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These lecture slides have been compiled by Mohammed Cont… LECTURE 10 SalahUdDin Ayubi. Three Phase Power Systems

**7. Three Phase Power Systems
**

• 7.1 Single phase supply

v(t ) = m ⋅cos(ω+ ) V t θ

Vm 2

θ

**• European Supply 230V rms at 50 Hz
**

3 2 5 .2 6 94 0 0 320 240 160 Voltage in volts v t 80 n 0 80 160 240 320 3 2 5 .2 6 9 400 0

S ingle P hase V oltage S upply

0

0 .0 0 5

0 .0 1

0 .0 1 5

0 .0 2 t

0 .0 2 5

0 .0 3

0 .0 3 5

0 .0 4 0 .0 4

n T im e in seco n d s

**7.2 Three Phase Industrial Supplies
**

R

v R (t ) = Vm ⋅ cos( ωt ) 2 ⋅π v S (t ) = Vm ⋅ cos ωt − 3 4 ⋅π vT (t ) = Vm ⋅ cos ωt − 3

Vm 2

0 N

Vm 2

-120

T

Angles on the diagram are in degrees. They could Have been in radians

Vm 2

S -240

**Balanced, three-phase voltage supply
**

• Magnitude of three voltages is exactly the same • Phase angle between adjacent voltages is 120 degrees exactly • European labelling Three terminals are R, S and T. Common point is neutral N (R, Y, B – red, yellow, blue or A, B, C alternatives) ( N Neutral is wired in black normally)

**Time Representation of Three Voltages
**

325.269 400 320 240 160 Voltage in volts vR vS vT

n n n

Three Phase Line to Neutral Voltages

80 0 80 160 240 320

− 325.269 400 0 0 0.005 0.01 0.015 0.02 tn Time in second 0.025 0.03 0.035 0.04 0.04

θ := −30⋅

π 180

**Phasor diagram of supply
**

vTN

+j

**120 degrees 120 degrees
**

vRN N real

120 degrees

VSN

**7.3 Three Phase Loads Star and Delta
**

R

vll il Z ip

vp

R

vll

il vp Z

N

Z

Z

ip

T S

Z

T

Z

S

Star Connection Delta Connection Where il is the rms line current ip is the rms phase current vll is rms the line to line voltage vp is rms the phase voltage

**Power Supply and Load
**

R

Vm 2

R

Vm

iR Z

0 N

2

-120 N Z iT T iS S Z

VRN

T

Vm 2

S -240

**Phasor Diagram of Three Phase System
**

vT +j iT φ vR φ iS vS φ iR real

**7.4 Balanced Loads Need no Neutral Conductor
**

• Consider the phasor sum of the three phase currents for a balanced, star-connected load. They add to zero. iT

real

iS

iR

**7.5 Instantaneous Power for Single phase
**

• Instantaneous single phase power always pulsates as it must go to zero when v is zero and when i is zero.

4500 4500 4000 3500 3000 Power in Watts P n 2500 2000 1500 1000 500 0 500 500 0 0 0.005 0.01 0.015 0.02 n Time in Seconds t 0.025 0.03 0.035 0.04 0.04

Instantaneous Single Phase Power

o n

• v = 230V i = 10 / -30

**7.6 Instantaneous Power in Three Phase Systems
**

• Three phase instantaneous power remains constant in balance systems

65006500 6000 5500 PR PS Power in Watts PT

n n n n n

Power Per Phase and Total

**5000 4500 4000 3500 3000
**

n

P R + P S + P T 2500 on 2000 1500 1000 500 − 500 0 500 0 0 0.005 0.01 0.015 0.02 tn Time in Seconds 0.025 0.03 0.035 0.04 0.04

• Balance voltages at 230V to neutral and balanced currents of 10A lagging 30 degrees on the voltage

**Power in the three phase load
**

• The instantaneous power is constant • Thus the instantaneous power is the same as the average power per cycle evaluated by the phasor approach

**P = 3 ⋅ v rms ⋅ i rms ⋅ cos (φ )
**

Where vrms and irms are the phase quantities

**7.7 The Voltage in Three-Phase Systems is Always Quoted in Terms of Line to Line Voltage
**

230 V 60 230 V vRN vRS real

vSN

3

v RS = 2 ⋅ v RN ⋅ sin(60) v RS = 230 ⋅ 3 v RS = 400

The line to line voltage in 3 phase systems is always root 3 times the Line to neutral voltage

**7.8 Advantages of Three Phase Power Systems
**

• Most importantly, the instantaneous power is always constant (balanced conditions) • There is a reduction in the volume of conductor required to transmit a given power (no neutral conductor)- transmission lines and cables • Very efficient use of magnetic steel and copper conductors in transformers and motors. (next semester)

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