeswitchisusedwithQoStorecognize
packetsbasedonclassifierssuchasTCP/UDPapplicationtype,IP-device(address),VLAN-ID(VID),
andSource-Port(althoughitcanalsobeusedtorecognizepacketsonthebasisofToSbits).Usingthis
packetrecognition,theedgeswitchcanbeusedtoset802.1pprioritiesorDSCPpoliciesthat
downstreamdeviceswillhonor.
inboundport Anyportontheswitchthroughwhichtrafficenterstheswitch.
IPOptions InanIPv4packettheseareoptional,extrafieldsinthepacketheader.
IP-precedence TheupperthreebitsintheTypeofService(ToS)fieldofanIPpacket.
bits
IPv4 Version4oftheIPprotocol.
IPv6 Version6oftheIPprotocol.
outbound ApacketleavingtheswitchthroughanyLANport.
packet
outboundport Anyportontheswitchthroughwhichtrafficleavestheswitch.
6-6
Quality of Service (QoS): Managing Bandwidth More Effectively on the Series 2600/2600-PWR and Series 2800 Switches
Introduction
Term Use in This Document
outboundport
queue
re-marking
(DSCPre-
marking)
taggedport
membership
Type-of-Service
(ToS)byte
upstream
device
Foranyport,abufferthatholdsoutboundtrafficuntilitcanleavetheswitchthroughthatport.There
arefouroutboundqueuesforeachportintheswitch:high,medium,normal,andlow.Trafficinaports
highpriorityqueueleavestheswitchbeforeanytrafficintheportsmediumpriorityqueue,andso-on.
AssignsanewQoSpolicytoanoutboundpacketbychangingtheDSCPbitsettingsintheToSbyte.
IdentifiesaportasbelongingtoaspecificVLANandenablesVLAN-taggedpacketsbelongingtothat
VLANtocarryan802.1pprioritysettingwhenoutboundfromthatport.Whereaportisanuntagged
memberofaVLAN,outboundpacketsbelongingtothatVLANdonotcarryan802.1pprioritysetting.
Comprisedofathree-bit(high-order)precedencefieldandafive-bit(low-order)Type-of-Servicefield.
Laterimplementationsmayusethisbyteasasix-bit(high-order)DifferentiatedServicesfieldanda
two-bit(low-order)reservedfield.SeealsoIP-precedencebitsandDSCPelsewhereinthistable.
Adevicelinkeddirectlyorindirectlytoaninboundswitchport.Thatis,theswitchreceivestrafficfrom
upstreamdevices.
6-7
Quality of Service (QoS): Managing Bandwidth More Effectively on the Series 2600/2600-PWR and Series 2800 Switches
Overview
QoSsettingsoperateontwolevels:
Controllingthepriorityofoutboundpacketsmovingthroughthe
switch:Eachswitchporthasfouroutboundtrafficqueues;low,nor-
mal,medium,andhighpriority.Packetsleavetheswitchportonthe
basisoftheirqueueassignmentandwhetheranyhigherqueuesareempty:
Table 6-1.Port Queue Exit Priorities
Port Queue and
802.1p Priority Values
Priority for Exiting
From the Port
Low(1-2) Fourth
Normal(0,3) Third
Medium(4- 5) Second
High(6-7) First
AQoSconfigurationenablesyoutosettheoutboundpriorityqueueto
whichapacketissent.(Inan802.1QVLANenvironmentwithVLAN-
taggedports,ifQoSisnotconfiguredontheswitch,butisconfiguredon
anupstreamdevice,theprioritiescarriedinthepacketsdeterminethe
forwardingqueuesintheswitch.)
Configuringapriorityforoutboundpacketsandaservice(prior-
ity)policyforusebydownstreamdevices:
DSCPPolicy:Thisfeatureenablesyoutosetaprioritypolicyin
outboundIPpackets.(Youcanconfiguredownstreamdevicestoread
andusethispolicy.)ThismethodisnotdependentonVLAN-tagged
portstocarryprioritypolicytodownstreamdevices,andcan:
Changethecodepoint(theuppersixbits)intheToSbyte.
Setanew802.1ppriorityforthepacket.
(SettingDSCPpoliciesrequiresIPv4inboundpackets.Refertothe
IPv4entryunderTerminologyonpage6-6.)
802.1pPriorityRules:Anoutbound,VLAN-taggedpacketcarries
an802.1pprioritysettingthatwasconfigured(orpreserved)inthe
switch.Thisprioritysettingrangesfrom0to7,andcanbeusedby
downstreamdeviceshavinguptoeightoutboundportqueues.Thus,
whilepacketswithintheswitchmoveatthefourprioritylevelsshown
intable6-1,above,theystillcancarryan802.1pprioritythatcanbe
usedbydownstreamdeviceshavingmoreorlessthanthefourpriority
levelsintheswitchescoveredbythisguide.Also,ifthepacketenters
theswitchwithan802.1pprioritysetting,QoScanoverridethis
settingifconfiguredwithan802.1ppriorityruletodoso.
6-8
Quality of Service (QoS): Managing Bandwidth More Effectively on the Series 2600/2600-PWR and Series 2800 Switches
Introduction
Not e s : IfyournetworkusesonlyoneVLAN(andthereforedoesnotrequire
VLAN-taggedports)youcanstillpreserve802.1pprioritysettingsin
yourtrafficbyconfiguringtheportsastaggedVLANmembersonthe
linksbetweendevicesyouwanttohonortrafficpriorities.
RuleandPolicyLimits:Theswitchescoveredbythischapterallow
thefollowingmaximumnumberof priorityrulesand/orDSCPpolicies
inanycombination:
2600/2600-PWRSwitches:
Gigabitports:120
10/100Mbports:248
2800Switches:120
YoucanconfigureaQoSpriorityof0through7foranoutboundpacket.When
thepacketisthensenttoaport,theQoSprioritydetermineswhichoutbound
queuethepacketuses:
Table 6-2. QoS Priority Settings and Operation
QoS Priority Setting Outbound Port Queue
1-2 lowpriority
0-3 normalpriority
4-5 mediumpriority
6-7 highpriority
IfapacketisnotinaVLAN-taggedportenvironment,thentheQoSsettingsin
table6-2controlonlytowhichoutboundqueuethepacketgoes.WithoutVLAN
tagging,no802.1ppriorityisaddedtothepacketfordownstreamdeviceuse.
ButifthepacketisinaVLAN-taggedenvironment,thentheabovesettingis
alsoaddedtothepacketasan802.1ppriorityforusebydownstreamdevices
andapplications(shownintable6-3).Ineithercase,anIPpacketcanalso
carryaprioritypolicytodownstreamdevicesbyusingDSCP-markinginthe
ToSbyte.
6-9
Quality of Service (QoS): Managing Bandwidth More Effectively on the Series 2600/2600-PWR and Series 2800 Switches
Table 6-3. Mapping Series 2600/2600-PWR and 2800 Switch QoS Priority Settings to Device Queues
Priority Setting Outbound Port
Queues in the
Switch
802.1p Priority Setting Added
to Tagged VLAN Packets
Leaving the Switch
Queue Assignment in Downstream Devices With:
8 Queues 3 Queues 2 Queues
1 Queue1 1(lowpriority) Queue1 Queue1
2 2 Queue2 Queue1
0 Queue2 0(normalpriority) Queue3 Queue2
3 3 Queue4
4 Queue3 4(mediumpriority) Queue5 Queue3
5 5 Queue6 Queue2
6 Queue4 6(highpriority) Queue7
7 7 Queue8
ClassifiersforPrioritizingOutboundPackets
Theclassifiersusedintheswitchescoveredinthischapterareasubsetofthe
classifiersusedintheSeries5300xlswitches.Also,theSeries2600/2600-PWR
and2800switchessearchforclassifiermatchesintheoppositeorderofthat
usedinthe5300xlswitches.(FormoreonQoSoperationforthe5300xl
switchesandthe3400clswitchesrefertotheAdvancedTrafficManage-
mentGuidefortheseswitchmodels.)
Not e On Us i ng HPrecommendsthatyouconfigureaminimumnumberoftheavailableQoS
Mul t i pl e classifiersforprioritizinganygivenpackettype.Increasingthenumberof
Cr i t er i a activeclassifieroptionsforapackettypeincreasesthecomplexityofthe
possibleoutcomesandconsumesswitchresources.
6-10
Quality of Service (QoS): Managing Bandwidth More Effectively on the Series 2600/2600-PWR and Series 2800 Switches
Introduction
PacketClassifiersandEvaluationOrder
TheswitchescoveredbythischapterprovidesixQoSclassifiers(packet
criteria) youcanusetoconfigureQoSpriority.
Table 6-4. 2600/2600-PWR and 2800 Switch Classifier Search Order and
Precedence
Search Order Precedence QoS Classifier
1 6 (lowest) Incoming802.1pPriority(presentintaggedVLANenvironments)-
2 5 Incomingsource-portontheswitch-
3 4 VLANPriority-
4 3 IPTypeofService(ToS)field(IPpacketsonly)-
5 2 DevicePriority(destinationorsourceIPaddress)-
6 1 (highest) UDP/TCPApplicationType(port)-
Theswitchesusethelowest-to-highestsearchordershownintable6-4to
identifythehighest-precedenceclassifiertoapplytoanygivenpacket.(Note
thatthisistheoppositeoftheorderusedinthe5300xlswitches.)Ifthereis
onlyoneconfiguredclassifierthatmatchesagivenpacket,thentheswitch
appliestheQoSpolicyspecifiedinthatclassifier.Ifmultipleconfigured
classifiersmatchagivenpacket,theswitchapplieseachoneinturntothe
packetandconcludeswiththeQoSpolicyforthehighest-precedenceclassi-
fier.Notethatifthehighestprecedenceclassifierisconfiguredtoapplya
DSCPpolicy,thenboththeDSCPinthepacketandthe802.1ppriorityapplied
tothepacketcanbechanged.However,ifthehighestprecedenceclassifieris
configuredtoapplyan802.1ppriorityrule,onlythe802.1ppriorityinthefinal
QoSmatchforthepacketischanged.
Not e Onthe2600/2600-PWRand2800switches,intermixinglower-precedence
classifiersconfiguredwithDSCPpoliciesandhigher-precedenceclassifiers
configuredwith802.1ppriorityrulesisnotrecommended,asthiscanresult
inapacketwithan802.1ppriorityassignedbyoneclassifierandaDSCPpolicy
byanotherclassifier.Thisisbecausethesearchorderwouldallowalower
precedenceclassifierconfiguredwithaDSCPpolicytochangeboththeDSCP
andthe802.1psettinginapacket,andthenwouldallowasubsequent,higher
precedenceclassifier configuredwithan802.1ppriorityruletochangeonly
the802.1psetting.Toavoidthisproblem,aDSCPpolicyoptionshouldbe
appliedonlyonthehighest-precedenceclassifierinuseontheswitchor
appliedtoallQoSclassifiersinuseontheswitch.
6-11
Quality of Service (QoS): Managing Bandwidth More Effectively on the Series 2600/2600-PWR and Series 2800 Switches
Ingeneral,theprecedenceofQoSclassifiersshouldbeconsideredwhen
configuringQoSpolicies.Forexample,supposethatasystemadministrator
hasusedan802.1ppriorityruletoassignahighpriorityforpacketsreceived
onVLAN100,buthasalsousedanother802.1ppriorityruletoassignanormal
priorityforTCPport80packetsreceivedontheswitch.SinceTCP/UDPport
precedencesupersedesVLANprecedence,allTCPport80packetsonVLAN
100willbesettonormalpriority.Foraclassifierprecedencelisting,seetable
6-4,2600/2600-PWRand2800SwitchClassifierSearchOrderandPrece-
dence,onpage6-11.
Table 6-5. Precedence Criteria for QoS Classifiers
Precedence Criteria Overview
1 UDP/TCP Takesprecedencebasedonalayer4UDPorTCPapplication,withauser-specifiedapplication
portnumber(forexample,Telnet).Default state:Disabled
IfapacketdoesnotmeetthecriteriaforUDP/TCPpriority,thenprecedencedefaultstotheDevicePriority
classifier,below.
2 Device
Priority
(IP
Address)
TakesprecedencebasedonaninboundpackethavingaparticulardestinationorsourceIP
address.QoSappliesthefollowingIPaddresslimits:
Series2600/2600-PWRSwitches:
Gigabitports:Upto 60IPaddresses
10/100ports:Upto122IPaddresses
Series2800Switches:Upto60IPaddresses
IfagivenpackethasadestinationIPaddressmatchingaQoSconfiguration,thispackettakes
precedenceoveranotherpacketthathasthematchingIPaddressasasourceaddress.(This
canoccur,forexample,onanoutboundportinaswitchmeshenvironment.)Also,ifthesource
anddestinationIPaddresses(SAandDA)inthesamepacketmatchfordifferentQoSpolicies,
theDAtakesprecedence.Default state:NoIPaddressprioritization.
Ifapacketdoesnotmeetthecriteriafordevicepriority,thenprecedencedefaultstotheIPTypeofService
(ToS)classifier,below.
3 IPType-
of-
Service
(IPToS)
TakesprecedencebasedontheTOSfieldinIPpackets.(AppliesonlytoIPpackets.)TheToS
fieldisconfiguredbyanupstreamdeviceorapplicationbeforethepacketenterstheswitch.
IP Precedence Mode: QoSreadsaninboundpacketsIPprecedence(upperthree)bitsin
theType-of-Service(ToS)byteandautomaticallyassignsan802.1pprioritytothepacket(if
specifiedintheQoSconfiguration)foroutboundtransmission.
Differentiated Services (Diffserve) Mode:QoSreadsaninboundIPpacketsdifferentiated
services,orcodepoint(uppersix),bitsoftheType-of-Service(TOS)byte.Packet
prioritizationdependsontheconfiguredpriorityforthecodepoint.(Somecodepointsdefault
totheDSCPstandard,butcanbeoverridden.)
FormoreonIPToS,seeQoSIPType-of-Service(ToS)PolicyandPriorityonpage6-39.Default
state:Disabled.
IfapacketdoesnotmeetthecriteriaforToSpriority,thenprecedencedefaultstotheVLANclassifier
6-12
Quality of Service (QoS): Managing Bandwidth More Effectively on the Series 2600/2600-PWR and Series 2800 Switches
Introduction
Precedence Criteria Overview
4 VLAN
Priority
TakesprecedencebasedontheIDnumberoftheVLANinwhichtheinboundpacketexists.
Forexample,ifthedefaultVLAN(VID=1)andtheBlueVLAN(withaVIDof20)areboth
assignedtoaport,andBlueVLANtrafficismoreimportant,youcanconfigureQoStogiveBlue
VLANtrafficahigherprioritythandefaultVLANtraffic.(Priorityisappliedontheoutbound
port.)Default state:No-override.
IfapacketdoesnotmeetthecriteriaforVLANpriority,thenprecedencedefaultstotheSource-Port
classifier,below.
5 Source-
Port
Takesprecedencebasedonthesource-port(thatis,theportonwhichthepacketenteredthe
switch).
Ifapacketdoesnotmeetthecriteriaforsource-portpriority,thenprecedencedefaultstoIncoming802.1p
criteria,below
6 Incoming WhereaVLAN-taggedpacketenterstheswitchthroughaportthatisataggedmemberofthat
802.1p VLAN,ifQoSisnotconfiguredtooverridethepacketsprioritysetting,theswitchusesthe
Priority packetsexisting802.1ppriority(assignedbyanupstreamdeviceorapplication)todetermine
whichinboundandoutboundportqueuetouse.IfthereisnoQoSpolicymatchonthepacket,
anditthenleavestheswitchthroughaportthatisataggedmemberoftheVLAN,thenthere
isnochangetoits802.1pprioritysetting.Ifthepacketleavestheswitchthroughaportthatis
anuntaggedmemberoftheVLAN,the802.1ppriorityisdropped.
Entering OutboundPort Exiting
(Inbound)802.1p Queue (Outbound)
Priority 802.1pPriority
1- 2 Low 1-2
0- 3 Normal 0-3
4- 5 Medium 4-5
6- 7 High 6-7
IfapacketdoesnotmeetthecriteriaforIncoming802.1ppriority,thenthepacketgoestothenormal
outboundqueueoftheappropriateport.Ifthepacketenteredtheswitchthroughaportthatisanuntagged
memberofaVLAN,butexitsthroughaVLAN-taggedport,thenan802.1Qfield,includingan802.1ppriority,
isaddedtothepacketheader.IfnoQoSpolicyisconfiguredorappliedtothepacket,thenthe802.1ppriority
of0(normal)isassignedtothepacketforoutboundtransmission.
6-13
Quality of Service (QoS): Managing Bandwidth More Effectively on the Series 2600/2600-PWR and Series 2800 Switches
PreparationforConfiguringQoS
QoSoperatesinVLAN-taggedandVLAN-untaggedenvironments.Ifyour
networkdoesnotusemultipleVLANs,youcanstillimplementthe802.1Q
VLANcapabilityforpacketstocarrytheir802.1pprioritytothenextdown-
streamdevice.Todoso,configureportsasVLAN-taggedmembersonthelinks
betweenswitchesandroutersinyournetworkinfrastructure.
Table 6-6. Summary of QoS Capabilities
Outbound Packet Options Port Membership in VLANs
Tagged Untagged
ControlPortQueuePriorityforPacketTypes Yes Yes
Carry802.1pPriorityAssignmenttoNextDownstreamDevice Yes No
CarryDSCPPolicytoDownstreamDevices.Thepolicyincludes: Yes
1
Yes
1
AssigningaToSCodepoint
Assigningan802.1pPriority
2
totheCodepoint
1
Exceptfornon-IPv4packetsorpacketsprocessedusingtheQoSIP-Precedencemethod,
whichdoesnotincludetheDSCPpolicyoption.Also,touseaservicepolicyinthismanner,
thedownstreamdevicesmustbeconfiguredtointerpretandusetheDSCPcarriedintheIP
packets.
2
Thisprioritycorrespondstothe802.1ppriorityschemeandisusedtodeterminethepackets
portqueuepriority.WhenusedinaVLAN-taggedenvironment,thispriorityisalsoassigned
asthe802.1pprioritycarriedoutboundinpacketshavingan802.1Qfieldintheheader.
StepsforConfiguringQoSontheSwitch
1. DeterminetheQoSpolicyyouwanttoimplement.Thisincludesanalyzing
thetypesoftrafficflowingthroughyournetworkandidentifyingoneor
moretraffictypestoprioritize.InorderofQoSprecedence,theseare:
a. UDP/TCPapplications
b. DevicePrioritydestinationorsourceIPaddress(Notethatdestina-
tionhasprecedenceoversource.SeeTable6-5.)
c. IPType-of-ServicePrecedenceBits(LeftmostthreebitsintheToS
fieldofIPpackets)
d. IPType-of-ServiceDifferentiatedServicebits(Leftmostsixbitsinthe
ToSfieldofIPpackets)
e. VLANPriority(requiresatleastonetaggedVLANonthenetwork)
f. Source-Port
g. Incoming802.1pPriority(requiresatleastonetaggedVLANonthe
network)
6-14
Quality of Service (QoS): Managing Bandwidth More Effectively on the Series 2600/2600-PWR and Series 2800 Switches
PreparationforConfiguringQoS
FormoreonhowQoSoperateswiththeprecedingtraffictypes,see
PrecedenceCriteriaforQoSClassifiers,onpage6-12.)
2. SelecttheQoSoptionyouwanttouse.Table6-7liststhetraffictypes(QoS
classifiers)andtheQoSoptionsyoucanuseforprioritizingorsettinga
policyonthesetraffictypes:
Table 6-7. Applying QoS Options to Traffic Types Defined by QoS Classifiers
QoS Options for Prioritizing Outbound Traffic QoS Classifiers
UDP/
TCP
IP
Device
IP-ToS
Precedence
IP-
DiffServ
VLAN
-ID
Source
-Port
Option 1:
Configure
802.1p
Priority
Rules Only
Prioritizetrafficbysendingspecificpackettypes
(determinedbyQoSclassifier)todifferent
outboundportqueuesontheswitch.
RelyonVLAN-taggedportstocarrypacket
priorityasan802.1pvaluetodownstream
devices.
Yes Yes Yes
1
Yes Yes Yes
Option 2:
Configure
ToS DSCP
Policies
with
802.1p
Priorities
Prioritizetrafficbysendingspecificpackettypes
(determinedbyQoSclassifier)todifferent
outboundportqueuesontheswitch.
Propagateaservicepolicybyreconfiguringthe
DSCPinoutboundIPpacketsaccordingto
packettype.Thepacketisplacedinanoutbound
portqueueaccordingtothe802.1ppriority
configuredforthatDSCPpolicy.(Thepolicy
assumesthatdownstreamdevicescanbe
configuredtorecognizetheDSCPinIPpackets
andimplementtheservicepolicyitindicates.)
UseVLAN-taggedportstoincludepacket
priorityasan802.1pvaluetodownstream
devices.
Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes
1
Inthismodetheconfigurationisfixed.YoucannotchangetheautomaticpriorityassignmentwhenusingIP-ToS
PrecedenceasaQoSclassifier.
3. Ifyouwanttoinclude802.1pprioritysettingsinoutboundpackets,ensure
thattaggedVLANsareconfiguredontheappropriatedownstreamlinks.
4. DeterminetheactualQoSconfigurationchangesyouwillneedtomake
oneachQoS-capabledeviceinyournetworkinordertoimplementthe
desiredpolicy.Also,ifyouwantdownstreamdevicestoreadanduse
DSCPsinIPpacketsfromtheswitch,configurethemtodosobyenabling
ToSDifferentiatedServicemodeandmakingsurethesameDSCPpolicies
areconfigured.
5. BeforeconfiguringQoSonaSeries2600/2600-PWRor2800switch, refer
tothenextsection,PlanningaQoSConfigurationforinformationon
per-portQoSresourceuse.
6-15
Quality of Service (QoS): Managing Bandwidth More Effectively on the Series 2600/2600-PWR and Series 2800 Switches
PlanningaQoSConfiguration
Onthe2600/2600-PWRand2800switches,QoSusesper-portresourcesina
waythatrequiresattentiontoruleusagewhenplanningaQoSconfiguration.
Otherwise,thereisanincreasedpossibilityofoversubscribingper-port
resources,whichmeansthatatsomepointtheswitchwouldnotsupport
furtherQoSconfiguration.
PrioritizingandMonitoringQoSConfigurationOptions
PlanandimplementyourQoSconfigurationindescendingorderoffeature
importance.Thishelpstoensurethatthemostimportantfeaturesareconfig-
uredfirst.Also,ifinsufficientruleresourcesbecomeaproblemononeormore
ports,thisapproachcanhelpyourecognizehowtodistributethedesired
featureimplementationsacrossmultipleswitchestoachieveyourobjectives.
Forexample,agiventypeoftrafficmaybeofhigherimportancethanother
traffictypesyouwanttoexpeditebyusingQoS. Inthiscaseyoushouldplan
andconfigureyourQoSresourceusagefirstforthemostimportanttraffic
typebeforeconfiguringQoSresourceusageforothertraffictypes.Ifinsuffi-
cientresourcesremainforalloftheQoSimplementationyouwant,try
spreadingthisimplementationacrossmultipleswitches.
QoSResourceUsageandMonitoring
QoSconfigurationsontheswitchescoveredinthischapteruseruleresources
onaper-portbasis.Per-PortQoSruleusageisreservedasshownbelow:
Table 6-8. Rule Maximums
Switch Model Maximum Rules
Available Per-Port
Series2800Switches 120
Series2600Switches:
10/100Ports 248
GigabitPorts 120
Tables6-9and6-10describeruleresourceuseforeachQoSclassifiertype.
6-16
Quality of Service (QoS): Managing Bandwidth More Effectively on the Series 2600/2600-PWR and Series 2800 Switches
PreparationforConfiguringQoS
Table 6-9. Series 2800 QoS Rule Resource Usage
QoS Classifier Port Application Rules Used
TCPandUDP Appliestoallportsintheswitch. 2perTCPorUDPApplication
DevicePriority 2perIPAddress
ToSIP-Precedence 8
ToSDiff-Services 1perCodepoint
1
VLAN AppliestoallportsintheVLAN 1perVLAN
SourcePort Appliestospecifiedport(s). 1perPort
1
WhentheToSDiff-Servicesmodeisenabled,eachcodepoint(DSCP)policyconfiguredintheDSCPmapandeach
(inbound)codepointassignedtoaDSCPpolicyuseoneruleper-port.Whenthismodeisdisabled,allrulesusedbythe
ToSDiff-Servicesoption,includinganyDSCPpoliciesconfiguredintheDSCPmap,becomeavailableforotheruses.
Table 6-10. Series 2600/2600-PWR QoS Rule Resource Usage
QoS Classifier Port Rule Application Rules Used
Gigabit Ports 10/100 Mb Ports
TCPandUDPQos Appliestoallportsintheswitch.
DevicePriorityQoS
ToSIP-Precedence
QoS
ToSDiff-ServicesQoS
VLANQoS AllGigabitPortsintheVLAN
Source-PortQoS SpecifiedGigabitPort(s)
Appliestoallportsintheswitch.



Appliedtoallportsinaport
group
2
.Requiresatleastoneport
inthegrouptobelongtoaQoS
specifiedVLAN.(Ruleuseisthe
sameoneveryportinthegroup,
regardlessofwhichportsbelong
totheQoS-specifiedVLANand
whichdonot.)
Appliedtoallportsinaport
group
2
.(Ruleuseisthesameon
everyportinthegroup,evenif
someportsinthegrouparenot
configuredforsource-portQoS.)
2perTCPorUDP
Application
2perIPAddress
8
1perCodepoint
1
1ruleperportmembership
inaQoS-specifiedVLAN.If
aportbelongstomultiple,
QoS-specifiedVLANs,then
1ruleisusedforeachsuch
VLANmembership.
1ruleforeachport
configuredforsource-port
QoS.
1
WhentheToSDiff-Servicesmodeisenabled,eachcodepoint(DSCP)policyconfiguredintheDSCPmapandeach
(inbound)codepointassignedtoaDSCPpolicyuseoneruleper-port.Whenthismodeisdisabled,allrulesusedbythe
ToSDiff-Servicesoption,includinganyDSCPpoliciesconfiguredintheDSCPmap,becomeavailableforotheruses.
2
ForQoSpurposes,the 10/100MbPortgroupsontheSeries2600/2600-PWRswitchesaredefinedasfollows:
2626/2626-PWR:1-8,9-16,17-24
2650/2650-PWR:1-8,9-16,17-24,25-32,33-40,41-48
6-17
Quality of Service (QoS): Managing Bandwidth More Effectively on the Series 2600/2600-PWR and Series 2800 Switches
PlanningandMonitoringRuleUsage
ThefollowingtwoCLIcommandsareusefulforplanningandmonitoringrule
usageinaQoSconfiguration.
Syntax: qosresourceshelp
ProvidesaquickreferenceonhowQoSusesruleresourcesfor
eachconfigurationoption.Includesmostoftheinformation
intable6-9.
Syntax: showqosresources
Showsthenumberofrulescurrentlyavailableoneachport.
Thiscommandisusefulforverifyingruleavailabilityasyou
proceedwithconfiguringQoS.
ManagingQoSResourceConsumption
Asshownintable6-9and6-10,QoSclassifiersuse1,2,or8rulesdepending
ontheclassifierselected.ExtensiveQoSconfigurationscaneitherfully
subscribetherulesavailableonagivenportorleaveaninsufficientnumber
ofrulesavailableforconfiguringanotherQoSpolicyontheswitch.Ifthere
arenotenoughrulesontheporttosupportanotherQoSpolicy,youcannot
configureanadditionalpolicyonthatport.BecausemostQoSfeaturesare
appliedto allports,havingoneormoreportswithinsufficientrulesremaining
to supportanotherQoSpolicylimitsfurtherQoSconfigurationson theswitch
to:
Source-portQoSonportsthathavesufficientunusedrules
VLANQoSonVLANswhereallofthememberportshavesufficient
unusedrules
Problemswithaninsufficientnumberofrulesavailableonaportcanoccur
ineitherofthefollowingQoSscenarios:
Attemptingtoconfigureapolicywhenoneormoreoftheaffectedports
haveaninsufficientnumberofrulesavailable
AttemptingtoaddaporttoaQoS-configuredVLANwherethepolicy
already ontheVLANrequiresmoreruleresourcesthantheporthas
available.
ConfiguringaPolicyWhenThereAreNotEnoughRulesAvailableOn
aTargetPort. AttemptingtoconfigureaQoSpolicyontheswitch,ona
VLAN,or onselectedportswhentherearenotenoughrulesavailableonone
ormoreportsthataresubjecttothecommandresultsinthefollowing:
6-18
Quality of Service (QoS): Managing Bandwidth More Effectively on the Series 2600/2600-PWR and Series 2800 Switches
PreparationforConfiguringQoS
Thepolicyisnotconfiguredonanyportssubjecttothecommand.
TheCLIdisplaysamessagesimilartothefollowing:
Unable to add this QoS rule. Maximum number (120)
already reached.
AddingaPorttoaQoS-ConfiguredVLANWithoutEnoughRules
AvailableonthePort. Whenyouaddaporttoanexisting,QoS-configured
VLAN,theswitchattemptstoapplytheVLANsQoSconfigurationtotheport.
Iftheporthasinsufficient ruleresourcestoaddtheVLANs QoSconfiguration:
TheportisaddedtotheVLAN.
TheQoSclassifiersconfiguredontheVLANarenotaddedtotheport,
which meansthat theportdoesnot honortheQoSpoliciesconfigured for
theVLAN.
TheswitchgeneratesanEventLogmessagesimilartothefollowing:
cos: Vlan 1 QoS not configured on all new ports.
Some QoS resources exceeded
TroubeshootingaShortageofPer-PortRuleResources
ThelackofavailablerulesiscausedbyexistingQoSconfigurations consuming
theavailablerulesononeormoreports.Dothefollowingtoenableconfigu-
rationofthedesiredpolicy:
1. Usetheshow qos resourcescommandtoidentifytheport(s)onwhich
thereareinsufficientruleresources.Forexample,figure6-3includes
portsthatcanbethesourceofproblemsduetoruleconsumptionby
policiesconfiguredearlier:
6-19
Quality of Service (QoS): Managing Bandwidth More Effectively on the Series 2600/2600-PWR and Series 2800 Switches
At a minimum, thepoliciesconfiguredonport49mustbereducedtofreeupenoughrule
resourcestoaddanewQoSpolicy.DependingontheQoSpolicyyouwanttoadd,existing
policiesonports48and50mayhavetobereduced.
Port 48hasenoughrulesavailabletoacceptanypolicythatuses1or2rules.
Port 50canacceptonlyapolicythatusesonerule.
Port 49isfullysubscribedandcannotacceptanynewpolicies.
IfaQoSpolicyforTCP/UDP,IP
address,orIPToSisadded,
theconfigurationwillfail
becauseport49hasnofree
resources(rules),and
resourcesarelimitedonports
48and50.
Figure 6-3. Example of Inspecting Available Rule Resources
2. Usethe show qos commandstoidentifythecurrentlyconfiguredQoS
policies.
3. Determinewhichoftheexistingpoliciesyoucanremovetofreeuprule
resourcesfortheQoSpolicyyouwanttoimplement.Dependingonyour
networktopologyandconfiguration,youcanfreeupruleresourcesby
movingsomepoliciestootherdevices.Anotheralternativeistoinspect
theswitchsexistingQoSconfigurationforunnecessaryentriesorineffi-
cientapplicationsthatcouldberemovedorrevisedtoachieve thedesired
policieswithlessresourceusage.Tables6-8and6-9onpage6-17,orthe
informationdisplayedbytheqos resources helpcommand,canhelpyou
todeterminetheresourceusageofQoSpolicies.
6-20
Quality of Service (QoS): Managing Bandwidth More Effectively on the Series 2600/2600-PWR and Series 2800 Switches
PreparationforConfiguringQoS
ExamplesofQoSResourceUsage
DemonstratingDifferingResourceUsageonDifferentPorts. Sup-
posethatVLANs111and222onaswitchareconfiguredforVLANQoS.Ports
1and2belongtobothVLANs.Ports3and4belongonlytoVLAN222.Also,
device-priorityQoSisconfiguredforfiveIPaddresses.
Switch Model VLAN-Priority QoS Device-Priority QoS
Series 2800 TheVLANQoSaffectsonlytheportsthat Thedevice-priorityQoSaffects
belongtoVLANs111and222.Sinceports1
and2belongtobothVLANs,thesetwoports
usetworuleseachfortheQoSappliedto
bothVLANs.Ports3and4belongonlyto
VLAN222,anduseonlyoneruleeachfor
theQoSappliedtothisVLAN.
allportsontheswitch.Inthis
case,10rulesareusedonevery
port.(Thatis,tworulesperIP
address,per-port.)
(Seefigure6-4
andtable6-
11.)
Series 2600
and
2600-PWR
(Seefigure6-5
andtable6-
12.)
TheVLANQoSappliestoalleightportsin
the10/100Mbportgrouptowhichports1-
4belong.(Refertotable6-10.)To
summarize,eventhoughonlyfourports(1-
4inthiscase)belongtoQoS-covered
VLANs,QoSusesrulesonallports(1- 8)in
theaffectedportgroup. Becausethereare
sixportmembershipsintheVLANscovered
bytheVLANQoSconfiguration,all portsin
thegroupwillconsumesixruleseach.
Sameasabove.
Allportsareconfiguredfor
fiveQoSdevicepriorities.
VLANs111and222are
configuredforQoSpriority.
Ports1and2use12ruleseach;10rulesforimplementing
thefivedevicepriorityQoSinstancesand1ruleperVLAN
forimplementingVLANQoSonVLANs111and222.
Ports3and4use11ruleseach;10rulesforimplementing
thefivedevicepriorityQoSinstancesand1rulefor
implementingVLANQoSonVLAN222.
Theremainingportsuseonly10ruleseachfor
implementingthefivedevicepriorityQoSinstances.
Figure 6-4. Example Using a Switch 2824 To Show QoS Resource Usage with Device-Priority and VLAN QoS
6-21
Quality of Service (QoS): Managing Bandwidth More Effectively on the Series 2600/2600-PWR and Series 2800 Switches
Table 6-11. Description of Switch 2824 Per-Port Resource Usage in Figure 6-4
Port Five QoS VLAN VLAN Rules Usage
Device 111 222
Priorities
1 Yes Yes Yes 2rulesperdevicepriorityQoSinstance
(10rules) (1rule) (1rule) 1ruleperVLANQoSinstance
2 Yes Yes Yes 2rulesperdevicepriorityQoSinstance
(10rules) (1rule) (1rule) 1ruleperVLANQoSinstance
Yes No Yes 2rulesperdevicepriorityQoSinstance
(10rules)
Yes No Yes 2rulesperdevicepriorityQoSinstance
(10rules)
5-24 Yes No No 2rulesperdevicepriorityQoSinstance
(10rules)
OnaSeries2600/2600-PWRswitch,ruleusageissomewhatdifferent.
Allportsareconfiguredfor
fiveQoSdevicepriorities.
VLANs111(onports1- 4)and
222(onports3and4)are
configuredforQoSpriority.
Portsintheportgroup1- 8use16ruleseach;10rulesfor
implementingthe5devicepriorityQoSinstancesand6
rulesforthe6portmembershipsinVLANsconfiguredfor
VLANQoS.(Thatis,ports1and2intheportgroupbelong
tobothVLANs,whichconsumes4rulesper-port;ports3
and4inthesameportgroupbelongtoonlyoneVLAN,
whichconsumes2morerulesper-port,foratotalofsix
rulesconsumedper-portintheportgroup.
Theremainingportsareallinportgroupsnotaffectedby
theVLANQoSconfiguration.Theseportsuse10rules
eachforthe5devicepriorityQoSinstancesconfigurfed
ontheswitch.(Asnotedearlier,configuringadevice
priorityQoSuses2ruleseachonallportsontheswitch.)
Figure 6-5. Example of Switch 2626 QoS Resource Usage with Device-Priority and VLAN QoS
6-22
3
4
Quality of Service (QoS): Managing Bandwidth More Effectively on the Series 2600/2600-PWR and Series 2800 Switches
PreparationforConfiguringQoS
Table 6-12. Description of Switch 2626 Per-Port Resource Usage in Figure 6-5-
Port
Group
1
Five QoS
Device
Priorities
VLAN
111
VLAN
222
Rules Usage Notes
Ports
1-2
Yes Yes Yes 2rulesusedoneveryportintheswitchfor
eachdevicepriorityQoSinstance
Onallportsintheportgroup,1ruleisused
foreachport-groupmemberthatactually
belongstoaVLANforwhichaVLAN-priority
QoSexists.(Aportthatdoesnotbelongtoa
VLANassociatedwithaVLAN-priorityQoS
stillconsumesoneruleeachforanyother
portsinthegroupthatdobelongtotheVLAN.)
Inthisexample,sinceports1and
2belongtobothVLANsandports
3and4belongtoVLAN222,there
isatotalof6rulesconsumedper-
portbytheVLANQoS
configuration.
Ports
3-4
Yes No Yes
Ports
5-8
Yes No No
Port
Group
2
Five QoS
Device
Priorities
VLAN
111
VLAN
222
Rules Usage
Ports
9-16
Yes No No 2rulesusedoneveryportintheswitchfor
eachdevicepriorityQoSinstance
NoportmembershipintheVLANsassociated
withVLAN-priorityQoS;norulesused.
Port
Group
3
Five QoS
Device
Priorities
VLAN
111
VLAN
222
Rules Usage
Ports
17-24
Yes No No 2rulesusedoneveryportintheswitchfor
eachdevicepriorityQoSinstance
NoportmembershipintheVLANsassociated
withVLAN-priorityQoS;norulesused.
6-23
Quality of Service (QoS): Managing Bandwidth More Effectively on the Series 2600/2600-PWR and Series 2800 Switches
DemonstratingHowtheSwitchUsesResourcesinDSCP
Configurations. Inthedefaultconfiguration,theDSCPmapisconfigured
with oneDSCPpolicy(ExpeditedForwarding;101110witha7priority)but,
becausenoToSDiff-Servicesoptionsareconfigured,norulesareused.IfToS
Diff-Servicesmodeisenabled,thenoneruleisimmediatelyusedforthis
codepoint.AddinganewDSCPpolicy(forexample,001111witha5priority)
andthenconfiguringToSDiff-Servicestoassigninboundpacketswitha
codepointof001010tothe001111policyimplementsallpoliciesconfigured
intheDSCPmapand,inthiscase,usesthreerules;thatis,oneruleforeach
codepointinvokedintheswitchscurrentDSCPconfiguration(101110the
default,001111,and001010).AddinganotherDiff-Servicesassignment,such
asassigninginboundpackets withacodepointof000111totheExpedited
Forwardingpolicy(101110),woulduseonemoreruleonallports.
Figure 6-6. Example of Rule Resources on a 2624 Switch in the Default
Configuration
Assigninginboundpacketswith001010inthe
ToSbytetothenewlycreated001111policy
enablesToSDiff-Servicesmode.Becausethe
defaultDSCPmapalreadyincludesthe
ExpeditedDelivery(101110)policy,enabling
ToSDiff-Servicesusesthreerulesoneach
port;oneforeachconfiguredcodepoint
(101110,001010,and001111).Asaresult,the
availablerulecountdropsby3to245onthe
10/100portsand117ontheGigabitports..
Figure 6-7. Example of Rule Use in a DSCP Configuration
6-24
Quality of Service (QoS): Managing Bandwidth More Effectively on the Series 2600/2600-PWR and Series 2800 Switches
UsingQoSClassifiersToConfigureQualityofServiceforOutboundTraffic
UsingQoSClassifiersToConfigure
QualityofServiceforOutboundTraffic
QoS Feature Default Menu CLI Web
UDP/TCPPriority Disabled page6-27 RefertoOnlineHelp.
IP-DevicePriority Disabled page6-33
IPType-of-ServicePriority Disabled page6-39
VLAN-IDPriority Disabled page6-52
Source-PortPriority Disabled page6-58
Not e InadditiontotheinformationinthissectiononthevariousQoSclassifiers,
refertoQoSOperatingNotesandRestrictionsonpage6-72.
The3400cland5300xlswitchesincludethesameQoSclassifiersasthe
switchescoveredbythisguide.The5300xlswitchesalsoincludeaLAN
protocolpriority.Formoreinformation,refertotheAdvancedTrafficMan-
agementGuideforthe3400cland5300xlswitches.
ViewingtheQoSConfiguration
Examplesoftheshow qosoutputareincludedwiththeexampleforeach
prioritytype.
Syntax: showqos<priority-classifier>
tcp-udp-port-priority
DisplaysthecurrentTCP/UDPportpriorityconfigura-
tion.Refertofigure6-12onpage6-33.
device-priority
Displaysthecurrentdevice(IPaddress)prioritycon-
figuration.Refertofigure6-13onpage6-35.
type-of-service
Displaysthecurrenttype-of-servicepriorityconfigu-
ration.ThedisplayoutputdiffersaccordingtotheToS
optionused:
IPPrecedence:Refertofigure6-17onpage6-40.
Diffserve:Refertofigure6-19onpage6-44.
6-25
Quality of Service (QoS): Managing Bandwidth More Effectively on the Series 2600/2600-PWR and Series 2800 Switches
vlan-priority
DisplaysthecurrentVLANpriorityconfiguration.
Refertofigure6-26onpage6-54.
port-priority
Displaysthecurrentsource-portpriorityconfigura-
tion.Refertofigure6-31onpage6-59.
NoOverride
Bydefault, theIPToS,VLAN-ID,and(source)portshowoutputsautomatically
listNo-override forpriorityoptionsthathavenotbeenconfigured.Thismeans
thatifyoudonotconfigureapriorityforaspecificoption,QoSdoesnot
prioritizepacketstowhichthatoptionapplies,resultingintheNo override
state.Inthiscase,IPpacketsreceivedthroughaVLAN-taggedportreceive
whatever802.1pprioritytheycarryinthe802.1Qtaginthepacketsheader.
VLAN-Taggedpacketsreceivedthroughanuntaggedportarehandledinthe
switchwithnormalpriority. Forexample,figure6-8belowshowsaqosVLAN
priorityoutputinaswitchwherenondefaultprioritiesexistforVLANs22and
33,whileVLAN1remainsinthedefaultconfiguration.
Thisoutputshowsthat
VLAN1isinthedefault
state,whileVLANs22and
33havebeenconfigured
for802.1pandDSCPPolicy
prioritiesrespectively.
Figure 6-8. Example of the Show QoS Output for VLAN Priority
Note Asmentionedintable6-5,theSeries2600/2600-PWRand2800switchesdonot
includethelayer3protocolclassifier.However,youcanstillapplyaQoS
prioritytonon-IPLayer3protocoltrafficbygroupingsuchtrafficintoseparate
VLANs,asdesired, andthenassigningaprioritybasedonVLANmembership.
6-26
Quality of Service (QoS): Managing Bandwidth More Effectively on the Series 2600/2600-PWR and Series 2800 Switches
UsingQoSClassifiersToConfigureQualityofServiceforOutboundTraffic
QoSUDP/TCPPriority
QoSClassifierPrecedence:1
WhenyouuseUDPorTCPandalayer4ApplicationportnumberasaQoS
classifier,trafficcarryingthespecifiedUDP/TCPportnumber(s)ismarked
withtheUDP/TCPclassifiersconfiguredprioritylevel,without regardforany
otherQoSclassifiersintheswitch.
TheUDP/TCPQoSoptionusestworulesperentryonallportsintheswitch.
Dependingonthenumberofrulescurrentlyavailableonaport,thisoption
supportsthefollowingQoSclassifierlimits:
2800Switches:Upto15UDP/TCPQosclassifiers(30rules)forallports
ontheswitch
2600/2600-PWRSwitches:
Gigabitports:Upto15UDP/TCPQosclassifiers(30rules)
10/100ports:Upto15UDP/TCPQosclassifiers(30rules)
Not e UDP/TCPQoSapplicationsdonotsupportIPv4packetswithIPoptionsor
layer-2SAPencapsulation. Formoreinformationonpacket-typerestrictions,
refertoDetailsofPacketCriteriaandRestrictionsforQoSSupport,onpage
6-72.
OptionsforAssigningPriority. PrioritycontroloptionsforTCPorUDP
packetscarryingaspecifiedTCPorUDPportnumberinclude:
802.1ppriority
DSCPpolicy(AssigninganewDSCPandanassociated802.1ppriority;
inboundpacketsmustbeIPv4.)
ForagivenTCPorUDPportnumber,youcanuseonlyoneoftheabove
optionsatatime.However,fordifferentportnumbers,youcanusedifferent
options.
TCP/UDPPortNumberRanges. There are three ranges:
Well-KnownPorts:0- 1023
RegisteredPorts:1024-49151
Dynamicand/orPrivatePorts:49152- 65535
6-27
Quality of Service (QoS): Managing Bandwidth More Effectively on the Series 2600/2600-PWR and Series 2800 Switches
For more information, including a listing of UDP/TCP port numbers,
gototheInternetAssignedNumbersAuthority(IANA)websiteat:
http://www.iana.org
Thenclickon:
Protocol Number Assignment Services
P(UnderDirectoryofGeneralAssignedNumbersheading)
Port Numbers
Assigning802.1pPriorityBasedonTCPorUDPPortNumber
Thisoptionassignsan802.1ppriorityto(IPv4) TCPorUDPpacketsas
describedbelow.
Syntax: qos<udp-port|tcp-port><tcp or udp port number>priority<0-7>
Configuresan802.1ppriorityforoutboundpackets
havingthespecifiedTCPorUDPapplicationport
number.Thisprioritydeterminesthepacketsqueuein
theoutboundporttowhichit issent.Ifthepacketleaves
theswitchonataggedport,itcarriesthe802.1p
prioritywithittothenextdownstreamdevice.
(Default:Disabled)
Note:OnSeries2600/2600-PWRand2800switches,
thisfeatureisnotsupportedforIPv4packetswithIP
options.Formoreinformationonpacket-typerestric-
tions,refertotable6-16onpage6-72.
noqos<udp-port|tcp-port><tcp-udp port number >
DeletesthespecifiedUDPorTCPportnumberasaQoS
classifier.
showqostcp-udp-port-priority
DisplaysalistingofallTCPandUDPQoSclassifiers
currentlyintherunning-configfile.
6-28
Quality of Service (QoS): Managing Bandwidth More Effectively on the Series 2600/2600-PWR and Series 2800 Switches
UsingQoSClassifiersToConfigureQualityofServiceforOutboundTraffic
Forexample, configureandlist802.1ppriorityforthefollowingUDPandTCP
portprioritization:
TCP/UDP Port 802.1p Priority
for TCP
802.1p Priority
for UDP
TCPPort23(Telnet)
7 7
UDPPort23(Telnet)
7 7
TCPPort80(WorldWideWebHTTP)
2 2
UDPPort80(WorldWideWebHTTP)
1 1
Indicates802.1ppriority
assignmentsareinusefor
packetswith23or80asa
TCPorUDPApplication
portnumber.
Valuesinthesetwo
columnsdefinethe
QoSclassifiersto
useforidentifying
packetstoprioritize.
Showsthe802.1ppriority
assignmentforpackets
withtheindicatedQoS
classifiers.
Figure 6-9. Example of Configuring and Listing 802.1p Priority Assignments on
TCP/UDP Ports
AssigningaDSCPPolicyBasedonTCPorUDPPortNumber
ThisoptionassignsapreviouslyconfiguredDSCPpolicy(codepointand
802.1ppriority)to(IPv4)TCPorUDPpacketshavingthespecifiedport
number.Thatis,theswitch:
6-29
Quality of Service (QoS): Managing Bandwidth More Effectively on the Series 2600/2600-PWR and Series 2800 Switches
1. SelectsanincomingIPpacketiftheTCPorUDPportnumberitcarries
matchestheportnumberspecifiedintheTCPorUDPclassifier(asshown
infigure6-9,above).
2. Overwrites(re-marks)thepacketsDSCPwiththeDSCPconfiguredinthe
switchforsuchpackets.
3. Assignsthe802.1ppriorityconfiguredintheswitchforthenewDSCP.
(RefertoDifferentiatedServicesCodepoint(DSCP)Mappingonpage
6-64.)
4. Forwardsthepacketthroughtheappropriateoutboundportqueue.
No t e o n OntheSeries2600/2600-PWRand2800switches,mixingToSDSCPpolicies
Co mb i n i n g
and802.1pprioritiesisnotrecommended.RefertotheNoteonpage6-11.
Po l i c y Ty p e s
FormoreonDSCP,refertoTerminologyonpage6-6.
StepsforCreatingaDSCPPolicyBasedonTCP/UDPPortNumber
Classifiers. ThisprocedurecreatesaDSCPpolicyforIPv4packetscarrying
theselectedUDPorTCPport-numberclassifier.
1. IdentifytheTCPorUDPport-numberclassifieryouwanttousefor
assigningaDSCPpolicy.
2. DeterminetheDSCPpolicyforpacketscarryingtheselectedTCPorUDP
portnumber.
a. DeterminetheDSCPyouwanttoassigntotheselectedpackets.(This
codepointwillbeusedtooverwrite(re-mark)theDSCPcarriedin
packetsreceivedfromupstreamdevices.)
b. Determinethe802.1ppriorityyouwanttoassigntotheDSCP.
3. ConfiguretheDSCPpolicybyusingqos dscp-map toconfigurethepriority
tothecodepoint you selectedin step2a.(Fordetails,refertothe example
laterinthissection,andtoDifferentiatedServicesCodepoint(DSCP)
Mappingonpage6-64.)
Not e Acodepointmusthavean802.1ppriorityassignment(0- 7)beforeyoucan
configureapolicyforprioritizingpacketsbyTCPorUDPportnumbers.Ifa
codepointyouwanttouseshowsNo-overrideinthePrioritycolumnofthe
DSCPmap(show qos dscp-map),thenyoumustassigna0-7prioritybefore
proceeding.
4. ConfiguretheswitchtoassigntheDSCPpolicytopacketswiththe
specifiedTCPorUDPportnumber.
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Quality of Service (QoS): Managing Bandwidth More Effectively on the Series 2600/2600-PWR and Series 2800 Switches
UsingQoSClassifiersToConfigureQualityofServiceforOutboundTraffic
Syntax: qosdscp-map<codepoint>priority<0-7>
Thiscommandisoptionalifapriorityhasalready
beenassignedtothe<codepoint>.Thecommandcreates
aDSCPpolicybyassigningan802.1pprioritytoa
specificDSCP.Whentheswitchappliesthispolicytoa
packet,theprioritydeterminesthepacketsqueuein
theoutboundporttowhichit issent.Ifthepacketleaves
theswitchonataggedport,itcarriesthe802.1p
prioritywithittothenextdownstreamdevice.For
IPv4packets,the DSCPwillbereplacedbythecodepoint
specifiedinthiscommand.(Default:No-override for
mostcodepoints.Seetable6-15onpage6-65.)
Syntax: qos<udp-port|tcp-port><tcp or udp port number>dscp<codepoint>
AssignsaDSCPpolicytooutboundpacketshavingthe
specifiedTCPorUDPapplicationportnumberand
overwritestheDSCPinthesepacketswiththeassigned
<codepoint >value.Thispolicyincludesan802.1ppri-
orityanddeterminesthepacketsqueueintheout-
boundporttowhichitissent.(The<codepoint >mustbe
configuredwithan802.1psetting.Seestep3onpage
6-30.) Ifthepacketleavestheswitchonataggedport,
itcarriesthe802.1pprioritywithittothenextdown-
streamdevice.(Default:No-override)
noqos<udp-port|tcp-port><tcp-udp port number>
DeletesthespecifiedUDPorTCPportnumberasaQoS
classifier.
showqostcp-udp-port-priority
DisplaysalistingofallTCPandUDPQoSclassifiers
currentlyintherunning-configfile.
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Quality of Service (QoS): Managing Bandwidth More Effectively on the Series 2600/2600-PWR and Series 2800 Switches
Forexample,supposeyouwantedtoassigntheseDSCPpoliciestothepackets
identifiedbytheindicatedUDPandTDPportapplications:
Port Applications DSCP Policies
DSCP Priority
23-UDP 000111 7
80-TCP 000101 5
914-TCP 000010 1
1001-UDP 000010 1
1. DeterminewhethertheDSCPsalreadyhavepriorityassignments,which
couldindicateusebyexistingapplications.(Also,aDSCPmusthavea
priorityconfiguredbeforeyoucanassignanyQoSclassifierstouseit.)
TheDSCPsforthis
examplehavenotyet
beenassignedan
802.1pprioritylevel.
Figure 6-10. Display the Current DSCP-Map Configuration
2. ConfiguretheDSCPpoliciesforthecodepointsyouwanttouse.
DSCPPolicies
ConfiguredinthisStep
Figure 6-11. Assign Priorities to the Selected DSCPs
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Quality of Service (QoS): Managing Bandwidth More Effectively on the Series 2600/2600-PWR and Series 2800 Switches
UsingQoSClassifiersToConfigureQualityofServiceforOutboundTraffic
3. AssigntheDSCPpoliciestotheselectedUDP/TCPportapplicationsand
displaytheresult.
Classifier DSCPPolicy
Figure 6-12. The Completed DSCP Policy Configuration for the Specified
UDP/TCP Port Applications
TheswitchwillnowapplytheDSCPpoliciesinfigure6-12toIPv4packets
receivedintheswitchwiththespecifiedUDP/TCPportapplications.This
meanstheswitchwill:
OverwritetheoriginalDSCPsin theselectedpacketswiththenewDSCPs
specifiedintheabovepolicies.
Assignthe802.1pprioritiesintheabovepoliciestotheselectedpackets.
QoSIP-DevicePriority
QoSClassifierPrecedence:2
TheIPdeviceoption,whichappliesonlytoIPv4packets,usestworulesper
IPaddressonallportsintheswitch.Dependingonthenumberofrules
currentlyavailableonaport, thisQoSoptionsupports thefollowingIPaddress
limits(sourceordestination)asQoSclassifiers:
2800Switches:Upto60IPaddresses(120rules)forallportsontheswitch
2600/2600-PWRSwitches:Upto60IPaddresses(120rules)forallports.
Whereaparticulardevice-IPaddressclassifierhasthehighestprecedencein
theswitchfortrafficaddressedtoorfromthatdevice,thentrafficreceived
ontheswitchwiththataddressismarkedwiththeIPaddressclassifiers
configuredprioritylevel.DifferentIPdeviceclassifierscanhavediffering
prioritylevels.
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Quality of Service (QoS): Managing Bandwidth More Effectively on the Series 2600/2600-PWR and Series 2800 Switches
Not e TheswitchdoesnotallowaQoSIP-devicepriorityfortheManagementVLAN
IPaddress,ifconfigured.IfthereisnoManagementVLANconfigured,then
theswitchdoesnotallowconfiguringaQoSIP-devicepriorityfortheDefault
VLANIPaddress.
IPaddressQoSdoesnotsupportlayer-2SAPencapsulation. Formore
informationonpacket-typerestrictions,refertoDetailsofPacketCriteria
andRestrictionsforQoSSupport,onpage6-72.
OptionsforAssigningPriority. Prioritycontroloptionsforpacketscarry-
ingaspecifiedIPaddressinclude:
802.1ppriority
DSCPpolicy(AssigninganewDSCPandan802.1ppriority;inbound
packetsmustbeIPv4.)
(ForoperationwhenotherQoSclassifiersapplytothesametraffic,referto
ClassifiersforPrioritizingOutboundPacketsonpage6-10.)
ForagivenIPaddress,youcanuseonlyoneoftheaboveoptionsatatime.
However,fordifferentIPaddresses,youcanusedifferentoptions.
AssigningaPriorityBasedonIPAddress
Thisoptionassignsan802.1pprioritytoallIPv4packetshavingthespecified
IPaddressaseitherasourceordestination.(Ifbothmatch,thepriorityfor
theIPdestinationaddresshasprecedence.)
Syntax: qosdevice-priority<ip-address>priority<0-7>
Configuresan802.1ppriorityforoutboundpackets
havingthespecifiedIPaddress.Thisprioritydeter-
minesthepacketsqueueintheoutboundporttowhich
itissent.Ifthepacketleavestheswitchonatagged
port,itcarriesthe802.1pprioritywithittothenext
downstreamdevice.(Default:Disabled)
noqosdevice-priority<ip-address>
RemovesthespecifiedIPdevice-priorityQoSclassifier
andresetsthepriorityforthatVLANtoNo-override.
showqosdevice-priority
DisplaysalistingofallIPdevice-priorityQoSclassi-
fierscurrentlyintherunning-configfile.
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Quality of Service (QoS): Managing Bandwidth More Effectively on the Series 2600/2600-PWR and Series 2800 Switches
UsingQoSClassifiersToConfigureQualityofServiceforOutboundTraffic
Forexample,configureandlistthe802.1ppriorityforpacketscarryingthe
followingIPaddresses:
IP Address 802.1p Priority
10.28.31.1 7
10.28.31.130 5
10.28.31.100 1
10.28.31.101 1
Figure 6-13. Example of Configuring and Listing 802.1p Priority Assignments for
Packets Carrying Specific IP Addresses
AssigningaDSCPPolicyBasedonIPAddress
ThisoptionassignsapreviouslyconfiguredDSCPpolicy(codepointand
802.1ppriority)tooutboundIPpacketshavingthespecifiedIPaddress(either
sourceordestination).Thatis,theswitch:
1. SelectsanincomingIPv4packetonthebasisofthesourceordestination
IPaddressitcarries.
2. OverwritesthepacketsDSCPwiththeDSCPconfiguredintheswitchfor
suchpackets,andassignsthe802.1ppriorityconfiguredintheswitchfor
thenewDSCP.(RefertoDifferentiatedServicesCodepoint(DSCP)
Mappingonpage6-64.)
3. Forwardsthepacketthroughtheappropriateoutboundportqueue.
No t e o n OntheSeries2600/2600-PWRand2800switches,mixingToSDSCPpolicies
Co mb i n i n g
and802.1pprioritiesisnotrecommended.RefertotheNoteonpage6-11.
Po l i c y Ty p e s
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Quality of Service (QoS): Managing Bandwidth More Effectively on the Series 2600/2600-PWR and Series 2800 Switches
FormoreonDSCP,refertoTerminologyonpage6-6.
StepsforCreatingaPolicyBasedonIPAddress. Thisprocedurecre-
atesaDSCPpolicyforIPv4packetscarryingtheselectedIPaddress(source
ordestination).
1. IdentifytheIPaddressyouwanttouseasaclassifierforassigningaDSCP
policy.
2. DeterminetheDSCPpolicyforpacketscarryingtheselectedIPaddress:
a. DeterminetheDSCPyouwanttoassigntotheselectedpackets.(This
codepointwillbeusedtooverwritetheDSCPcarriedinpackets
receivedfromupstreamdevices.)
b. Determinethe802.1ppriorityyouwanttoassigntotheDSCP.
3. ConfiguretheDSCPpolicybyusingdscp-maptoconfigurethepriorityto
thecodepointyouselectedinstep2a.(Fordetails,refertoDifferentiated
ServicesCodepoint(DSCP)Mappingonpage6-64.)
Not e s Acodepointmusthavean802.1ppriorityassignment(0- 7)beforeyoucan
configureapolicyforprioritizingpacketsbyIPaddress.Ifacodepointyou
wanttouseshowsNo-overrideinthePriority columnoftheDSCPmap(show
qos dscp-map),thenyoumustassigna0- 7prioritybeforeproceeding.
4. ConfiguretheswitchtoassigntheDSCPpolicytopacketswiththe
specifiedIPaddress.
Syntax: qosdscp-map<codepoint>priority<0-7>
Thiscommandisoptionalifapriorityhasalreadybeen
assignedtothe<codepoint>.ThecommandcreatesaDSCP
policybyassigningan802.1pprioritytoaspecificDSCP.
Whentheswitchappliesthispolicytoapacket,thepriority
determinesthepacketsqueueintheoutboundporttowhich
itissent.Ifthepacketleavestheswitchonataggedport,it
carriesthe802.1pprioritywithittothenextdownstream
device.IfthepacketisIPv4,thepacketsDSCPwillbe
replacedbythecodepointspecifiedinthiscommand.
(Default:Formostcodepoints,No-override.Seefigure6-15on
page6-65.)
Syntax: qosdevice-priority<ip-address>dscp<codepoint>
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Quality of Service (QoS): Managing Bandwidth More Effectively on the Series 2600/2600-PWR and Series 2800 Switches
UsingQoSClassifiersToConfigureQualityofServiceforOutboundTraffic
AssignsaDSCPpolicytopacketscarryingthespecifiedIP
address,andoverwritestheDSCPinthesepacketswiththe
assigned< codepoint >value.Thispolicyincludesan802.1p
priorityanddeterminesthepacketsqueueintheoutbound
porttowhichitissent.Ifthepacketleavestheswitchona
taggedport,itcarriesthe802.1pprioritywithittothenext
downstreamdevice.(Default:No-override)
noqosdevice-priority<ip-address>
DeletesthespecifiedIPaddressasaQoSclassifier.
showqosdevice-priority
DisplaysalistingofallQoSDevicePriorityclassifiers
currentlyintherunning-configfile.
Forexample,supposeyouwantedtoassigntheseDSCPpoliciestothepackets
identifiedbytheindicatedIPaddresses:
IP Address DSCP Policies
DSCP Priority
10.28.31.1 000111 7
10.28.31.130 000101 5
10.28.31.100 000010 1
10.28.31.101 000010 1
1. DeterminewhethertheDSCPsalreadyhavepriorityassignments,which
couldindicateusebyexistingapplications.Thisisnotaproblemifthe
configuredprioritiesareacceptableforallapplicationsusingthesame
DSCP.(RefertotheNoteOnChangingaPrioritySettingonpage6-67.
Also,aDSCPmusthaveapriorityconfiguredbeforeyoucanassignany
QoSclassifierstouseit.)
TheDSCPsforthis
examplehavenotyet
beenassignedan
802.1pprioritylevel.
Figure 6-14. Display the Current DSCP-Map Configuration
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Quality of Service (QoS): Managing Bandwidth More Effectively on the Series 2600/2600-PWR and Series 2800 Switches
2. ConfiguretheprioritiesfortheDSCPsyouwanttouse.
DSCPPolicies
Configuredinthisstep.
Figure 6-15. Assigning 802.1p Priorities to the Selected DSCPs
3. AssigntheDSCPpoliciestotheselecteddeviceIPaddressesanddisplay
theresult.
Figure 6-16. The Completed Device-Priority/Codepoint Configuration
TheswitchwillnowapplytheDSCPpoliciesinfigure6-15toIPv4packets
receivedontheswitchwiththespecifiedIPaddresses(sourceordestination).
Thismeanstheswitchwill:
OverwritetheoriginalDSCPsin theselectedpacketswiththenewDSCPs
specifiedintheabovepolicies.
Assignthe802.1pprioritiesintheabovepoliciestotheappropriate
packets.
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Quality of Service (QoS): Managing Bandwidth More Effectively on the Series 2600/2600-PWR and Series 2800 Switches
UsingQoSClassifiersToConfigureQualityofServiceforOutboundTraffic
QoSIPType-of-Service(ToS)PolicyandPriority
QoSClassifierPrecedence:3
ThisfeatureappliesonlytoIPv4trafficandperformseitherofthefollowing:
ToSIP-PrecedenceMode:All IPpacketsgeneratedbyupstreamdevices
andapplicationsincludeprecedencebitsintheToSbyte.Usingthismode,
theswitchusesthesebitstocomputeandassignthecorresponding802.1p
priority.
ToSDifferentiatedServices(Diffserv)Mode:Thismoderequires
knowledgeofthecodepointssetinIPpacketsbytheupstreamdevices
andapplications.ItusestheToScodepointinIPpacketscomingfrom
upstreamdevicesandapplicationstoassign802.1pprioritiestothepack-
ets.Youcanusethisoptiontodobothofthefollowing:
AssignaNewPrioritizationPolicy:Apolicyincludesbotha
codepointandacorresponding802.1ppriority.Thisoptionselectsan
incomingIPv4packetonthebasisofitscodepointandassignsanew
codepointandcorresponding802.1ppriority.(Usetheqos dscp-map
commandtospecifyapriorityforanycodepointpage6-64.)
Assignan802.1pPriority:ThisoptionreadstheDSCPofan
incomingIPv4packetand,withoutchangingthiscodepoint,assigns
the802.1pprioritytothepacket,asconfiguredintheDSCPPolicy
Table(page6-64).Thismeansthatapriorityvalueof0-7mustbe
configuredforaDSCPbeforetheswitchwillattempttoperforma
QoSmatchonthepacketsDSCPbits.
BeforeconfiguringtheToSDiffservmode,youmustusethedscp-map
commandtoconfigure the desired802.1pprioritiesforthecodepointsyou
wanttouseforeitheroption.Thiscommandisillustratedinthefollowing
examplesandisdescribedunderDifferentiatedServicesCodepoint
(DSCP)Mappingonpage6-64.
UnlessIP-PrecedencemodeandDiffservmodearebothdisabled(thedefault
setting),enablingoneautomaticallydisablestheother.FormoreonToS
operation,refertoDetailsofQoSIPType-of-Serviceonpage6-49.
Not e s OntheSeries2600/2600-PWRand2800switches,mixingToSDSCPpolicies
and802.1pprioritiesisnotrecommended.RefertotheNoteonpage6-11.
IP-ToSQoSdoesnotsupportlayer-2SAPencapsulation. ormoreinformation
onpacket-typerestrictions,refertoDetailsofPacketCriteriaand
RestrictionsforQoSSupport,onpage6-72.
6-39
Quality of Service (QoS): Managing Bandwidth More Effectively on the Series 2600/2600-PWR and Series 2800 Switches
Assigningan802.1pPrioritytoIPv4PacketsontheBasisof
theToSPrecedenceBits
Ifadeviceorapplicationupstreamoftheswitchsetstheprecedencebitsin
theToSbyteofIPv4packets,youcanusethisfeaturetoapplythatsettingfor
prioritizingpacketsforoutboundportqueues.Iftheoutboundpacketsarein
ataggedVLAN,thispriorityiscarriedasan802.1pvaluetotheadjacent
downstreamdevices.
Syntax: qostype-of-serviceip-precedence
Causestheswitchtoautomaticallyassignan802.1pprior-
itytoallIPv4packetsbycomputingeachpackets802.1p
priorityfromtheprecedencebitsthepacketcarries.This
prioritydeterminesthepacketsqueueintheoutboundport
towhichitissent.Ifthepacketleavestheswitchonatagged
port,itcarriesthe802.1pprioritywithittothenext
downstreamdevice.(ToSIPPrecedenceDefault:Disabled)
noqostype-of-service
DisablesallToSclassifieroperation,includingprioritiza-
tionusingtheprecedencebits.
showqostype-of-service
Whenip-precedenceisenabled(orifneitherToSoptionis
configured),showstheToSconfigurationstatus.Ifdiff-
servicesisenabled,listscodepointdataasdescribedunder
AssigningaDSCPPolicyontheBasisoftheDSCPinIPv4
PacketsReceivedfromUpstreamDevicesonpage6-45.
Withthisoption,prioritizationofoutboundpacketsreliesontheIP-Prece-
dencebitsettingthatIPpacketscarrywiththemfromupstreamdevicesand
applications.Toconfigureandverifythisoption:
DefaultToSConfiguration CurrentToSConfiguration
Figure 6-17. Example of Enabling ToS IP-Precedence Prioritization
6-40
Quality of Service (QoS): Managing Bandwidth More Effectively on the Series 2600/2600-PWR and Series 2800 Switches
UsingQoSClassifiersToConfigureQualityofServiceforOutboundTraffic
ToreplacethisoptionwiththeToSdiff-servicesoption,justconfigurediff
servicesasdescribedbelow,whichautomaticallydisablesIP-Precedence.To
disableIP-Precedencewithoutenablingthediff-servicesoption,usethis
command:
HPswitch(config)# no qos type-of-service
Assigningan802.1pPrioritytoIPv4PacketsontheBasisof
IncomingDSCP
Oneofthebestusesforthisoptionisonaninteriorswitchwhereyouwant
tohonor(continue)apolicysetonanedgeswitch.Thatis,itenablesyouto
selectincomingpacketshavingaspecificDSCPandforwardthesepackets
withthedesired802.1ppriority.Forexample,ifanedgeswitchAmarksall
packetsreceivedonportA5withaparticularDSCP,youcanconfigurea
downstream(interior)switchBtohandlesuchpacketswiththedesired
priority(regardlessofwhether802.1QtaggedVLANsareinuse).
LAN
A5
Edge
Switch
A
LAN
Interior
Switch
B
Work-
Group
Work-
Group
MarkedTrafficfromportA5onEdgeSwitchA
OtherTraffic
Figure 6-18. Interior Switch B Honors the Policy Established in Edge Switch A
Todoso,assignthedesired802.1pprioritytothesamecodepointthatthe
upstreamoredgeswitchassignstotheselectedpackets.Whenthedown-
streamswitchreceivesanIPv4packetcarryingoneofthesecodepoints,it
assignstheconfiguredprioritytothepacketandsendsitouttheappropriate
priorityqueue.(Thepacketretainsthecodepointitreceivedfromthe
upstreamoredgeswitch).Youcanusethisoptionconcurrentlywiththe
diffservDSCPPolicyoption(describedlaterinthissection),aslongasthe
DSCPsspecifiedinthetwooptionsdonotmatch.
6-41
Quality of Service (QoS): Managing Bandwidth More Effectively on the Series 2600/2600-PWR and Series 2800 Switches
Note on DSCP Use DifferentapplicationsmayusethesameDSCPintheirIPpackets.Also,the
sameapplicationmayusemultipleDSCPsiftheapplicationoriginateson
differentclients,servers,orotherdevices.Usinganedgeswitchenablesyou
toselectthepacketsyouwantandmarkthemwithpredictableDSCPsthat
canbeusedbydownstreamswitchestohonorpoliciessetintheedgeswitch.
Whenenabled,theswitchappliesdirect802.1pprioritizationtoallpackets
havingcodepointsthatmeetthesecriteria:
Thecodepointisconfiguredwithan802.1ppriorityintheDSCPtable.
(CodepointsconfiguredwithNo-overridearenotused.)
ThecodepointisnotconfiguredforanewDSCPpolicyassignment.
Thus,theswitchdoesnotallowthesameincomingcodepoint(DSCP)tobe
usedsimultaneouslyfordirectlyassigningan802.1ppriorityandalsoassign-
ingaDSCPpolicy.Foragivenincoming codepoint,ifyouconfigureoneoption
andthentheother,thesecondoverwritesthefirst.
Tousethisoption:
1. IdentifyaDSCPusedtosetapolicyinpacketsreceivedfromanupstream
oredgeswitch.
2. Determinethe802.1ppriority(0-7)youwanttoapplytopacketscarrying
theidentifiedDSCP.(Youcaneithermaintainthepriorityassignedinthe
upstreamoredgeswitch,orassignanewpriority.)
3. Useqos dscp-map < codepoint > priority < 0 - 7 >toassignthe802.1ppriority
youwanttothespecifiedDSCP.(Formoreonthistopic,refertoDiffer-
entiatedServicesCodepoint(DSCP)Mappingonpage6-64.)
4. Enablediff-services
6-42
Quality of Service (QoS): Managing Bandwidth More Effectively on the Series 2600/2600-PWR and Series 2800 Switches
UsingQoSClassifiersToConfigureQualityofServiceforOutboundTraffic
.
Syntax: qostype-of-servicediff-services<codepoint>
Causestheswitchtoreadthe< codepoint >(DSCP)ofan
incomingIPv4packetand,whenamatchoccurs,assigna
corresponding802.1ppriority,as configuredintheswitchs
DSCPtable(page6-65).
noqostype-of-service
DisablesallToSclassifieroperation.
noqosdscp-map<codepoint>
Disablesdirect802.1ppriorityassignmenttopacketscarry-
ingthe< codepoint>byreconfiguringthecodepointpriority
assignmentintheDSCPtabletoNo-override.Notethatifthis
codepointisinuseasaDSCPpolicyforanotherdiffserv
codepoint,youmustdisableorredirecttheotherdiffserv
codepointsDSCPpolicybeforeyoucandisableorchangethe
codepoint.Forexample,infigure6-19youcannotchange
thepriorityforthe000000codepointuntilyouredirectthe
DSCPpolicyfor000001awayfromusing000000asapolicy.
(RefertoNoteOnChangingaPrioritySettingonpage6-67.
ReferalsotoDifferentiatedServicesCodepoint(DSCP)
Mappingonpage6-64.)
showqostype-of-service
DisplayscurrentType-of-Serviceconfiguration.Indiffserv
modeitalsoshowsthecurrentdirect802.1passignments
andthecurrentDSCPassignmentscoveredlaterinthis
section.
Forexample,anedgeswitchAinanuntaggedVLANassignsaDSCPof
000110onIPpacketsitreceivesonportA6, andhandlesthepacketswithhigh
priority(7).Whenthesepacketsreachinterior switchByouwanttheswitch
tohandlethemwiththesamehighpriority.Toenablethisoperationyouwould
6-43
Quality of Service (QoS): Managing Bandwidth More Effectively on the Series 2600/2600-PWR and Series 2800 Switches
configurean802.1ppriorityof7forpacketsreceivedwithaDSCPof000110,
andthenenable diff-services:
Executingthiscommanddisplays
thecurrentToSconfiguration
andshowsthattheselected
DSCPisnotcurrentlyinuse.
The000110codepointisunused,
andthusavailablefordirectly
assigningan802.1ppriority
withoutchangingthepackets
DSCP.
Note:Allcodepointswithouta
DSCPPolicyentryare
availablefordirect802.1ppriority
assignment.
Figure 6-19. Example Showing Codepoints Available for Direct 802.1p Priority
Assignments
Noticethatcodepoints000000and001001 arenamedasDSCP
policiesbyothercodepoints(000001and000110respectively).This
meanstheyarenotavailableforchangingtoadifferent802.1ppriority.
OutboundIPpackets
withaDSCPof000110
willhaveapriorityof7.
Figure 6-20. Example of a Type-of-Service Configuration Enabling Both Direct 802.1p Priority Assignment
and DSCP Policy Assignment
6-44
Quality of Service (QoS): Managing Bandwidth More Effectively on the Series 2600/2600-PWR and Series 2800 Switches
UsingQoSClassifiersToConfigureQualityofServiceforOutboundTraffic
AssigningaDSCPPolicyontheBasisoftheDSCPinIPv4
PacketsReceivedfromUpstreamDevices
Theprecedingsectiondescribeshowtoforwardapolicysetbyanedge(or
upstream)switch.ThisoptionchangesaDSCPpolicyinanIPv4packetby
changingitsIPToScodepointandapplyingthepriorityassociatedwiththe
newcodepoint.(ADSCPpolicyconsists ofadifferentiatedservicescodepoint
andanassociated802.1ppriority.)Youcanusethisoptionconcurrentlywith
thediffserv802.1ppriorityoption(above),aslongastheDSCPsspecifiedin
thetwooptionsdonotmatch.
Tousethisoptiontoconfigureachangeinpolicy:
1. IdentifyaDSCPusedtosetapolicyinpacketsreceivedfromanupstream
oredgeswitch.
2. Createanewpolicybyusingqos dscp-map < codepoint > priority < 0 - 7 >to
configurean802.1ppriorityforthecodepointyouwillusetooverwrite
theDSCPthepacketcarriesfromupstream.(Formoreonthistopic,refer
toDifferentiatedServicesCodepoint(DSCP)Mappingonpage6-64.)
3. Useqos type-of-service diff-services < incoming-DSCP > dscp < outgoing-
DSCP > tochangethepolicyonpacketscomingfromtheedgeorupstream
switchwiththespecifiedincomingDSCP.
(Figure6-18onpage6-41illustratesthisscenario.)
Not e s OntheSeries2600/2600-PWRand2800switches,mixingToSDSCPpolicies
and802.1pprioritiesisnotrecommended.RefertotheNoteonpage6-11.
Syntax: qostype-of-servicediff-services
EnablesToSdiff-services.
qostype-of-servicediff-services<current-codepoint>dscp
<new-codepoint>
ConfigurestheswitchtoselectanincomingIPpacketcarry
ingthe<current-codepoint>andthenusethe<new-codepoint>
toassignanew,previouslyconfiguredDSCPpolicytothe
packet.Thepolicyoverwritesthe<current-codepoint>withthe
<new-codepoint>andassignsthe802.1ppriorityspecified
bythepolicy.(Usetheqos dscp-mapcommandtodefinethe
priorityfortheDSCPspage6-64.)
6-45
Quality of Service (QoS): Managing Bandwidth More Effectively on the Series 2600/2600-PWR and Series 2800 Switches
noqostype-of-service
DisablesallToSclassifieroperation.CurrentToSDSCP
policiesandprioritiesremainintheconfigurationandwill
becomeavailableifyoure-enableToSdiff-services.
noqostype-of-service[diff-services<codepoint>]
DeletestheDSCPpolicyassignedtothe
<codepoint >andreturnsthe<codepoint>tothe802.1p
prioritysettingithadbeforetheDSCPpolicywasassigned.
(Thiswillbeeitheravaluefrom0-7orNo-override.)
showqostype-of-service
Displaysalistingofcodepoints,withanycorresponding
DSCPpolicyre-assignmentsforoutboundpackets.Alsolists
the(802.1p)priorityforeachcodepointthatdoesnothavea
DSCPpolicyassignedtoit.
Forexample,supposeyouwanttoconfigurethefollowingtwoDSCPpolicies
forpacketsreceivedwiththeindicatedDSCPs.
Received
DSCP
Policy
DSCP
802.1p
Priority
Policy Name
(Optional)
001100 000010 6 Level6
001101 000101 4 Level4
1. DeterminewhethertheDSCPsalreadyhavepriorityassignments,which
couldindicateusebyexistingapplications.Thisisnotaproblemaslong
astheconfiguredprioritiesareacceptableforallapplicationsusingthe
sameDSCP.(RefertotheNoteOnChangingaPrioritySettingonpage
6-67.Also,aDSCPmusthaveapriorityconfiguredbeforeyoucanassign
anyQoSclassifierstouseit.)
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Quality of Service (QoS): Managing Bandwidth More Effectively on the Series 2600/2600-PWR and Series 2800 Switches
UsingQoSClassifiersToConfigureQualityofServiceforOutboundTraffic
TheDSCPsforthis
examplehavenotyet
beenassignedan
802.1pprioritylevel.
Figure 6-21. Display the Current DSCP-Map Configuration
2. ConfigurethepoliciesintheDSCPtable:
Figure 6-22. Example of Policies Configured (with Optional Names) in the DSCP
Table
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Quality of Service (QoS): Managing Bandwidth More Effectively on the Series 2600/2600-PWR and Series 2800 Switches
3. Assignthepoliciestothecodepointsintheselectedpackettypes.
ThespecifiedDSCPpolicies
overwritetheoriginalDSCPs
ontheselectedpackets,and
usethe802.1ppriorities
previouslyconfiguredinthe
DSCPpoliciesinstep2.
Figure 6-23. Example of Policy Assignment to Outbound Packets on the Basis of the DSCP in the Packets
Received from Upstream Devices
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Quality of Service (QoS): Managing Bandwidth More Effectively on the Series 2600/2600-PWR and Series 2800 Switches
UsingQoSClassifiersToConfigureQualityofServiceforOutboundTraffic
DetailsofQoSIPType-of-Service
IPpacketsincludeaTypeofService(ToS)byte.TheToSbyteincludes:
ADifferentiatedServicesCodepoint(DSCP):Thiselementiscom-
prisedoftheuppersixbitsoftheToSbyte).Thereare64possible
codepoints.Intheswitchescoveredbythismanual,thedefaultqos
configurationincludesthecodepointhavingthe802.1pprioritysettingfor
ExpeditedForwarding,whileallothers,includingtheAssured-Forward-
ingcodepoints,areunused(andlistedwithNo-overrideforaPriority).
Refertofigure6-15onpage6-65foranillustrationofthedefaultDSCP
policytable.
Usingtheqos dscp mapcommand,youcanconfiguretheswitchtoassign
differentprioritizationpoliciestoIPv4packetshavingdifferentcode-
points.Asanalternative,youcanconfiguretheswitchtoassignanew
codepointtoanIPv4packet,alongwithacorresponding802.1ppriority
(0-7).Tousethisoptioninthesimplestcase,youwould:
a. ConfigureaspecificDSCPwithaspecificpriorityinanedgeswitch.
b. Configuretheswitchtomarkaspecifictypeofinboundtrafficwith
thatDSCP(andthuscreateapolicyforthattraffictype).
c. ConfiguretheinternalswitchesinyourLANtohonorthepolicy.
(Forexample,youcouldconfigureanedgeswitchtoassignacodepoint
of000001toallpacketsreceivedfromaspecificVLAN,andthenhandle
alltrafficwiththatcodepointathighpriority.)
Foracodepointlistingandthecommandsfordisplayingandchangingthe
DSCPPolicytable,refertoDifferentiatedServicesCodepoint(DSCP)
Mappingonpage6-64.
Not e s OntheSeries2600/2600-PWRand2800switches,mixingToSDSCPpolicies
and802.1pprioritiesisnotrecommended.RefertotheNoteonpage6-11.
PrecedenceBits:ThiselementisasubsetoftheDSCPandiscomprised
oftheupperthreebitsoftheToSbyte.Whenconfiguredtodoso,the
switchusestheprecedencebitstodetermineapriorityforhandlingthe
associatedpacket.(Theswitchdoesnotchangethesettingoftheprece-
dencebits.)UsingtheToSPrecedencebitstoprioritizeIPv4packetsrelies
onprioritiessetinupstreamdevicesandapplications.
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Quality of Service (QoS): Managing Bandwidth More Effectively on the Series 2600/2600-PWR and Series 2800 Switches
Figure6-24showsanexampleoftheToSbyteintheheaderforanIPv4packet,
andillustratesthediffservbitsandprecedencebitsintheToSbyte.(Notethat
thePrecedencebitsareasubsetoftheDifferentiatedServicesbits.)
Field: Destination
MACAddress
SourceMAC
Address
802.1QField Type&
Version
ToS Byte
Packet: FFFFFFFFFFFF 080009000016 0800 45 E 0 ...
Differentiated Services Codepoint
Rsvd.
Precedence
Bits
1 1
E 0
0 0 0 0 0 1
Figure 6-24. The ToS Codepoint and Precedence Bits
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Quality of Service (QoS): Managing Bandwidth More Effectively on the Series 2600/2600-PWR and Series 2800 Switches
UsingQoSClassifiersToConfigureQualityofServiceforOutboundTraffic
Table 6-13. How the Switch Uses the ToS Configuration
Outbound Port ToS Option:
IP Precedence
(Value = 0 - 7)
Differentiated Services
IP Packet Sent Out
an Untagged Port
in a VLAN
DependingonthevalueoftheIP
Precedencebitsinthepackets
ToSfield,thepacketwillgotoone
offouroutboundportqueuesin
theswitch:
1-2=lowpriority
0- 3=normalpriority
4- 5=highpriority
6- 7=highpriority
ForagivenpacketcarryingaToScodepointthattheswitchhas
beenconfiguredtodetect:
Changethecodepointaccordingtotheconfiguredpolicyand
assignthe802.1ppriorityspecifiedforthenewcodepointin
theDSCPPolicyTable(page6-64).
Donotchangethecodepoint,butassignthe802.1ppriority
specifiedfortheexistingcodepointintheDSCPPolicyTable
(page6-64).
Dependingonthe802.1ppriorityused,thepacketwillleavethe
switchthroughoneofthefollowingqueues:
1- 2=lowpriority
0- 3=normalpriority
4- 5=highpriority
6- 7=highpriority
IfNo-override (thedefault)hasbeenconfiguredforaspecified
codepoint,thenthepacketisnotprioritizedbyToSand,by
default,issenttothenormalpriorityqueue.
IP Packet Sent Out
an Untagged Port
in a VLAN
Sameasabove,plustheIPPrece-
dencevalue(0-7)willbeusedto
setacorresponding802.1ppriority
intheVLANtagcarriedbythe
packettothenextdownstream
device.Refertotable6-14,below.
Sameasabove,plusthePriorityvalue(0-7)willbeusedtoset
acorresponding802.1ppriorityintheVLANtagcarriedbythe
packettothenextdownstreamdevice.WhereNo-overrideisthe
assignedpriority,theVLANtagcarriesa0(normalpriority)
802.1psettingifnotprioritizedbyotherQoSclassifiers.
Table 6-14. ToS IP-Precedence Bit Mappings to 802.1p Priorities
ToS Byte IP Corresponding Service Priority Level
Precedence Bits 802.1p Priority
000 1
001 2
002 0
003 3
004 4
005 5
006 6
007 7
Lowest
Low
Normal
Highest
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Quality of Service (QoS): Managing Bandwidth More Effectively on the Series 2600/2600-PWR and Series 2800 Switches
QoSVLAN-ID(VID)Priority
QoSClassifierPrecedence:5
TheQoSVLAN-IDoptionsupportsupto120VLANIDs(VIDs)asQoSclassi-
fiers,dependingonruleusebyotherQoSoptions.
WhereaparticularVLAN-IDclassifier hasthehighestprecedenceintheswitch
fortrafficinthatVLAN,thentrafficreceivedinthatVLANismarkedwiththe
VIDclassifiersconfiguredprioritylevel.DifferentVLAN-IDclassifierscan
havedifferingprioritylevels.
OptionsforAssigningPriority. Prioritycontroloptionsforpacketscarry-
ingaspecifiedVLAN-IDinclude:
802.1ppriority
DSCPpolicy(AssigninganewDSCPandanassociated802.1ppriority;
inboundpacketsmustbeIPv4.)
(ForoperationwhenotherQoSclassifiersapplytothesametraffic,referto
ClassifiersforPrioritizingOutboundPacketsonpage6-10.)
Not e QoSwithVIDpriorityappliestostaticVLANsonly,andapplyingQoSto
dynamicVLANscreatedbyGVRPoperationisnotsupported.AVLANmust
existwhileasubjectofaQoSconfiguration,andeliminatingaVLANfromthe
switchcausestheswitchtoclearanyQoSfeaturesconfiguredforthatVID.
AssigningaPriorityBasedonVLAN-ID
Thisoptionassignsaprioritytoalloutboundpacketshavingthespecified
VLAN-ID(VID).YoucanconfigurethisoptionbyeitherspecifyingtheVLAN-
IDaheadoftheqoscommandormovingtotheVLANcontextfortheVLAN
youwanttoconfigureforpriority.
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Quality of Service (QoS): Managing Bandwidth More Effectively on the Series 2600/2600-PWR and Series 2800 Switches
UsingQoSClassifiersToConfigureQualityofServiceforOutboundTraffic
Syntax: vlan<vid>qospriority<0-7>
Configuresan802.1ppriorityforoutboundpacketsbelong-
ingtothespecifiedVLAN.Thisprioritydeterminesthe
packetsqueueintheoutboundporttowhichitissent.Ifthe
packetleavestheswitchonataggedport,itcarriesthe802.1p
prioritywithittothenextdownstreamdevice.Youcan
configureoneQoSclassifierforeachVLAN-ID.(Default:No-
override)
novlan<vid>qos
RemovesthespecifiedVLAN-IDasaQoSclassifierandresets
thepriorityforthatVLANtoNo- override.
showqosvlan-priority
DisplaysalistingoftheQoSVLAN-IDclassifierscurrently
intherunning-configfile,withtheirprioritydata.
1. Forexample,supposethatyouhavethefollowingVLANsconfiguredon
theswitchandwanttoprioritizethemasshown:
SetPriorityTo7
SetPriorityTo2
SetPriorityTo5
Figure 6-25. Example of a List of VLANs Available for QoS Prioritization
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Quality of Service (QoS): Managing Bandwidth More Effectively on the Series 2600/2600-PWR and Series 2800 Switches
2. YouwouldthenexecutethefollowingcommandstoprioritizetheVLANs
byVID:
Figure 6-26. Configuring and Displaying QoS Priorities on VLANs
IfyouthendecidedtoremoveVLAN_20fromQoSprioritization:
Inthisinstance,No- override
indicatesthatVLAN20isnot
prioritizedbyQoS.
Figure 6-27. Returning a QoS-Prioritized VLAN to No-override Status
AssigningaDSCPPolicyBasedonVLAN-ID(VID)
ThisoptionassignsapreviouslyconfiguredDSCPpolicy(codepointand
802.1ppriority)tooutboundIPpacketshavingthespecifiedVLAN-ID(VID).
Thatis,theswitch:
1. SelectsanincomingIPpacketonthebasisoftheVLAN-IDitcarries.
2. OverwritesthepacketsDSCPwiththeDSCPconfiguredintheswitchfor
suchpackets.
3. Assignsthe802.1ppriorityconfiguredintheswitchforthenewDSCP.
(RefertoDifferentiatedServicesCodepoint(DSCP)Mappingonpage
6-64.)
4. Forwardsthepacketthroughtheappropriateoutboundportqueue.
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UsingQoSClassifiersToConfigureQualityofServiceforOutboundTraffic
Not e OntheSeries2600/2600-PWRand2800switches,mixingToSDSCPpolicies
and802.1pprioritiesisnotrecommended.RefertotheNoteonpage6-11.
FormoreonDSCP,refertoTerminologyonpage6-6.
StepsforCreatingaPolicyBasedonVLAN-IDClassifier.
1. DeterminetheVLAN-IDclassifiertowhichyouwanttoassignaDSCP
policy.
2. DeterminetheDSCPpolicyforpacketscarryingtheselectedVLAN-ID:
a. DeterminetheDSCPyouwanttoassigntotheselectedpackets.(This
codepointwillbeusedtooverwritetheDSCPcarriedinpackets
receivedfromupstreamdevices.)
b. Determinethe802.1ppriorityyouwanttoassigntotheDSCP.
3. ConfiguretheDSCPpolicybyusing qos dscp-maptoconfigurethepriority
foreachcodepoint.(Fordetails,seetheexamplelaterinthissection,and
toDifferentiatedServicesCodepoint(DSCP)Mappingonpage6-64.)
Not e Acodepointmusthavean802.1ppriority(0- 7)beforeyoucanconfigurethe
codepointforuseinprioritizingpacketsbyVLAN-ID.Ifacodepointyouwant
touseshowsNo-overridein thePrioritycolumnoftheDSCPPolicytable(show
qos dscp-map),thenassignaprioritybeforeproceeding.
4. ConfiguretheswitchtoassigntheDSCPpolicytopacketswiththe
specifiedVLAN-ID.
Syntax: qosdscp-map<codepoint>priority<0-7>
Thiscommandisoptionalifapriorityhasalreadybeen
assignedtothe<codepoint>.ThecommandcreatesaDSCP
policybyassigningan802.1pprioritytoaspecificDSCP.
Whentheswitchappliesthisprioritytoapacket,thepriority
determinesthepacketsqueueintheoutboundporttowhich
itissent.Ifthepacketleavestheswitchonataggedport,it
carriesthe802.1pprioritywithittothenextdownstream
device.IfthepacketisIPv4,thepacketsDSCPwillbe
replacedbythecodepointspecifiedinthiscommand.
(Default:Formostcodepoints,No-override.Seefigure6-15on
page6-65onpage6-65.)
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Quality of Service (QoS): Managing Bandwidth More Effectively on the Series 2600/2600-PWR and Series 2800 Switches
Syntax: vlan<vid>qosdscp<codepoint>
AssignsaDSCPpolicytopacketscarryingthespecifiedIP
address,andoverwritestheDSCPinthesepacketswiththe
assigned<codepoint>value.Thispolicyincludesan802.1p
priorityanddeterminesthepacketsqueueintheoutbound
porttowhichitissent.Ifthepacketleavestheswitchona
taggedport,itcarriesthe802.1pprioritywithittothenext
downstreamdevice.(Default:No-override)
novlan<vid>qos
RemovesQoSclassifierforthespecifiedVLAN.
showqosdevice-priority
DisplaysalistingofallQoSVLAN-IDclassifierscurrently
intherunning-configfile.
Forexample,supposeyouwantedtoassignthissetofpriorities:
VLAN-ID DSCP Priority
40 000111 7
30 000101 5
20 000010 1
1 000010 1
1. DeterminewhethertheDSCPsalreadyhavepriorityassignments,which
couldindicateusebyexistingapplications.Thisisnotaproblemaslong
astheconfiguredprioritiesareacceptableforallapplicationsusingthe
sameDSCP.(RefertotheNoteOnChangingaPrioritySettingonpage
6-67.Also,aDSCPmusthaveapriorityconfiguredbeforeyoucanassign
anyQoSclassifierstouseit.)
TheDSCPsforthis
examplehavenotyet
beenassignedan
802.1pprioritylevel.
Figure 6-28. Display the Current Configuration in the DSCP Policy Table
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Quality of Service (QoS): Managing Bandwidth More Effectively on the Series 2600/2600-PWR and Series 2800 Switches
UsingQoSClassifiersToConfigureQualityofServiceforOutboundTraffic
2. ConfiguretheprioritiesfortheDSCPsyouwanttouse.
Priorities
Configured
inthisstep.
Figure 6-29. Assign Priorities to the Selected DSCPs
3. AssigntheDSCPpoliciestotheselectedVIDsanddisplaytheresult.
Figure 6-30. The Completed VID-DSCP Priority Configuration
The switchwillnowapply the DSCPpoliciesin figure6-30to packetsreceived
ontheswitchwiththespecifiedVLAN-IDs.Thismeanstheswitchwill:
OverwritetheoriginalDSCPsin theselectedpacketswiththenewDSCPs
specifiedintheabovepolicies.
Assignthe802.1pprioritiesintheabovepoliciestotheappropriate
packets.
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Quality of Service (QoS): Managing Bandwidth More Effectively on the Series 2600/2600-PWR and Series 2800 Switches
QoSSource-PortPriority
QoSClassifierPrecedence:6
TheQoSsource-portoptionenablesyoutouseapacketssource-portonthe
switchasaQoSclassifier.Whereaparticularsource-portclassifierhasthe
highestprecedenceintheswitchfortrafficenteringthroughthatport,then
trafficreceivedfromtheportismarkedwiththesource-portclassifiers
configuredprioritylevel.Differentsource-portclassifierscanhavedifferent
prioritylevels.
OptionsforAssigningPriority. Prioritycontroloptionsforpacketsfrom
aspecifiedsource-portinclude:
802.1ppriority
DSCPpolicy(AssigninganewDSCPandanassociated802.1ppriority;
inboundpacketsmustbeIPv4.)
(ForoperationwhenotherQoSclassifiersapplytothesametraffic,referto
ClassifiersforPrioritizingOutboundPacketsonpage6-10.)
AssigningaPriorityBasedonSource-Port
Thisoptionassignsaprioritytooutboundpacketshavingthespecifiedsource-
port.Configurethisoptionbyeitherspecifyingthesource-portaheadofthe
qos commandormovingtotheportcontextfortheport youwantto configure
forpriority.(Forconfiguringmultiplesource-portswith the samepriority,you
mayfinditeasiertousetheinterface < port-list > commandtogototheport
contextinsteadofindividuallyconfiguringthepriorityforeachport.)
Syntax: interface<port-list>qospriority<0-7>
Configuresan802.1ppriorityforpacketsenteringthe
switchthroughthespecified(source)ports.Thispriority
determinesthepacketqueueintheoutboundport(s)towhich
trafficissent.Ifapacketleavestheswitchonataggedport,
itcarriesthe802.1pprioritywithittothenextdownstream
device.YoucanconfigureoneQoSclassifierforeachsource-
portorgroupofsource-ports.(Default:No-override)
nointerface<port-list>qos
Disablesuseofthespecifiedsource-port(s)forQoSclassi-
fier(s)andresetsthepriorityforthespecifiedsource-port(s)
toNo-override.
showqosport-priority
ListstheQoSport-priorityclassifierswiththeirpriority
data.
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Quality of Service (QoS): Managing Bandwidth More Effectively on the Series 2600/2600-PWR and Series 2800 Switches
UsingQoSClassifiersToConfigureQualityofServiceforOutboundTraffic
Forexample,supposethatyouwanttoprioritizeinboundtrafficonthe
followingsource-ports:
Source-Port Priority
1-3 2
4 3
5,8 5
9-11 6
Youwouldthenexecutethefollowingcommandstoprioritizetrafficreceived
ontheaboveports:
Figure 6-31. Configuring and Displaying Source-Port QoS Priorities
Ifyouthendecidedtoremoveport1fromQoSprioritization:
Inthisinstance,No-
overrideindicatesthatport
A1isnotprioritizedbyQoS.
Figure 6-32. Returning a QoS-Prioritized VLAN to No-override Status
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Quality of Service (QoS): Managing Bandwidth More Effectively on the Series 2600/2600-PWR and Series 2800 Switches
AssigningaDSCPPolicyBasedontheSource-Port
ThisoptionassignsapreviouslyconfiguredDSCPpolicy(codepointand
802.1ppriority)tooutboundIPpackets(receivedfromthespecifiedsource-
ports).Thatis,theswitch:
1. SelectsanincomingIPpacketonthebasisofitssource-portontheswitch.
2. OverwritesthepacketsDSCPwiththeDSCPconfiguredintheswitchfor
suchpackets.
3. Assignsthe802.1ppriorityconfiguredintheswitchforthenewDSCP.
(RefertoDifferentiatedServicesCodepoint(DSCP)Mappingonpage
6-64.)
4. Forwardsthepacketthroughtheappropriateoutboundportqueue.
Not e OntheSeries2600/2600-PWRand2800switches,mixingToSDSCPpolicies
and802.1pprioritiesisnotrecommended.RefertotheNoteonpage6-11.
FormoreonDSCP,refertoTerminologyonpage6-6.
StepsforCreatingaPolicyBasedonSource-PortClassifiers.
Not e YoucanselectoneDSCPpersource-port.Also,configuringanewDSCPfor
asource-portautomaticallyoverwrites(replaces)anypreviousDSCPor
802.1ppriorityconfigurationforthatport.)
1. Identifythesource-portclassifiertowhichyouwanttoassignaDSCP
policy.
2. DeterminetheDSCPpolicyforpacketshavingtheselectedsource-port:
a. DeterminetheDSCPyouwanttoassigntotheselectedpackets.(This
codepointwillbeusedtooverwritetheDSCPcarriedinpackets
receivedthroughthesource-portfromupstreamdevices.)
b. Determinethe802.1ppriorityyouwanttoassigntotheDSCP.
3. ConfiguretheDSCPpolicybyusingqos dscp-map toconfigurethepriority
foreachcodepoint.(Fordetails,refertotheexamplelaterinthissection
andtoDifferentiatedServicesCodepoint(DSCP)Mappingonpage
6-64.)
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UsingQoSClassifiersToConfigureQualityofServiceforOutboundTraffic
Not e Acodepointmusthavean802.1ppriorityassignment(0- 7)beforeyoucan
configurethatcodepointasacriteriaforprioritizingpacketsbysource-port.
IfacodepointshowsNo-overrideinthePrioritycolumnoftheDSCPPolicy
Table(show qos dscp-map),thenyoumustassigna0-7prioritybefore
proceeding.
4. ConfiguretheswitchtoassigntheDSCPpolicytopacketsfromthe
specifiedsource-port.
Syntax: qosdscp-map<codepoint>priority<0-7>
Thiscommandisoptionalifapriorityhasalready
beenassignedtothe<codepoint>.Thecommandcreates
aDSCPpolicybyassigningan802.1pprioritytoa
specificDSCP.Whentheswitchappliesthispriorityto
apacket,theprioritydeterminesthepacketsqueuein
theoutboundporttowhichit issent.Ifthepacketleaves
theswitchonataggedport,itcarriesthe802.1p
prioritywithittothenextdownstreamdevice.
(Default:Formostcodepoints,No-override.Seefigure6-
15onpage6-65onpage6-65.)
Syntax: interface<port-list>qosdscp<codepoint>
AssignsaDSCPpolicytopacketsfromthespecified
source-port(s),andoverwritestheDSCPinthesepack-
etswiththeassigned<codepoint>value.Thispolicy
includesan802.1ppriorityanddeterminesthe
packetsqueueintheoutboundporttowhichitissent.
Ifthepacketleavestheswitchonataggedport,it
carriesthe802.1pprioritywithittothenextdown-
streamdevice.(Default:No-override)
nointerface[e]<port-list>qos
RemovesQoSclassifierforthespecifiedsource-port(s).
showqossource-port
Displaysalistingofallsource-portQoSclassifiers
currentlyintherunning-configfile.
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Quality of Service (QoS): Managing Bandwidth More Effectively on the Series 2600/2600-PWR and Series 2800 Switches
Forexample,supposeyouwantedtoassignthissetofpriorities:
Source-Port DSCP Priority
2 000111 7
5- 7 000101 5
8,10 000010 1
1. DeterminewhethertheDSCPsalreadyhavepriorityassignments,which
couldindicateusebyexistingapplications.Thisisnotaproblemaslong
astheconfiguredprioritiesareacceptableforallapplicationsusingthe
sameDSCP.(RefertotheNoteOnChangingaPrioritySettingonpage
6-67.Also,aDSCPmusthaveapriorityconfiguredbeforeyoucanassign
anyQoSclassifierstouseit.)
TheDSCPsforthis
examplehavenotyet
beenassignedan
802.1pprioritylevel.
Figure 6-33. Display the Current Configuration in the DSCP Policy Table
2. ConfiguretheprioritiesfortheDSCPsyouwanttouse.
Priorities
Configuredin
thisstep.
Figure 6-34. Assign Priorities to the Selected DSCPs
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Quality of Service (QoS): Managing Bandwidth More Effectively on the Series 2600/2600-PWR and Series 2800 Switches
UsingQoSClassifiersToConfigureQualityofServiceforOutboundTraffic
3. AssigntheDSCPpoliciestotheselectedsource-portsanddisplaythe
result.
Figure 6-35. The Completed Source-Port DSCP-Priority Configuration
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Quality of Service (QoS): Managing Bandwidth More Effectively on the Series 2600/2600-PWR and Series 2800 Switches
DifferentiatedServicesCodepoint(DSCP)Mapping
TheDSCPPolicyTableassociatesan802.1pprioritywithaspecificToSbyte
codepointinanIPv4packet.This enablesyoutoseta LANpolicy thatoperates
independentlyof802.1QVLAN-tagging.
Inthedefaultstate,mostofthe64codepointsdonotassignan802.1ppriority,
asindicatedbyNo-overrideintable6-15onpage6-65.
YoucanlistthecurrentDSCPPolicytable,changethecodepointpriority
assignments,andassignoptionalnamestothecodepoints.
Syntax: showqosdscp-map
DisplaystheDSCPPolicyTable.
qosdscp-map< codepoint >priority<0- 7>[name< ascii-string >]
Configuresan802.1ppriorityforthespecifiedcodepoint
and,optionally,anidentifying(policy)name.
noqosdscp-map< codepoint >
Reconfiguresthe802.1ppriorityfor<codepoint>toNo-over-
ride.Alsodeletesthecodepointpolicyname,ifconfigured.
noqosdscp-map<codepoint>name
Deletesonlythepolicy name, if configured,for<codepoint >.
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UsingQoSClassifiersToConfigureQualityofServiceforOutboundTraffic
Table 6-15. The Default DSCP Policy Table
DSCP
Policy
802.1p Priority DSCP
Policy
802.1p Priority DSCP
Policy
802.1p Priority
000000
000001
000010
000011
000100
000101
000110
000111
001000
001001
001010
001011
001100
001101
001110
001111
010000
010001
010010
010011
010100
010101
No-override
No-override
No-override
No-override
No-override
No-override
No-override
No-override
No-override
No-override
1*
No-override
1*
No-override
2*
No-override
No-override
No-override
0*
No-override
0*
No-override
010110
010111
011000
011001
011010
011011
011100
011101
011110
011111
100000
100001
100010
100011
100100
100101
100110
100111
101000
101001
101010
3*
No-override
No-override
No-override
4*
No-override
4*
No-override
5*
No-override
No-override
No-override
6*
No-override
6*
No-override
7*
No-override
No-override
No-override
No-override
101011
101100
101101
101110
101111
110000
110001
110010
110011
110100
110101
110110
110111
111000
111001
111010
111011
111100
111101
111110
111111
No-override
No-override
No-override
7
+
No-override
No-override
No-override
No-override
No-override
No-override
No-override
No-override
No-override
No-override
No-override
No-override
No-override
No-override
No-override
No-override
No-override
*AssuredForwardingcodepoints;configuredbydefaultontheSeries5304xl
switches.ThesecodepointsareconfiguredasNo-overrideintheSeries3400cl,
2600/2600-PWR,and2800switches.
+
ExpeditedForwardingcodepointconfiguredbydefault.
DefaultPrioritySettingsforSelectedCodepoints
Inafewcases,suchas001010and001100,adefaultpolicy(impliedbythe
DSCPstandardsforAssured-Forwarding andExpedited-Forwarding)isused.
Youcanchangetheprioritiesforthedefaultpoliciesbyusingqos dscp-map
< codepoint > priority < 0 - 7 >).(Thesepoliciesarenotineffectunlessyouhave
eitherappliedthepoliciestoaQoSclassifierorconfiguredQoSType-of-
Servicetobeindiff-servicesmode.)
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Quality of Service (QoS): Managing Bandwidth More Effectively on the Series 2600/2600-PWR and Series 2800 Switches
QuicklyListingNon-DefaultCodepointSettings
Table6-15liststheswitchsdefaultcodepoint/prioritysettings.Ifyouchange
thepriorityofanycodepointsettingtoanon-defaultvalueandthenexecute
write memory,theswitchwilllistthenon-defaultsettingintheshowconfig
display.Forexample,inthedefaultconfiguration,thefollowingcodepoint
settingsaretrue:
Codepoint Default
Priority
001100 1
001101 No-override
001110 2
Ifyouchangeallthreesettingstoapriorityof3,andthenexecutewrite memory,
theswitchwillreflectthesechangesintheshowconfiglisting:
Configurethesethreecodepoints
withnon-defaultpriorities.
Showconfigliststhenondefault
codepointsettings.
Figure 6-36. Example of Show Config Listing with Non-Default Priority Settings in
the DSCP Table
EffectofNo-override. IntheQoSType-of-Servicedifferentiatedservices
mode,aNo-overrideassignmentforthecodepointofanoutboundpacket
meansthatQoSiseffectivelydisabledforsuchpackets.Thatis,QoSdoesnot
6-66
Quality of Service (QoS): Managing Bandwidth More Effectively on the Series 2600/2600-PWR and Series 2800 Switches
UsingQoSClassifiersToConfigureQualityofServiceforOutboundTraffic
affectthepacketqueuingpriorityorVLANtagging.Inthiscase,thepackets
arehandledasfollows(aslongasnootherQoSfeaturecreatespriority
assignmentsforthem):
802.1Q Status Outbound 802.1p
Priority
ReceivedandForwardedonataggedportmemberofaVLAN. Unchanged
ReceivedonanUntaggedportmemberofaVLAN;Forwardedona 0(zero)normal
taggedportmemberofaVLAN.
ForwardedonanUntaggedportmemberofaVLAN. None
NoteOnChangingaPrioritySetting
IfaQoSclassifierisusingapolicy(codepointandassociatedpriority)inthe
DSCPPolicytable,youmustdeleteorchangethisusagebeforeyoucan
changetheprioritysettingonthecodepoint.Otherwisetheswitchblocksthe
changeanddisplaysthismessage:
Cannot modify DSCP Policy < codepoint > - in use by other qos rules.
Inthiscase,useshow qos < classifier > toidentifythespecificclassifiersusing
thepolicyyouwanttochange;thatis:
showqosdevice-priority
showqosport-priority
showqostcp-udp-port-priority
showqosvlan-priority
showqostype-of-service
Forexample,supposethatthe000001 codepointhasapriorityof6,andseveral
classifiersusethe000001codepointtoassignaprioritytotheirrespective
typesoftraffic.Ifyouwantedtochangethepriorityofcodepoint000001you
woulddothefollowing:
1. IdentifywhichQoSclassifiersusethecodepoint.
2. ChangetheclassifierconfigurationsbyassigningthemtoadifferentDSCP
policy,ortoan802.1ppriority,ortoNo-override.
3. Reconfigurethedesiredpriorityforthe000001codepoint.
4. Eitherreassigntheclassifierstothe00001codepointpolicyorleavethem
astheywereafterstep2,above.
6-67
Quality of Service (QoS): Managing Bandwidth More Effectively on the Series 2600/2600-PWR and Series 2800 Switches
ExampleofChangingthePrioritySettingonaPolicyWhen
OneorMoreClassifiersAreCurrentlyUsingthePolicy
Supposethatcodepoint000001isinusebyoneormoreclassifiers.Ifyoutry
tochangeitspriority,youseearesultsimilartothefollowing:
Figure 6-37. Example of Trying To Change the Priority on a Policy In Use by a
Classifier
Inthiscase,youwoulduse stepssimilartothefollowing tochangethepriority.
1. Identifywhichclassifiersusethecodepointyouwanttochange.
6-68
Quality of Service (QoS): Managing Bandwidth More Effectively on the Series 2600/2600-PWR and Series 2800 Switches
UsingQoSClassifiersToConfigureQualityofServiceforOutboundTraffic
Threeclassifiersuse
thecodepointthatis
tobechanged.
Twoclassifiersdonot
usethecodepointthat
istobechanged.
Figure 6-38. Example of a Search to Identify Classifiers Using a Codepoint You Want To Change
6-69
Quality of Service (QoS): Managing Bandwidth More Effectively on the Series 2600/2600-PWR and Series 2800 Switches
2. ChangetheclassifierconfigurationsbyassigningthemtoadifferentDSCP
policy,ortoan802.1ppriority,ortoNo-override.Forexample:
a. Deletethepolicyassignmentforthedevice-priorityclassifier.(Thatis,
assignittoNo-override.)
b. CreateanewDSCPpolicytouseforre-assigningtheremaining
classifiers.
c. Assigntheport-priorityclassifiertothenewDSCPpolicy.
d. Assigntheudp-port 1260classifiertoan802.1ppriority.
3. Reconfigurethedesiredpriorityforthe000001codepoint.
HPswitch(config)# qos dscp-map 000001 priority 4
4. Youcouldnowre-assigntheclassifierstotheoriginalpolicycodepointor
leavethemascurrentlyconfigured.
6-70
Quality of Service (QoS): Managing Bandwidth More Effectively on the Series 2600/2600-PWR and Series 2800 Switches
IPMulticast(IGMP)InteractionwithQoS
IPMulticast(IGMP)Interactionwith
QoS
IGMPhigh-priority-forwardcausestheswitchtoservicethesubscribedIP
multicastgrouptraffic athighpriority,evenifQoSontheswitchhasrelegated
thetraffictoalowerpriority.ThisdoesnotaffectanyQoSprioritysettings,
sotheQoSpriorityishonoredbydownstreamdevices.However,QoSdoes
takeprecedenceoverIGMPnormal-prioritytraffic.
TheswitchsabilitytoprioritizeIGMPtrafficforeitheranormalorhigh
priorityoutboundqueueoverridesanyQoScriteria,anddoesnotaffectany
802.1pprioritysettingstheswitchmayassign.Foragivenpacket,ifbothIGMP
highpriorityandQoSareconfigured,theQoSclassificationoccursandthe
switchmarksthepacketfordownstreamdevices,butthepacketisserviced
bythehigh-priorityqueuewhenleavingtheswitch.
IGMP High
Priority
QoS Configuration
Affects Packet
Switch Port Output
Queue
Outbound 802.1p Setting
(Requires Tagged VLAN)
NotEnabled Yes DeterminedbyQoS DeterminedbyQoS
Enabled Seeabovepara- High AsdeterminedbyQoSifQoSis
graph. active.
QoSMessagesintheCLI
Message Meaning
DSCPPolicy<decimal-codepoint>not YouhaveattemptedtomapaQoSclassifierto
configured acodepointforwhichthereisnoconfigured
priority(No-override).Usetheqos dscp-map
commandtoconfigureapriorityforthe
codepoint,thenmaptheclassifiertothe
codepoint.
CannotmodifyDSCPPolicy<codepoint >-in YouhaveattemptedtomapaQoSclassifierto
usebyotherqosrules. acodepointthatisalreadyinusebyotherQoS
classifiers.Beforeremappingthecodepoint
toanewpriority,youmustreconfigurethe
otherQoSclassifierssothattheydonotuse
thiscodepoint.YoucanhavemultipleQoS
classifiersusethissamecodepointaslongas
itisacceptableforallsuchclassifierstouse
thesamepriority.
6-71
Quality of Service (QoS): Managing Bandwidth More Effectively on the Series 2600/2600-PWR and Series 2800 Switches
QoSOperatingNotesandRestrictions
Table 6-16. Details of Packet Criteria and Restrictions for QoS Support
Packet Criteria or
Restriction
QoS Classifiers DSCP
Overwrite
(Re-
Marking)
UDP/TCP Device
Priority (IP
Address)
IP Type-of-
Service
VLAN Source
Port
Incoming
802.1p
RestrictedtoIPv4PacketsOnly Yes Yes Yes No No No Yes
AllowPacketswithIPOptions
1
No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
SupportIPv6Packets
2
No No No Yes Yes Yes No
SupportLayer-2SAP
Encapsulation
No No No Yes Yes Yes No
1
AnIPOptionisanoptional,extrafieldintheheaderofanIPpacket.IftheswitchisconfiguredwithaUDP/TCPclassifier
andapacketwithanIPoptionisreceived,theswitchusesthenext-highestclassifier,if configured.
2
AllSwitches:ForexplicitQoSsupportofIPv6packets,forceIPv6trafficintoitsownsetofVLANsandthenconfigure
VLAN-basedclassifiersforthoseVLANs.
AllSwitches:ForexplicitQoSsupportofIPsubnets,HPrecommends
forcingIPsubnetsontoseparateVLANsandthenconfiguringVLAN-based
classifiersforthoseVLANs.
ForDevicesthatDoNotSupport802.1QVLAN-Tagged Ports:
Forcommunicationbetweenthesedevicesandtheswitch,connect
thedevicetoaswitchportconfiguredasUntagged fortheVLANin
whichyouwantthedevicestraffictomove.
PortTaggingRules:Foraportontheswitchtobeamemberofa
VLAN,theportmustbeconfiguredaseitherTaggedorUntaggedfor
thatVLAN.FormoreonVLANs,refertochapter2,StaticVirtual
LANs(VLANs).
SAP-EncapsulatedPacketRestriction:Exceptforsource-port
QoSandVLANQoS,theSeries2600/2600-PWRand2800switchesdo
notsupportQoSoperationforSAP-Encapsulatedpackets.Thus,the
switchcanuseonlyVLANQoSandsource-portQoStoprioritizeSAP-
encapsulatedpackets.
PacketswithIPOptionFieldsintheHeader:UDP/TCPQoSis
notsupportedforIPpacketscarryingoptionalfieldsintheirheaders.
6-72
Quality of Service (QoS): Managing Bandwidth More Effectively on the Series 2600/2600-PWR and Series 2800 Switches
QoSOperatingNotesandRestrictions
RADIUSAuthentication:RADIUSauthenticationallowingtraffic
throughagivenportmayoverridetheportsQoSconfiguration, which
generatesanEventLogmessage.Whentheauthenticatedhost discon-
nects,theportreturnstothestaticQoSconfiguration.
MaximumQoSConfigurationEntries: TheSeries 2600/2600-PWRand
2800switchesacceptthe maximumoutboundpriorityand/orDSCPpolicy
configurationentriesshownintable6-17.
Table 6-17. Maximum QoS Entries.
Switch Software
Version
Maximum QoS
Entries (Rules)
Notes for All Switch Models
Series2800 E.08.01and
greater
120
1
Eachdevice(IPaddress)QoS
configurationusestwoportrules.
2
EachTCP/UDPportQoSconfiguration
usestwoportrules.
2
ToSIPprecedenceuseseightport
rules.
2
Allotherclassifierconfigurationsuse
oneportruleeach.
2
Series2600/
2600-PWR
H.08.xx GigPorts:120
1
10/100Ports:248
1
1
ConfiguringoneormoreQoSentriesreducesthismaximum.
2
Formoreinformation,refertotables6-9and6-10onpage6-17.
Attemptingtoexceedtheabovelimitsgeneratesthefollowingmessage
intheCLI:
Unable to add this QoS rule. Maximum number (entry-#)
already reached.
All SwitchesNot Supported: Useofaninbound802.1ppacketpriority
asaclassifierforremappingapacketsoutboundprioritytodifferent
802.1ppriority.Forexample,whereinboundpacketscarryan802.1p
priorityof1,QoScannotbeconfiguredusethispriorityasaclassifierfor
changingtheoutboundpriorityto0.
6-73
Quality of Service (QoS): Managing Bandwidth More Effectively on the Series 2600/2600-PWR and Series 2800 Switches
Thispageisintentionallyunused.
6-74
7
IPRoutingFeatures
Contents
OverviewofIPRouting .......................................... 7-3
IPInterfaces ................................................ 7-3
IPTablesandCaches ........................................ 7-4
ARPCacheTable ........................................ 7-4
IPRouteTable .......................................... 7-5
IPForwardingCache ..................................... 7-5
IPGlobalParametersforRoutingSwitches ..................... 7-6
IPInterface ParametersforRoutingSwitches ................... 7-7
ConfiguringIP ParametersforRoutingSwitches .................... 7-8
ConfiguringIPAddresses..................................... 7-8
ConfiguringARPParameters.................................. 7-8
HowARPWorks......................................... 7-8
ChangingtheARPAgingPeriod........................... 7-10
EnablingProxyARP .................................... 7-11
ConfiguringForwardingParameters .......................... 7-11
EnablingForwardingofDirectedBroadcasts ............... 7-12
ConfiguringICMP .......................................... 7-13
DisablingICMPMessages ................................ 7-13
DisablingRepliestoBroadcastPingRequests............... 7-13
DisablingICMPDestinationUnreachableMessages.......... 7-14
DisablingICMPRedirects ................................ 7-15
ConfiguringStaticIPRoutes..................................... 7-15
StaticRouteTypes ...................................... 7-15
StaticIPRouteParameters ............................... 7-16
StaticRouteStatesFollowVLAN(Interface)States .......... 7-16
ConfiguringaStaticIPRoute ............................. 7-16
ConfiguringtheDefaultRoute ............................ 7-17
ConfiguringaNullRoute ............................... 7-17
DisplayingStaticRouteInformation .......................... 7-18
ConfiguringIRDP .............................................. 7-20
7-1
IP Routing Features
Contents
EnablingIRDPGlobally ..................................... 7-21
EnablingIRDPonanIndividualVLANInterface ................ 7-21
DisplayingIRDPInformation.......... ....................... 7-23
ConfiguringDHCPRelay ........................................ 7-24
Overview.................................................. 7-24
DHCPPacketForwarding ................................... 7-24
UnicastForwarding ..................................... 7-24
BroadcastForwarding................................... 7-24
MinimumRequirementsforDHCPRelayOperation ............. 7-25
EnablingDHCPRelay ................................... 7-25
ConfiguringaHelperAddress ............................ 7-25
7-2
IP Routing Features
OverviewofIPRouting
OverviewofIPRouting
TheswitchescoveredinthisguideofferIPstaticrouting,supportingupto16
staticroutes.
IPstaticroutingisconfigurablethroughtheswitchsconsoleCLI.
Thischapterreferstheswitchasaroutingswitch.WhenIProutingis enabled
onyourswitch,itbehavesjustlikeanyotherIProuter.
BasicIProutingconfigurationconsistsofaddingIPaddressesandenabling
IProuting.
ForconfiguringtheIPaddresses,seechapter7,ConfiguringIPAddresses.
TherestofthischapterdescribesIProutingandhowtoconfigureitinmore
detail.Usetheinformationinthischapterifyouneedtochangesomeofthe
IPparametersfromtheirdefaultvaluesoryouwanttoviewconfiguration
informationorstatistics.
IPInterfaces
OntheHPProCurveroutingswitches,IPaddressesareassociatedwith
individualVLANs.Bydefault,thereisasingleVLAN(Default_VLAN)onthe
routingswitch.Inthat configuration,a singleIPaddressservesasthemanage-
mentaccessaddressfortheentireroutingswitch.Ifroutingisenabledonthe
routingswitch,theIPaddressonthesingleVLANalsoactsastherouting
interface.
EachIPaddressrange,specifiedbyanIPaddressandasubnetmaskormask
bits,mustbeinasinglesubnetandmustbeconfiguredonasingleVLAN.For
example,ifyouconfiguretheIPaddressrange192.200.200.0/24onaVLANon
theroutingswitch,youcannotaddtheaddress192.200.200.1toadifferent
VLANonthesameroutingswitch.Theaddress192.200.200.1isintheaddress
range192.200.200.0/24andsoisknowntoexistonthatinterfaceandcannot
beduplicatedonasecondVLANinterface.
YoucanconfiguremultipleIPsubnetsonthesameVLAN.Thisiscommonly
knownasmulti-netting.ThenumberofIPsubnetsyoucanconfigureonan
individualVLANinterfaceis8.
YoucanuseanyoftheIPaddressesyouconfigureontheroutingswitchfor
Telnet,Webmanagement,orSNMPaccess,aswellasforrouting.
7-3
IP Routing Features
OverviewofIPRouting
Not e YourHPProCurveswitchsupportsIPaddressesinclassicalsub-netformat,
whichincludestheIPaddressandthesubnetmask(example:
192.168.1.1 255.255.255.0),andClasslessInterdomainRouting(CIDR)format
(example:192.168.1.1/24).YoucanuseeitherformatwhenconfiguringIP
addressinformation.IPaddressesaredisplayedinclassicalsub-netformat
only,withorwithoutthesubnetmask.
IPTablesandCaches
ThefollowingsectionsdescribetheIPtablesandcaches:
ARPcachetable
IProutetable
IPforwardingcache
Thesoftwareenablesyoutodisplaythesetables.
ARPCacheTable
TheARPcachecontainsentriesthatmapIPaddressestoMACaddresses.
Generally,theentriesarefordevicesthataredirectlyattachedtotherouting
switch.
ARPCache. TheARPcachecontainsdynamic(learned)entries.Thesoft-
wareplacesadynamicentryintheARPcachewhentheroutingswitchlearns
adevicesMACaddressfromanARPrequestorARPreplyfromthedevice.
Thesoftwarecanlearnanentrywhentheswitchorroutingswitchreceives
anARPrequestfromanotherIPforwardingdeviceoranARPreply.Hereis
anexampleofadynamicentry:
IP Address MAC Address Type Port
1 207.95.6.102 0800.5afc.ea21 Dynamic 6
Figure 7-1. Example of a Dynamic Entry
EachentrycontainsthedestinationdevicesIPaddressandMACaddress.
ToconfigureotherARPparameters,seeConfiguringARPParameterson
page7-8.
7-4
IP Routing Features
OverviewofIPRouting
IPRouteTable
TheIProutetablecontainsroutingpathstoIPdestinations.
Not e Thedefaultgateway,whichisconfiguredaspartoftheIPaddressconfigura-
tiondescribedinchapter7,IPAddressing,isusedonlywhenroutingisnot
enabledontheswitch.
TheIProutetablecanreceivetheroutingpathsfromthefollowingsources:
Adirectly-connecteddestination,whichmeanstherearenorouterhops
tothedestination
AstaticIProute,whichisauser-configuredroute
TheIProutetablecontainsthebestpathtoadestination.Whenthesoftware
receivespathsfrommorethanoneofthesourceslistedabove,thesoftware
comparestheadministrativedistanceofeachpathandselectsthepathwith
thelowestadministrativedistance.Theadministrativedistanceisaprotocol-
independentvaluefrom1255.
TheIProutetableisdisplayedbyenteringtheCLIcommandshow ip route
fromanycontextlevelintheconsoleCLI.Hereisanexampleofanentryin
theIProutetable:
Destination Network Mask | Gateway Type Sub-Type Metric
--------------- --------------- + --------------- --------- ---------- ------
1.1.0.0 255.255.0.0 | 99.1.1.2 connected 1
Figure 7-2. Example of IP Route Table Entry
EachIProutetableentrycontainsthedestinationsIPaddressandsubnet
maskandtheIPaddressofthenext-hoprouterinterfacetothedestination.
Eachentryalsoindicatesroute type.ThetypeindicateshowtheIProutetable
receivedtheroute.
ToconfigureastaticIProute,seeConfiguringaStaticIPRouteon
page7-16.
IPForwardingCache
TheIPforwardingcacheprovidesafast-pathmechanismforforwardingIP
packets.ThecachecontainsentriesforIPdestinations.WhenanHPProCurve
routingswitchhascompletedprocessingandaddressingforapacketandis
readytoforwardthepacket,thedevicecheckstheIPforwardingcacheforan
entrytothepacketsdestination.
7-5
IP Routing Features
OverviewofIPRouting
IfthecachecontainsanentrywiththedestinationIPaddress,thedevice
usestheinformationintheentrytoforwardthepacketoutthe portslisted
intheentry.ThedestinationIPaddressistheaddressofthepacketsfinal
destination.Theportnumbersaretheportsthroughwhichthedestination
canbereached.
Ifthecachedoesnotcontainanentry,thesoftwarecancreateanentryin
theforwardingcache.
EachentryintheIPforwardingcachehasanagetimer.Iftheentryremains
unusedforfiveminutes,thesoftwareremovestheentry.Theagetimerisnot
configurable.
Not e YoucannotaddstaticentriestotheIPforwardingcache.
IPGlobalParametersforRoutingSwitches
ThefollowingtableliststheIPglobalparametersandthepagewhereyoucan
findmoreinformationabouteachparameter.
Table 7-1. IP Global Parameters for Routing Switches
Parameter Description Default See page
Address
Resolution
Protocol(ARP)
AstandardIPmechanismthatroutersusetolearntheMediaAccess
Control(MAC)addressofadeviceonthenetwork. Theroutersends
theIPaddressofadeviceintheARPrequestandreceivesthedevices
MACaddressinanARPreply.
Enabled 7-8
ARPage TheamountoftimethedevicekeepsaMACaddresslearnedthrough
ARPinthedevicesARPcache.Thedeviceresetsthetimertozeroeach
timetheARPentryisrefreshedandremovestheentryifthetimer
reachestheARPage.
20minutes 7-10
ProxyARP AnIPmechanismaroutercanusetoansweranARPrequestonbehalf
ofahost.ItreplieswiththeroutersownMACaddressinsteadofthe
hosts.
Disabled 7-11
TimetoLive
(TTL)
Themaximumnumberofrouters(hops)throughwhichapacketcan
passbeforebeingdiscarded. EachrouterdecreasesapacketsTTLby
1beforeforwardingthepacket. IfdecreasingtheTTLcausestheTTL
tobe0,therouterdropsthepacketinsteadofforwardingit.
64hops 7-11
Directed
broadcast
forwarding
Adirectedbroadcastisapacketcontainingallones(orinsomecases,
allzeros)inthehostportionofthedestinationIPaddress.Whenarouter
forwardssuchabroadcast,itsendsacopyofthepacketouteachofits
enabledIPinterfaces.
Note:Youalsocanenableordisablethisparameteronanindividual
interfacebasis.Seetable7-2onpage7-7.
Disabled 7-12
7-6
IP Routing Features
OverviewofIPRouting
ICMPRouter
Discovery
Protocol(IRDP)
AnIPprotocolthataroutercanusetoadvertisetheIPaddressesofits
routerinterfacestodirectlyattachedhosts.Youcanenableordisable
theprotocolattheGlobalCLIConfiglevel.
YoualsocanenableordisableIRDPandconfigurethefollowing
protocolparametersonanindividualVLANinterfacebasisattheVLAN
InterfaceCLIConfiglevel.
Forwardingmethod(broadcastormulticast)
Holdtime
Maximumadvertisementinterval
Minimumadvertisementinterval
Routerpreferencelevel
Disabled 7-20
7-21
Staticroute AnIProuteyouplaceintheIProutetable. Noentries 7-15
Default
networkroute
TherouterusesthedefaultnetworkrouteiftheIProutetabledoesnot
containaroutetothedestination.FortheSwitch5300XLSeriesdevices,
enteranexplicitdefaultroute(0.0.0.00.0.0.0or0.0.0.0/0)asastaticroute
intheIProutetable.
None
configured
7-17
Parameter Description Default See page
IPInterfaceParametersforRoutingSwitches
Table7-2liststheinterface-levelIPparametersforroutingswitches.
Table 7-2. IP Interface Parameters Routing Switches
Parameter Description Default See page
IPaddress ALayer3networkinterfaceaddress;separateIP
addressesonindividualVLANinterfaces.
Noneconfigured chapter7
ICMPRouter
Discovery
Protocol(IRDP)
LocallyoverridestheglobalIRDPsettings.Seetable7-
1onpage7-6forglobalIRDPinformation.
Disabled 7-21
IPhelperaddress TheIPaddressofaUDPapplicationserver(suchasa
BootPorDHCPserver)oradirectedbroadcast
address.IPhelperaddressesallowtheroutingswitch
toforwardrequestsforcertainUDPapplicationsfrom
aclientononesub-nettoaserveronanothersub-net.
Noneconfigured 7-25
7-7
IP Routing Features
ConfiguringIPParametersforRoutingSwitches
ConfiguringIPParametersforRouting
Switches
The followingsectionsdescribehowtoconfigureIPparameters.Someparam-
eterscanbeconfiguredgloballywhileotherscanbeconfiguredonindividual
VLANinterfaces.Someparameterscan beconfigured globallyandoverridden
forindividualVLANinterfaces.
Not e ThissectiondescribeshowtoconfigureIPparametersforroutingswitches.
ForIPconfigurationinformationwhenroutingisnotenabled,refertothe
chapteronIPaddressingintheManagementandConfigurationGuide.
ConfiguringIPAddresses
YoucanconfigureanIPaddressontheroutingswitchsVLANinterfaces.
ConfiguringIPaddressesisdescribedindetailinthechapteronIPaddressing
intheManagementandConfigurationGuide.
ConfiguringARPParameters
AddressResolutionProtocol(ARP)isastandardIPprotocolthatenablesan
IProutingswitchtoobtaintheMACaddressofanotherdevicesinterface
whentheroutingswitchknowstheIPaddressoftheinterface.ARPis enabled
bydefaultandcannotbedisabled.
HowARPWorks
AroutingswitchneedstoknowadestinationsMACaddresswhenforwarding
traffic,becausetheroutingswitchencapsulatestheIPpacketinaLayer2
packet(MAClayerpacket)andsendstheLayer2packettoaMACinterface
onadevicedirectlyattachedtotheroutingswitch.Thedevicecanbethe
packetsfinaldestinationorthenext-hoproutertowardthedestination.
TheroutingswitchencapsulatesIPpacketsinLayer2packetsregardlessof
whethertheultimatedestinationislocallyattachedorismultiplerouterhops
away.SincetheroutingswitchsIProutetableandIPforwardingcache
containIPaddressinformationbutnotMACaddressinformation,therouting
switchcannot forwardIPpacketsbasedsolelyon theinformation intheroute
7-8
IP Routing Features
ConfiguringIPParametersforRoutingSwitches
tableorforwardingcache.TheroutingswitchneedstoknowtheMACaddress
thatcorrespondswiththeIPaddressofeitherthepacketslocallyattached
destinationorthenext-hoprouterthatleadstothedestination.
Forexample,toforwardapacketwhosedestinationismultiplerouterhops
away,theroutingswitchmustsendthepackettothenext-hoproutertoward
itsdestination,ortoadefaultrouteordefaultnetworkrouteiftheIProute
tabledoesnotcontainaroutetothepacketsdestination.Ineachcase,the
routingswitchmustencapsulatethepacketandaddressittotheMACaddress
ofalocallyattacheddevice,thenext-hoproutertowardtheIPpackets
destination.
ToobtaintheMACaddressrequiredforforwardingadatagram,therouting
switchdoesthefollowing:
First,theroutingswitchlooksintheARPcache(notthestaticARPtable)
foranentrythatliststheMACaddressfortheIPaddress.TheARPcache
mapsIPaddressestoMACaddresses.Thecachealsoliststheport
attachedtothedeviceand,iftheentryisdynamic,theageoftheentry.A
dynamicARPentryentersthecachewhentheroutingswitchreceivesan
ARPreplyorreceivesanARPrequest(whichcontainsthesendersIP
addressandMACaddress).AstaticentryenterstheARPcachefromthe
staticARPtable(whichisaseparatetable)whentheinterfaceforthe
entrycomesup.
ToensuretheaccuracyoftheARPcache,eachdynamicentryhasitsown
agetimer.Thetimerisresettozeroeachtimetheroutingswitchreceives
anARPreplyorARPrequestcontainingtheIPaddressandMACaddress
oftheentry.Ifadynamicentryreachesitsmaximumallowableage,the
entrytimesoutandthesoftwareremovestheentryfromthetable.Static
entriesdonotageoutandcanberemovedonlybyyou.
IftheARPcachedoesnotcontainanentryforthedestinationIPaddress,
theroutingswitchbroadcastsanARPrequestoutallitsIPinterfaces.The
ARPrequestcontainstheIPaddressofthedestination.Ifthedevicewith
theIPaddressisdirectlyattachedtotheroutingswitch,thedevicesends
anARPresponsecontainingitsMACaddress.Theresponseisaunicast
packetaddresseddirectlytotheroutingswitch.Theroutingswitchplaces
theinformationfromtheARPresponseintotheARPcache.
ARPrequestscontaintheIPaddressandMACaddressofthesender,so
alldevicesthatreceivetherequestlearntheMACaddressandIPaddress
ofthesenderandcanupdatetheirownARPcachesaccordingly.
Note:TheARPrequestbroadcastisaMACbroadcast,whichmeansthe
broadcastgoesonlytodevicesthataredirectlyattachedtotherouting
switch.AMACbroadcastisnotroutedtoothernetworks.However,some
7-9
IP Routing Features
ConfiguringIPParametersforRoutingSwitches
routers,includingHProutingswitches,canbeconfiguredtoreplytoARP
requestsfromonenetworkonbehalfofdevicesonanothernetwork.See
EnablingProxyARPbelow.
Not e IftheroutingswitchreceivesanARPrequestpacketthat itisunabletodeliver
tothefinaldestinationbecauseoftheARPtimeoutandnoARPresponseis
received(theroutingswitchknowsofnoroutetothedestinationaddress),
theroutingswitchsendsanICMPHostUnreachablemessagetothesource.
ChangingtheARPAgingPeriod
WhentheroutingswitchplacesanentryintheARPcache,italsostartsan
agingtimerfortheentry.theagingtimerensuresthattheARPcachedoesnot
retainlearnedentriesthatarenolongervalid.Anentrycanbecomeinvalid
whenthedevicewiththeMACaddressof theentryisnolonger onthenetwork.
ThedefaultARPageistwentyminutes.YoucanchangetheARPagetoavalue
of1- 240minutes.
TochangetheARPagevalueto30minutes,youwouldusethefollowingCLI
commandfromtheglobalconfigurationlevel:
HPswitch(config)# ip arp-age 30
syntax: iparp-age<1-240>
TodisplaytheconfiguredARPagevalue,usethecommandshow configfrom
anyCLIcontextlevel.TheARPagevalueisdisplayedunlessyouhavenot
configuredavalue forARPageandthedefaultconfigurationisstillbeingused.
7-10
IP Routing Features
ConfiguringIPParametersforRoutingSwitches
EnablingProxyARP
ProxyARPallowsaroutingswitchtoanswerARPrequestsfromdeviceson
onenetworkonbehalfofdevicesinanothernetwork.SinceARPrequestsare
MAC-layerbroadcasts,they reachonly thedevicesthataredirectlyconnected
tothesenderoftheARPrequest.Thus,ARPrequestsdonotcrossrouters.
Forexample,ifProxyARPisenabledonaroutingswitchconnectedtotwo
sub-nets,10.10.10.0/24and20.20.20.0/24,theroutingswitchcanrespondtoan
ARPrequestfrom10.10.10.69fortheMACaddressofthedevicewithIP
address20.20.20.69.InstandardARP,arequestfromadeviceinthe
10.10.10.0/24sub-netcannotreachadeviceinthe20.20.20.0sub-netifthesub-
netsareondifferentnetworkcables,andthusisnotanswered.
AnARPrequestfromonesub-netcanreachanothersub-netwhenbothsub-
netsareonthesamephysicalsegment(Ethernetcable),sinceMAC-layer
broadcastsreachallthedevicesonthesegment.
ProxyARPisdisabledbydefaultonHProutingswitches.ToenableProxy
ARP,enterthefollowingcommandsfromtheVLANcontextlevelintheCLI:
HPswitch(config)# vlan 1
HPswitch(vlan-1)# ip proxy-arp
ToagaindisableIPproxyARP,enterthefollowingcommand:
HPswitch(vlan-1)# no ip proxy-arp
Syntax: [no]ipproxy-arp
ConfiguringForwardingParameters
Thefollowingconfigurableparameterscontroltheforwardingbehaviorof
yourroutingswitch:
Time-To-Live(TTL)thresholdconfiguringthisparameteriscoveredin
thechapteronIPaddressingintheManagementandConfiguration
Guide.
Forwardingofdirectedbroadcastsseebelow.
Not e TheseparametersareglobalandthusaffectallIPinterfacesconfiguredonthe
routingswitch.
7-11
IP Routing Features
ConfiguringIPParametersforRoutingSwitches
EnablingForwardingofDirectedBroadcasts
AdirectedbroadcastisanIPbroadcasttoalldeviceswithinasingledirectly-
attachednetworkorsub-net.Anet-directedbroadcastgoestoalldeviceson
agivennetwork.Asub-net-directedbroadcastgoestoalldeviceswithina
givensub-net.
Not e Alesscommontype,theall-sub-netsbroadcast,goestoalldirectly-attached
sub-nets.Forwardingforthisbroadcasttypealsoissupported,butmost
networksuseIPmulticastinginsteadofall-sub-netbroadcasting.
ForwardingforalltypesofIPdirectedbroadcastsisdisabledbydefault.You
canenableforwardingforalltypesifneeded.Youcannotenableforwarding
forspecificbroadcasttypes.
ToenableforwardingofIPdirectedbroadcasts,enterthefollowingCLI
command:
HPswitch(config)# ip directed-broadcast
Syntax: [no]ipdirected-broadcast
HPsoftwaremakestheforwardingdecisionbasedontheroutingswitch's
knowledgeofthedestinationnetworkprefix.Routerscannotdeterminethat
amessageisunicastordirectedbroadcastapartfromthedestinationnetwork
prefix.Thedecisiontoforwardornotforwardthemessageisbydefinition
onlypossibleinthelasthoprouter.
Todisablethedirectedbroadcasts,enterthefollowingCLIcommand:
HPswitch(config)# no ip directed-broadcast
7-12
IP Routing Features
ConfiguringIPParametersforRoutingSwitches
ConfiguringICMP
YoucanconfigurethefollowingICMPlimits:
Burst-NormalThemaximumnumberofICMPrepliestosendper
second.
ReplyLimitYoucanenableordisableICMPreplyratelimiting.
DisablingICMPMessages
HPdevicesareenabledtoreplytoICMPechomessagesandsendICMP
DestinationUnreachablemessagesbydefault.
YoucanselectivelydisablethefollowingtypesofInternetControlMessage
Protocol(ICMP)messages:
Echomessages(pingmessages)TheroutingswitchrepliestoIPpings
fromotherIPdevices.
DestinationUnreachablemessagesIftheroutingswitchreceivesan
IPpacketthatitcannotdelivertoitsdestination,theroutingswitch
discardsthepacketandsendsamessagebacktothedevicethatsentthe
packettotheroutingswitch.Themessageinformsthedevicethatthe
destinationcannotbereachedbytheroutingswitch.
AddressMaskrepliesYoucanenableordisableICMPaddressmask
replies.
DisablingRepliestoBroadcastPingRequests
Bydefault,HPdevicesareenabledtorespondtobroadcastICMPecho
packets,whicharepingrequests.Youcandisableresponsetopingrequests
onaglobalbasisusingthefollowingCLImethod.
TodisableresponsetobroadcastICMPechopackets(pingrequests),enter
thefollowingcommand:
HPswitch(config)# no ip icmp echo broadcast-request
Syntax: [no]ipicmpechobroadcast-request
Ifyouneedtore-enableresponsetopingrequests,enterthefollowing
command:
HPswitch(config)# ip icmp echo broadcast-request
7-13
IP Routing Features
ConfiguringIPParametersforRoutingSwitches
DisablingICMPDestinationUnreachableMessages
Bydefault,whenanHPdevicereceivesanIPpacketthatthedevicecannot
deliver,thedevicesendsanICMPUnreachablemessagebacktothehostthat
sentthepacket.ThefollowingtypesofICMPUnreachablemessagesare
generated:
AdministrationThepacketwasdroppedbytheHPdeviceduetoa
filterorACLconfiguredonthedevice.
Fragmentation-neededThepackethastheDontFragmentbitsetin
theIPFlagfield,buttheHPdevicecannotforwardthepacketwithout
fragmentingit.
HostThedestinationnetworkorsub-netofthepacketisdirectly
connectedtotheHPdevice,butthehostspecifiedinthedestinationIP
addressofthepacketisnotonthenetwork.
NetworkTheHPdevicecannotreachthenetworkspecifiedinthe
destinationIPaddressofthepacket.
PortThedestinationhostdoesnothavethedestinationTCPorUDP
portspecifiedinthepacket.Inthiscase,thehostsendstheICMPPort
UnreachablemessagetotheHPdevice,whichinturnsendsthemessage
tothehostthatsentthepacket.
ProtocolTheTCPorUDPprotocolonthedestinationhostisnot
running.ThismessageisdifferentfromthePortUnreachablemessage,
whichindicatesthattheprotocolisrunningonthehostbuttherequested
protocolportisunavailable.
Source-route-failureThedevicereceivedasource-routedpacketbut
cannotlocatethenext-hopIPaddressindicatedinthepacketsSource-
Routeoption.
Not e DisablinganICMPUnreachablemessagetypedoesnotchangetheHPdevices
abilitytoforwardpackets.DisablingICMPUnreachablemessagesprevents
thedevicefromgeneratingorforwardingtheUnreachablemessages.
TodisableallICMPUnreachablemessages,enterthefollowingcommand:
HPswitch(config)# no ip icmp unreachable
Syntax: [no]ipicmpunreachable
7-14
IP Routing Features
ConfiguringStaticIPRoutes
DisablingICMPRedirects
YoucandisableICMPredirectsontheHProutingswitch.onlyonaglobal
basis,foralltheroutingswitchinterfaces.TodisableICMPredirectsglobally,
enterthefollowingcommandattheglobalCONFIGleveloftheCLI:
HPswitch(config)# no ip icmp redirects
Syntax: [no]ipicmpredirects
ConfiguringStaticIPRoutes
TheIProutetablecanreceiveroutesfromthefollowingsources:
Directly-connectednetworksWhenyouaddanIPVLANinterface,
theroutingswitchautomaticallycreatesarouteforthenetworkthe
interfaceisin.
StaticallyconfiguredrouteYoucanaddupto16routesdirectlyto
theroutetable.WhenyouaddaroutetotheIProutetable,youarecreating
astaticIProute.ThissectiondescribeshowtoaddstaticroutestotheIP
routetable.
DefaultnetworkrouteThisisaspecificstaticroutethattherouting
switchusesifotherroutestothedestinationarenotavailable.Referto
ConfiguringtheDefaultRouteinthechaptertitledIPRoutingFeatures
intheManagementandConfigurationGuideforyourswitch.
StaticRouteTypes
YoucanconfigurethefollowingtypesofstaticIProutes:
Standardthestaticrouteconsistsofthedestinationnetworkaddress
andnetworkmask,andtheIPaddressofthenext-hopgateway.
Null(reject)thestaticrouteconsistsofthedestinationnetwork
addressandnetworkmask,andtherejectparameter.Typically,thenull
routeisconfiguredasabackuproutefordiscardingtrafficiftheprimary
routeisunavailable.Bydefault,whenIProutingisenabled,aroutefor
the127.0.0.0/8networkiscreatedtothenullinterface.Traffictothis
interfaceisrejected(dropped).Thisrouteisforalltraffictotheloop-
backnetwork,withthesingleexceptionoftraffictothehostaddressof
7-15
IP Routing Features
ConfiguringStaticIPRoutes
theswitchsloopbackinterface(127.0.0.1/32).FigureFigure7-4.onpage
<zBlue>19illustratesthedefaultNullrouteentryintheswitchsrouting
table.
StaticIPRouteParameters
WhenyouconfigureastaticIProute,youmustspecifythefollowingparam-
eters:
TheIPaddressandnetworkmaskfortheroutesdestinationnetwork.
Theroutespath,whichcanbeoneofthefollowing:
TheIPaddressofanext-hopgateway
Anullinterface.Inthiscasetheroutingswitchinvokesareject
parameteronastatic routeentry,whichresultsintheswitchdropping
trafficforwardedtothenullinterface.
Theswitchautomaticallyassignsametricof1toanIPstaticroute.
StaticRouteStatesFollowVLAN(Interface)States
IPstaticroutesremainintheIProutetableonlysolongastheVLANinterface
usedbytherouteisavailable.IftheVLANbecomesunavailable(thatis,ifall
portsintheVLANareoffline),thesoftwareremovesthestaticroutefromthe
IProutetable.IftheVLANlaterbecomesavailableagain,thesoftwareadds
theroutebacktotheroutetable.
Thisfeatureallowstheroutingswitchtoadjusttochangesinnetwork
topology.Theroutingswitchdoesnotcontinuetryingtouserouteson
unavailablepathsbutinsteadusesroutesonlywhen theirpathsareavailable.
ConfiguringaStaticIPRoute
ToconfigureanstaticIProutewithadestinationnetworkof
192.0.0.0 255.0.0.0andanext-hoprouterIPaddressof195.1.1.1,youwould
enterthefollowingcommands:
HPswitch(config)# ip route 192.0.0.0 255.0.0.0 195.1.1.1
HPswitch(config)# write memory
Syntax: iproute<dest-ip-addr><dest-mask ><next-hop-ip-addr>
or
iproute<dest-ip-addr>/<mask-bits><next-hop-ip-addr>
The<dest-ip-addr>istheroutesdestination.
7-16
IP Routing Features
ConfiguringStaticIPRoutes
The<dest-mask>parameterspecifiesthesubnetmaskfortheroutesdestina-
tionIPaddress.Onesaresignificantbitsandzerosallowanyvalue.For
example,themask255.255.255.0matchesallhostswithintheClassCsub-net
addressspecifiedbythe<dest-ip-addr>.Alternatively,youcanuseCIDR
notationandspecifythenumberofbitsinthenetworkmask.Forexample,
youcanenter209.157.22.0/24insteadof 209.157.22.0 255.255.255.0.
The<next-hop-ip-addr>istheIPaddressofthenextrouterinthepathtothe
destination.
Not e Theswitchallowsonestaticrouteconfiguredforaparticularnetworkdesti-
nation.Ifyouconfigureastaticroutetoagivennetworkandthenlater
configureadifferentstaticroutetothesamenetwork,theswitchreplacesthe
firststaticroutewiththesecond.
ConfiguringtheDefaultRoute
Youcanalsoassignadefaultrouteandenteritin theroutingtable.Thedefault
routeistherouteassignedtoalltrafficthathasnetworkdestinationsthatare
notinthelocalroutingtable.Forexample,if208.45.228.35istheIPaddress
ofyourISProuter,allnon-localtrafficcouldbedirectedtothatrouteby
enteringthecommands:
HPswitch(config)# ip route 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0 208.45.228.35
HPswitch(config)# write memory
ConfiguringaNullRoute
YoucanconfiguretheroutingswitchtodropIPpacketstoaspecificnetwork
orhostaddressbyconfiguringanullstaticroutefortheaddress.Whenthe
routingswitchreceivesapacketdestinedfortheaddress,theroutingswitch
dropsthepacketinsteadofforwardingit.
Toconfigureanullstaticroutetodroppacketsdestinedfornetwork
209.157.22.0,enterthefollowingcommands:
HPswitch(config)# ip route 209.157.22.0 255.255.255.0 reject
HPswitch(config)# write memory
Syntax: iproute<ip-addr ><ip-mask>reject
or
iproute<ip-addr >/<mask-bits >reject
7-17
IP Routing Features
ConfiguringStaticIPRoutes
Usingthiscommand,theroutingswitchwilldroppacketsthatcontainthe
specifiedIPaddressinthedestinationfieldinsteadofforwardingthem.The
reject parameterindicatesthatthisisanullroute.Youmustspecifythis
parametertomakethisanullroute.
DisplayingStaticRouteInformation
Theshow ip routecommandprovidesseveraloptionsfordisplayingroutedata.
Syntax: showiproute
DisplaysallIProutingentriesconfiguredontheswitch.
static
DisplaysallstaticIProutingentriesconfiguredonthe
switch.
connected
Displaysthenetworkdestinationsdirectlyconnectedto
theswitch.Includesthedefaultloopbackdestination.
<dest-ip-addr>
Liststheroutedataforthenetworkdestinationspecified
by<dest-ip-addr>.
Forexample,Figure7-3illustratesaroutingtopologywithtwopossible
gatewaystosupportastaticroutefromswitchAtothe10.31.224.0network
inswitchC.
VLAN29:10.29.224.1
VLAN30:10.30.224.3
Switch A
VLAN29:10.29.224.2
VLAN30:10.30.224.1
Switch B
VLAN30:10.30.224.2
VLAN31:10.31.224.1
Switch C
DestinationNetwork
Inthisexample,astaticrouteto
the10.31.224.0networkhasbeen
configuredinswitchA.Inthis
case,10.30.224.1istheconfigured
gateway.
Figure 7-3. Example of a Routed Network
Figure7-4illustratestheshow ip routeoutputdescribingtheroutesavailable
intheabovetopology.
7-18
IP Routing Features
ConfiguringStaticIPRoutes
Default
Loopback
Network
Default
Loopback
Interface
Default
Null
Route
Configured
StaticRoute
Destinations
Directly
Connected
totheSwitch
Liststhe
Dataforthe
Specified
Route
Figure 7-4. Examples of the Show IP Route Command
7-19
IP Routing Features
ConfiguringIRDP
ConfiguringIRDP
TheICMPRouterDiscoveryProtocol(IRDP)isusedbyHProutingswitches
toadvertisethe IPaddressesofitsrouterinterfacestodirectlyattachedhosts.
IRDPisenabledbydefault.Youcanenablethefeatureonaglobalbasisoron
anindividualVLANinterfacebasis.
WhenIRDPisenabled,theroutingswitchperiodicallysendsRouterAdver-
tisementmessagesouttheIPinterfacesonwhichthefeatureisenabled.The
messagesadvertisetheroutingswitch'sIPaddressestodirectlyattached
hostswholistenforthemessages.Inaddition,hostscanbeconfiguredto
querytheroutingswitchfortheinformationbysendingRouterSolicitation
messages.
SometypesofhostsusetheRouterSolicitationmessagestodiscovertheir
defaultgateway.WhenIRDPisenabledontheHProutingswitch,therouting
switchrespondstotheRouterSolicitationmessages.Someclientsinterpret
thisresponsetomeanthattherouting switchisthedefaultgateway.If another
routerisactuallythedefaultgatewayfortheseclients,leaveIRDPdisabled
ontheHProutingswitch.
IRDPusesthefollowingparameters.IfyouenableIRDPonindividualVLAN
interfaces,youcanconfiguretheseparametersonanindividualVLANinter-
facebasis.
Packettype- TheroutingswitchcansendRouterAdvertisement
messagesasIPbroadcastsorasIPmulticastsaddressedtoIPmulticast
group224.0.0.1.ThedefaultpackettypeisIPbroadcast.
Holdtime- EachRouterAdvertisementmessagecontainsaholdtime
value.Thisvaluespecifiesthemaximumaboutoftimethehostshould
consideranadvertisementtobe validuntil aneweradvertisementarrives.
Whenanewadvertisementarrives,theholdtimeisreset.Theholdtime
isalwayslongerthanthemaximumadvertisementinterval.Therefore,if
theholdtimeforanadvertisementexpires,thehostcanreasonably
concludethattherouterinterfacethatsenttheadvertisementisnolonger
available.Thedefaultholdtimeisthreetimesthemaximummessage
interval.
Maximummessageintervalandminimummessageinterval-when
IRDPisenabled,theroutingswitchsendstheRouterAdvertisement
messagesevery450-600secondsbydefault.Thetimewithinthisinterval
thattheroutingswitchselectsisrandomforeachmessageandisnot
affectedbytrafficloadsorothernetworkfactors.Therandominterval
minimizestheprobabilitythatahostwillreceiveRouterAdvertisement
7-20
IP Routing Features
ConfiguringIRDP
messagesfromotherroutersatthesametime.TheintervaloneachIRDP-
enabledroutingswitchinterfaceisindependentoftheintervalonother
IRDP-enabledinterfaces.Thedefaultmaximummessageintervalis600
seconds.Thedefaultminimummessageintervalis450seconds.
Preference-IfahostreceivesmultipleRouterAdvertisementmessages
fromdifferentrouters,thehostselectstherouterthatsendthemessage
withthehighestpreferenceasthe defaultgateway.Thepreferencecanbe
anumberfrom-4294967296to4294967295.Thedefaultis0.
EnablingIRDPGlobally
ToenableIRDPglobally,enterthefollowingcommand:
HPswitch(config)# ip irdp
ThiscommandenablesIRDPontheIPinterfacesonallports.Eachportuses
thedefaultvaluesfortheIRDPparameters.
EnablingIRDPonanIndividualVLANInterface
ToenableIRDPonanindividualVLANinterfaceandconfigureIRDPparam-
eters,entercommandssuchasthefollowing:
HPswitch(config)# vlan 1
HPswitch(vlan-1)# ip irdp maxadvertinterval 400
ThisexampleshowshowtoenableIRDPonaspecificinterface(VLAN1)and
changethemaximumadvertisementintervalforRouterAdvertisement
messagesto400seconds.
7-21
IP Routing Features
ConfiguringIRDP
Syntax: [no]ipirdp
Enablesordisables(thedefault)ipirdponthespecified
VLAN.
[broadcast|multicast]
Thisparameterspecifiesthepackettypetherouting
switchusestosendtheRouterAdvertisement:
broadcast-TheroutingswitchsendsRouter
AdvertisementsasIPbroadcasts.
multicast-TheroutingswitchsendsRouter
AdvertisementsasmulticastpacketsaddressedtoIP
multicastgroup224.0.0.1.Thisisthedefault.
[holdtime<seconds>]
Thisparameterspecifieshowlongahostthatreceivesa
RouterAdvertisementfromtheroutingswitchshould
considertheadvertisementtobevalid.Whenahost
receivesanewRouterAdvertisementmessagefromthe
routingswitch,thehostresetstheholdtimeforthe
routingswitchtotheholdtimespecifiedinthenew
advertisement.Iftheholdtimeofanadvertisement
expires,thehostdiscardstheadvertisement,concluding
thattherouterinterfacethatsenttheadvertisementisno
longeravailable.Thevaluemustbegreaterthanthevalue
ofthemaxadvertintervalparameterandcannotbe
greaterthan9000.Thedefaultisthreetimesthevalueof
themaxadvertintervalparameter.
[maxadvertinterval<seconds >]
Thisparameterspecifiesthemaximumamountoftimethe
routingswitchwaitsbetweensendingRouter
Advertisements.Youcanspecifyavaluefrom1tothecurrent
valueoftheholdtimeparameter.Default: 600(seconds).
7-22
IP Routing Features
ConfiguringIRDP
[minadvertinterval<seconds>]
Thisparameterspecifiestheminimumamountoftimethe
routingswitchcanwaitbetweensendingRouter
Advertisements.Default: three-fourths(0.75)thevalueofthe
maxadvertinterval parameter.
Ifyouchangethemaxadvertintervalparameter,thesoftware
automaticallyadjuststheminadvertintervalparametertobe
three-fourthsthenewvalueofthemaxadvertinterval
parameter.Ifyouwanttooverridetheautomatically
configuredvalue,youcanspecifyanintervalfrom1tothe
currentvalueofthemaxadvertintervalparameter.
[preference<number >]
ThisparameterspecifiestheIRDPpreferencelevelofthis
routingswitch.IfahostreceivesRouterAdvertisementsfrom
multiplerouters,thehostselectstherouterinterfacethatsent
themessagewiththehighestpreferenceasthehost'sdefault
gateway.Thevalidrangeis-4294967296to4294967295.
Default: 0.
DisplayingIRDPInformation
TodisplayIRDPinformation,enterthefollowingcommandfromanyCLIlevel:
HPswitch# show ip irdp
Status and Counters - ICMP Router Discovery Protocol
Globa l Status : Disabled
VLAN Name Status Adver tising Min int Max int Holdtime Preference
Add ress (sec) (sec) (sec)
----- --------- -------- ------------ ------- ------- -------- -----------
DEFAU LT_VLAN Enable d multicast 450 600 1800 0
VLAN2 0 Enable d multicast 450 600 1800 0
VLAN3 0 Enable d multicast 450 600 1800 0
Figure 7-5. Example of Displaying IRDP Information
7-23
IP Routing Features
ConfiguringDHCPRelay
ConfiguringDHCPRelay
Overview
TheDynamicHostConfigurationProtocol(DHCP)isusedforconfiguring
hostswithIPaddressandotherconfigurationparameterswithouthuman
intervention. Theprotocoliscomposedof threecomponents:theDHCPclient,
theDHCPserver,andtheDHCPrelayagent.TheDHCPclientsendsbroadcast
requestpacketstothenetwork,theDHCPserversrespondwithbroadcast
packetsthatofferIPparameters,suchasanIPaddressfortheclient.After
theclientchoosestheIPparameters,communicationbetweentheclientand
serverisbyunicastpackets.
ThefunctionoftheDHCPrelayagentistoforwardtheDHCPmessagesto
othersubnetssothattheDHCPserverdoesnthavetobeonthesamesubnet
astheDHCPclients.TheDHCPrelayagenttransferstheDHCPmessagesfrom
DHCPclientslocatedonasubnetwithoutDHCPserver,toothersubnets.It
alsorelaysanswersfromDHCPserverstoDHCPclients.
DHCPPacketForwarding
TheDHCPrelayagentontheroutingswitchforwardsDHCPclientpacketsto
allDHCPserversthatareconfiguredinthetableadministratedforeachVLAN.
UnicastForwarding
ThepacketsareforwardedusingunicastforwardingiftheIPaddressofthe
DHCPserverisaspecifichostaddress.TheDHCPrelayagentsetsthe
destinationIPaddressofthepackettotheIPaddressoftheDHCPserverand
forwardsthemessage.
BroadcastForwarding
ThepacketsareforwardedusingbroadcastforwardingiftheIPaddressofthe
DHCPserverisasubnetaddressorIPbroadcastaddress(255.255.255.255).
TheDHCPrelayagentsetstheDHCPserverIPaddresswillbesettobroadcast
IPaddressandforwardedtoallVLANswithconfiguredIPinterfaces(except
thesourceVLAN).
7-24
IP Routing Features
ConfiguringDHCPRelay
MinimumRequirementsforDHCPRelayOperation
InorderfortheDHCPRelayagenttowork,thefollowingstepsmustbe
completed:
1. DHCPRelayisenabledontheroutingswitch
2. ADHCPserverisservicingtheroutingswitch
3. IPRoutingisenabledontheroutingswitch
4. ThereisaroutefromtheDHCPservertotheroutingswitchandback
5. AnIPHelperaddressisconfiguredontheroutingswitch,settotheIP
addressoftheDHCPserverontheVLANthatisconnectedtotheDHCP
Client.
EnablingDHCPRelay
ToenabletheDHCPRelayfunctionfortheroutingswitch,attheConfigCLI
contextlevel,enterthecommand:
HPswitch(config)# dhcp-relay
TodisabletheDHCPRelayfunction,enterthecommand:
HPswitch(config)# no dhcp-relay
ConfiguringaHelperAddress
AttheVLANconfigurationCLIcontextlevel,enterthecommandstoaddthe
DHCPserversIPaddresstotheVLANslist.Forexample, to configureahelper
addressof18.38.127.53forVLAN1,youwouldenterthesecommands:
HPswitch(conf)# vlan 1
HPswitch(vlan-1)# ip helper-address 18.38.127.53
ToremovetheDHCPserverhelperaddress18.38.127.53,youwouldenterthis
command:
HPswitch(vlan-1)# no ip helper-address 18.38.127.53
7-25
IP Routing Features
ConfiguringDHCPRelay
Thispageisintentionallyunused.
7-26
8
HPProCurveStackManagement
Contents
Overview ...................................................... 8-3
Operation ...................................................... 8-4
WhichDevicesSupportStacking? ............................. 8-5
ComponentsofHPProCurveStackManagement ................ 8-6
GeneralStackingOperation................................... 8-6
OperatingRulesforStacking .................................. 8-8
GeneralRules ........................................... 8-8
SpecificRules ........................................... 8-9
ConfiguringStackManagement .................................. 8-10
Overview ofConfiguringandBringingUp aStack ............... 8-10
GeneralStepsforCreating aStack .... .................... 8-12
UsingtheMenuInterfaceToViewStackStatusand
ConfigureStacking ......................................... 8-14
UsingtheMenuInterfaceToViewandConfigureaCommander
Switch ................................................ 8-14
UsingtheMenuToManage aCandidate Switch ............. 8-16
UsingtheCommanderToManageTheStack ................... 8-18
UsingtheCommanderToAccessMemberSwitchesfor
ConfigurationChangesandMonitoringTraffic .............. 8-24
ConvertingaCommanderorMembertoa
MemberofAnotherStack ................................ 8-25
MonitoringStackStatus ............. ........................ 8-26
UsingtheCLIToViewStackStatusandConfigureStacking ...... 8-30
UsingtheCLIToViewStackStatus ....................... 8-32
UsingtheCLIToConfigureaCommanderSwitch ........... 8-34
AddingtoaStackorMovingSwitchesBetweenStacks ....... 8-36
UsingtheCLIToRemoveaMemberfrom aStack ........... 8-41
UsingtheCLIToAccessMemberSwitchesforConfiguration
ChangesandTrafficMonitoring........................... 8-43
SNMPCommunityOperationinaStack ....................... 8-44
8-1
HP ProCurve Stack Management
Contents
UsingtheCLIToDisableorRe-Enable Stacking ................ 8-45
TransmissionInterval ............... ........................ 8-45
StackingOperationwithMultipleVLANsConfigured ............ 8-45
Web:ViewingandConfiguringStacking ....................... 8-46
StatusMessages............................................ 8-47
8-2
HP ProCurve Stack Management
Overview
Overview
Thischapterdescribeshowtouseyour networktostackswitcheswithoutthe
needforanyspecializedcablingpage8-4.
Forgeneralinformationonhowtousetheswitchsbuilt-ininterfaces,see:
Chapter3,UsingtheMenuInterface
Chapter4,UsingtheCommandLineInterface(CLI)
Chapter5,UsingtheHPWebBrowserInterface
Chapter6,SwitchMemoryandConfiguration
8-3
HP ProCurve Stack Management
Operation
Operation
Stacking Features
Feature Default Menu CLI Web
view stack status
viewstatusofasingleswitch n/a page8-27
thru
page8-29
page8-32 page8-46
viewcandidatestatus n/a page8-32
viewstatusofcommanderandits n/a page8-33
stack
viewstatusofallstacking-enabled
switchesintheipsubnet
n/a page8-33
configure stacking
enable/disablecandidateAuto-Join enabled/Yes page8-16 page8-38
pushacandidateintoastack n/a page8-16 page8-38
configureaswitchtobeacommander n/a page8-14 page8-34
pushamemberintoanotherstack n/a page8-25 page8-40
removeamemberfromastack n/a page8-22 page8-41
or
page8-42
pullacandidateintoastack n/a page8-18 page8-37
pullamemberfromanotherstack n/a page8-20 page8-39
convertacommanderormembertoa n/a page8-25 page8-40
memberofanotherstack
accessmemberswitchesfor
configurationandtrafficmonitoring
n/a page8-24 page8-43
disablestacking enabled page8-16 page8-45
transmissioninterval 60seconds page8-14 page8-45
HPProCurveStackManagement(termedstacking)enablesyoutouseasingle
IPaddressandstandardnetworkcablingtomanageagroupofupto16total
switchesinthesameIPsubnet(broadcastdomain).Usingstacking,youcan:
ReducethenumberofIPaddressesneededinyournetwork.
8-4
HP ProCurve Stack Management
Operation
Simplifymanagementofsmallworkgroupsorwiringclosetswhile
scalingyournetworktohandleincreasedbandwidthdemand.
Eliminateanyspecializedcablesforstackingconnectivityand
removethedistancebarriersthat typicallylimit your topologyoptions
whenusingotherstackingtechnologies.
AddswitchestoyournetworkwithouthavingtofirstperformIP
addressingtasks.
WhichDevicesSupportStacking?
AsofMay,2003,thefollowingHPProCurvedevicessupportstacking:
HPProCurveSwitch6108 HPProCurveSwitch2524
HPProCurveSwitch4104GL HPProCurveSwitch8000M*
HPProCurveSwitch4108GL HPProCurveSwitch4000M*
HPProCurveSwitch2650 HPProCurveSwitch2424M*
HPProCurveSwitch2626 HPProCurveSwitch2400M*
HPProCurveSwitch2512 HPProCurveSwitch1600M*
*RequiressoftwarereleaseC.08.03orlater,whichisincludedwiththe8000M,4000M,
2424M,and1600MmodelsasofJuly,2000.ReleaseC.08.03oralaterversionisalso
availableontheHPProCurvewebsiteatwww.hp.com/go/procurve.(Clickonsoftware.)
8-5
HP ProCurve Stack Management
Operation
ComponentsofHPProCurveStackManagement
Table 8-1. Stacking Definitions
Stack ConsistsofaCommanderswitchandanyMemberswitchesbelongingtothatCommandersstack.
Commander Aswitchthathasbeenmanuallyconfiguredasthecontrollingdeviceforastack.Whenthisoccurs,the
switchsstackingconfigurationappearsasCommander.
Candidate Aswitchthatisreadytojoin(becomeaMemberof)astackthrougheitherautomaticormanualmethods.
AswitchconfiguredasaCandidateisnotinastack.
Member AswitchthathasjoinedastackandisaccessiblefromthestackCommander.
Commander:SwitchA
Member:SwitchC Candidate: Switch B
Before:Stacknamed
"Engineering"consists
ofCommanderand
Switch"C".Switch"B"is
aCandidateeligibleto
jointhestack.
Commander:SwitchA
Member:SwitchC Member: Switch B
After:Switch"B"joinsthestack,thuschangingfroma
CandidatetoaMemberofthestack.
Stack
StackName:
Engineering
StackName:
Engineering
Figure 8-1. Illustration of a Switch Moving from Candidate to Member
GeneralStackingOperation
AfteryouconfigureoneswitchtooperateastheCommanderofastack,
additionalswitchescanjointhe stackbyeitherautomaticormanual methods.
AfteraswitchbecomesaMember,youcanworkthroughtheCommander
switchtofurtherconfiguretheMemberswitchasnecessaryforallofthe
additionalsoftwarefeaturesavailableintheswitch.
TheCommanderswitchservesasthein-bandentrypointforaccesstothe
Memberswitches.Forexample,theCommandersIPaddressbecomesthe
pathtoallstackMembersandtheCommandersManagerpasswordcontrols
accesstoallstackMembers.
8-6
HP ProCurve Stack Management
Operation
Member Switch 1
IPAddress:None Assigned
ManagerPassword:leader
Candidate Switch
IPAddress:None Assigned
ManagerPassword:francois
Non-Member Switch
IPAddress:14.28.227.105
ManagerPassword:donald
Member Switch 2
IPAddress:None Assigned
ManagerPassword:leader
Wiring Closet "B"
Wiring Closet "A"
Commander Switch 0
IPAddress:14.28.227.100
ManagerPassword:leader
UsetheCommandersconsoleorweb
browserinterfacetoaccesstheuser
interfaceonanyMemberswitchin
thesamestack.
Network
Figure 8-2. Example of Stacking with One Commander Controlling Access to Wiring Closet Switches
InterfaceOptions. Youcanconfigurestackingthroughtheswitchsmenu
interface,CLI,orthewebbrowserinterface.Forinformationonhowtouse
thewebbrowserinterfacetoconfigurestacking,seetheonlineHelpforthe
webbrowserinterface.
WebBrowserInterfaceWindowforCommanderSwitches. Theweb
browserinterfacewindowforaCommanderswitchdiffersinappearance
fromthesamewindowfornon-commanderswitches.Seefigure8-38onpage
8-46.
8-7
HP ProCurve Stack Management
Operation
OperatingRulesforStacking
GeneralRules
Stackingisanoptionalfeature(enabledinthedefaultconfiguration)
andcaneasilybedisabled.Stackinghasnoeffectonthenormal
operationoftheswitchinyournetwork.
AstackrequiresoneCommanderswitch.(OnlyoneCommander
allowedperstack.)
AllswitchesinaparticularstackmustbeinthesameIPsubnet
(broadcastdomain).Astackcannotcrossarouter.
Astackacceptsupto16switches(numbered0-15),includingthe
Commander(alwaysnumbered0).
ThereisnolimitonthenumberofstacksinthesameIPsubnet
(broadcastdomain),howeveraswitchcanbelongtoonlyonestack.
IfmultipleVLANsareconfigured,stackingusesonlytheprimary
VLANonanyswitch.Inthefactory-defaultconfiguration,the
DEFAULT_VLANis theprimaryVLAN.(See StackingOperationwith
MultipleVLANsConfiguredonpage8-45andThePrimaryVLAN
onpage2-6.)
Stackingallowsintermediatedevicesthatdonotsupportstacking.
Thisenablesyoutoincludeswitchesthataredistantfromthe
Commander.
Commander Switch Switch with Stacking
Disabled or Not Available
Member Switch
Candidate Switch
Figure 8-3. Example of a Non-Stacking Device Used in a Stacking Environment
8-8
HP ProCurve Stack Management
Operation
SpecificRules
Table 8-2. Specific Rules for Commander, Candidate, and Member Switch
IP Addressing and
Stack Name
Number Allowed
Per Stack
Passwords SNMP Communities
Commander IP Addr:Requiresan Onlyone TheCommandersManager StandardSNMPcommunity
assignedIPaddress Commander andOperatorpasswordsare operation.TheCommander
andmaskforaccess switchisallowed assignedtoanyswitch alsooperatesasanSNMP
viathenetwork. perstack. becomingaMemberofthe proxytoMembersforall
Stack Name: Required
stack. SNMPcommunitiesconfig-
Ifyouchangethe
uredintheCommander.
Commanderspasswords,the
Commanderpropagatesthe
newpasswordstoallstack
Members.
Candidate IP Addr: Optional. n/a Passwordsoptional.Ifthe UsesstandardSNMP
ConfiguringanIP Candidatebecomesastack communityoperationifthe
addressallowsaccess Member,itassumesthe CandidatehasitsownIP
viaTelnetorweb CommandersManagerand addressing.
browserinterface Operatorpasswords.
whiletheswitchisnot
astackmember.Inthe
factorydefaultconfigu-
rationtheswitchauto-
maticallyacquiresan
IPaddressifyour
networkincludesDHCP
service.
Ifacandidatehasapassword,
itcannotbeautomatically
addedtoastack.Inthiscase,
ifyouwanttheCandidateina
stack,youmustmanuallyadd
ittothestack.
Stack Name: N/A
Member IP Addr: Optional.
ConfiguringanIP
addressallowsaccess
viaTelnetorweb
browserinterface
withoutgoingthrough
theCommanderswitch.
Thisisuseful,for
example,ifthestack
Commanderfailsand
youneedtoconverta
Memberswitchto
operateasareplace-
mentCommander.
Stack Name: N/A
Upto15Members Whentheswitchjoinsthe
perstack. stack,itautomatically
assumestheCommanders
ManagerandOperatorpass-
wordsanddiscardsanypass-
wordsitmayhavehadwhilea
Candidate.
Note:IfaMemberleavesa
stackforanyreason,itretains
thepasswordsassignedtothe
stackCommanderatthetime
ofdeparturefromthestack.
BelongstothesameSNMP
communitiesasthe
Commander(whichserves
asanSNMPproxytothe
Memberforcommunitiesto
whichtheCommander
belongs).Tojoinother
communitiesthatexclude
theCommander,the
Membermusthaveitsown
IPaddress.Lossofstack
membershipmeanslossof
membershipinanycommu-
nitythatisconfiguredonly
intheCommander.See
SNMPCommunityOpera-
tioninaStackonpage
8-44.
8-9
HP ProCurve Stack Management
ConfiguringStackManagement
Not e Inthedefaultstackconfiguration,theCandidateAuto Joinparameteris
enabled,buttheCommanderAuto Grabparameterisdisabled.Thisprevents
Candidatesfromautomaticallyjoiningastackprematurelyorjoiningthe
wrongstack(ifmorethanonestackCommanderisconfiguredinasubnetor
broadcastdomain).Ifyouplantoinstallmorethanonestackinasubnet,HP
recommendsthatyouleaveAuto Grab disabledonallCommanderswitches
andmanuallyaddMemberstotheirstacks.Similarly,ifyouplantoinstalla
stackinasubnet(broadcastdomain)wherestacking-capableswitchesare
notintendedforstackmembership,youshouldsettheStack Stateparameter
(intheStackConfigurationscreen)toDisabled onthoseparticularswitches.
ConfiguringStackManagement
OverviewofConfiguringandBringingUpaStack
Thisprocessassumesthat:
Allswitchesyouwanttoincludeinastackareconnectedtothesame
subnet(broadcastdomain).
IfVLANsareenabledontheswitches youwanttoincludeinthestack,
thentheportslinkingthestackedswitchesmustbeontheprimary
VLANineachswitch(which,inthedefaultconfiguration,isthe
defaultVLAN).IftheprimaryVLANistagged,theneachswitchinthe
stackmustusethesameVLANID(VID)fortheprimaryVLAN.(Refer
toThePrimaryVLANonpage2-6,andStackingOperationwith
MultipleVLANsConfiguredonpage8-45.)
IfyouareincludinganHPProCurveSwitch8000M,4000M,2424M,
2400M,or1600Minastack,youmustfirstupdateallsuchdevices
tosoftwareversionC.08.03orlater.(Youcangetacopyofthelatest
softwareversionfromHPsProCurvewebsiteand/orcopyitfromone
switchtoanother.Fordownloadinginstructions,seeappendixA,
FileTransfers,intheManagementandConfigurationGuidefor
theseswitchmodels.)
8-10
HP ProCurve Stack Management
ConfiguringStackManagement
OptionsforConfiguringaCommanderandCandidates. Dependingon
howCommanderandCandidateswitchesareconfigured,Candidatescanjoin
astackeitherautomaticallyorbyaCommandermanuallyadding(pulling)
themintothestack.Inthedefaultconfiguration,aCandidatejoinsonlywhen
manuallypulledbyaCommander.YoucanreconfigureaCommanderto
automaticallypullinCandidatesthatareinthedefaultstackingconfigura-
tion.YoucanalsoreconfigureaCandidateswitchtoeitherpushitselfinto
aparticularCommandersstack,converttheCandidatetoaCommander(for
astackthatdoesnotalreadyhaveaCommander),ortooperateasastanda-
loneswitchwithoutstacking.Thefollowingtableshowsyourcontroloptions
foraddingMemberstoastack.
Table 8-3. Stacking Configuration Guide
Join Method
1
Commander
(IP Addressing Required)
Candidate
(IP Addressing Optional)
Auto Grab Auto Join Passwords
AutomaticallyaddCandidatetoStack
(Causesthefirst15eligible,discovered
switchesinthesubnettoautomaticallyjoin
astack.)
Yes Yes (default) No(default)
*
ManuallyaddCandidatetoStack
(Preventautomaticjoiningofswitchesyou
dontwantinthestack)
No (default) Yes (default) Optional
*
Yes No Optional
*
Yes Yes (default)orNo Configured
PreventaswitchfrombeingaCandidate N/A Disabled Optional
*
TheCommandersManagerandOperatorpasswordspropagatetothecandidatewhenitjoinsthestack.
Theeasiestwaytoautomaticallycreateastackisto:
1. ConfigureaswitchasaCommander.
2. ConfigureIPaddressingandastacknameontheCommander.
3. SettheCommandersAuto GrabparametertoYes.
4. ConnectCandidateswitches(intheirfactorydefaultconfiguration)to
thenetwork.
Thisapproachautomaticallycreatesastackofupto16switches(including
theCommander).Howeverthisreplacesmanualcontrolwithanautomatic
processthatmaybringswitchesintothestackthatyoudidnotintendto
include.WiththeCommandersAuto GrabparametersettoYes,anyswitch
conformingtoallfourofthefollowingfactorsautomaticallybecomesastack
Member:
8-11
HP ProCurve Stack Management
ConfiguringStackManagement
Defaultstackingconfiguration(Stack StatesettoCandidate,andAuto
JoinsettoYes)
Samesubnet(broadcastdomain)anddefaultVLANasthe
Commander(IfVLANsareusedinthestackenvironment,see
StackingOperationwithaTaggedVLANonpage8-45.)
NoManagerpassword
14orfewerstackmembersatthemoment
GeneralStepsforCreatingaStack
Thissectiondescribesthegeneralstackcreationprocess.Forthedetailed
configurationprocesses,seepages8-14through8-37forthemenuinterface
andpages8-30through8-42fortheCLI.
1. Determinethenamingconventionsforthestack.Youwillneedastack
name.Also,tohelpdistinguishoneswitchfromanotherinthestack,you
canconfigureauniquesystemnameforeachswitch.Otherwise,the
systemnameforaswitchappearingintheStackingStatusscreenappears
asthestacknameplusanautomaticallyassignedswitchnumber.For
example:
Stackwithunique
systemnameforeach
switch.
Stacknamed"Online"
withnopreviously
configuredsystem
namesassignedto
individualswitches.
Forstatus
descriptions,seethe
tableonpage8-47.
Figure 8-4. Using the System Name to Help Identify Individual Switches
8-12
HP ProCurve Stack Management
ConfiguringStackManagement
2. ConfiguretheCommanderswitch.Doingthisfirsthelpstoestablish
consistencyinyourstackconfiguration,whichcanhelppreventstartup
problems.
AstackrequiresoneCommanderswitch.Ifyouplantoimplement
morethanonestackinasubnet(broadcastdomain),theeasiest
waytoavoidunintentionallyaddingaCandidatetothewrong
stackistomanuallycontrolthejoiningprocessbyleavingthe
CommandersAuto Grab parametersettoNo(thedefault).
TheCommanderassignsitsManagerandOperatorpasswordsto
anyCandidateswitchthatjoinsthestack.
TheCommandersSNMPcommunitynamesapplytomembers.
3. ForautomaticallyormanuallypullingCandidateswitchesintoastack,
youcanleavesuchswitchesintheirdefaultstackingconfiguration.Ifyou
needtoaccessCandidateswitchesthroughyournetworkbeforethey
jointhestack,assignIPaddressestothesedevices.Otherwise,IP
addressingisoptionalforCandidatesandMembers.(Notethatoncea
Candidatebecomesamember,youcanaccessitthroughtheCommander
toassignIPaddressingormakeotherconfigurationchanges.)
4. MakearecordofanyManagerpasswordsassignedtotheswitches
(intendedforyourstack)thatarenotcurrentlymembers.(Youwilluse
thesepasswordstoenabletheprotectedswitchestojointhestack.)
5. IfyouareusingVLANsinthestackingenvironment,youmustusethe
defaultVLANforstackinglinks.Formoreinformation,seeStacking
OperationwithaTaggedVLANonpage8-45.
6. Ensurethatallswitchesintendedforthestackareconnectedtothesame
subnet(broadcastdomain).AssoonasyouconnecttheCommander,it
willbegindiscoveringtheavailableCandidatesinthesubnet.
IfyouconfiguredtheCommandertoautomaticallyaddMembers
(Auto Grab=Yes),thefirstfifteendiscoveredCandidatesmeeting
bothofthefollowingcriteriawillautomaticallyjointhestack:
Auto Join parametersettoYes(thedefault)
Managerpasswordnotconfigured
IfyouconfiguredtheCommandertomanuallyaddMembers
(Auto GrabsettoNothedefault),youcanbegintheprocessof
selectingandaddingthedesiredCandidates.
7. Ensurethatallswitchesintendedforthestackhavejoined.
8. IfyouneedtodospecificconfigurationormonitoringtasksonaMember,
usetheconsoleinterfaceontheCommandertoaccesstheMember.
8-13
HP ProCurve Stack Management
ConfiguringStackManagement
UsingtheMenuInterfaceToViewStackStatusand
ConfigureStacking
UsingtheMenuInterfaceToViewandConfigurea
CommanderSwitch
1. ConfigureanIPaddressandsubnetmaskontheCommanderswitch.
(SeethechapteronIPaddressingintheManagementandConfiguration
Guide.)
2. DisplaytheStackingMenubyselectingStackingintheMainMenu.
Figure 8-5. The Default Stacking Menu
3. DisplaytheStackConfigurationmenubypressing[3]toselectStack
Configuration.
8-14
HP ProCurve Stack Management
ConfiguringStackManagement
Figure 8-6. The Default Stack Configuration Screen
4. MovethecursortotheStackStatefieldbypressing[E](forEdit).Then
usetheSpacebartoselecttheCommanderoption.
5. PressthedownarrowkeytodisplaytheCommanderconfigurationfields
intheStackConfigurationscreen.
Figure 8-7. The Default Commander Configuration in the Stack Configuration
Screen
6. Enterauniquestackname(upto15characters;nospaces)andpressthe
downarrowkey.
7. EnsurethattheCommanderhasthedesiredAuto Grabsetting,thenpress
thedownarrowkey:
No(thedefault)preventsautomaticjoiningofCandidatesthat
havetheirAuto JoinsettoYes.
YesenablestheCommandertoautomaticallytakeaCandidate
intothestackasaMemberiftheCandidatehasAuto Joinsetto
Yes (thedefaultCandidatesetting)anddoesnot haveapreviously
configuredpassword.
8. Acceptorchangethetransmissioninterval(default:60seconds),then
press[Enter]toreturnthecursortotheActionsline.
9. Press[S](forSave)tosaveyourconfigurationchangesandreturntothe
Stackingmenu.
YourCommanderswitchshouldnowbereadytoautomaticallyormanually
acquireMemberswitchesfromthelistofdiscoveredCandidates,depending
onyourconfigurationchoices.
8-15
HP ProCurve Stack Management
ConfiguringStackManagement
UsingtheMenuToManageaCandidateSwitch
Usingthemenuinterface,youcanperformtheseactionsonaCandidate
switch:
Add(push)theCandidateintoanexistingstack
ModifytheCandidatesstackingconfiguration(Auto JoinandTransmission
Interval)
ConverttheCandidatetoaCommander
DisablestackingontheCandidatesothatitoperatesasastandalone
switch
Initsdefaultstackingconfiguration,aCandidateswitchcaneitherautomati-
callyjoinastackorbemanuallyadded(pulled)intoastackbyaCommander,
dependingontheCommandersAuto Grab setting.Thefollowingtableliststhe
Candidatesconfigurationoptions:
Table 8-4. Candidate Configuration Options in the Menu Interface
Parameter Default Setting Other Settings
Stack State Candidate Commander,Member,orDisabled
Auto Join Yes No
Transmission 60Seconds Range:1to300seconds
Interval
UsingtheMenuToPushaSwitchIntoaStack,ModifytheSwitchs
Configuration,orDisableStackingontheSwitch. UseTelnetorthe
webbrowserinterfacetoaccesstheCandidateifithasanIPaddress.Other-
wise,useadirectconnectionfromaterminaldevicetotheswitchsconsole
port.(For informationonhowtouse the webbrowserinterface,seetheonline
Helpprovidedforthebrowser.)
1. DisplaytheStackingMenubyselectingStackingintheconsoleMain
Menu.
2. DisplaytheStackConfigurationmenubypressing[3]toselectStack
Configuration.
8-16
HP ProCurve Stack Management
ConfiguringStackManagement
Figure 8-8. The Default Stack Configuration Screen
3. MovethecursortotheStackStatefieldbypressing[E](forEdit).
4. Dooneofthefollowing:
TodisablestackingontheCandidate,usetheSpacebartoselect
theDisabledoption,thengotostep5.
Note:UsingthemenuinterfacetodisablestackingonaCandidate
removestheCandidatefromallstackingmenus.
ToinserttheCandidateintoaspecificCommandersstack:
i. UsethespacebartoselectMember.
ii. Press[Tab]oncetodisplaytheCommander MAC Addressparam-
eter,thenentertheMACaddressofthedesiredCommander.
TochangeAuto JoinorTransmission Interval,use[Tab]toselectthe
desiredparameter,and:
TochangeAuto Join,usetheSpacebar.
TochangeTransmission Interval,typeinthenewvalueinthe
rangeof1to300seconds.
Note:Allswitchesinthestackmustbesettothesametransmis-
sion intervalto helpensureproperstackingoperation. HPrecom-
mendsthatyouleavethisparametersettothedefault60seconds.
Thengotostep5.
5. press[Enter]toreturnthecursortotheActionsline.
8-17
HP ProCurve Stack Management
ConfiguringStackManagement
6. Press[S](forSave)tosaveyourconfigurationchangesandreturntothe
Stackingmenu.
UsingtheCommanderToManageTheStack
TheCommandernormallyoperatesasyourstackmanagerandpointofentry
intootherswitchesinthestack.Thistypicallyincludes:
Addingnewstackmembers
Movingmembersbetweenstacks
Removingmembersfromastack
Accessingstackmembersforindividualconfigurationchangesandtraffic
monitoring
TheCommanderalsoimposesitspasswordsonallstackmembersandpro-
videsSNMPcommunitymembershiptothestack.(SeeSNMPCommunity
OperationinaStackonpage8-44.)
UsingtheCommandersMenuToManuallyAddaCandidatetoa
Stack. Inthedefaultconfiguration,youmustmanuallyaddstackMembers
fromtheCandidatepool.ReasonsforaswitchremainingaCandidateinstead
ofbecomingaMemberincludeanyofthefollowing:
Auto GrabintheCommanderissettoNo(thedefault).
Auto Join intheCandidateissettoNo.
Note:WhenaswitchleavesastackandreturnstoCandidatestatus,its
Auto Join parameterresetstoNosothatitwillnotimmediatelyrejoina
stackfromwhichithasjustdeparted.
AManagerpasswordissetintheCandidate.
Thestackisfull.
Unlessthestackisalreadyfull,youcanusetheStackManagementscreento
manuallyconvertaCandidatetoaMember.IftheCandidatehasaManager
password,youwillneedto useittomaketheCandidateaMember ofthestack.
1. ToaddaMember,startattheMainMenuandselect:
9. Stacking...
4. Stack Management
YouwillthenseetheStackManagementscreen:
8-18
HP ProCurve Stack Management
ConfiguringStackManagement
Forstatusdescriptions,seethetableonpage8-47.
Figure 8-9. Example of the Stack Management Screen
2. Press[A](forAdd)toadd aCandidate.You willthen seethisscreenlisting
theavailableCandidates:
TheCommanderautomaticallyselectsan
availableswitchnumber(SN).Youhavethe
optionofassigninganyotheravailablenumber.
CandidateList
Figure 8-10. Example of Candidate List in Stack Management Screen
3. Eitheracceptthedisplayedswitchnumberorenteranotheravailable
number.(Therangeis0-15,with0reservedfortheCommander.)
4. UsethedownarrowkeytomovethecursortotheMACAddressfield,
thentypetheMACaddressofthedesiredCandidatefromtheCandidate
listinthelowerpartofthescreen.
5. Dooneofthefollowing:
8-19
HP ProCurve Stack Management
ConfiguringStackManagement
IfthedesiredCandidatehasaManagerpassword,pressthe
downarrowkeytomovethecursortotheCandidatePassword
field,thentypethepassword.
IfthedesiredCandidatedoesnothaveapassword,gotostep6.
6. Press[Enter] toreturntotheActionsline,thenpress[S](forSave)to
completetheAddprocessfortheselectedCandidate.Youwillthensee
ascreensimilartotheoneinfigure8-11,below,withthenewlyadded
Memberlisted.
Note:IfthemessageUnable to add stack member: Invalid Passwordappears
intheconsolemenusHelpline,thenyoueitheromittedtheCandidates
ManagerpasswordorincorrectlyenteredtheManagerpassword.
Forstatusdescriptions,seethetableonpage8-47.
NewMemberaddedinstep6.
Figure 8-11. Example of Stack Management Screen After New Member Added
UsingtheCommandersMenuToMoveaMemberFromOneStackto
Another. Wheretwoormorestacksexistinthesamesubnet(broadcast
domain),youcaneasilymoveaMemberofonestacktoanotherstackifthe
destinationstackisnotfull.(IfyouareusingVLANsinyourstackenviron-
ment,seeStackingOperationwithaTaggedVLANonpage8-45.)This
procedureisnearlyidenticaltomanuallyaddingaCandidatetoastack(page
8-18).(IfthestackfromwhichyouwanttomovetheMemberhasaManager
password,youwillneedtoknowthepasswordtomakethemove.)
1. TomoveaMemberfromonestacktoanother,gototheMainMenuof
theCommanderinthedestinationstackanddisplaytheStackingMenu
byselecting
9. Stacking...
2. TolearnorverifytheMACaddressoftheMemberyouwanttomove,
displayalistingofallCommanders,Members,andCandidatesinthe
subnetbyselecting:
8-20
HP ProCurve Stack Management
ConfiguringStackManagement
2. Stacking Status (All)
YouwillthenseetheStackingStatus(All)screen:
Forstatusdescriptions,seethetableonpage8-47.
ThiscolumnliststheMAC
Addressesforswitches
discovered(inthelocal
subnet)thatareconfigured
forStacking.
UsingtheMACaddressesforthese
Members,youcanmovethembetween
stacksinthesamesubnet.
Figure 8-12. Example of How the Stacking Status (All) Screen Helps You Find
Member MAC Addresses
3. IntheStackingStatus(All)screen,findtheMemberswitchthatyouwant
tomoveandnoteitsMACaddress,thenpress[B](forBack)toreturnto
theStackingMenu.
4. DisplaytheCommandersStackManagementscreenbyselecting
4. Stack Management
(Foranexampleofthisscreen,seefigure8-9onpage8-19.)
5. Press[A](forAdd)toaddtheMember.Youwillthenseeascreenlisting
anyavailablecandidates.(Seefigure8-10onpage8-19.)Notethatyou
willnotseetheswitchyouwanttoaddbecauseitisaMemberofanother
stackandnotaCandidate.)
6. Eitheracceptthedisplayedswitchnumberorenteranotheravailable
number.(Therangeis0-15,with0reservedfortheCommander.)
7. UsethedownarrowkeytomovethecursortotheMACAddressfield,
thentypetheMACaddressofthedesiredMemberyouwanttomovefrom
anotherstack.
8-21
HP ProCurve Stack Management
ConfiguringStackManagement
8. Dooneofthefollowing:
IfthestackcontainingtheMemberyouaremovinghasaManager
password,pressthedownarrowkeytoselecttheCandidate
Passwordfield,thentypethepassword.
IfthestackcontainingtheMemberyouwanttomovedoesnot
haveapassword,gotostep9.
9. Press[Enter] toreturntotheActionsline,thenpress[S](forSave)to
completetheAddprocessfortheselectedMember.Youwillthenseea
screensimilartotheoneinfigure8-9onpage8-19,withthenewlyadded
Memberlisted.
Not e : IfthemessageUnable to add stack member: Invalid Password appearsinthe
consolemenusHelpline,thenyoueitheromittedtheManagerpasswordfor
thestackcontainingtheMemberorincorrectlyenteredtheManagerpass-
word.
YoucanpushaMemberfromonestacktoanotherbygoingtotheMembers
interfaceandenteringtheMACaddressofthedestinationstackCommander
intheMembersCommander MAC Addressfield.Usingthismethodmovesthe
MembertoanotherstackwithoutaneedforknowingtheManagerpassword
inthatstack,butalsoblocksaccesstotheMemberfromtheoriginal
Commander.
UsingtheCommandersMenuToRemoveaStackMember. These
rulesaffectremovalsfromastack:
WhenaCandidatebecomesaMember,itsAuto Joinparameteris
automaticallysettoNo.Thispreventstheswitchfromautomatically
rejoiningastackassoonasyouremoveitfromthestack.
WhenyouusetheCommandertoremoveaswitchfromastack,the
switchrejoinstheCandidatepoolforyourIPsubnet(broadcast
domain),withAuto JoinsettoNo.
WhenyouremoveaMemberfromastack,itfreesthepreviously
assignedswitchnumber(SN),whichthenbecomesavailablefor
assignmenttoanotherswitchthatyoumaysubsequentlyaddtothe
stack.Thedefaultswitchnumberusedforanaddisthelowest
unassignednumberintheMemberrange(1- 15;0isreservedforthe
Commander).
8-22
HP ProCurve Stack Management
ConfiguringStackManagement
ToremoveaMemberfromastack,usetheStackManagementscreen.
1. FromtheMainMenu,select:
9. Stacking...
4. Stack Management
YouwillthenseetheStackManagementscreen:
Forstatusdescriptions,
seethetableonpage
8-47.
StackMemberList
Figure 8-13. Example of Stack Management Screen with Stack Members Listed
2. UsethedownarrowkeytoselecttheMemberyouwanttoremovefrom
thestack.
Figure 8-14. Example of Selecting a Member for Removal from the Stack
3. Type[D](forDelete)toremovetheselectedMemberfromthestack.You
willthenseethefollowingprompt:
Figure 8-15. The Prompt for Completing the Deletion of a Member from the Stack
8-23
HP ProCurve Stack Management
ConfiguringStackManagement
4. TocontinuedeletingtheselectedMember,presstheSpacebaronceto
selectYesfortheprompt,thenpress[Enter] tocompletethedeletion.The
StackManagementscreenupdatestoshowthenewstackMemberlist.
UsingtheCommanderToAccessMemberSwitchesfor
ConfigurationChangesandMonitoringTraffic
AfteraCandidatebecomesastackMember,youcanusethatstacks
CommandertoaccesstheMembersconsoleinterfaceforthesameconfigu-
rationandmonitoringthatyouwoulddothroughaTelnetordirect-connect
access.
1. FromtheMainMenu,select:
9. Stacking...
5. Stack Access
YouwillthenseetheStackAccessscreen:
Forstatusdescriptions,seethetableonpage8-47.
Figure 8-16. Example of the Stack Access Screen
UsethedownarrowkeytoselectthestackMemberyouwanttoaccess,then
press[X](foreXecute)todisplaytheconsoleinterfacefortheselectedMember.
Forexample,ifyouselectedswitchnumber1(systemname:Coral Sea)infigure
8-16andthenpressed[X],youwouldseetheMainMenufortheswitchnamed
CoralSea.
8-24
HP ProCurve Stack Management
ConfiguringStackManagement
MainMenuforstack
Membernamed"CoralSea"
(SN=1fromfigure8-16)
Figure 8-17. The eXecute Command Displays the Console Main Menu for the
Selected Stack Member
2. Youcannowmakeconfigurationchangesand/orviewstatusdataforthe
selectedMemberinthesamewaythatyouwouldifyouweredirectly
connectedortelnettedintotheswitch.
3. WhenyouarefinishedaccessingtheselectedMember,dothefollowing
toreturntotheCommandersStackAccessscreen:
a. ReturntotheMembersMainMenu.
b. Press[0](forLogout),then[Y](forYes).
c. Press[Return].
YoushouldnowseetheCommandersStackAccessscreen.(Foran
example,seefigure8-16onpage8-24.)
ConvertingaCommanderorMembertoaMemberofAnother
Stack
Whenmovingacommander,thefollowingprocedurereturnsthestackmem-
berstoCandidatestatus(withAuto-JoinsettoNo)andconvertsthestack
CommandertoaMemberofanotherstack.Whenmovingamember,the
proceduresimplypullsaMemberoutofonestackandpushesitintoanother.
1. FromtheMainMenuoftheswitchyouwanttomove,select
9. Stacking
2. TodeterminetheMACaddressofthedestinationCommander,select
2. Stacking Status (All)
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HP ProCurve Stack Management
ConfiguringStackManagement
3. Press[B](forBack)toreturntotheStackingMenu.
4. TodisplayStackConfigurationmenufortheswitchyouaremoving,select
3. Stack Configuration
5. Press[E](forEdit)toselecttheStackStateparameter.
6. UsetheSpacebartoselectMember,thenpress[v]tomovetotheCom-
mander MAC Addressfield.
7. EntertheMACaddressofthedestinationCommanderandpress[Enter].
8. Press[S](forSave).
MonitoringStackStatus
Usingthestackingoptionsinthemenuinterfaceforanyswitchinastack,you
canviewstackingdataforthatswitchorforallstacksinthesubnet(broadcast
domain).(IfyouareusingVLANsinyourstackenvironment,seeStacking
OperationwithaTaggedVLANonpage8-45.)Thiscanhelpyouinsuchways
asdeterminingthestackingconfigurationforindividualswitches,identifying
stackMembersandCandidates,anddeterminingthestatusofindividual
switchesinastack.Seetable8-5onpage8-26.
Table 8-5. Stack Status Environments
Screen Name Commander Member Candidate
StackStatus(ThisSwitch) Commandersstacking
configuration
DataonstackMembers:
SwitchNumber
MACAddress
SystemName
DeviceType
Status
StackStatus(All) Listsdevicesbystackname
orCandidatestatus(ifdevice
isnotastackMember).
Includes:
StackName
MACAddress
SystemName
Status
Membersstackingconfiguration Candidatesstacking
MemberStatus
configuration
DataidentifyingMembers
Commander:
CommanderStatus
CommanderIPAddress
CommanderMACAddress
SameasforCommander. Sameasfor
Commander.
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HP ProCurve Stack Management
ConfiguringStackManagement
UsingAnyStackedSwitchToViewtheStatusforAllSwitcheswith
StackingEnabled.Thisproceduredisplaysthegeneralstatusofallswitches
intheIPsubnet(broadcastdomain)thathavestackingenabled.
1. GototheconsoleMainMenuforanyswitchconfiguredforstackingand
select:
9. Stacking ...
2. Stacking Status (All)
YouwillthenseeaStackingStatusscreensimilartothefollowing:
Forstatusdescriptions,seethetableonpage8-47.
Figure 8-18. Example of Stacking Status for All Detected Switches Configured for
Stacking
ViewingCommanderStatus. ThisproceduredisplaystheCommanderand
stackconfiguration,plusinformationidentifyingeachstackmember.
TodisplaythestatusforaCommander,gototheconsoleMainMenuforthe
switchandselect:
9. Stacking ...
1. Stacking Status (This Switch)
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HP ProCurve Stack Management
ConfiguringStackManagement
YouwillthenseetheCommandersStackingStatusscreen:
Figure 8-19. Example of the Commanders Stacking Status Screen
ViewingMemberStatus. ThisproceduredisplaystheMembersstacking
informationplustheCommandersstatus,IPaddress,andMACaddress.
TodisplaythestatusforaMember:
1. GototheconsoleMainMenuoftheCommanderswitchandselect
9. Stacking ...
5. Stack Access
2. UsethedownarrowkeytoselecttheMemberswitchwhosestatusyou
wanttoview,thenpress[X](foreXecute).YouwillthenseetheMainMenu
fortheselectedMemberswitch.
3. IntheMembersMainMenuscreen,select
9. Stacking ...
1. Stacking Status (This Switch)
YouwillthenseetheMembersStackingStatusscreen:
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HP ProCurve Stack Management
ConfiguringStackManagement
Figure 8-20. Example of a Members Stacking Status Screen
ViewingCandidateStatus. ThisproceduredisplaystheCandidates
stackingconfiguration.
TodisplaythestatusforaCandidate:
1. UseTelnet(iftheCandidatehasavalidIPaddressforyournetwork)or
adirectserialportconnectiontoaccessthemenuinterfaceMainMenu
fortheCandidateswitchandselect
9. Stacking ...
1. Stacking Status (This Switch)
YouwillthenseetheCandidatesStackingStatusscreen:
Figure 8-21. Example of a Candidates Stacking Screen
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HP ProCurve Stack Management
ConfiguringStackManagement
UsingtheCLIToViewStackStatusandConfigure
Stacking
TheCLIenablesyoutodoallofthestackingtasksavailablethroughthemenu
interface.)
Table 8-6. CLI Commands for Configuring Stacking on a Switch
CLI Command Operation
show stack Commander:ShowsCommandersstackingconfigurationandliststhestack
[candidates | view | all]
membersandtheirindividualstatus.
Member:ListsMembersstackingconfigurationandstatus,andthestatusandthe
IPaddressandsubnetmaskofthestackCommander.
Options:
candidates: (Commanderonly)ListsstackCandidates.
view:(Commanderonly)ListscurrentstackMembersandtheirindividual
status.
all: ListsallstackCommanders,MembersandCandidates,withtheirindividual
status.
[no] stack Any Stacking-Capable Switch:Enablesordisablesstackingontheswitch.
Default:StackingEnabled
[no] stack commander <stack name> Candidate or Commander: ConvertsaCandidatetoaCommanderorchangesthe
stacknameofanexistingcommander.
Noformeliminatesnamedstack andreturnsCommanderandstackMembers
toCandidatestatuswithAuto JoinsettoNo.
Noformpreventstheswitchfrombeingdiscoveredasastacking-capable
switch.
Default:SwitchConfiguredasaCandidate
[no] stack auto-grab Commander:CausesCommandertoautomaticallyaddtoitsstackanydiscovered
CandidateinthesubnetthatdoesnothaveaManagerpasswordandhasAuto-
JoinsettoYes.
Default:Disabled
Note:IftheCommandersstackalreadyhas15members,theCandidatecannot
joinuntilanexistingmemberleavesthestack.
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ConfiguringStackManagement
CLI Command Operation
[no] stack member Commander: AddsaCandidatetostackmembership.Noformremovesa
<switch-num>
Memberfromstackmembership.ToeasilydeterminetheMACaddressofa
mac-address <mac-addr>
Candidate,usetheshow stack candidatescommand.TodeterminetheMAC
[password <password-str>]
addressofaMemberyouwanttoremove,usetheshow stack viewcommand.The
password(password-str)isrequiredonlywhenaddingaCandidatethathasa
Managerpassword.
telnet <1..15>
Used In:CommanderOnly
Commander:UsestheSN (switchnumberassignedbythestackCommander)
toaccesstheconsoleinterface(menuinterfaceorCLI)ofastackmember.Toview
thelistofSNassignmentsforastack,executetheshow stack commandinthe
CommandersCLI.
[no] stack join <mac-addr> Candidate: CausestheCandidatetojointhestackwhoseCommanderhasthe
indicatedMACaddress.NoformisusedinaMembertoremoveitfromthestack
oftheCommanderhavingthespecifiedaddress.
Member:PushesthemembertoanotherstackwhoseCommanderhasthe
indicatedMACaddress.
[no] stack auto-join Candidate: EnablesCandidatetoautomaticallyjointhestackofanyCommander
intheIPsubnetthathasAuto Grabenabled,ordisablesAuto-Joininthecandidate.
Default: Auto Joinenabled.
Note:IftheCandidate hasaManagerpasswordoriftheavailablestack(s)already
havethemaximumof15Members,theautomaticjoinwillnotoccur.
stack transmission-interval All Stack Members: specifiestheintervalinsecondsfortransmittingstacking
discoverypackets.
Default: 60seconds
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HP ProCurve Stack Management
ConfiguringStackManagement
UsingtheCLIToViewStackStatus
Youcanlistthestackstatusforanindividualswitchandforotherswitches
thathavebeendiscoveredinthesamesubnet.
Syntax: show stack [candidates | view | all]
ViewingtheStatusofanIndividualSwitch. Thefollowingexample
illustrateshowtousetheCLIina todisplaythestackstatusforthatswitch.
Inthiscase,theswitchisinthedefaultstackingconfiguration.
Syntax: show stack
Figure 8-22. Example of Using the Show Stack Command To List the Stacking Configuration for an
Individual Switch
ViewingtheStatusofCandidatestheCommanderHasDetected.
ThisexampleillustrateshowtoliststackcandidatestheCommanderhas
discoveredintheipsubnet(broadcastdomain).
Syntax: show stack candidates
Figure 8-23. Example of Using the Show Stack Candidates Command To List
Candidates
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HP ProCurve Stack Management
ConfiguringStackManagement
ViewingtheStatusofallStack-EnabledSwitchesDiscoveredintheIP
Subnet. Thenextexamplelistsallthestack-configuredswitchesdiscovered
intheIPsubnet.Becausetheswitchonwhichtheshow stack allcommand
wasexecutedisacandidate,itisincludedintheOtherscategory.
Syntax: show stack all
Figure 8-24. Result of Using the Show Stack All Command To List Discovered Switches in the IP Subnet
ViewingtheStatusoftheCommanderandCurrentMembersofthe
CommandersStack. Thenextexamplelistsallswitchesinthestackofthe
selectedswitch.
Syntax: show stack view
Figure 8-25. Example of the Show Stack View Command To List the Stack Assigned to the
Selected Commander
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HP ProCurve Stack Management
ConfiguringStackManagement
UsingtheCLIToConfigureaCommanderSwitch
Youcanconfigureanystacking-enabledswitchtobeaCommanderaslongas
theintendedstacknamedoesnotalreadyexistonthebroadcastdomain.
(WhenyouconfigureaCommander,youautomaticallycreateacorresponding
stack.)
Beforeyoubeginconfiguringstackingparameters:
1. ConfigureIPaddressingontheswitchintendedforstackcommanderand,
if notalreadyconfigured,ontheprimaryVLAN.(Formoreonconfiguring
IPaddressing,seethechapteronIPaddressingintheManagementand
ConfigurationGuide.)
Not e TheprimaryVLANmusthaveanIPaddressinorderforstackingtooperate
properly. FormoreontheprimaryVLAN,seeThePrimaryVLANonpage2-6.
2. ConfigureaManagerpasswordontheswitchintendedforcommander.
(TheCommandersManagerpasswordcontrolsaccesstostackMem-
bers.)Formoreonpasswords,seethelocalmanagerandoperatorpass-
wordinformationintheAccessSecurityGuideforyourswitch.
ConfiguretheStackCommander. Assigningastacknametoaswitch
makesitaCommanderandautomaticallycreatesastack.
Syntax: stackcommander< name-str >
ThisexamplecreatesaCommanderswitchwithastacknameofBig_Waters.
(Notethatifstackingwaspreviouslydisabledontheswitch,thiscommand
alsoenablesstacking.)
HPswitch(config)# stack commander Big_Waters
Asthefollowingshow stack displayshows,theCommanderswitchisnowready
toaddmemberstothestack.
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HP ProCurve Stack Management
ConfiguringStackManagement
Thestack commandercommand
configurestheCommanderandnames
thestack.
TheCommanderappearsinthestackasSwitch
Number(SN)0.
Figure 8-26. Example of the Commanders Show Stack Screen with Only the Commander
Discovered
UsingaMembersCLItoConverttheMembertotheCommanderofa
NewStack. ThisprocedurerequiresthatyoufirstremovetheMemberfrom
itscurrentstack,thencreatethenewstack.IfyoudonotknowtheMAC
addressfortheCommanderofthecurrentstack,useshow stacktolistit.
Syntax: nostack
stackcommander< stack name >
Suppose,forexample,thatanHPswitchnamedBeringSeaisaMemberof
astacknamedBig_Waters.TousetheswitchsCLItoconvertitfromastack
MembertotheCommanderofanewstacknamedLakes,youwouldusethe
followingcommands:
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HP ProCurve Stack Management
ConfiguringStackManagement
RemovestheMember
fromtheBig_Waters
stack.
Convertstheformer
MembertotheCom-
manderofthenew
Lakesstack.
Theoutputfromthiscommandtellsyouthe
MACaddressofthecurrentstackCommander.
Figure 8-27. Example of Using a Members CLI To Convert the Member to the Commander of a New Stack
AddingtoaStackorMovingSwitchesBetweenStacks
Youcanaddswitchestoastackby addingdiscoveredCandidatesorby moving
switchesfromotherstacksthatmayexistinthesamesubnet.(Youcannot
addaCandidatethattheCommanderhasnotdiscovered.)
Initsdefaultconfiguration,theCommandersAuto-GrabparameterissettoNo
togiveyoumanualcontroloverwhichswitchesjointhestackandwhenthey
join.ThispreventstheCommanderfromautomaticallytryingtoaddevery
CandidateitfindsthathasAuto JoinsettoYes (thedefaultfortheCandidate).
(IfyouwantanyeligibleCandidatetoautomaticallyjointhestackwhenthe
Commanderdiscoversit,configureAuto Grab intheCommandertoYes.When
youdoso,anyCandidatediscoveredwithAuto JoinsettoYes(thedefault)and
noManagerpasswordwilljointhestack,uptothelimitof15Members.)
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HP ProCurve Stack Management
ConfiguringStackManagement
UsingtheCommandersCLIToManuallyAddaCandidatetothe
Stack. Tomanuallyaddacandidate,youwilluse:
Aswitchnumber(SN)toassigntothenewmember.MemberSNsrange
from1to15.ToseewhichSNsarealreadyassignedtoMembers,useshow
stack view.YoucanuseanySNnotincludedinthelisting.(SNsare
viewableonlyonaCommanderswitch.)
TheMACaddressofthediscoveredCandidate youareaddingtothestack.
Toseethisdata,usetheshow stack candidates listing.
Forexample:
Note: Whenmanuallyaddingaswitch,youmustassignanSN.
However,iftheCommanderautomaticallyaddsanewMember,
itassignsanSNfromtheavailablepoolofunusedSNs.
Inthisstack,theonlySNsinuseare0and1,
soyoucanuseanySNnumberfrom2through
15fornewMembers.(TheSNof0isalways
reservedforthestackCommander.)
Figure 8-28. Example of How To Determine Available Switch Numbers (SNs)
TodisplayalldiscoveredCandidateswiththeirMACaddresses,executeshow
stack candidates fromtheCommandersCLI.Forexample,tolistthediscov-
eredcandidatesfortheaboveCommander:
MACaddresses
ofdiscovered
Candidates.
Figure 8-29. Example of How To Determine MAC Addresses of Discovered Candidates
Knowingtheavailableswitchnumbers(SNs)andCandidateMACaddresses,
youcanproceedtomanuallyassignaCandidatetobeaMemberofthestack:
Syntax: stackmember<switch-number >mac-address< mac-addr >
[password< password-str > ]
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HP ProCurve Stack Management
ConfiguringStackManagement
Forexample,iftheHP8000MintheabovelistingdidnothaveaManager
passwordandyouwantedtomakeitastackMemberwithanSNof2,you
wouldexecutethefollowingcommand:
HPswitch(config)# stack member 2 mac-address 0060b0-
dfla00
Theshow stack viewcommandthenliststheMemberaddedbytheabove
command:
SN(SwitchNumber)2isthe
newMemberaddedbythe
stack member command.
ThenewmemberdidnothaveaSystemName
configuredpriortojoiningthestack,andsoreceivesa
SystemNamecomposedofthestackname(assignedin
theCommander)withitsSNnumberasasuffix.
Figure 8-30. Example Showing the Stack After Adding a New Member
UsingAutoJoinonaCandidate. Inthedefaultconfiguration,aCandi-
datesAutoJoinparameterissettoYes,meaningthatitwillautomatically
joinastackifthestacksCommanderdetectstheCandidateandtheCom-
mandersAutoGrabparameterissettoYes.YoucandisableAutoJoinona
Candidateifyouwanttopreventautomaticjoininginthiscase.Thereisalso
theinstancewhereaCandidatesAutoJoinisdisabled,forexample,whena
CommanderleavesastackanditsmembersautomaticallyreturntoCandidate
status,orifyoumanuallyremoveaMemberfromastack.Inthiscase,you
maywanttoresetAutoJointoYes.
Status: [no] stack auto-join
HPswitch(config)# no stack auto-join
DisablesAutoJoinonaCandidate.
HPswitch(config)# stack auto-join
EnablesAutoJoinonaCandidate.
UsingaCandidateCLIToManuallyPushtheCandidateIntoa
Stack. Usethismethodifanyofthefollowingapply:
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HP ProCurve Stack Management
ConfiguringStackManagement
TheCandidatesAuto Join issettoYes (andyoudonotwanttoenableAuto
GrabontheCommander)ortheCandidatesAuto JoinissettoNo.
EitheryouknowtheMACaddressoftheCommanderforthestackinto
whichyouwanttoinserttheCandidate,ortheCandidatehasavalidIP
addressandisoperatinginyournetwork.
Syntax: stackjoin< mac-addr >
where:< mac-addr >istheMACaddressoftheCommanderin
thedestinationstack.
UseTelnet(iftheCandidatehasanIPaddressvalidforyournetwork)ora
directserialportconnectiontoaccesstheCLIfortheCandidateswitch.For
example,supposethataCandidatenamedNorthSeawith Auto Joinoffand
avalidIPaddressof10.28.227.104isrunningonanetwork.YoucouldTelnet
totheCandidate,useshow stack alltodeterminetheCommandersMAC
address,andthenpushtheCandidateintothedesiredstack.
1. TelnettotheCandidatenamedNorthSea.
2. Useshow stack alltodisplaytheCommanders
MACaddress.
3. SettheCandidateCLItoConfigmode.
4. Executestack joinwiththe
CommandersMACaddresstopush
theCandidateintothestack.
MACAddressfor
StackCommander
Figure 8-31. Example of Pushing a Candidate Into a Stack
ToverifythattheCandidatesuccessfullyjoinedthestack,executeshow stack
allagaintoviewthestackingstatus.
UsingtheDestinationCommanderCLIToPullaMemberfrom
AnotherStack. ThismethodusestheCommanderinthedestinationstack
topulltheMemberfromthesourcestack.
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HP ProCurve Stack Management
ConfiguringStackManagement
Syntax: stackmember<switch-number >
mac-address<mac-addr >
[password<password-str >]
InthedestinationCommander,useshow stack all tofindtheMACaddressof
theMemberyou wantto pull intothedestinationstack.Forexample,suppose
youcreatedanewCommanderwithastacknameofCold_Watersandyou
wantedtomoveaswitchnamedBeringSeaintothenewstack:
MovethisswitchintotheColdWatersstack.
Figure 8-32. Example of Stack Listing with Two Stacks in the Subnet
Youwouldthenexecutethefollowingcommandtopullthedesiredswitch
intothenewstack:
HPswitch(config)# stack member 1 mac-address 0060b0-
df1a00
Where1isanunusedswitchnumber(SN).
SinceapasswordisnotsetontheCandidate,apasswordisnotneededinthis
example.
Youcouldthenuseshow stack all againtoverifythatthemovetookplace.
UsingaMemberCLIToPushtheMemberintoAnotherStack. You
canusetheMembersCLItopushastackMemberintoadestinationstack
ifyouknowtheMACaddressofthedestinationCommander.
Syntax: stack join <mac-addr>
where: < mac-addr >istheMACaddressoftheCommanderforthe
destinationstack.
ConvertingaCommandertoaMemberofAnotherStack. Removing
theCommanderfromastackeliminatesthestackandreturnsitsMembersto
theCandidatepoolwithAuto Joindisabled.
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HP ProCurve Stack Management
ConfiguringStackManagement
Syntax: nostackname< stack name>
stackjoin< mac-address >
IfyoudontknowtheMACaddressofthedestinationCommander,youcan
useshow stack alltoidentifyit.
Forexample,supposeyouhaveaswitchoperatingastheCommanderfora
temporarystacknamedTest.Whenitistimetoeliminatethetemporary
Teststackandconverttheswitchintoamemberofanexistingstacknamed
Big_Waters,youwouldexecutethefollowingcommandsintheswitchsCLI:
EliminatestheTeststackandconverts
theCommandertoaCandidate.
HelpsyoutoidentifytheMACaddressofthe
CommanderfortheBig_Watersstack.
AddstheformerTestCommandertothe
Big_Watersstack.
Figure 8-33. Example of Command Sequence for Converting a Commander to a Member
UsingtheCLIToRemoveaMemberfromaStack
YoucanremoveaMemberfroma stackusingtheCLIofeithertheCommander
ortheMember.
Not e WhenyouremoveaMemberfromastack,theMembersAuto Joinparameter
issettoNo.
UsingtheCommanderCLIToRemoveaStackMember. Thisoption
requirestheswitchnumber(SN)andtheMACaddressoftheswitchto
remove.(BecausetheCommanderpropagatesitsManagerpasswordtoall
stackmembers,knowingtheManagerpasswordisnecessaryonlyforgaining
accesstotheCommander.)
Syntax: [no] stack member <switch-num> mac-address <mac-addr>
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HP ProCurve Stack Management
ConfiguringStackManagement
Useshow stack viewtolistthestackMembers.Forexample,supposethatyou
wantedtousetheCommandertoremovetheNorthSeaMemberfromthe
followingstack:
RemovethisMember
fromthestack.
Figure 8-34. Example of a Commander and Three Switches in a Stack
Youwouldthenexecutethis command toremovetheNorth Seaswitchfrom
thestack:
HPswitch(config)# no stack member 3 mac-address 0030c1-
7fc700
where:
3istheNorthSeaMembersswitchnumber(SN)
0030c1-7fc700istheNorthSeaMembersMACaddress
UsingtheMembersCLIToRemovetheMemberfromaStack.
Syntax: no stack join <mac-addr>
Tousethismethod,youneedtheCommandersMACaddress,whichis
availableusingtheshowstackcommandintheMembersCLI.Forexample:
MACAddressofthe
Commanderforthe
StacktoWhich
theNorthSea
SwitchBelongs
CLIforNorthSea
StackMember
Figure 8-35. Example of How To Identify the Commanders MAC Address from a Member Switch
YouwouldthenexecutethiscommandintheNorthSeaswitchsCLIto
removetheswitchfromthestack:
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HP ProCurve Stack Management
ConfiguringStackManagement
North Sea(config)# no stack join 0030c1-7fec40
UsingtheCLIToAccessMemberSwitchesforConfiguration
ChangesandTrafficMonitoring
AfteraCandidatebecomesaMember,youcanusethetelnetcommandfrom
theCommandertoaccesstheMembersCLIorconsoleinterfaceforthesame
configurationandmonitoringthatyouwoulddothroughaTelnetordirect-
connectaccessfromaterminal.
Syntax: telnet <switch-number>
where:unsignedintegeristheswitchnumber(SN)assignedbytheCom-
mandertoeachmember(range:1- 15).
TofindtheswitchnumberfortheMemberyouwanttoaccess,executethe
show stack viewcommandintheCommandersCLI.Forexample,supposethat
youwantedtoconfigureaporttrunkontheswitchnamedNorthSeainthe
stacknamedBig_Waters.DodosoyouwouldgototheCLIforthe
Big_WatersCommanderandexecuteshowstackviewtofindtheswitch
numberfortheNorthSeaswitch:
Theswitchnumber
(SN)fortheNorth
Seaswitchis3.
Figure 8-36. Example of a Stack Showing Switch Number (SN) Assignments
ToaccesstheNorthSeaconsole,youwouldthenexecutethefollowingtelnet
command:
HPswitch(config)# telnet 3
YouwouldthenseetheCLIpromptfortheNorthSeaswitch,allowingyou
toconfigureormonitortheswitchasifyouweredirectlyconnectedtothe
console.
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HP ProCurve Stack Management
ConfiguringStackManagement
SNMPCommunityOperationinaStack
CommunityMembership
Inthedefaultstackingconfiguration,whenaCandidatejoinsastack,it
automaticallybecomesaMemberofanySNMPcommunitytowhichthe
Commanderbelongs,eventhoughanycommunitynamesconfiguredinthe
CommanderarenotpropagatedtotheMembersSNMPCommunitieslisting.
However,ifaMemberhasitsown(optional)IPaddressing,itcanbelongto
SNMPcommunitiestowhichotherswitchesinthestack,includingthe
Commander,donotbelong.Forexample:
Commander Switch
IPAddr:12.31.29.100
CommunityNames:
blue
red
Member Switch 2
IPAddr:None
CommunityNames:
none
Member Switch 3
IPAddr:12.31.29.15
CommunityNames:
public(thedefault)
gray
Member Switch 1
IPAddr:12.31.29.18
CommunityNames:
public(thedefault)
TheCommanderandallMembersofthestack
belongtotheblueandredcommunities.Onlyswitch
3belongstothegraycommunity.Switches1,2,and
3belongtothepubliccommunity
IfMemberSwitch1ceasestobeastackMember,it
stillbelongstothepublicSNMPcommunitybecause
ithasIPaddressingofitsown.But,withthelossof
stackMembership,Switch1losesmembershipin
theblueandredcommunitiesbecausetheyarenot
specificallyconfiguredintheswitch.
IfMemberSwitch2ceasestobeastackMember,it
losesmembershipinallSNMPcommunities.
IfMemberSwitch3ceasestobeastackMember,it
losesmembershipintheblueandredcommunities,
butbecauseithasitsownIPaddressingretains
membershipinthepublicandgraycommunities.
Figure 8-37. Example of SNMP Community Operation with Stacking
SNMPManagementStationAccesstoMembersViatheCommander.
TouseamanagementstationforSNMPGetorSetaccessthroughthe
CommandersIPaddresstoaMember,youmustappend@sw<switch number>
tothecommunityname.Forexample,infigure8-37,youwouldusethe
followingcommandinyourmanagementstationtoaccessSwitch1sMIB
usingthebluecommunity:
snmpget < MIB variable > 10.31.29.100 blue@sw1
Notethatbecausethegraycommunityisonlyonswitch3,youcouldnotuse
theCommanderIPaddressforgraycommunityaccessfromthemanagement
station.Instead,youwouldaccessswitch3directlyusingtheswitchsownIP
address.Forexample:
snmpget <MIB variable > 10.31.29.15 gray
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HP ProCurve Stack Management
ConfiguringStackManagement
Notethatintheaboveexample(figure8-37)youcannotusethepublic
communitythroughtheCommandertoaccessanyoftheMemberswitches.
Forexample,youcanusethepubliccommunitytoaccesstheMIBinswitches
1and3byusingtheiruniqueIPaddresses.However,youmustusetheredor
bluecommunitytoaccesstheMIBforswitch2.
snmpget <MIB variable> 10.31.29.100 blue@sw2
UsingtheCLIToDisableorRe-EnableStacking
Inthedefaultconfiguration,stackingisenabledontheswitch.Youcanuse
theCLItodisablestackingontheswitchatanytime.Disablingstackinghas
thefollowingeffects:
DisablingaCommander:Eliminatesthestack,returnsthestackMem-
berstoCandidateswithAuto Joindisabled,andchangestheCommander
toastand-alone(nonstacking) switch.Youmust re-enablestackingonthe
switchbeforeitcanbecomeaCandidate,Member,orCommander.
DisablingaMember:RemovestheMemberfromthestackandchanges
ittoastand-alone(nonstacking)switch.Youmustre-enablestackingon
theswitchbeforeitcanbecomeaCandidate,Member,orCommander.
DisablingaCandidate:ChangestheCandidatetoastand-alone(non-
stacking)switch.
Syntax: nostack (Disablesstackingontheswitch.)
stack (Enablesstackingontheswitch.)
TransmissionInterval
Allswitchesinthestackmustbesettothesametransmissionintervaltohelp
ensureproperstackingoperation.HPrecommendsthatyouleavethisparam-
etersettothedefault60seconds.
Syntax: stacktransmission-interval<seconds >
StackingOperationwithMultipleVLANsConfigured
StackingusestheprimaryVLANinaswitch.Inthefactory-defaultconfigura-
tion,theDEFAULT_VLANistheprimaryVLAN.However,youcandesignate
anyVLANconfiguredintheswitchastheprimaryVLAN.(SeeThePrimary
VLANonpage2-6.)
Whenusingstackinginamultiple-VLANenvironment,thefollowingcriteria
applies:
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HP ProCurve Stack Management
ConfiguringStackManagement
StackingusesonlytheprimaryVLANoneachswitchinastack.
TheprimaryVLANcanbetaggedoruntaggedasneededinthe
stackingpathfromswitchtoswitch.
ThesameVLANID(VID)mustbeassignedtotheprimaryVLANin
eachstackedswitch.
Web:ViewingandConfiguringStacking
Figure 8-38. Example of the Web Browser Interface for a Commander
ThewebbrowserinterfaceforaCommanderappearsasshownabove.The
interfaceforMembersandCandidatesappearsthesameasforanon-stacking
switches.
Tovieworconfigurestackingonthewebbrowserinterface:
1. ClickontheConfigurationtab.
2. ClickonStackingtodisplaythestackingconfigurationforanindividual
switch,andmakeanyconfigurationchangesyouwantforthatswitch.
3. ClickonApply Changestosaveanyconfigurationchangesfortheindivid-
ualswitch.
4. IftheswitchisaCommander,usetheStack CloseupandStack Management
buttonsforviewingandusingstackfeatures.
Toaccesstheweb-basedHelpprovidedfortheswitch,clickon[?]intheweb
browserscreen.
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HP ProCurve Stack Management
ConfiguringStackManagement
StatusMessages
Stackingscreensandlistingsdisplaythesestatusmessages:
Message Condition Action or Remedy
CandidateAuto-join IndicatesaswitchconfiguredwithStackStatesetto
Candidate, Auto JoinsettoYes (thedefault),andno
Managerpassword.
Nonerequired
Candidate Candidatecannotautomaticallyjointhestackbecause
oneorbothofthefollowingconditionsapply:
CandidatehasAuto JoinsettoNo.
CandidatehasaManagerpassword.
Manuallyaddthecandidatetothe
stack.
CommanderDown MemberhaslostconnectivitytoitsCommander. Checkconnectivitybetweenthe
CommanderandtheMember.
CommanderUp TheMemberhasstackingconnectivitywiththe Nonerequired.
Commander.
Mismatch ThismaybeatemporaryconditionwhileaCandidateis
tryingtojoinastack.IftheCandidatedoesnotjoin,then
stackconfigurationisinconsistent.
Initially,waitfor anupdate.Ifcondi-
tionpersists,reconfigurethe
CommanderortheMember.
MemberDown AMemberhasbecomedetachedfromthestack.A
possiblecauseisaninterruptiontothelinkbetweenthe
MemberandtheCommander.
Checktheconnectivitybetween
theCommanderandtheMember.
MemberUp TheCommanderhasstackingconnectivitytotheMember. Nonerequired.
Rejected TheCandidatehasfailedtobeaddedtothestack. Thecandidatemayhaveapass-
word.Inthiscase,manuallyadd
thecandidate.Otherwise,thestack
mayalreadybefull.Astackcan
holdupto15Members(plusthe
Commander).
8-47
HP ProCurve Stack Management
ConfiguringStackManagement
Thispageisintentionallyunused.
8-48
Index
Numerics
802.1ppriority(QoS)
definition6-6
802.1QVLANstandard5-7
802.1wasaregion5-54
A
activepath5-5
address
IP7-8
advertisement3-3
applicableproducts1-ii
ARP
agesetting7-10
cache7-4
cachetable7-4
configuringparameters7-8
howitworks7-8
proxy7-11
assigning
IPaddress7-8
autoportsetting4-5
B
bandwidth
effectofQoS6-1
bandwidthloss,spanningtree5-51
blockedlinkfromSTPoperation5-9,5-52
blockedport
fromIGMPoperation4-5
fromSTPoperation5-8,5-50
Bootp
gatewayignored2-7
BPDU3-3,5-7
bridgeprotocoldataunit
SeeBPDU.
broadcastdomain2-3
broadcaststorm5-5,5-11
broadcasttraffic
enablingforwardingofdirected7-12
C
caches
ARP7-4
IPforwarding7-5
CIDR7-8
CLI
configuringRSTP5-14
configuration5-8,5-50,7-17
ARPparameters7-8
ClassofService6-14
defaultroute7-17
DHCPRelay7-24
factorydefault2-14,2-19,5-9,5-49
ICMP7-13
IProutingforwardingparameters7-11
IProutingparameters7-8
IRDP7-20
RSTP
fromtheCLI5-14
fromthemenu5-20
per-portparameters5-18
wholeswitchparameters5-16
spanningtreeprotocol5-8,5-50
staticIProutes7-15,7-16
VLAN2-3
configuringRSTP5-13
copyright1-ii
CoS
SeeClassofService.
D
data-drivenIGMP4-14
dedicatedmanagementVLAN2-6
defaultroute7-17
DHCP
gatewayignored2-7
DHCPRelay
configuration7-24
enabling7-25
helperaddress7-25
minimumrequirements7-25
directedbroadcasts7-12
Index1
disclaimer1-ii
displayinginformation
IRDP7-23
domain2-14,2-19
downstreamdevice(QoS)
definition6-6
effectofprioritysettings6-10
DSCP
PolicyTable6-65
policy,defined6-6
Seealsopriority.
E
enablingRSTP
CLI5-15
menuinterface5-20
webbrowserinterface5-22
enablingSTP
CLI5-15
ExcludeSource
SeeIGMP.
F
fastmode
spanningtree5-24,5-30
filters
effectofIGMP4-21
maximumallowed4-21
forbid
SeeGVRP.
forwarding
directedbroadcasts7-12
forwardingdatabase
SeeVLAN.
forwardingparameters,IProuting
configuring7-11
forwardingport,IGMP4-5
G
GARP
SeeGVRP.3-3
gateway,manualconfig2-7
GVRP5-48
advertisement3-17
advertisement,defined3-3
advertisement,responsesto3-5
advertisements,generating3-10
autooption3-9
benefit3-3
block3-7
CLI,configuring3-13
configurableportoptions3-6
configuringlearn,block,disable3-7
convertdynamictostatic3-6
convertingtostaticVLAN3-3
disable3-7
dynamicVLANandreboots3-17
dynamicVLANsalwaystagged3-4
EffectonmaximumallowedVLANs2-22
forbidoption3-9
GARP3-3
generaloperation3-4
IPaddressing3-6
learn3-7
learn,block,disable3-9
menu,configuring3-12
non-GVRPaware3-17
non-GVRPdevice3-17
operatingnotes3-17
portcontroloptions3-10
port-leavefromdynamic3-10
reboot,switch3-10
recommendedtagging3-10
standard3-3
tagged,dynamicVLAN3-4
unknownVLAN3-10
unknownVLAN,options3-6
VLANbehavior2-8
VLAN,dynamicadds2-17
VLAN,maximun3-17
withQoS6-52
H
helperaddressforDHCPRelay7-25
I
ICMP
configuring7-13
IGMP
benefits4-3
configuration4-11
2Index
configureperVLAN4-5
data-driven4-14
effectonfilters4-21
ExcludeSource4-12
Fast-Leave4-14
high-priorityforwarding4-5
IncludeSource4-12
IPmulticastaddressrange4-21
leavegroup4-12
maximumaddresscount4-21
multicastgroup4-11
multimedia4-3
operation4-11,4-12
portstates4-5
query4-11
report4-12
status4-12
traffic4-5
Version34-12
inboundport(QoS)
definition6-6
IncludeSource
SeeIGMP.
interface,VLAN
enablingIRDP7-21
IP
gateway2-7
trafficprioritybasedonToSfield6-39
IPaddress
assigning7-8
CIDRnotation7-8
IPforwardingcache7-5
IPglobalparameters7-6
IPinterfaceparameters7-7
IProutetable7-5
IProuting
ARPage7-10
ARPcachetable7-4
changingARPparameters7-8
configuringstaticroutes7-15
defaultroute7-17
DHCPRelayconfiguration7-24
directedbroadcasts7-12
forwardingcache7-5
forwardingparameters7-11
globalparameters7-6
ICMPconfiguration7-13
interfaceparameters7-7
IRDPconfiguration7-20
nullstaticroute7-17
overview7-3
parameterconfiguring7-8
ProxyARP,enabling7-11
routingtable7-5
staticrouteconfiguration7-16
staticroutetypes7-15
tablesandcaches7-4
VLANinterface7-3
IP,typeofservice
configuringpriority6-39
IRDP
configuring7-20
displayinginformation7-23
enablingglobally7-21
enablingonVLANinterface7-21
L
leavegroup
SeeIGMP
legacyVLAN2-5
loop,network5-6,5-8,5-50
M
MACaddress
duplicate2-9
singleforwardingdatabase2-9
VLAN2-35
MACaddress,perswitch2-9
MACaddress,perVLAN2-9
maximumVLANs,GVRP3-17
menuinterface
configuringRSTP5-20
mesh
spanningtree5-55
message
VLANalreadyexists2-25
MSTI,configuration5-65
MSTP
Seespanning-tree,802.1s.
multicastgroup
SeeIGMP.
multimedia
SeeIGMP.
multiple2-9
Index3
multipleforwardingdatabase2-9
N
notesonusingVLANs2-9
notices1-ii
nullstaticroute7-17
O
optimizingRSTPconfiguration5-13
outboundport(QoS)
definition6-6
outboundportqueue(QoS)
definition6-7
overview,IProuting7-3
P
parameters
IPglobal7-6
IPinterface7-7
pathcost5-9
Perlman,Interconnections5-32
port
auto,IGMP4-5
blockedbySTPoperation5-8,5-50
blocked,IGMP4-5
forwarding,IGMP4-5
groups,26006-17
loop5-8,5-50
monitoring2-36
numberingconvention1-3
redundantpath5-8,5-50
state,IGMPcontrol4-5
portgroups,26006-17
porttrunk
VLAN2-35
withfast-uplinkSTP5-44
precedencebits(QoS)
definition6-6
primaryVLAN
SeeVLAN.
priority4-5
802.1ppriority,defined6-6
codepoint,defined6-6
downstreamdevice,defined6-6
DSCPpolicy,defined6-6
DSCP,defined6-6
inboundport,defined6-6
outboundport,defined6-6
upstreamdevice,defined6-7
priority(QoS)
criteriaforprioritizingpackets6-10
typeofservicescreen6-39
VID,effectofeliminating6-52
VLANIDpriority6-52,6-58
priorityQoS)
devicepriorityscreen6-33
IPaddress,sourceanddestinationmatch6-34
ProxyARP,enabling7-11
publicationdata1-ii
Q
QualityofService
basicoperation6-8
configuring6-14,6-25
configuringIPtypeofservice6-39
criteriaforprioritizingoutboundpackets6-10
definitionsofterms6-6
devicepriorityscreen6-33
DSCPPolicyTable6-65
GVRPnotsupported6-52
maximumentrylimit6-73
nooverridedefinition6-26
Nooverride,effectof6-66
overview6-1
portgroups,26006-17
prioritizing6-16
prioritizingtrafficbasedonIPToSfield6-39
prioritysettingsmaptooutboundqueues6-9
prioritysettingsmappedtodownstream
devices6-10
qosresourceshelp6-18
resourceplanning6-16
resourceusage6-16
resourcesexceeded6-19
rulemaximumsper-port6-16
ruleresourceusage,26006-17
ruleresourceusage,28006-17
rulesavailableper-port6-18
rules,insufficient6-18
showqosresources6-18
typeofservicescreen6-39
VLANIDpriority6-52,6-58
4Index
query
SeeIGMP.
quickstart1-8
R
reboot3-10
redundantpath5-8,5-50
spanningtree5-9
region5-49
Seespanning-tree,802.1s.
report
SeeIGMP
revisionnumber5-53
router4-11
routing
configuringstaticroutes7-15
defaultroute7-17
DHCPRelayconfiguration7-24
IPstaticroutes7-16
IRDPconfiguration7-20
nullstaticroute7-17
staticroutetypes7-15
RSTP
configuring5-13
configuringper-portparameters5-18
configuringwholeswitchparameters5-16
configuringwiththeCLI5-14
configuringwiththemenu5-20
edge-portparameter5-18
enablingfromCLI5-15
enablingfromthemenu5-20
enablingwiththewebbrowser5-22
mcheckparameter5-18
optimizingtheconfiguration5-13
path-costparameter5-18
point-to-point-macparameter5-18
priorityparameter5-18
viewingtheconfiguration5-14
S
server
accessfailure5-8
setupscreen1-8
singleforwardingdatabase2-9
spanningtree
802.1Qstandard5-7
802.1s
Seespanningtree,802.1s.
blockedlink5-9,5-52
blockedport5-8,5-50
BPDU5-7
broadcaststorm5-5,5-11
caution,fast-uplink5-32
configuringper-portparameters5-18
configuringRSTP5-13
configuringwhole-switchparameters5-16
configuringwiththemenu5-20
descriptionofoperation5-8
enablingfromthebrowserinterface5-45
enablingintheCLI5-28
enablingMSTP5-72
enablingRSTP5-15
enablingSTP5-15
fastmode5-24,5-30
fast-uplinkterminology5-33
fast-uplink,configuring5-43
fast-uplink,menu5-35
fast-uplink,operatingnotes5-44
fast-uplink,viewingstatus,CLI5-41
fast-uplink,viewingstatus,menu5-39
fast-uplink,withporttrunks5-44
loop,network5-6
MSTP
Seespanning-tree,802.1s
redundantpath5-5
RSTPedgeportparameter5-18
RSTPmcheckparameter5-18
RSTPpath-costparameter5-18
RSTPpoint-to-point-macparameter5-18
RSTPpriorityparameter5-18
rules,operating,fast-uplink5-34
viewingtheconfiguration5-14
VLANeffecton2-34
with802.1QVLANs5-9
spanningtreeprotocol
SeeSTP.
spanning-tree,802.1s5-5,5-46
802.1Dand802.1wconnections5-54
802.1Dasaregion5-53,5-54
802.1Dconnectionrequirement5-64
802.1QVLANs5-51
802.1sstandard-compliant5-46
802.1wasaregion5-53
activation5-60
Index5
activepath5-50
activepaths5-54
bandwidthloss5-51
benefit5-46
blockedtraffic5-51
boundaryport,region5-53,5-54
boundaryport,VLANmembership5-51
BPDU5-51,5-57,5-61,5-62,5-64
BPDUrequirement5-53
BPDU,function5-53
bridge5-53
bridge,designatedforregion5-53
caution5-46,5-49
CIST5-47,5-52,5-54
CISTper-porthellotime5-54
CISTroot5-64
commonandinternalspanningtree
SeeCIST.
commonspanningtree
SeeCST.
compatibility5-55
compatibilitymode5-62
configuration5-59,5-72
configurationidentifier5-53
configurationsteps5-57
configuration,exchanging5-72
configuration,MSTinstance5-65
configuration,MSTIper-port5-69
configuration,port5-63
convergencetime,minimize5-60
CST5-48,5-51,5-53
CSTandlegacydevices5-51
CST,viewstatus5-74,5-75
defaultconfiguration5-49
designatedbridge5-51,5-53
designatedport5-51
disablingMSTP5-72
displaystatisticsandconfiguration5-74
dynamicVLANs,disallowed5-48
edgeport5-63
enablingaregion5-72
enablingMSTP5-72
exampleofmultipletopologies5-50
faulttolerance5-46
forceprotocolversion5-55
force-version5-64
forwardingpaths5-55
forwardingstate5-63
frameduplicationandmisordering5-55
generaloperation5-5,5-46
GVRP5-48,5-55
hello-time,CISTroot,propagated5-54,5-62
hello-time,override5-54
hello-time,propagated5-54
hop-countdecremented5-61
instance5-5,5-54,5-58
instance,forwardingtopology5-54
instance,IST5-48
instance,type5-48
internalspanningtree
SeeIST.
interoperatingwith802.1Dand802.1w5-53
IST5-48
ISTinstance5-48,5-66
ISTroot5-48,5-50,5-53
IST,defined5-53
IST,dynamicVLAN5-55
IST,rootswitch5-53
IST,switchmembership5-53
IST,VLANmembership5-48
legacydevicesandtheCST5-51
legacySTPandRSTP5-51
meshenvironment5-46,5-55
MIB5-81
MSTregion
Seeregion.
MSTI5-48,5-54
MSTIroot5-50
MSTI,viewstatus5-76
MSTP5-49
MSTPoperation5-49
MSTP,viewglobalconfiguration5-77
multiplespanningtreeinstance
SeeMSTI
overridehello-time5-54
pathcost,effecton802.1D5-55
pendingconfiguration5-80
pendingoption5-49,5-61,5-72,5-73
per-VLANSTP5-46
planning5-56
portconnectivity5-63
portstates5-50,5-55
priorityresolution5-67
priority,device5-58,5-68
priority,ISTport5-71
priority,MSTIport5-70
6Index
rapidstatetransitions5-55,5-57
redundantlinks5-51
region5-5,5-47,5-48
regionname5-53,5-60
regionrootswitch5-48
region,configurationname5-81
region,ConfigurationRevisionnumber5-81
region,defined5-53
region,enabling5-72
region,rootbridge5-52
region,RSTPbridge5-54
region,switchconfiguration5-54
region,switchexcluded5-81
region,viewconfiguration5-79
region,VLANassignments5-53
regionalboundaryport5-53
regionalrootbridgeper-instance5-51
regionalrootswitch5-53
regionalrootswitch,configuration5-54
regions,communicationbetween5-54
rootbridge5-47
rootbridgeper-instance5-51
rootbridgeper-region5-52
rootportper-instance5-51
rootswitch,instance5-67
rootswitch,ISTinstance5-48,5-53
rootswitch,MSTinstance5-54
rootswitch,regional5-53,5-54
root,CIST5-62
root,IST5-53
root,MSTI5-50
routedtrafficinaregion5-51
RSTPasaregion5-47
RSTPBPDUrequirement5-53
RSTPbridge5-54
rulesforoperation5-54
separateforwardingpaths5-48
showcommands5-74
SNMPMIB5-81
STPasaregion5-47
switchexcludedfromregion5-81
topologybetweenregions5-49
trunk,root,per-instance5-51
trunkedlink5-77
trunkedlinkexample5-52
typesofMSTinstances5-48
VLANassignments,region5-53,5-54
VLANmembership,region5-52
VLAN,changeinstance5-58
VLAN,configurationerror5-81
VLAN,connectivitybetweenregions5-54
VLAN,duplicateormissingpackets5-81
VLAN,dynamic5-48
VLAN,instanceassigned5-50,5-54,5-66
withlegacySTPandRSTP5-47
stacking
benefits8-4,8-5
minimumsoftwareversion,otherHP
switches8-10
primary8-46
Seealsovirtualstacking.
staticIProutes
configuring7-15,7-16
IProuting
staticrouteparameters7-16
maximum7-15
routetypes7-15
staticVLAN,convertto3-3
STP
enablingfromtheCLI5-15
serveraccessfailure5-8
subnet4-12
subnetaddress2-4
T
tables
ARPcache7-4
IP7-4
IP route 7-5
taggedVLAN
SeeVLAN.
ToS
SeeClassofService.
trunk,spanning-treeexample5-52
TypeofService
usingtoprioritizeIPtraffic6-39
TypeofServicefield(IP)
configuringpacketpriority6-39
howtheswitchusesit6-51
U
upstreamdeviceQoS)
definition6-7
Index7
V
VID
SeeVLAN.
Viewing
spanningtreeconfiguration5-14
virtualstacking
transmissionintervalrange8-17
VLAN2-3,2-35
802.1Q5-9
convertdynamictostatic3-3
dedicatedmanagement2-6
DEFAULT_VLAN2-6
deleting2-36
DHCP,primaryVLAN2-7
duplicateMACaddress2-9
dynamic2-3,2-9
effectonspanningtree2-34
gateway,IP2-7
IGMPconfiguration4-5
limit2-14
MACaddress2-35
maximum,GVRP3-17
multipleforwardingdatabase2-9,2-13
multipleVLANsonport2-28
notesonusing2-9
numberallowed,includingdynamic2-17
portassignment2-17
portconfiguration2-29
portmonitoring2-36
portrestriction2-36
porttrunk2-35
primary2-7,8-10,8-34,8-46
primaryVLAN2-6
primary,CLIcommand2-20,2-22
primary,selectinmenu2-15
primary,webconfigure2-25
primary,withDHCP2-9
prioritizingtrafficfromwithQoS6-52,6-58
restrictions2-36
SeealsoGVRP.
singleforwardingdatabase2-9
spanningtreeoperation5-9
stacking,primaryVLAN2-7
static2-3,2-7,2-14,2-19
switchcapacity2-4
tagged2-4
tagging2-26,2-28
unknownVLAN3-10
untagged2-5,2-18
VID2-3,2-27
VID,defaultVLAN2-7
VLANalreadyexists,message2-25
VLANinterface
description7-3
enablingIRDP7-21
IProutingparameters7-7
VLAN,dynamic5-55
VLANs
maximum2-3,2-22
maximum,effectofGVRP2-22
static,802.1sspanningtree5-48
W
warranty1-ii
webbrowserinterface
enablingRSTP5-22
webbrowserinterface,forconfiguring
IGMP4-11
STP5-45
writememory3-17
8Index
Technical information in this document
is subject to change without notice.
Copyright 2000, 2004.
Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P.
Reproduction, adaptation, or translation
without prior written permission is prohibited
except as allowed under the copyright laws.
October 2004
Manual Part Number
5990-8853