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Vector A has a magnitude of 1.

35 and a
direction angle of 40 above the x axis, and
that vector B has a magnitude of 3.05 and a
direction angle of 15 below the x axis. Find
magnitude and direction of
vector C such that
Revision
(a) C = A + B
(b) C = A - B
Solution: Practice 1
y
x
|A|=1.35
40
O
Solution: Practice 1
y
x
|B|=3.05
35
o
325
o
(a) C = A + B
Cx = Ax + Bx = 3.53
Cy = Ay + By = -0.88
C = Cx + Cy
C = 3.53 x + (-0.88 y) = 3.53 x 0.88 y



Magnitude
Direction
y
x
14
o
C
(a) C = A - B
Cx = Ax - Bx = -1.47
Cy = Ay - By = 2.62
C = Cx + Cy
C = -1.47 x + 2.62 y
Magnitude
Direction
y
x
60.7
o
29.3
o
119.3
o
119.3
o
C
CHAPTER 2:

One-Dimensional
Kinematics
MAS FIZA MUSTAFA

mfiza@salam.uitm.edu.my
03-3258 4972
013-7133158
Units of chapter:
2.1 Position, Distance and Displacement
2.2 Average speed and velocity
2.3 Instantaneous velocity
2.4 Acceleration
2.5 Motion with constant acceleration
2.6 Applications of The Equations of Motions
2.7 Free falling objects


2.1 Position, Distance and Displacement
To describe the motion of a particle, we need to set up a coordinate system that
defines its position.

We make a distinction between distance and displacement.
Displacement (blue line) is how far the object is
from its starting point, regardless of how it got
there.
Displacement = final position initial position

SI units: meter, m
Distance traveled (dashed line) is measured
along the actual path.

Distance = total length of travel

SI unit: meter, m
2.2 Average speed and velocity
The next step in describing motion is to consider how rapidly an object moves.
The simplest way to characterize the rate of motion is with the average speed


Average speed = distance
elapsed time
(Speed is how far an object travels in a given time interval)

Scalar
quantity
Conceptual checkpoint 2.1
You drive 4.00 mi at 30.0 mi/h and then another 4.00 mi at 50.0 mi/h. Is your average
speed for the 8.00 mi trip
a) Greater than 40.0 mi/h
b) Equal to 40.0 mi/h
c) Less than 40.0 mi/h

Solution:

Average speed = distance
elapsed time
We need to calculate the
elapsed time
50.0 mi/h
4.00 mi
8.00 mi
30.0 mi/h
I II
In the 1
st
4.00 mi the average speed is
30.0 mi/h, so we can calculate the elapsed
time, t
1
( time taken for the car to reach
4.00 mi with the speed of 30.0 mi/h)
50.0 mi/h
4.00 mi
8.00 mi
30.0 mi/h
I II
For the 2
nd
4.00 mi the average speed is
50.0 mi/h, so we can calculate the elapsed
time,t
2
( time taken for the car to reach
another 4.00 mi with the speed of 50.0
mi/h)
Average speed = distance
elapsed time
a)Greater than 40.0 mi/h

b)Equal to 40.0 mi/h

c)Less than 40.0 mi/h
Average velocity = displacement
elapsed time
(Velocity includes directional information)
Vector
quantity
Average velocity tells us how fast something is moving and
also the direction of the object.
If an object is moves in the positive direction, then xf > x
i
then,
vav > 0.
On the other hand, if an object moves in the negative
direction, then xf < x
i
then, vav < 0.
Example 2.2
An athlete sprints 50.0m in 8.00s, stops and walk slowly
back to the starting line in 40.0s. If the sprint
direction is taken to be positive, what are
a) The average sprint velocity?
b) The average walking velocity?
c) The average velocity for the complete round trip?


a)The average sprint velocity?
Sprint ( t = 8.00s )
Average velocity = displacement
elapsed time
b) Average walking velocity?
walking ( t = 40.0s )
Average velocity = displacement
elapsed time
Negative sign
indicates the
motion is to the
left
Example 2.3
The position of a runner as a function of time is plotted as
moving along the x axis of a coordinate system. During a
3.00-s time interval, the runners position changes from x
1

= 50.0 m to x
2
= 30.5 m. What was the runners average
velocity?
-6.5 m/s
The runner moves in
the negative-x
direction
How far can a cyclist travel in 2.5 h along a
straight road if her average velocity is 18
km/h?
45 KM
The instantaneous velocity is the average velocity in the limit as the time
interval becomes infinitesimally short.
Ideally, a speedometer would
measure instantaneous velocity; in
fact, it measures average velocity,
but over a very short time interval.
2.3 Instantaneous velocity
Evaluate the average velocity over
shorter and shorter time intervals,
approaching zero in the limit
Note that the instantaneous velocity can be positive,
negative or zero just like the average velocity

And just like the average velocity, the instantaneous velocity
is a one-dimensional vector.

The magnitude of the instantaneous velocity is called the
instantaneous speed.





On a graph of a particles position vs. time, the instantaneous
velocity is the tangent to the curve at any point.
A jet engine moves along an experimental track (which we
call the x axis). We will treat the engine as if it were a
particle. Its position as a function of time is given by the
equation x = At
2
+ B, where A = 2.10 m/s
2
and B = 2.80 m. (a)
Determine the displacement of the engine during the time
interval from t
1
= 3.00 s to t
2
= 5.00 s. (b) Determine the
average velocity during this time interval. (c) Determine the
magnitude of the instantaneous velocity at t = 500 s.
Example 2.4
x = At
2
+ B A = 2.10 m/s
2

B = 2.80 m
t
1
= 3.00 s
t
2
= 5.00 s
(a) Determine the displacement of the engine during the time interval from t
1
=
3.00 s to t
2
= 5.00 s.
x = 2.10t
2
+ 2.80
(b) Determine the average velocity during this time interval.
Average velocity = displacement
elapsed time
(c) Determine the magnitude of the instantaneous velocity at t = 500 s.
Try this!!
The position of a particle as a function of time is given by
x = (-2.00 m/s)t + (3.00 m/s
3
)t
3
.
a) Plot x versus t for time from t=0 to t=1.00s.
b) Find the average velocity of the particle from t = 0.150s to t =
0.250s
c) Find the average velocity from t =0.190s to t = 0.210s

a)Plot x versus t for time from t=0 to t=1.00s.
b) Find the average velocity of the particle from t = 0.150s to t = 0.250s
c) Find the average velocity from t =0.190s to t = 0.210s
c) Find the instantaneous velocity at t=0.5s
Answer: 0.25 m/s
2.4 Acceleration
Acceleration is the rate of change of velocity.
A car accelerates
along a straight road
from rest to 90 km/h
in 5.0 s. What is the
magnitude of its
average acceleration?
Example 2.5
An automobile is moving to the right along a straight highway, which we choose
to be the positive x axis. Then the driver puts on the brakes. If the initial velocity
(when the driver hits the brakes) is v
1
= 15.0 m/s, and it takes 5.0 s to slow down
to v
2
= 5.0 m/s, what was the cars average acceleration?
Example 2.5
If the velocity of a car is non-
zero (v 0), can the
acceleration of the car be zero?
Concept Test: Acceleration
1) yes
2) no
3) depends on the
velocity

Sure it can! An object moving with constant velocity has a non-
zero velocity, but it has zero acceleration because the velocity is
not changing.
When throwing a ball straight up, which of the following is true about its
velocity v and its acceleration a at the highest point in its path?
Concept Test: Acceleration
1) both v = 0 and a = 0
2) v 0, but a = 0
3) v = 0, but a 0
4) both v 0 and a 0
5) not really sure
At the top, clearly v = 0 because the
ball has momentarily stopped. But
the velocity of the ball is changing, so
its acceleration is definitely not zero!
Otherwise it would remain at rest!!
2.4 Instantaneous Acceleration
The instantaneous acceleration is the average
acceleration in the limit as the time interval
becomes infinitesimally short.
A particle is moving in a straight line so that its position is given by the relation x =
(2.10 m/s
2
)t
2
+ (2.80 m). Calculate (a) its average acceleration during the time interval
from t
1
= 3.00 s to t
2
= 5.00 s, and (b) its instantaneous acceleration as a function of
time.
(a)
Example 2.6
(b) its instantaneous acceleration as a function of time.
2.5 Motion with constant acceleration
The average velocity of an object during a time interval t is
The acceleration, assumed constant, is
In addition, as the velocity is increasing at a constant rate, we know
that
For constant acceleration
2.6 Applications of the equations of the motions
How long does it take a car to cross a 30.0-m-wide intersection after the light
turns green, if the car accelerates from rest at a constant 2.00 m/s
2
?
2.7 Free falling objects
In the absence of air
resistance, all objects fall
with the same
acceleration, although this
may be tricky to tell by
testing in an environment
where there is air
resistance.
The acceleration due to
gravity at the Earths surface
is approximately 9.80 m/s
2
. At
a given location on the Earth
and in the absence of air
resistance, all objects fall with
the same constant
acceleration.
+y
-y
Since free falling object is
about moving in one-
direction, we only refer to y-
axis
g = -9.81 m/s
2
g = 9.81 m/s
2
Initial speed in the direction of y-axis
Initial speed in the direction of x-axis
Note that a
y
= g !!! y = negative (upward)
y = positive (downward)
Suppose that a ball is dropped (v
0
= 0) from a tower 70.0 m high. How far will it
have fallen after a time t
1
= 1.00 s, t
2
= 2.00 s, and t
3
= 3.00 s? Ignore air
resistance.
0m
Example 2.7
A ball is thrown straight upward with an initial speed of 25 m/s. Taking upward
to be the positive direction, find the speed and the direction of motion of the
ball
a) 2.0 seconds
b) 3.0 seconds after it is launched.
Example 2.8
b)
a)
UPWARD
DOWNWARD
Concept Test: Free Falling
You throw a ball straight
up into the air. After it
leaves your hand, at
what point in its flight
does it have the
maximum value of
acceleration?
1) its acceleration is constant
everywhere
2) at the top of its trajectory
3) halfway to the top of its trajectory
4) just after it leaves your hand
5) just before it returns to your hand
on the way down
The ball is in free fall once it is released.
Therefore, it is entirely under the influence of
gravity, and the only acceleration it experiences is
g, which is constant at all points.
Example 2.10
A person steps off the end of a 3.00m high diving board and drops to the
water below.
a) How long does it take for the person to reach the water?
b) What is the persons speed on entering the water?


y
Set up coordinate
system:
Let positive
direction to be
downward
A person steps off the end of a 3.00m high diving board and drops to the water
below.
a) How long does it take for the person to reach the water?
b) What is the persons speed on entering the water?
Summary of Chapter 2
Distance: total length of travel
Displacement: change in position
Average speed: distance / time
Average velocity: displacement / time
Instantaneous velocity: average velocity measured over an infinitesimally small time