1

TEACHING VOCABULARY THROUGH TPR (TOTAL PHYSICAL
RESPONSE) TO THE SEVENTH GRADE STUDENTS OF THE STATE
JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL 1 MUARA KUANG


1. Background

Teaching vocabulary has always been a central aspect of teaching English.
Vocabulary affects each of language skills: listening, speaking, reading, and
writing. So, automatically students need to learn the words or vocabulary in this
language. English has a great deal of vocabulary that the students have to learn.
As learners develop their vocabulary knowledge, they acquire not only new words
but also new meanings associated with words they have already learned. They
will encounter new words of ways inthe classroom, through learning materials,
trhough the teachers‟ language, and through the language of other learners.
The ability in using English is very important to everyone. This is one of
the ways to improve human resources. The developing of human resources by
mastering English will be better if it starts as early as possible. That‟s why
Indonesian Government has already run the policy and regulation for Elementary
school to give English subject for the students in the classroom.
It is one of the concerns of the Indonesian government to encounter the
era of information and technology. The learner who has more words has better
chance in practicing English. In other word, they can more easily master reading,
listening, speaking, and writing. McCarthy (1990: viii) states that the biggest
component of any language course isvocabulary. In addition, Nunan (1998: 117)
states that in the early stages oflearning and using a second language, one is better
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served by vocabulary thangrammar. This reason is strongly supported by Rivers
(1983: 125) in Nunan (1998: 117) who argues that the acquisition of an adequate
vocabulary is essential for successful second language use because without an
extensive vocabulary, we will be unable to use the structure and functions. We
may have learned for comprehensible communication.
From the discussion above, it can be said that the main point of learning
language especially learning English is vocabulary because vocabulary influences
the ability of students in learning English. If students have mastered vocabulary
well, they can learn the elements and skills in the language easily. Teaching
vocabulary, like teaching English elements in general, involves some elements
working together in interdependency to achieve its goal. Teacher, learner,
material, and method are some elements that give great contribution to the
successful teaching-learning process. But the teacher and the method are often
said as the important aspects to cause the success or failure of the teachinglearning
process. The teacher, as one of the primary keys on the success of teaching-
learning process has some duties to guide, motivate, encourage, and activate the students
to use the target language (English). To be successful, a
teacher needs some kinds of support as stated by Brumfit (1997: vii)as follows:
“First, the teacher needs language. Basic competence is essential.
Secondly, of course, the teacher needs competence in primary
Teaching methodology. The skills necessary for teaching at this
level are very different from those needs elsewhere in the
education system”.

Actually, there are many methods and approaches that can be used by
teacher to teach the material, especially vocabulary. Many new methods and
approaches have been invented in the recent years and each proposes the most
effective method in the teaching-learning process.
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To learn and master vocabulary, the learners need appropriate method and
appropriate material.
Based on pre observation in the State Junior Highs School 1 of Muara
Kuang, some English teachers still use a traditional method for all materials. The
teacher presents the material by focusing on grammar rules, memorizing
vocabulary, translating text, and doing written exercises. Reading, structure, and
writing are the primary skills that the students work on, by giving little attention
to speak and listen. Because of that, the teachers now should use another method
that will help the students to increase their knowledge especially to understand
about vocabulary. One of the method is Total Physical Response (TPR).
Total physical Response is one of the language teaching methods which
was develop by James Asher, a professor of psychology at San Jose State
University, California. He used the commands from the teacher to students or a
student to another student. Students try to answer or response the commands
through the movements of the body or action. According to Jack C. Richard and
Theodore S. Rodgers (1993:90), “Total Physical Response is a language teaching
method built around the coordination of speech and action; it attempts to teach
language through physical (motor) activity.” It is obviously described that
physical response is the medium to stimulate interaction between teacher and
learners.
Besides that Total Physical Respond method also helps the children to understand
and memorize linguistic input because the children use body movement as media
in the process of learning. It is mentioned by Jack C Richard and Theodore s
Rodgers, (1986:92) that “The movement of the body seems to be powerful
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mediator for the understanding, organization and storage of macro details of
linguistic input.”

Considering to the above explanation, this paper discusses the
TPR method entitled “TEACHING VOCABULARY THROUGH TPR
(TOTAL PHYSICAL RESPONSE) TO THE SEVENTH GRADE
STUDENTS OF THE STATE JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL 1 MUARA
KUANG.”

2. Problem of the Study
To make the problems clear, the writer presents the limitation of the
problem and the formulation of the problem.

2.1.1 Limitation of the Problem
The vocabulary that will be taught to the students is limited on the words
in the them of “fruits” they are:
1. Apple 6. Jackfruit 11. Salak 16. Banana
2. Pineapple 7. Guava 12. Watermellon 17. Grape
3. Rambutans 8. Manggo 13. Mellon 18. Mangoesteen
4. Duku 9. Papaya 14. Pumpkin 19. Sawo
5. Starfruit 10. Pear 15. Durian 20. Orange

2.1.2 Formulation of the Problem
The formulation of the problem is “Is it effective teaching vocabulary
through Total Physical Response (TPR) to the seventh grade students of the State
Junior High School 1 of Muara Kuang?
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3. The Objective of the Study
Based on the problem of the study, the main objective of the study is to
find out whether or not it is effective to teach vocabulary through Total Physical
Response (TPR)

4. The Significance of the Study
It is hoped that this study would give the beneficial contributioon to the
writer herself, the students, the teacher of English, and other researchers.
(1) To Writer Herself
By conducting this study it would increase the writer‟s own knowledge on
how the Total Physical Respond (TPR) are taught to the students and how to
measure the students‟ achievement on vocabulary mastery.
(2) To Students
By conducting this study, it would give the students some inputs so they
could have experience in using Total Physical Response activity, and also would
give them motivation to study English especially in learning vocabulary.
(3) To the Teacher of English
The writer hopes the result of this study would be useful at least for giving
information to the teachers in teaching the students‟ vocabulary through Total
Physical Response (TPR) and to get some experience in conducting this study.
(4) To the Other Researchers
It would give information about the teaching vocabulary that there is
another method which is throughTotal Physical Response (TPR).

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5. Literature Review
In this part, will be discussed on: (1) the concept of teaching, (2) the
concept of vocabulary, (3) the conceptof Total Physical Response (TPR), (4)
related previous study, and (5) hypotheses.

5.1 The Concept of Teaching
Teaching is guiding and facilitating learning, enabling the students to
learn, setting condition for learning by providing a variety of learning experience
to accomodate the various learning strategies that exist in the classroom to
satidsfy the principles of students active learning, students‟ fullest involvement
and participation in teaching and learning activities (Saleh, 1997:18). It is widely
known that the objective of teaching English in Indonesia is to develop the four
language skills, namely reading, listening, speaking and writing, especially for
communication.
Salleh (1997:16) adds that teaching is a profession conducted by using
combination of art, science, and skill. It is an art it relies on the teacher‟s creative
provision of the best possible learning environment and activities for his/her
students. It is a science that it is a system, an orederd set of ideas and methods
used bu the teacher in doing his/her main job: plan a lesson, implement the plan in
the classroom, and evaluate the outcome of the activities.
According to Hornby (1995:1575) teaching is giving somebody iformatio
about a particular subject, helping sombody how to do something so thy will be
able to do it by themselves.
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While Brown (2000:7) states that teaching is showing or helping someone
to learn how to do something giving interactions, guiding in the study of
something, providing with knowledge, causing to know and understand.
The activities of teaching English as a foreign language demand the use of
certain methodology. Methodology refers to the study of pedagogical practice in
general including theoretical inderpinning and related research whatever
consideration are involved in “how to teach” are methodological. Contrasting this
term with method his/her argument that methodology is a seperordinate umbrella
terms, whereas method is concerned with rather specific identifiable cluster
critically compatible classroom technique. This study discusses the teaching
vocabulary through Total Physical Respond (TPR).

5.2 The Concept of Vocabulary
Hornby (1989-965) states that vocabulary is total number of words which
(with rules of combining them) make up the language. Then Webster (1986:745)
states that vocabulary is a list of collection of words or phrases usually
alphabetically arranged and explained or defiend. And what we mean by a word
is the minimum meaningful unit of language (Carter, 1987:5).
From this statement it can be concluded that vocabualry does not refers to
the words isolation, but it refers to make than one word. Words are tools of
thought, when one is capable to understand and use the words in his or her
activities, he or she must have many stocks of vocabulary. In this case, the
students should know the meanings of the words besides the spelling of English
words.
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5.2.1 Kind of Vocabulary
Accoding to Djunaidi (1996:30) says that readers may encounter three
kinds of vocabualry: they are (1) general vocabualry, 92) specialized vocabularu,
and (3) technical vocabulary.
(1) General Vocabulary
General vocabulary refers to the words that comprise the major portion of
ones vocabulary usage in everyday communication, such as go, eat, study,
and school.
(2) Specialized Vocabulary
Specialized vocabulary refers to the words with multiple meaning that change
from one content area to another, for example, book, interest, mouse, and
present.
(3) Technical Vocabulary
Technical vocabulary refers to the words that are essential to the
understanding of the specific content area, for example, network, check in,
and browse. (Djunaidi, 1996:37) mentions function of words have or no
meaning by themselves, examples “to”, “for”, “by” (preposition). Content
words are nouns, verbs, adjectives, and adverbs from adjectives (e.q.
happily), there are so many words that can be categorized as content words.

5.2.2 The Importance of Vocabulary
Vocabulary refers to words; so knowing the word is significant asset for
the students in studying languages. Knowing a word involves them to recognize it
when it is heard or to be seen. Knowing the meaning of words may include being
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able to make various association with other related words. Productive knowlege
involves knowing how to pronounce and spell the words, how to write it down,
how to use it correctly in grammatical when it is used or collaborated with other
words (Nation, 1990:32-33).

5.2.3 Procedures of Teaching Vocabulary through Total Physical Respond
Muhren (2003:2) offers some procedure of teaching vocabulary through
Total Physical Response (TP) as follows:
Preparation
A number of small coloured cards, one of more cards on every pupil's desk, a set
of cards on a
central desk.
Procedure
1. The teacher picks up cards one by one and says what colour they are.
An apple card. An orange card. A banana card A pineapple card.
A guava card. A mellon card. A duku card. A pear card.
Apple. Banana. Pineapple Rambutan
Etc.
2. The teacher gives commands to the class.
Who's got a mellon card? Show it to me.
Who's got an apple card? Show it to me.
Who's got a guava card? Show it to me
3. The teacher invites individual pupils to come out to the central desk.
Devi, pick up a banana card and show it to the class.
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Show the class an apple card.
Show the class a guava card.
Show the class a papaya card.

5.3 Concept of Total Physical Response (TPR
Total physical Response is one of the language teaching methods which
was develop by James Asher, a professor of psychology at San Jose State
University, California. He used the commands from the teacher to students or a
student to another student. Students try to answer or response the commands
through the movements of the body or action. According to Richard and Rodgers
(1993:90), “Total Physical Response is a language teaching method built around
the coordination of speech and action; it attempts to teach language through
physical (motor) activity.”

It is obviously described that physical response is the
medium to stimulate interaction between teacher and learners.
Richard and Rodgers (2001: 87) state that TPR is a language teaching
method built around the coordination of speech and action, it attempts to teach
language through physical (motor) activity.
Garcia (2001: 1) explains that the two very important concepts in TPR are
the notion of Total Physical Response involvement and the role played by the
right hemisphere of the brain in learning a second language by action. The first
concept deals with the idea of introducing second language by giving action
response which has been influenced by the way people acquire their first
language. A baby would not memorize a list of words or try to speak immediately.
They just listen first to the other family members and then act or do thing in
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response to their utterances. In the next period he would speak if he was ready to.
Nevertheless at first, he would listen and carry out actions or respond physically
to him. The second one relates to the brain hemisphere. Our brain is divided into
two parts, left and right hemispheres. Scientist had found that the left and the right
hemisphere were two independent neurological entities having different functions
both account for different responsibilities (Garcia, 2001: 1).
Garcia explains further that the TPR approach is a right brain method of
learning a language because the language is taught mainly through actions. In the
other words, commands play as the core of the course.
TPR is based on the premise that the human has a biological program from
acquiring any natural language in the world including the sign language of the
deaf. The process is visible when we observe how infants internalize their first
language (www.tprsource.com/asher.htm). Asher looks to the way that children
combine both verbal and physical aspects. A child responds physically to the
speech for the parent. The responses of the child are in turn positively reinforced
by the speech of the parent. For many months the child absorbs the language
without being able to speak. With TPR the teacher tries to mimic this process in
class. (www.tprworld.com/organizing).
TPR is also named the comprehension approach since of the importance
given to listening comprehension. In TPR, students listen and respond to the
spoken target language commands of their teacher. If they can perform the
teacher‟s instructions it means that they know the meaning of the words.
From the explanation above, the writer concludes that TPR places more
emphasis on the link between word and action. The activity, where a command is
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given in the imperative and the learners obey the command, is the main activity of
TPR. Therefore, it will be easier for the students to recall the words they have
learned if they use their body in learning verb items. The powerful method of TPR
is best applied to introduce new verb and new grammatical feature at any level.
TPR can be varied in any different activities such as storytelling, dialogue, games,
or a pattern drill.

5.3.1 The Teacher and Learner Role in Total Physical Response
In the teaching learning process using TPR method, the learners and the
teacher play different roles.
1) Learners Role
Learners in TPR have the primary roles of listeners and performers. They
listen attentively and respond both individually and collectively. They have little
influence over the content of learning since the content is determined by the
teacher who must follow the imperative form for lesson (Richard and Rodgers
2001: 93).
According to Larsen and Freeman (2000: 113), the students are imitators of
the teacher‟s nonverbal model. There will be a role reversal with individual
students directing the teacher and the other students.
In TPR, learners monitor and evaluate their own progress. They are
encouraged to speak when they feel ready to speak that is when a sufficient basis
in the language has been internalized.


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2) Teachers Role
In the teaching learning process using TPR method, teacher plays an
active and direct role. According to Larsen and Freeman (2000: 113) teacher is the
director of all students‟ behaviors.
Asher as quoted by Richard and Rodgers, (2001: 93) states “The instructor
is the director of a stage play in which the students are the actors”. It means that
teacher is the one who decides what to teach, who models and presents the new
material, and who selects supporting materials for classroom use. Teacher is
encouraged to be well prepared and well organized so that the lesson flows
smoothly and predictable.

5.3.2 The Principles of Total Physical Response
Larsen and Freeman (2000: 100 ) states that before applying the TPR
method for teaching a foreign language, in this case is English, a teacher should
understand its principle well so he will be able to use it properly in the teaching
learning process. A sher as the developer of TPR elaborates the principle of this
method, they are:
a) Second language learning is parallel to first language learning and should
reflect the same naturalistic process.
b) Listening should develop before speaking.
c) Children respond physically to spoken language, and adult learners learn
better if they do that too.
d) Once listening comprehension has been develops naturally and effortlessly
out of it.
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e) Delaying speech reduces stress. (www.tprsource.com/asher.htm)
Moreover, Larsen and Freeman (2000: 111) describe several principles in
teaching learning process by using TPR upon which the teacher‟s behaviors is
based.The principles of TPR are as follow:
a) Meaning in the target language can often be conveyed through action. Memory
is activated through learner‟s response. The target language should not be
presented in chunks; not just word by word.
b) The students‟ understanding of the target language should be developed before
speaking.
c) Students can initially learn one part of the language rapidly by moving their
bodies.
d) The imperative is powerful linguistic device through which the teacher can
direct student behavior.
e) Students can learn through observing actions as well as by performing the
action themselves.
f) Feeling of success and low anxiety facilitate learning.
g) Students should not be made to memorize fixed routines.
h) Correction should be carried out in an unobtrusive manner.
i) Students must not develop flexibility in understanding a novel combination of
target language chunks. They need to understand more than the exact sentences
used in training.
j) Language learning is more effective when it is fun.
k) Spoken language should be emphasized over written language.
l) Students will begin to speak when they are ready.
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m) Students are expected to make errors when they first begin speaking. Work on
the fine details of the language should be postponed until students have become
somewhat proficient.
According to the principles above, it can be concluded that students will
understand the meaning of the vocabulary items easily if they use their bodies
while they are learning. In the learning, students should feel successful and they
do not feel pessimistic.
A teacher should be careful in correcting the students‟ mistakes.
Correcting the mistakes improperly will make the students feel desperate.
Therefore, an English teacher must be able to create flexibility in the classroom.
Another important thing is that the new method should be presented in a context
not word by word.

5.4.3 Characteristics of Total Physical Response
Some characteristic of Total Physical Response based on Larsen and
Freeman (2000: 111 ) are:
1. Drills are the prominent classroom activity in TPR.
2. Learners monitor and evaluate their own progress.
3. Learners feel free to speak out whenever they are ready.
4. Listening and comprehension are emphasized over production in language
learning.
5. Vocabulary and grammar are more emphasized than other language.


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5.4.4 Advantages and Disadvantages of Total Physical Response
Based on Larsen and Freeman (2000: 77-78), there are some advantages
and also disadvantages in teaching using Total Physical Response, they are:
a. Advantages
- It is fun and easy. Students will enjoy getting up out of their chairs and
moving around
- Simple TPR activities do not require a great deal of preparation on the part
of the teacher. However, some other more complex applications might.
- It is good for kinesthetic learners who need to be active in the class.
- It is a good tool for building vocabulary.
- It is memorable. Actions help strengthen the connexions in the brain.
- Class size need not be a problem.
- "TPR seems to work effectively for children and adults. There is no age
barrier." according to Asher.
b. Disadvantages
- Whilst it can be used at higher levels TPR is most useful for beginners. It
is also at the higher levels where preparation becomes an issue for the
teacher.
- Students are not generally given the opportunity to express their own
thoughts in a creative way.
- It is easy to overuse TPR. "Any novelty, if carried on too long, will trigger
adaptation." Asher writes, "No matter how exciting and productive the
innovation, people will tire of it."
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- The teacher may find that it is limited in terms of language scope. Certain
target languages may not be suited to this method.
- It can be a challenge for shy students.

5.4.5 Strengths and Weaknesses of Total Physical Response (TPR)
Based on Larsen and Freeman (2000: 77-78), there are strenghts and also
weaknesses in teaching using Total Physical Response, they are:
a. Strength of Total Physical Response
- It is a lot of fun and learners enjoy it.
- It is not required a lot of preparation or materials using the TPR.
- It works well with mixed ability classes.
- It is very effective with teenager and young.
- It is good for kinesthetic learners who need to be active in the class.
- It is very memorable. It helps students to remember phrases and words
well.
- It involves both left and right-brained learning.
b. Weakness of Total Physical Response
- It does not give students the opportunity to express their own thoughts in a
creative way.
- It emphasized too much on imperative mood. Students will be considered
rude when attempting to use this new method.
- TPR can be ineffective if the teacher uses it for a long period of time.
- Teacher will have troubles when teaching abstract vocabulary or
expression.
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- Learners feel tired of learning when teacher use to the some style.

5.4.6 Teaching Procedure of Total Physical Response
Here are the procedures of Total Physical Response in teaching vocabulary
proposed by Muhren (2003:7):
A. Pre activities
In this section, the teacher tries to take the students interest in teaching and
learning activity. The activities are:
1) Greeting : Good morning!Etc.
2) Checking the attendance list : by calling the name of the students,and
asking whether someone is absent.
3) Raising the students‟ interest, for example showing a picture of fruit
B. Main Activities
In these activities, the writer will try to explain the lesson to the students,
and then do the activities as follows:
1) Teacher says command and performs the action.
- Teacher picks a card of fruit and asks the students “what fruit is it?
- Teacher says the picture for example: apple‟
- Teacher shows the card to the students, the he/she says:
apple
2) Teacher gives command and both teacher and students perform the action.
- Who‟s got apple? Show it to me
- Who‟s got papaya? Show it tome
- Etc.
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3) Teacher says command students perform action.
- pick up an apple card. Show the card
4) Teacher tells one students to perform action.
- Ika pick papaya card. Show it to the class
- Show the class orange card
- Show the class banana card
- Etc.
5) Teacher asks the students to reverse the roles or students give each other
commands.
C. Post activities
1) After the teacher feels satisfy with the students‟ pronunciation, the teacher
begin to give the exercise about fruits in order to observe the students‟ ability
in spelling and memorizing the words
2) The teacher distributes the exercise sheet to all the students, and explain to
answer the questions.
3) To know the students ability in understanding vocabularies, the teacher must
give the cards of fruitsin form of questions, students are able to answer the
questions correctly, know about the fruits, the color of the fruits, count the
fruits and and the taste of the fruits, for example: two apples, three bananas,
sweet, sour or bitter.
4) After the students says the fruits word and pronounce it the the teacher gives
the pre-test and the post-test that the students are asked to answer the question
on the card of the fruits.

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5.4 Previous Related Studies
There are quite many theses discussed about total physical response
(TPR), but the writer only take two theses which closely related to this theses they
are: 1) The Effectiveness of Using Total Physical Response Method in Learning
Imperative Sentence at Second Year Students of SMA Negeri 8 Makasar, written
by Aswandi in 2012. The result of this research was (1) the mean score obtained
by students through pre-test of experimental group was 55.35 and pre-test of
control group was 51.75 and post-test of experimental group was 78.15 and post-
test of control group was 60.65. (2) The t-test value was higher than t-table
(15.1>2,021). It means that there was a significant difference between the result of
the students‟ pre-test and post-test. Therefore, hypothesis H0 was rejected and
H1was accepted, and 2) The Effectiveness of Total Physical Response (TPR) to
Enhance Students‟ Vocabulary Mastery (an Experimental Study at the Seventh
Grade of SMP Negeri 3 Ajibarang) in Academic Year 2009/2010). It was written
by Novra Ilwana in 2010. The data analysis of the research showed that (1) there
was a significant difference in vocabulary achievement between students taught
by Total Physical Response and those taught by Grammar Translation Method, (2)
the group taught by Total Physical Response had a better achievement in
vocabulary mastery than those taught by Grammar Translation Method. The
similarities and differences are found, they are:
1) The Similarities
a. Aswandi and Novra as well as this study talked about Total Physical
Response (TPR).
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b. Aswandi and Novra took two class and the experimental and control class
as well as the writers‟.
c. Aswandi, Novra an the writer used written test to collect the data.
d. Aswandi use quasi-experimental as well the present study.
e. Novra and the present study took SMP students as the population.
2) The differences
a. Aswandi wrote his thesis in 2012, Novra Ilwana in 2010, while the writer
in 2013.
b. Aswandi took SMA students for the population.
c. Aswandi used Total Physical Response to in learning imperative sentence,
while Novra to enchance the students‟ vocabulary mastery.
d. Aswandi did his thesis in Makasar, Novra in Purwakarta while the writer
in Muara Kuang.

5.5 Hypotheses
Hypothesis is a prediction or guess among the variables being
investigated; the formal statement of the researcher‟s prediciton of the relationship
that exist among the variables under investigation. According to Richards, et al.,
(1985:132) hypothesis presents a simple form of a statement of the researcher‟s
expectation of a relationship between variables within the problems. In relation to
the objective of the study as mentioned above, the writer formulates the follwoing
two hypotheses.
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Ho : It is not effective teaching vocabulary through Total Physical Response
(TPR) to the seventh grade students of the State Junior High Shool 1of
Muara Kuang.
H
A
: It is effective teaching vocabulary through Total Physical Response
(TPR) to the seventh grade students of the State Junior High Shool 1of
Muara Kuang.

5.5.1 Criteria for Testing Hypotheses
For testing the hypotheses formulated aboved, the writer will use critical
value of the students of the t-test distribution table (Hatch and Farhady,
1982:272). Due the fact that the writer will use 20 pairs of the students as the
sample of the study, an the degree of freedom (df) is 19 (20-1), therefore to accept
the alternative hypothesis with 0,5% significant difference the writer use t-
distribution table (Hatch and Farhady, 1982:272) with one tailed test, the result of
the matched t-test of t-obtained should excedd 2,093. If the t-obtained is lower or
smaller than 2,093, the n null hypothesis (Ho) is accepted and the althernative is
rejected. On the other hand, if the result of the t-obtained is higher than 2,093, the
null hypothesis (Ho) is rejected and althernative hypothesis (Ha) is accepted.


6. Research Procedure
In this part the writer will discuss: (1) the method of the study, (2)
operational definition, (3) population and sample, (4) techniques for collecting
data, (5) techniques for analyzing data.

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6.1 The Method of the research
The writer will apply an experimental method in this study. According to
Fraenkel and Wallen (1993:337), experiment is a research in which at least one
independent variable is manipulated, other relevant variables are controlled, and
the effect of one or more dependent variables are observed.
In this study the writer will use a quasi-experimental design that is non
equivalent control group design. Christensen (1993:305) states that a quasi-
experimental; method is an experiment design that does not meet all requiements
necessary or controlling the influence of extranous variables. The design involved
an experimental group and control group both will be given a pe-test and post-test.
The non equivalent control group design can be portrayed as follows:
O
1
X O
2
---------------------------------------------------------
O
3
O
4
(Christensen, 1993:305)

Where:
-------- : dashline represent that experimental and control group have been
equated by randomization.
O1 : the pre-test of experimental group
O2 : the post-test of experimental group
X : the treatment
O3 : the pre-test of control group
O4 : the post-test of control group
The steps that will be taken in this study covered:
1) surfeying the problems;
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2) defining the problems;
3) constructing an experimental plan by writing the research design;
4) doing the try-out test;
5) matching the pairs from two groups through a pre-tes.;
6) conducting an experiment;
7) collecting the data through a post-test;
8) analyzing the data;
9) drawing the conclusions;
10) proposing suggestions;
11) reporting the result.

6.2 The variables of the Study
There are two variables in this research, the independent variable and
dependent variable. The independent variable is a variable that presumed to cause
a change in another variable. Dependent variable is a variable that is presumed to
be influenced by one or more independent variable. The independent variable in
this research is the use of total physical response (TPR), and the dependent
variable is the students‟ vocabulary achievement.

6.3 The Operationl Definition
The title of this study is “TEACHING VOCABULARY THROUGH
TPR (TOTAL PHYSICAL RESPONSE) TO THE SEVENTH GRADE
STUDENTS OF THE STATE JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL 1 MUARA
KUANG.” To avoid the misinterpretation, some terms will be defined, they are:
25

1) Teaching means the teachers‟ effort in transferring knowledge and skills to
the students in the classroom, in this case the vocabulary about
transportation.
2) Vocabulary is a list of words, which means any unit of language used in
writing, and appears between space hypens.
3) Total Phisycal Response or TPR is a language teaching method built
around the coordination of speech and action; it teach language through
Physical (motor) activity.

6.4 Population and Sample
6.4.1 Population
Fraenkel and Wallen (1993:68) state, “Population is the group of interest
to researcher, the group to whom the researcher would like to generalize of the
result of the study.” For the population of this study, the writer choose the
seventh grade students of the State Junior High School 1 of Muara Kuang in the
academic year 2013-2014. In this case, there are two classes, and the total number
of the population is 40 students as shown in Table 1.
TABLE 1
THE POPULATION OF THE STUDY

No Class Students Total
1. VII.1 20 20
2. VII.2 20 20
Total 40 40
(Source: The State Junior High School of Muara Kuang in the academic year 2013-2014)


26

6.4.2 Sample
Sample is any group of individuals, which are selected to present
population (Richards, Platt and Webber, 1985:250). The sample is a part of a
whole used for showing what the rest is like. According to Arikunto (1998:107),
If the number of the subjects of the investigation is less than 100, the writer can
take 10 – 15% or 20 – 25% of the population to be the sample. Since the number
of population only 70, so the writer take them all. In this study, a cencus method
is used, because all the members of the population got involved. According to
Fraenkel and Wallen (1993:548), cencus attempt to acquire data from each and
every number of a population. Because there were only 2 classes that each of
them consisted of 20 students. So, the writer take them all as the sample. One
class is the experimental group and the other is the control group. However, since
the two groups should be equivalent, the students of the two groups are presented
first and then matched based on their similar scores in the pre-test. The result of
the matching process is presented in Table 2.
TABLE 2
THE SAMPLE OF THE STUDY
No Class Students Groups Number of
Matched pairs
1. VII.1 20 Experimental
20 2. VII.2 20 Control
(Source: The State Junior High School of Muara Kuang in the academic year 2013-2014)

6.5 techniques for Colelcting Data
In collecting the data for this research, the writer will use a written test to
know the students‟ ability in learning vocabulary. A test is ashort examination of
27

knowledge that consists of questions that must be answered. A test is any
procedure for measuring ability, knowledge and performance. It is measurement
device that quantities behavior (Richards, et al., 1985:291). A written test will be
given to asses the effects of experimentation and to know how far the students can
use what they have learned. The writer will give a pre-teset and a post-test with
20 questions in the form of multiple choices.

6.5.1 Validity and Reliability
6.5.1.1 Validity
Validity is the state of being logically or legally acceptable (Hornby,
2000:39). Fraenkel and Allen (1993:127) state that validity refers to the degree to
which evidence supports any inferences a researcher makes based on the collected
data using particular instrument.
In order to make the test materials have high validity the writer only use a
written test in nultiple choice test and matching test. Before giving the test to the
students, the test materials will be checked whether or not they would test about
the vocabulary knowledge to the students.
The validity of the test material in this study will be checked through the
content validity. It is a form of validity which is based on the degree to which a
test adequately and sufficiently measures the particular skill or behaviour is set
out to measure. The test items are specified in Table 3 below.



28

TABLE 3
TEST SPECIFICATION
Objetive Materials Indicators Number of
Items
Test Types
The students
are able to
understand the
fruits
The card are
about fruits
1. The students are able to
complete the sentences
by using the correct
words about “fruits.”
2. The students are able to
match the pictures about
“fruits” with the suitable
words
1 – 10




11 -20

1) Multiple choices




2) Matching test

The test will be valid because the content could measuree the students‟ ability in
vocabulary test.

6.5.1.2 Reliability
Reliability refers to the consistency of the scores obtained, how
consistency they are each individual from one administration of an instrument to
another and from one set of items to another (Fraenkel and Wallen, 1990:133). A
test is said to be valid if it gives the same result when it is given of different
occasion of when different people use it. “Reliability means the stability of the
test score. “A test cannot measure anything unless it measures consistently”
(Grounlund, 1993:19).
In this study, a Kuder Richardson 21 will be use to estimate the internal
consistency reliability. Fraenkel and Wallen (1993:136) write that for the
purposes, a useful rule is that reliability should be at least 0.70 and preferable
higher. The following is the Kuder-Richardson 21 (KR 21) formula. (Fraenkel
and Wallen, 1993:149):

[

]
29

Where:
KR-21 = Kuder Richardson reliability coefficient.
K = Number of items in the test
M = Mean of the set of the test scores
SD = Standard Deviation


̅

Where:
X : Number of correct answer

̅
: Students‟ Mean Score
N : Number of the Students

6.6 Techniques for Analyzing Data
There data will be analyzed through three steps, namely (1) percentage
analysis, (2) the score range, and (3) the matched t-test.
1) Percentage analysis
The percentage analysis was used to find out the students‟ individual score
from the test given. The formula is as follows:

Where:
X = Percentage of the students scores
R = Total of correct answer
N = Number of the students.

30

2) Score Range
The score range was used to interpret the students individual score. The
range is presented in the following table:
TABLE 3
THE CONVERSION OF PERCENTAGE RANGE
Percentage Range Qualification
91 – 100 Excellent
81 – 90 Very Good
71 – 80 Good
61 – 70 Moderate
51 – 60 Enough
41 – 50 Low
0 – 40 Poor

3) Matched t-test
To know the significant difference between the students‟ achievement in the
experimental group and that in the control group, the matched t-test will be
applied. The formula is as follows:

̅

̅

(Hatch and Farhady, 1982:507)
Where:
t = The t-obtained

̅

= Mean of the Post-test score of the experimental group

̅

= Mean of the Post-test score of the control group
SD = Standard Deviation
The formula of SD is:

̅̅̅̅



31

(See Hatch and Farhady, 1982:116)
Where:
SD = Standard Deviation of Difference.
N = Number of Pairs.
The formulation of SD is:


(

⁄ )∑

32

REFERENCES

Arikunto, Suharsimi. 2002. Prosedur Penelitian Suatu Pendekatan Praktek.
Jakarta: PT Rineka Cipta.

Asher, J. James. The Total Physical Response Approach to Learning
Language.www.tpr-world.com/organizing.htm. (Accessed on 2 August
2013)

Asher, J. James. Organizing Your Classroom for Successful Second Language
Acquisition. www.tprworld.com/organizing.htm. (Accessed on 20
August 2013)

Aswandi. 2012. “The Effectiveness of Total Physical Respons Method in
Learning Imperative Sentence at Second Year Students of SMA Negeri
8 Makasar.” Unpublished Undergraduate Thesis. Makasar: English
Teaching Department Tarbiyah and Teaching Science Faculty Alaudin
State Islamic University Makasar.

Edge Julian. 1993. Essential of English Language Teaching. NewYork:
Longman.

Fraenkel, Jack R and Norman E. Wallen. 1993. How to Design and Evaluate
Research. New York, NY: MC. Gray-Hill. Inc.

Garcia, Robert. 2001. Applying Total Physical Response in the Classroom.
Oxford: Oxford University Press

Harmer, Jeremy. 1991. The Pracatice of English Language Teaching. London:
Longman Group.

Hornby, A.S. 1995. Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary of Current English
(5Edition). Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Ilwana, Nofra. 2010. “The Effectiveness of Total Physical Response (TPR) to
Enhance Students’ Vocabulary Mastery (An Experimental Study at the
Seventh grade of SMP N 3 Ajibarang) in Academic Year 2009/2010.”
Unpublished Undergraduate Thesis. Surakarta: Teacher Training and
Education Faculty Sebelas Maret University.

Larsen, Diane and Freeman. 2000. Technique and Principles in Language
Teaching Second Edition. New York: Oxford University Press.

McCarthy, Michael. 1990. Language Teaching Methodology: A Textbook for
Teacher Education Vocabulary. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

33

Muhren, Arnold. 2003. Total Physical Response (TPR). An Effective Language
Laearning Method at Beginner/Intermediate level. Netherlands:
Adviser Alkmaar.

Nunan, David. 1991. Language Teaching Methodology: A Textbook for
Teachers. New York: Prentice Hall.

Nunan, David. 1998. Language Teaching Methodology: A Textbook for
Teachers. New York: Prentice Hall.

Richard, Jack C and Rodgers, Theodore S. 2001. Approaches and Methods in
Language Teaching Second Edition. Cambridge: Cambridge
University Press.

Saleh, Yuslizal. 1997. Methodology of TEFL in the I ndonesian Contex Book 1.
Palembang: Sriwijaya University.




























34



























Broughton Geoffrey, Teaching English as a Foreighn Language: Routledge and
Kegan Paul, London, 1980, 169.
Edge Julian, Essential of English Language Teaching: Longman, New York 1993,
27.

Harmer Jeremy, The Pracatice of English Language Teaching: Longman Group,
London 1991, 153.
Nunan David. 1991. Language Teaching Methodology: Prentile Hall International
Ltd, 1991,188244
Richard C Jack and Theodore S Rodgers, Approach and Method on Language
Teaching: Cambridge University Press New York, 1986, 92
Total Physical Response known worldwide as Teaching Ideas for the ESL
Classroom:



35






























TEACHING VOCABULARY
THROUGH TOTAL PHYSICAL RESPONSE METHOD
TO CHILDREN


A. Introduction
English is a medium of communication which can help people to interact,
converse, and share to other people. English is as an international language that‟s
why it is possible to everyone to communicate with other people around the world
36

if someone has an ability to use English. The ability in using English is very
important to everyone. This is one of the ways to improve human resources. The
developing of human resources by mastering English will be better if it starts as
early as possible. That‟s why Indonesian Government has already run the policy
and regulation for Elementary school to give English subject for the students in
the classroom. It is one of the concerns of the Indonesian government to encounter
the era of information and technology.
English has been taught in Indonesia at Elementary school as one of the local
content subjects. It is hoped that the students will learn and comprehend English
as early as possible and can practice simple conversation. According to “Ministry
of Natonal Education ”(1993), the aim of teaching English at Elementary School
as follows: (1) “Siswa dapat memahami kata-kata dalam bahasa Inggris yang
sering ditemukan dan digunakan dalam kehidupan sehari hari. (2) Siswa mampu
berkomunikasi dalam bahasa Inggris secara sederhana”.
In communication, students need vocabulary which can support them to
produces and use meaningful sentences because vocabulary provide organ of
sentence. That‟s why vocabulary is very important to be mastered. Jeremy Harmer
(1991, 153) classifies that “Then it is vocabulary that provides the vital organs and
flesh”. For that reason the students have to develop their vocabulary and master it
in order to be able to communicate with other.
Vocabulary is not only sign of symbol for ideas but also a part of how to
improve language skills in the target language. The more vocabulary students
learn the more ideas they should have, so they can communicate by using their
ideas more effectively. It is mentioned by Julian Edge (1993, 27),” Knowing a lot
37

of words in a foreign language is very important. The more words we know, the
better our chance of understanding or making ourselves understood”


However, students sometimes get difficulties to use or apply the vocabulary.
Their difficulties in using vocabulary which have been studied can be caused
some reasons. One of the reasons could be in the method which is used by the
teacher in presenting the lesson in the classroom. That‟s why the appropriate
method in delivering the lesson in the classroom should be considered.
One of the methods which is suitable for children in learning vocabulary is
Total Physical Response (TPR) method. James Asher (http:/www.tpr-world.com,1
) stated that “use TPR method for new vocabulary and grammar, to help students
immediately understand the target language in chunks rather than word-by-word.
This instant success is absolutely thrilling for students”. It shows that using Total
Physical Respond method is effective to help the students to learn the target
language because the students practice directly using the vocabulary in real
context. By doing so, the students can develop the storage of the vocabulary in a
short time. Besides that Total Physical Respond method also helps the children to
understand and memorize linguistic input because the children use body
movement as media in the process of learning. It is mentioned by Jack C Richard
and Theodore s Rodgers, (1986, 92) that “The movement of the body seems to be
powerful mediator for the understanding, organization and storage of macro
details of linguistic input”.

Considering to the above explanation, this paper
discusses the TPR method, characteristics of children, and advantages of TPR
method to children.
B. The total phisical response method
38

Total physical Response is one of the language teaching methods which
was develop by James Asher, a professor of psychology at San Jose State
University, California. He used the commands from the teacher to students or a
student to another student. Students try to answer or response the commands
through the movements of the body or action. According to Jack C. Richard and
Theodore S. Rodgers (1993, 90) “Total Physical Response is a language teaching
method built around the coordination of speech and action; it attempts to teach
language through physical (motor) activity”

. It is obviously described that
physical response is the medium to stimulate interaction between teacher and
learners.
Total Physical Response has characteristic. Asher who developed this
method, focused in particular on two characteristics of first language acquisition
which is written in David Nunan‟s book ( 1991, 244)
1.”The child gets a vast amount of comprehensible input before beginning to speak.
Young children comprehend language which is far in excess of their ability to
produce.
2. There is a lot physical manipulation and action language accompanying early input.
Throw the ball to Rudi‟, put your arm through here‟, etc. This action language,
encouraging physical manipulation, is couched in the imperative”

.

From the above description, the students try to comprehend the utterances
of language before trying to produce verbal language. They learn by using
physical movements or actions. To make it easy for the students, the teacher
should not give abstract words first. It can be delayed until students can
comprehend the target language. Asher ( 1991, 244) stated that: “Abstractions
should be delayed until students have internalized a details cognitive map of the
39

target language. Abstractions are not necessary for people to decode the
grammatical structure of a language. Once students have internalized the target
language”

. To know more about Total Physical Response, the following is the
basic principles of Total Physical Response which was created by Asher (1974,
244):
1. When should stress comprehension rather that production at the beginning
levels of second language instruction with no demands on the learners to
generate the target structure themselves.
2. We should obey the „here and now‟ principle.
3. We should provide input to the learners by getting them to carry
commands. These commands should be couched in the imperative”

.

There are many kinds of activities which can be used by teacher in the
process of learning using Total Physical Response Method such as:
1. Exercise by using command (imperative drill).
This is the main activity which teacher can do in the classroom by using TPR method.
This exercise is essential to demonstrate body movement and activity from
students. It is hoped that when students are demonstrating the responses by acting
out they will absorb and comprehend the meaningful sentences or utterance.
1. Dialogue (conversational dialogue).
Students can interact and have conversation during the lesson. While having the
conversation students can memorize and comprehend sentences in real context
because students are brought to the real context in the conversation. For example
when a student is asked to cry, walk, open, etc, he will do like the real one.
40

1. Playing a Role ( Role Play ).
In this section every student is invited to act out his/her daily activity such as in
school, restaurant, supermarket, and so on. It is very interesting and useful for
students to practice the language because they are really like to act although
pretending to be other people.
1. Presentation by using OHP or LCD.
Using OHP or LCD is also very interesting to develop students‟ motivation in the
learning process. In this form, students are asked to read or pronounce the words
written on the screen. After that teacher asks students to act it out in front of the
class about the words which have been learnt. Or teacher asks students to answer
directly after the command are written on the screen. It will give a good feedback
for students when they can answer it well.
5. Reading and writing activities.
Reading and writing activities develop not only vocabulary but also train students to
make sentences based on the right order. This activity can create students‟
imagination because they try to illustrate and translate the others‟ action into
sentence by writing on the whiteboard. Or while reading a passage, the others‟
describe it in acting in front of classroom.
C. Characteristics of children
Generally children like doing any kinds of activities as long as they feel happy.
Children will choose the activities they like to do according to their own
characteristics. The character of the children may be one of the signs of their
41

development. According to Wendy A Schott et al (1990, 4) the characteristics of
children are as follow:
1. The children ask questions all the time.
2. They rely on the spoken word as well as the physical world to convey and
understand meaning.
3. They have definite views about what they like and do not like doing.
4. They have developed sense of fairness about what happen in the classroom
and begin to questions the teachers‟ decisions.
5. They are able to work with others and learn from others”

.

Using the body movement in the process of learning is suitable to the
characteristic of the children because children like to do physical movement. They
like to move from one place to another place. They like to go around without
thinking whether they disturb their surrounding or not. They don‟t like to keep
staying in one place which forces them not to do something. Geoffrey Broughton
stated that” Young children are physically active”(1980, 169)

. Besides that
children also like to imitate and mime. They will give attention to other people
and try to imitate merely like other people do and say. This is the way how
children learn and develop their knowledge. This is supported by George
Broughton et al ( 1980, 169) Rivers that “Children love to imitate and mime: they
are uninhibited in acting out roles, and they enjoy repetition because it gives them
a sense of assurance and achievement”

. According to the points of explanation
above, children like to be involved in something active. To make them active, the
teacher should be able to make the circumstance of learning process which is
suitable to the characteristics of the children. It may give motivation to the
students to learn effectively. So hopefully the goal of the learning can be achieved
well.
42

D. Advantages of tpr method to children
TPR method which developed by Prof. Dr. James J. Asher; a professor of
psychology at San Jose University California has been succeeded in learning of
foreign language for children. The successful of learning process can‟t be
separated from the advantages of TPR method itself. The advantages of using
Total Physical Response Method in teaching English are wide.
Firstly, Total Physical Response method creates positive thinking which
facilitates the student to involve in learning process, so it can develop not only
motivation but also the aim of students in learning. Besides that this method is
very easy and the usage of language contains of action games, that‟s why it can
help student to learn fast and effectively. Besides that it is also able to avoid the
problem which students usually meet during the process of learning especially
when they study foreign language. James Asher (ttp//www.tpr.world.com,1)
stated that “Use Total Physical Response method for new vocabulary and
grammar, to help your students immediately understand the target language … .
This instant success is absolutely thrilling for students”.
Secondly, teaching vocabulary to children by using Total Physical
Response method is very useful for children because children like to give
response by using physical response first better than using verbal response. It is
very suitable when the process of learning is emphasized on physical response in
the students‟ response. Children also not only like to response and act out
something new but also intend to know more and more about language by
responding the action toward the given command. “Directly utterances to children
contains of command and children or students will respond toward their physic
43

before they start to produce verbal response”. (James Asher,http://www.tpr-
world.com,1).
Thirdly, This method can facilitate students with the meaning in real
context. Students can memorize the vocabulary by looking at the action, even
though the vocabulary is not translated. So the presence of action in the classroom
is as an imperative to help teacher in explaining the materials for students and in
understanding the meaning of vocabulary. Because of this method uses basic
command and real context in the process of learning it is very helpful for students
to know the meaning. By telling students to stand up, put their hands in the air,
and pick up something and give it to another students, etc, are acting which
commonly and naturally done by students so it is easy for them to memorize the
vocabulary or utterance. ”. It is supported by Teacher Joe‟s
(http://www.teacherjoe.us/teachers TPR.html, 1) that “TPR trains students to
respond quickly and naturally while also teaching vocabulary in a fun, lively
lesson”.
The usage of Total Physical Response method emphasize in action so
students are involved in activities in the process of learning. This circumstance is
interesting to students. So by using this method students can accept the lesson
easier and faster. Even though Total Physical Response Method is effective to
teach vocabulary, teacher needs to think of media to set up the context in
delivering the lesson of vocabulary to students. Besides teacher should be willing
to create conducive learning.
Fourthly, using Total Physical Response method is interesting and fun. It
is very suitable for the students‟ characteristics which have been mentioned
44

before. By giving something interesting and funny makes children attentively
focused on the process of learning. Because of that situation children feel free to
involve in learning process. Besides that they are not under pressed by the
threatening situation and condition. Finally they can get the aim of learning by
keeping on learning and giving attention to the lesson. ESL Café‟s Idea
Cookbook-TPR.(http://www.eslcafe.com, 1) supported that “It‟s fun! It‟s non-
threatening. It keep their attention. They learn!”. For example: put your left hand
in the air
- put it down – put your right hand in the air – put it down – put both hands in the
air – put them down – put your left foot in the air – put it down – put your right
foot in the air – put it down – put both feet in the air ! Students try jumping in the
air or attempt a handstand on their desks! Another funny sequence of basic TPR is
: – clap your hands – clap your hands three times – clap them five times – clap
your hands 800 times ! – turn around – turn around twice then clap once – jump
once – jump seven times – turn around, jump once and clap twice – turn three
times, jump five times and clap twice! Students really struggle hard to remember
this last one, but if you do it step by step and repeat often, they can do it
eventually.

CONCLUSION
Total Physical Response is one of the learning processes which involves the
students actively in the classroom activities. It can be affective in delivering
explicit instruction in learning. The effectiveness of the Total Physical Response
has been shown by the experts in some countries and has given significant
45

improvement of students‟ achievement in learning English especially vocabulary
in language target. As children are physically active by nature, Total Physical
Response will make language learning especially vocabulary more effective
because children feel fun during the learning. This methods of instruction “injects
the lesson with both physical activity and fun as the students playact their roles
and respond to both simple yes/no questions and more complex questions about
who, where, when, etc.” (James Asher, http:/www.tpr-world.
com )
By having a good skills in presenting the lessons in any kinds of models teacher is
encouraged to develop knowledge and stimulate children‟s to learn. The
knowledge and experience are influences in developing of children‟s vocabulary,
that‟s why teacher should be able to manage and select the material which can be
absorbed by children. Besides that comprehension of the vocabulary should be
more emphasized and developed in the learning process in order to get the aim of
learning vocabulary. Finally, after knowing some of the advantages of Total
Physical Respond method, hopefully teacher is able to present the lesson to
students or children effectively.

REFERENCES
Broughton Geoffrey, Teaching English as a Foreighn Language: Routledge and Kegan
Paul, London, 1980, 169.

Edge Julian, Essential of English Language Teaching: Longman, New York 1993,
27.
Harmer Jeremy, The Pracatice of English Language Teaching: Longman Group, London
1991, 153.
46

Ministry of National Education GBPP Kurikulu SD, Jakarta,1993.
Nunan David, Language Teaching Methodology: Prentile Hall International Ltd,
1991,188-244
Richard C Jack and Theodore S Rodgers, Approach and Method on Language Teaching:
Cambridge University Press New York, 1986, 92
Total Physical Response known worldwide as Teaching Ideas for the ESL
Classroom:


































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