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**These lecture slides have been compiled by Mohammed 6 LECTURE SalahUdDin Ayubi. Transient Analysis
**

21 August 2005 Engineer M S Ayubi 1

**Dynamic Circuit Analysis
**

Two Approaches to solving circuits with energy storage elements and time-varying inputs: • Transient Analysis (time-domain) • Phasor Analysis (frequency-domain)

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Test Circuit

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Measured in Lab

6.00 5.00 i(t) (Amps) 4.00 3.00 2.00 1.00 0.00 0 2 4 Time (sec) 6 8 10

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Outline

• First Order Response

– Theory

• RL Circuits • RC Circuits

– General Form – Examples

**• Second-Order Response
**

– Series RLC – Parallel RLC – General Form

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Outline

• First Order Response

– Theory

• RL Circuits • RC Circuits

– General Form – Examples

**• Second-Order Response
**

– Series RLC – Parallel RLC – General Form

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**First Order Transient Response
**

• One (equivalent) energy storage element • Looking for V or I vs. time • Switch in the circuit creates a transient event at t=0 • Eventually reaches steady state

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Outline

• First Order Response

– Theory

• RL Circuits • RC Circuits

– General Form – Examples

**• Second-Order Response
**

– Series RLC – Parallel RLC – General Form

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RL Circuits

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RL Circuits

t=0- (just before) iL=0 Initial Condition

t=0+ (just after) iL=0

t=∞ (long after) iL=Vs/R Final Condition

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RL Circuits

KVL loop:

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RL Circuits

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RL Circuits

What happens at t=0? At t=∞?

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Outline

• First Order Response

– Theory

• RL Circuits • RC Circuits

– General Form – Examples

**• Second-Order Response
**

– Series RLC – Parallel RLC – General Form

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RC Circuits

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RC Circuits

t=0- (just before) VC=0

t=0+ (just after) VC=0

t=∞ (long after) VC=IsR

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RC Circuits

KCL node: Solve…

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Outline

• First Order Response

– Theory

• RL Circuits • RC Circuits

– General Form – Examples

**• Second-Order Response
**

– Series RLC – Parallel RLC – General Form

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General Approach

For 0 < t < ∞ Unknown = Final + (Initial – Final)e-t/τ τ = time constant Try t=0, t=∞

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Initial Value

VC or IL at t=0+ is same as value at t=0• This is the only value that is guaranteed to remain constant before and after the switch changes. • Assume circuit has remained in same state for a long time leading up to time of switch change. (Capacitor -> open, Inductor->short). Compute VC or IL using simplified circuit at t=021 August 2005 Engineer M S Ayubi 20

Final Value

• Assume circuit has remained in same state for a long time after switch change. (Capacitor -> open, Inductor->short). Compute VC or IL using simplified circuit at t=∞

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Time Constant

∀ τ = RC ∀ τ = L/R Units are seconds

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General Approach

For 0 < t < ∞

Steady State Transient

Unknown = Final + (Initial – Final)e-t/τ

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Outline

• First Order Response

– Theory

• RL Circuits • RC Circuits

– General Form – Examples

**• Second-Order Response
**

– Series RLC – Parallel RLC – General Form

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Example 1

• Find i(t) through 2 ohm resistor

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Example 1: Initial

At t=0-, inductor looks like short, but current is zero. i(t= 0-)=0

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Example 1: Initial

At t=0+, inductor forces current to stay constant i(t= 0+)= i(t= 0-)=0 Initial = 0 A

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Example 1: Final

At t=∞, inductor again looks like short i(t=∞)=10V / 2Ω = 5A Final = 5A

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Example 1: τ

τ =L/R RTH seen by inductor is 2 Ω τ = 5H/2 Ω = 2.5 sec

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Example 1

i(t) = 5 + (0-5)e-t/τ

6.00 5.00 i(t) (Amps) 4.00 3.00 2.00 1.00 0.00 0 2 4 Time (sec) 6 8 10

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Time Constant

120.0% 100.0% 1-e^-t/tau 80.0% 60.0% 40.0% 20.0% 0.0% 1 2 3 4 Multiple of tau 5 6 7 63.2% 86.5% 95.0% 98.2% 99.3% 99.8% 99.9%

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Example 2

Find i(t) in left resistor

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Example 2: Initial

i(t=0-)=10V/(2Ω || 2Ω ) = 10A i(t=0+)= i(t=0-)=10A

**Note that current through resistor is 5A at t=0and 10A at t=0+
**

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Example 2: Final

i(t=∞)= 10V / 2Ω = 5A

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Example 2: Tau

RTH seen by inductor during 0 < t < ∞ is 2 Ω τ = L/R = 2.5 sec

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Example 2

i(t) = 5 + (10 – 5)e-t/τ τ = 2.5 sec

11 9 i(t) (amps) -1

7

5

3 1 3 5 Time (sec) 7 9 11

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Example 3

• Find current in left resistor

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Game Plan

• Part A: Solve problem for 0 < t < 10s

– Initial condition? – Final condition?

**• Part B: Solve problem for 10 < t < ∞
**

– Initial condition? – Final condition?

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A: Initial Condition

• Capacitor looks like open before t=0 • VC(0-)=5A ( 2Ω || 2Ω ) = 5V

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A: Initial Condition

• VC(0+)= VC(0-)=5V • iR(0+)=5V/2Ω =2.5A

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A: Final Condition

iR(∞)=5A VC(∞)=10V

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A: Tau

RTH seen by capacitor = 2 Ω τ = RC = (2Ω ) (3F) = 6 sec

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A: Answer

For 0 < t < 10 sec iR(t)=5 + (2.5 – 5)e-t/τ τ = 6 sec VC(t)=10 + (5-10) e-t/τ

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B: Initial Condition

• Initial condition found from previous answer (not steady state) • VC(10-)=10 + (5-10) e-10/τ =9.06V • VC(10+)= VC(10-)=9.06V • iR(10+)=9.1V/2Ω = 4.53V

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B: Final Condition

iR(∞)=2.5A

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B: Tau

RTH seen by capacitor = 2Ω || 2Ω = 1Ω τ = RC = (1Ω ) (3F) = 3 sec

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B: Answer

for 10 < t < ∞ iR(t)=2.5 + (4.53 – 2.5)e-(t-10)/τ τ = 3 sec

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Example 3 Graph

5 4.5 4 i(t) 3.5 3 2.5 2 -5 0 5 Time (sec) 10 15 20

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Example 4

• Find the voltage across the capacitor Vc(t) for a square wave input (magnitude=10V, period=2ms)

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Example 4

• The initial capacitor voltage at t=0 is 0V, heading toward final voltage of 10V (but it will not reach final value before input waveform switches). • The capacitor voltage at t=1ms (which will be between 5 and 10 V) will be the new initial voltage, heading toward a final voltage of 0V (but it will not reach final value before input switches again).

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Example 4: Tau

τ = RC = (1 KΩ )(1 uF) = 1ms So voltage will get a little over half way each time before the square wave input switches.

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Example 4 Pspice Run

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Outline

• First Order Response

– Theory

• RL Circuits • RC Circuits

– General Form – Examples

**• Second-Order Response
**

– Series RLC – Parallel RLC – General Form

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Second Order (RLC)

Series

Parallel

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Series RLC

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Parallel RLC

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General Form

d x(t ) dx(t ) a +b + cx(t ) = f (t ) 2 dt dt

a b c Series 1 Rth/L 1/(LC) Parallel 1 1/(RthC) 1/(LC)

2

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General Form

Steady State Transient

unknown = final value + natural response

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Final Value

• Steady state response is considered constant, so use short-cut (capacitor -> open, inductor -> short) to find final value

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Natural Response

• Guess that transient response is of the form: xtrans(t) = Aept • If constants A and p can be found, then this is the solution

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Natural Response

d x(t ) dx(t ) a +b + cx(t ) = f (t ) 2 dt dt

2

**ap Ae + bpAe + cAe = 0
**

2 pt pt pt

( ap

2

+ bp + c Ae = 0

pt

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)

ap + bp + c = 0

2

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Natural Response

− b ± b − 4ac p1 , p2 = 2a

2

a, b, and c are circuit parameters. Roots p1, p2 are computed from these parameters. Three possibilities, depending on b2 compared to 4ac

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**Real Distinct Roots
**

b2 > 4ac Over Damped

xtrans (t ) = A1e

− p1t

+ A2 e

− p2t

**Know p1 and p2, must find A1 and A2 from specific solution (using forcing function)
**

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**Real Equal Roots
**

b2 = 4ac Critically Damped

xtrans (t ) = A1e

− pt

+ A2te

− pt

Know p= p1=p2, must find A1 and A2 from specific solution (using forcing function)

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Complex Roots

b2 < 4ac Under Damped

p1, 2 = −α ± jβ

Know α and β , must find C and φ from specific solution (using forcing function)

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xtrans (t ) = Ce

−αt

sin( βt + φ )

65

**Second Order Response
**

4 3.5 3 2.5 2 1.5 1 0.5 0 0 10 20 30 Real Distinct (Over Damped) Real Equal (Critically Damped) Complex (Under Damped)

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**Phasor vs. Transient Analysis
**

• Phasor Analysis

– source is sine or cosine – no switches

• Transient Analysis

– switch and source is constant – square wave can also be treated as a transient

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Transient Response

• Many other physical systems react with the same type of response (at least approximately) – a first order exponential response starting at an initial condition, moving towards a final condition, with a time constant τ (e.g., temperature probe responding to instantaneous change in temperature)

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