INTRODUCTION The Enneagram is one of the newest personality systems in use, and emphasizes psychological motivations. Its earliest origins are not completely clear - the circular symbol may have originated in ancient Sufi traditions, and was used by the esoteric teacher George Gurdjieff (1866-1949). However, it is most likely that neither the Sufis nor Gurdjieff taught a system of personality types. The modern version of the Enneagram personalies emerged in the 20th century, from Oscar Ichazo who was a student of Gurdjieff, but whose personality system stands apart from Gurdjieff's teachings. Ichazo taught his system to many pupils in Arica, Chile, of whom Claudio Naranjo is the most prominent. In the last few decades, the system has undergone further change, incorporating modern psychological ideas in the writings of Naranjo, Helen Palmer, Kathy Hurley/Theodorre Donsson, and Don Riso/Russ Hudson. The Enneagram is mainly a diagnostic tool of one's emotional outlook on life. It will not cure one's problems, but may help point out their underlying fixations. It is also useful as a guide to how other people see the world differently. The Enneagram has become particularly popular within the self-help and personal growth movements, but other professions use it as well, including therapists, teachers, psychologists, managers, and businesspeople. The nine points on the circumference are also connected with each other by the inner lines of the Enneagram. These points Three, Six, and Nine form an equilateral triangle. The remaining six points are connected in the following order: One connects with Four, Four with Two, Two with Eight, Eight with Five, Five with Seven, and Seven with One. These six points form an irregular hexagram


The reformer - The aggressive ideal-seeker

The underlying motivation of the 1 is to be RIGHT, and to avoid being WRONG. Reformers are the most compulsively rational of the types, and the perfectionist is another name for this type. Average 1s are driven by their "inner critic", an inner set of standards that tends to be quite rigorous, and independent of what other people tell them. Hence, the average 1s are self-critical, and also critical of others when they expect the same high standards of others that they have imposed on themselves. 1s get much of their energy from anger, and at best, this energy is channeled into discipline, organization, a strong work ethic and a love of fairness, justice, and truth. At worst, they become rigid in their thinking, psychologically trapped by their own rules and principles and becoming self-righteous in a way that, although logically correct, is not helpful to themselves or others. 1s like to confront problems head-on, but this proactive energy may not always be immediately apparent to others. Introverted 1s may be extremely prim and proper, even rigid, because they turn their energies inward against their own impulses and spontaneity. However, other 1s can project considerable energy, even becoming abrasive, if their passions turn toward ideals, such as social justice, that involve the world as a whole. Famous ones: Hillary Clinton, Ralph Nader, Judith Martin (Ms Manners), Martha Stewart, Confucious, Aristotle, Queen Elizabeth II. 2. The helper. The embracing power-seeker Helpers focus their lives on giving and receiving love. This personality is one of the most emotionally expressive, and one of the most focused on human relationships. At their best, healthy 2s bring a special interpersonal touch to almost everything they do, empowering others with their unrivaled desire to make others feel special, important, and loved for simply being themselves. It is uncommon (though not impossible) to find a 2 in high-profile leadership positions, or in a job that emphasizes analysis at the expense of human interaction. Highly nurturing at their best, less healthy 2s show a darker side of their personality. When unhealthy 2s help others, it is merely to make themselves feel more important. They may offer "help" that seems intrusive and manipulative to others, or may do a "favor", only to subsequently ask repayment. Average twos are often attracted toward two seemingly opposite kinds of people: toward people with power, whose

agenda they can support, and towards the needy and the outcast, who most urgently need the 2's caring spirit. Famous personalities are: Fred Rogers ("Mr. Rogers"), Princess Diana, Mother Teresa, Bill Cosby Famous 2w3s: Kathie Lee Gifford 3. The motivators. The aggressive approval-seeker Being admired is very important to 3s - they are competitive, and place great value on winning and looking good while doing it. Publicly, 3s project high self-esteem, driving relentlessly toward their career and life goals. But the average 3's craving for external approval may degenerate into superficial and imageconscious behavior, as they work hard to look impressive while neglecting genuine achievement. Despite the high self-esteem they project to others, 3s may privately feel insecure about their self-worth, being as it is so dependent on what others say about them. 3s have an unusually strong inner contradiction; they project qualities of leaders: drive, energy, and success, and yet their definition of success is unusually dependent on the values of the society they belong to. Hence, they are simultaneously leaders and followers. Healthy 3s often have a "cool" attitude to go along with their accomplishments - they know what is "hot" and what is not, and for better or worse, this contributes to the 3's reputation for being excellent salesmen who can win over the most reluctant audience. Because they place high value on affirmation from others, they may be very adept at reading subtle cues in others, using this information to quickly tailor their message to their audience. However, unhealthy 3s are notorious for being phony and self-promoting. Extroverted 3s can be charming smooth talkers, using their networking skills to augment their image and their career, which may be closely linked. More introverted threes may instead strut their stuff through competence and skillful performance rather than showmanship. Famous personalities are: Arnold Schwarzenegger, Brooke Shields, Britney Spears, Katie Couric Famous 3w4s: Jimmy Carter, O.J. Simpson, Regis Philbin, Tom Cruise, Joe Montana, Christopher Reeves, Tony Blair 4. The romantic. The withdrawn ideal-seeker 4s seek to understand themselves. They may probe their own emotions to an unusual depth, seeking authenticity of feeling and self-expression. They don't settle for the ordinary or shallow, and are disturbed that most everyone around them does. The importance they attach to their inner feelings makes them highly individualistic and original. 4s are unusually self-aware, sensitive, and intuitive, sometimes painfully so, and often with an intense interest in emotional and spiritual growth. Because of this emotional awareness, 4s can show kindness at a very deep level (especially to those in crisis), but also know how to rile people up. The 4's inward focus gives them an intense need for authentic personal self-expression. This may include conventional art-forms such as writing, and music, or unconventional forms such as tattoos and body piercing. The 4 has a romantic streak, and their relationships often occur at unusually high intensity. At best, this can be deeply transformative to both persons. At worst, this intensity may cause a trail of broken relationships, as the 4 continually seeks the intensity of new romances.

The 4's search for authenticity makes many 4s refreshingly candid, sometimes with a sense of drama and a sharp wit. However, they also have a self-indulgent streak. This self-indulgence typically turns inward, and away from practical reality, which may gets them into trouble with money, health, or other real-world issues. At worst, this may induce despair and brooding, accentuating the original problems and leading into a downward spiral that can be extremely dramatic. Famous personalities are: Calista Flockhart, Wynona Ryder, Dennis Rodman, Peter Tchaikovsky, Michael Jackson 5. The thinker The withdrawn power-seeker 5s identify more strongly with their thoughts than any other personality. To others, 5s are known for their sharp intellect, strong need for independence and privacy, and intensity of their cerebral interests. 5s are intensely interested in explaining the world and predicting what it will do next. This derives partly from scientific curiosity, and partly because they sense much of the world to be hostile and unreliable, requiring that they use their minds to defend against its threats. The 5 is the prototypical scientist "type", although not all 5s are scientists, and not all scientists are 5s. Whatever their profession, 5s bring a strong desire to investigate, observe, and understand an issue deeply and provocatively. Fives are unusually independent and self-motivated, with a strong need for privacy, and others sometimes have no idea what the five is working on until it is finished and unveiled. Some of the greatest minds in history were fives whose ideas challenged the conventional wisdom, forcing those around them to think differently. Unfortunately, the average 5's independence often leads to social isolation, and the 5's need for intellectual control can also be off-putting to others. Many 5s develop a cynical worldview, which sharpens their perceptions but also intensifies their isolation. Their independence makes their thinking very idiosyncratic, leading to either brilliance or weirdness, or both. As with all the types, healthy 5s can transcend this pitfall of their personality, and 5s that do make this effort can become as brilliant in their social understanding as in anything else. Famous 5s are: William Rhenquist, Stephen Hawking, Francis Crick, Helen Keller, Wittgenstein, Arthur C. Clarke 6. The loyalist The embracing approval-seeker Average 6s place safety and trust above all else, making them among the most loyal of the Enneagram personalities. Of course, each type's greatest strength is also their greatest weakness, and the 6s capacity for loyalty can be devastating if they put their faith into something malicious or unreliable. A 6 that has been "burned" by someone they trusted can become permanently wary of others, or of their own judgment. They may react strongly to this betrayal, either retreating into fear or lashing out. 6s often seek safety in groups of like-minded, trustworthy people, and among them they can be fun-loving, playful, and very good company. But outside of such a protective environment, 6s feel less secure and more exposed, and more beholden to their fears. The average 6 is a somewhat difficult type for many other types to understand. The 6's thoughts can range widely, often in strongly self-contradictory ways, which can lead to problems with indecision and doubt. They simultaneously like people and fear the power others have over them. They value trust, but are afraid

of putting their trust into someone that will hurt them. They would like a strong authority to make them feel safe, but often question the competence of these same authorities. 6s often develop good "bull-shit detectors" because of their lifelong habit of reading between the lines of what people say. Because 6s are both analytical and people-oriented, they may have very good insights into the motivations of others. Despite their mental acuity, 6 are fearful about taking action on their own, and work better in teams where a common goal and safety in numbers makes the 6 feel protected. Although 6s do not usually consider themselves natural leaders, they can in fact be brilliant leaders when faced with an external threat or enemy (even if the "enemy" is just a looming deadline). 6s are extremely loyal to those they trust, and may fight for them more strongly than they would for themselves. Like the 2, who also orients their lives toward others, 6s can be unusually self-sacrificing, perhaps even more so because they are unlikely to have the 2's confusion between helpfulness and selfaggrandizement. Famous 6s are: Al Gore, Mel Gibson, Harry Truman, Woody Allen, Andy Rooney, George H.W. Bush (Senior) 7. The Enthusiast The embracing ideal-seeker To an unusual degree, 7s live a life of action that is based on seeking experience, pursuing plans, dreams, and visions. At best, this makes them extremely exuberant, multi-talented, diverse, curious, and experienced, with a strong appreciation for beauty, style, and aesthetic flair. At best, 7s exude a youthful spirit, viewing the world as a giant playground, but at worst, they may become childish with their need for instant gratification. In the extreme, 7s can go crazy with activity, juggling many different activities and plans in their heads at the same time. They may seem unusually lucky, although in reality their "luck" happens because they are unusually perceptive of opportunities and quick to grab them. 7s are unusually good problem solvers in a pinch, improvising clever solutions out of whatever is at hand. Even though their work style seems rather chaotic they are often extremely prolific and productive. Their improvisational ability makes some 7s quite entertaining and comedic, but with a tendency to disappear when slower, boring tasks need to be done. 7s are also called "generalists", because they can quickly master several areas of expertise, and cross-fertilize between them. But they may also become dilettante, slow to finish or follow through. Healthy sevens also have an egalitarian streak - spreading their own joy and stimulation to everyone around them. Less healthy sevens often seem to be in a desperate battle against boredom, leading to breakdowns if boredom should temporarily win out. Famous 7s are: Richard Feynmann, Conan O'Brien, Warren Buffet 8. The confronter The aggressive power-seeker 8s come across as the toughest of the Enneagram personalities. At work, average eights can be assertive to a fault - they like to speak their minds bluntly, make quick but forceful decisions, and respect others who do the same. They demand and need a high degree of autonomy, and when they feel controlled by authority, they often show an unmistakable defiant streak. They are often shrewd in using circumstances to their material advantage. They do not like threats to their dominance, or people who hide information from

them, and may force confrontations with others to get the truth, however uncomfortable it may be. 8s like to have the final say on things, but they may also give tremendous autonomy, within certain absolute limits, to subordinates they trust, which others find very empowering. Eights may show a softer side at home, where their strength is used not to dominate, but to protect. 8s are the prototypical "father figures", (even if they are women). When eights are secure in their dominance, they may expand their caring side by becoming magnanimous and generous. However, insecure 8s are the most tyrannical, destructive, and selfserving types. Many historically great world leaders are 8s, but so are many ordinary people who project a strong sense of being their own person, refusing to be used or led by others. eights are energized by conflict. This ability helps them overcome obstacles that would crush a weaker person. For better or worse, during periods of historical crisis, it is often an eight (or someone with a strong eight wing), who comes to the forefront as a political or military leader. Famous 8s: Joseph Stalin, Henry Kissinger, Mick Jagger, King Henry VIII, Muhammad Ali, Julius Caesar, Vladimir Putin, Zhu Rongji 9. The mediator The withdrawn approval-seeker 9s come across as patient people who are good listeners, adaptable and accommodating to others. 9s have an unusual ability to "go with the flow" of their surroundings, and a desire to be connected with their surroundings. This ability is both their biggest strength and weakness; at best, 9s are very accepting and supportive of others as they really are, but at worst 9s forget who they themselves are, passively agreeing with others and afraid to assert their own desires. 9s learning the Enneagram may take a long time to figure out their type because they identify more with others than with their own true selves. The passivity of average 9s can make it hard for them to assert their needs or make decisions. 9s can have a particularly hard time making painful decisions, like firing someone, because they also see the other person's predicament, and hate to force confrontations. Average 9s may distract themselves from tough problems with soothing but trivial tasks (e.g. web-surfing, aimless chatter). Inertia is in fact a chronic problem for 9s, who often find it hard to get started on things. However, this inertia can also work to their advantage, because once started 9s can make slow-but-steady progress, becoming surprisingly relentless in their pursuits. Famous 9s are : Bill Clinton, Carl Jung, Nelson Mandela, Warren Harding, Tiger Woods, Prince Charles, Scottie Pippen, Kevin Nealon, Bob Costas,

The Centers The Enneagram is a 3 x 3 arrangement of nine personality types in three Centers. There are three types in the Instinctive Center, three in the Feeling Center, and three in the Thinking Center, as shown below. Each Center consists of three personality types that have in common the assets and liabilities of that Center. For example, personality type Four has unique strengths and liabilities involving its feelings, which is why it is in the Feeling Center. Likewise, the Eight's assets and liabilities involve its relationship to its instinctual drives, which is why it is in the Instinctive Center, and so forth for all nine personality types.

The inclusion of each type in its Center is not arbitrary. Each type results from a particular relationship with a cluster of issues that characterize that Center. Most simply, these issues revolve around a powerful, largely unconscious emotional response to the loss of contact with the core of the self. In the Instinctive Center, the emotion is Anger or Rage. In the Feeling Center, the emotion is Shame, and in the Thinking Center, it is Anxiety or Dread. Of course, all nine types contain all three of these emotions, but in each Center, the personalities of the types are particularly affected by that Center's emotional theme.

The Dominant Emotion of each Center Thus, each type has a particular way of coping with the dominant emotion of its Center. We can briefly see what this means by examining each type, Center by Center. In the Instinctive Center, Eights act out their anger and instinctual energies. In other words, when Eights feel anger building in them, they immediately respond to it in some physical way, raising their voices, moving more forcefully. Others can clearly see that Eights are angry because they give themselves permission to express their anger physically. Nines deny their anger and instinctual energies as if to say, "What anger? I am not a person who gets angry." Nines are the type most out of touch with their anger and instinctual energies, often feeling threatened by them. Of course, Nines get angry like everyone else, but try to stay out of their darker feelings by focusing on idealizations of their relationships and their world.

Ones attempt to control or repress their anger and instinctual energy. They feel that they must stay in control of themselves, especially of their instinctual impulses and angry feelings at all times. They would like to direct these energies according to the dictates of their highly developed inner critic (superego), the source of their strictures on themselves and others. In the Feeling Center, Twos attempt to control their shame by getting other people to like them and to think of them as good people. They also want to convince themselves that they are good, loving people by focusing on their positive feelings for others while repressing their negative feelings (such as anger and resentment at not being appreciated enough). As long as Twos can get positive emotional responses from others, they feel wanted and are able to control feelings of shame. Threes try to deny their shame, and are potentially the most out of touch with underlying feelings of inadequacy. Threes learn to cope with shame by trying to become what they believe a valuable, successful person is like. Thus, Threes learn to perform well, to be acceptable, even outstanding and are often driven relentlessly in their pursuit of success as a way of staving off feelings of shame and fears of failure. Fours attempt to control their shame by focusing on how unique and special their particular talents, feelings, and personal characteristics are. Fours highlight their individuality and creativity as a way of dealing with their shameful feelings, although Fours are the type most likely to succumb to feelings of inadequacy. Fours also manage their shame by cultivating a rich, romantic fantasy life in which they do not have to deal with whatever in their life seems drab or uninteresting to them. In the Thinking Center, Fives have anxiety about the outer world and about their capacity to cope with it. Thus, they cope with their fear by withdrawing from the world. Fives become secretive, isolated loners who use their minds to penetrate into the nature of the world. Fives hope that eventually, as they understand reality on their own terms, they will be able to rejoin the world and participate in it, but they never feel they know enough to participate with total confidence. Instead, they involve themselves with increasingly complex inner worlds. Sixes are the most anxious type, and the most out of touch with their own sense of inner knowing and confidence. Unlike Fives, Sixes have trouble trusting their own minds, so they are constantly looking outside themselves for something to make them feel sure of themselves. They might turn to philosophies, beliefs, relationships, jobs, savings, authorities, or any combination of the above. But no matter how many security structures they create, Sixes still feel doubtful and anxious. They may even begin to doubt the very people and beliefs that they have turned to for reassurance. Sixes may also respond to their anxiety by impulsively confronting it— defying their fear in the effort to be free of it. Sevens have anxiety about their inner world. There are feelings of pain, loss, deprivation, and general anxiety that Sevens would like to stay clear of as much as possible. To cope with these feelings, Sevens keep their minds occupied with exciting possibilities and options— as long as they have something stimulating to anticipate, Sevens feel that they can distract themselves from their fears. Sevens, in most cases, do not stop merely at thinking about these options, however. As much as possible they attempt to actually do as many of their options as they can. Thus, Sevens can be found staying on the go, pursuing one experience after another, and keeping themselves entertained and engaged with their many ideas and activities.

The Wing No one is a pure personality type: everyone is a unique mixture of his or her basic type and usually one of the two types adjacent to it on the circumference of the Enneagram. One of the two types adjacent to your basic type is called your wing. Your basic type dominates your overall personality, while the wing complements it and adds important, sometimes contradictory, elements to your total personality. Your wing is the "second side" of your personality, and it must be taken into consideration to better understand yourself or someone else. For example, if you are a personality type Nine, you will have likely have either a One-wing or an Eight-wing, and your personality as a whole can best be understood by considering the traits of the Nine as they uniquely blend with the traits of either the One or the Eight. There is disagreement among the various traditions of the Enneagram about whether individuals have one or two wings. Strictly speaking, everyone has two wings—in the restricted sense that both of the types adjacent to your basic type are operative in your personality since each person possesses the potentials of all nine types. However, this is not what is usually meant by "having two wings," and proponents of the socalled two-wing theory believe that both wings operate more or less equally in everyone's personality. (For example, they believe that a Nine would have roughly equal amounts of his or her Eight and One wings.) Observation of people leads us to conclude that while the two-wing theory applies to some individuals, most people have a dominant wing. In the vast majority of people, while the so-called second wing always remains operative to some degree, the dominant wing is far more important. (For example, Twos with Three-wings are noticeably different from Twos with One-wings, and while Twos with Three-wings have a One-wing, it is not nearly as important as the Three-wing.) It is therefore clearer to refer simply to a type's "wing" as opposed to its "dominant wing," since the two terms represent the same concept. The Levels of Development The Levels of Development provide a framework for seeing how all of the different traits that comprise each type fit into a large whole; they are a way of conceptualizing the underlying "skeletal" structure of each type. Without the Levels, the types can seem to be an arbitrary collection of unrelated traits, with contradictory behaviors and attitudes often part of the picture. But by understanding the Levels for each type, one can see how all of the traits are interrelated—and how healthy traits can deteriorate into average traits and possibly into unhealthy ones. As pioneering consciousness philosopher Ken Wilber has noted, without the Levels, the Enneagram is reduced to a "horizontal" set of nine discrete categories. By including the Levels, however, a "vertical" dimension is added that not only reflects the complexity of human nature, but goes far in explaining many different, important elements within personality. Further, with the Levels, a dynamic element is introduced that reflects the changing nature of the personality patterns themselves. You have probably noticed that people change constantly—sometimes they are clearer, more free, grounded, and emotionally available, while at other times they are more anxious, resistant, reactive, emotionally volatile and less free. Understanding the Levels makes it clear that when people change states within their personality, they are shifting within the spectrum of motivations, traits, and defenses that make up their personality type. To understand an individual accurately, it is necessary to perceive where the person lies along the continuum of Levels of his or her type at a given time. In other words, one must assess whether a person is

in their healthy, average, or unhealthy range of functioning. This is important because, for example, two people of the same personality type and wing will differ significantly if one is healthy and the other unhealthy. (In relationships and in the business world, understanding this distinction is crucial.) The continuum is comprised of nine internal Levels of Development—briefly, there are three Levels in the healthy section, three Levels in the average section, and three Levels in the unhealthy section. It may help you to think of the continuum of Levels as a photographer's gray scale which has gradations from pure white to pure black with many shades of gray in between. On the continuum, the healthiest traits appear first, at the top, so to speak. As we move down the continuum in a spiral pattern, we progressively pass through each Level of Development marking a distinct shift in the personality's deterioration to the pure black of psychological breakdown at the bottom. The continuum for each of the personality types can be seen in the following diagram. Healthy Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 Level 4 Level 5 Level 6 The Level of Liberation The Level of Psychological Capacity The Level of Social Value The Level of Imbalance/ Social Role The Level of Interpersonal Control The Level of Overcompensation


Level 7 The Level of Violation Unhealthy Level 8 The Level of Obsession and Compulsion Level 9 The Level of Pathological Destructiveness The Continuum of the Levels of Development At each Level, significant psychological shifts occur as is indicated by the title we have given to it. For example, at Level 5, the Level of Interpersonal Control, the person is trying to manipulate himself and others to get his or her psychological needs met. This invariably creates interpersonal conflicts. By this Level, the person has also fully identified with the ego and does not see himself as anything more than that: the ego must therefore be increasingly defended and inflated for the person to feel safe and to keep their identity in tact. If this activity does not satisfy the person, and anxiety increases, he or she may deteriorate to the next state, Level 6, the Level of Overcompensation, where their behavior will become more intrusive and aggressive as they continue to purse their ego-agenda. Anxiety is increasing, and the person is increasingly disruptive, and focused on getting his needs met, regardless of the impact on people around them. One of the most profound ways of understanding the Levels is as a measure of our capacity to be present. The more we move down the Levels, the more identified we are with our ego and its increasingly negative and restrictive patterns. Our personality becomes more defensive, reactive, and automatic— and we consequently have less and less real freedom and less real consciousness. As we move down the Levels, we become caught in more compulsive, destructive actions which are ultimately self-defeating. By contrast, the movement toward health, up the Levels, is simultaneous with being more present and awake in our minds, hearts, and bodies. As we become more present, we become less fixated in the defensive structures of our personality and are more attuned and open to ourselves and our environment. We see our personality objectively in action rather than "falling asleep" to our automatic personality

patterns. There is therefore the possibility of "not doing" our personality and of gaining some real distance the negative consequences of getting caught in it.

From one point of view, the Enneagram can be seen as a set of nine distinct personality types, with each number on the Enneagram denoting one type. It is common to find a little of yourself in all nine of the types, although one of them stand out as being closest to yourself. This is your basic personality type. Everyone emerges from childhood with one of the nine types dominating their personality, with inborn temperament and other pre-natal factors being the main determinants of our type. This is one area where most all of the major Enneagram authors agree—we are born with a dominant type. Subsequently, this inborn orientation largely determines the ways in which we learn to adapt to our early childhood environment. It also seems to lead to certain unconscious orientations toward our parental figures, but why this is so, is still a doubt. In any case, by the time children are four or five years old, their consciousness has developed sufficiently to have a separate sense of self. Although their identity is still very fluid, at this age children begin to establish themselves and find ways of fitting into the world on their own. The Enneagram with Riso-Hudson Type Names: These one-word descriptors can be expanded into fourword sets of traits. Keep in mind that these are merely highlights and do not represent the full spectrum of each type. Type One is principled, purposeful, self-controlled, and perfectionistic. Type Two is demonstrative, generous, people-pleasing, and possessive. Type Three is adaptive, excelling, driven, and image-conscious. Type Four is expressive, dramatic, self-absorbed, and temperamental. Type Five is perceptive, innovative, secretive, and isolated. Type Six is engaging, responsible, anxious, and suspicious. Type Seven is spontaneous, versatile, distractible, and scattered. Type Eight is self-confident, decisive, willful, and confrontational. Type Nine is receptive, reassuring, agreeable, and complacent.

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